Hardcore punk

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Hardcore punk_table_infobox_0

Hardcore punkHardcore punk_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsHardcore punk_header_cell_0_1_0 Hardcore punk_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsHardcore punk_header_cell_0_2_0 Late 1970s, Southern California, Vancouver, San Francisco, Washington, D.C.Hardcore punk_cell_0_2_1
Derivative formsHardcore punk_header_cell_0_3_0 Hardcore punk_cell_0_3_1
SubgenresHardcore punk_header_cell_0_4_0
Fusion genresHardcore punk_header_cell_0_5_0
Regional scenesHardcore punk_header_cell_0_6_0
Local scenesHardcore punk_header_cell_0_7_0
Other topicsHardcore punk_header_cell_0_8_0

Hardcore punk (often abbreviated to hardcore) is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. Hardcore punk_sentence_0

It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Hardcore punk_sentence_1

Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. Hardcore punk_sentence_2

It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. Hardcore punk_sentence_3

New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy, and subversive humor. Hardcore punk_sentence_4

Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics." Hardcore punk_sentence_5

Hardcore sprouted underground scenes across the United States in the early 1980s, particularly in Washington, D.C., New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia, and Boston—as well as in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. Hardcore punk_sentence_6

Hardcore has spawned the straight edge movement and its associated submovements, hardline and youth crew. Hardcore punk_sentence_7

Hardcore was heavily involved in the rise of the independent record labels in the 1980s and with the DIY ethics in underground music scenes. Hardcore punk_sentence_8

It has also influenced various music genres that have experienced widespread commercial success, including alternative rock and thrash metal. Hardcore punk_sentence_9

While traditional hardcore has never experienced mainstream commercial success, some of its early pioneers have garnered appreciation over time. Hardcore punk_sentence_10

Black Flag's Damaged, Minutemen's Double Nickels on the Dime and Hüsker Dü's New Day Rising were included in Rolling Stone's list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time in 2003 and Dead Kennedys have seen one of their albums reach gold status over a period of 25 years. Hardcore punk_sentence_11

In 2011, Rolling Stone writer David Fricke placed Greg Ginn of Black Flag 99th place in his 100 Greatest Guitarists list. Hardcore punk_sentence_12

Although the music genre started in English-speaking western countries, notable hardcore scenes have existed in Italy and Japan. Hardcore punk_sentence_13

Characteristics Hardcore punk_section_0

One definition of the genre is "a form of exceptionally harsh punk rock." Hardcore punk_sentence_14

An article in Drowned in Sound argues that 1980s-era "hardcore is the true spirit of punk", because "after all the poseurs and fashionistas fucked off to the next trend of skinny pink ties with New Romantic haircuts, singing wimpy lyrics", the punk scene consisted only of people "completely dedicated to the DIY ethics". Hardcore punk_sentence_15

Like the Oi! Hardcore punk_sentence_16

subgenre of the UK, hardcore punk can be considered an internal music reaction. Hardcore punk_sentence_17

Hardcore has been called a "...faster, meaner genre" of punk that was also a "stern refutation" of punk rock; a "rebellion against a rebellion". Hardcore punk_sentence_18

Blush states that even though punk rock had an "unruly edge", "Reagan-era kids demanded something even more primal and immediate, with speed and aggression as the starting point." Hardcore punk_sentence_19

According to one writer, "distressed by the 'art'ificiality of much post-punk and the emasculated sellouts of new wave, hardcore sought to strengthen its core punk principles." Hardcore punk_sentence_20

Lacking the art-school grace of post-punk, hardcore punk "favor[ed] low key visual aesthetic over extravagance and breaking with original punk rock song patterns." Hardcore punk_sentence_21

Hardcore "disavows … synthetic technological effects [and] the recording industry." Hardcore punk_sentence_22

Around 1980, as punk became "moribund" and radio-friendly, angry "shorn-headed suburban teenagers" discarded new wave's artistic statements and pop music influences and created a new genre, hardcore, for which there were no places to play, which forced the performers to create independent and DIY venues. Hardcore punk_sentence_23

Music writer Barney Hoskyns compared punk rock with hardcore and stated that hardcore was "younger, faster and angrier, full of the pent up rage of dysfunctional Orange County adolescents" who were sick of their life in a "bland Republican" area. Hardcore punk_sentence_24

While the hardcore scene was mostly young white males, both onstage and in the audience, there are notable exceptions, such as the all-African-American band Bad Brains and notable women such as Crass singers Joy de Vivre and Eve Libertine, Black Flag's bassist, Kira Roessler. Hardcore punk_sentence_25

Steven Blush states that Minor Threat's Ian MacKaye "set in motion a die-hard mindset that begat almost everything we now call Hardcore" with his "virulent anti-[music] industry, anti-star, pro-scene exhortations." Hardcore punk_sentence_26

One of the important philosophies in the hardcore scene is authenticity. Hardcore punk_sentence_27

The pejorative term "poseur" is applied to those who associate with punk and adopt its stylistic attributes but are deemed not to share or understand the underlying values and philosophy. Hardcore punk_sentence_28

Joe Keithley, the vocalist of D.O.A. Hardcore punk_sentence_29 , said in an interview: "For every person sporting an anarchy symbol without understanding it there's an older punk who thinks they're a poseur." Hardcore punk_sentence_30

Musical elements Hardcore punk_section_1

In the vein of earlier punk rock, most hardcore punk bands have followed the traditional singer/guitar/bass/drum format. Hardcore punk_sentence_31

The songwriting has more emphasis on rhythm rather than melody. Hardcore punk_sentence_32

Blush writes "The Sex Pistols were still rock'n'roll...like the craziest version of Chuck Berry. Hardcore punk_sentence_33

Hardcore was a radical departure from that. Hardcore punk_sentence_34

It wasn't verse-chorus rock. Hardcore punk_sentence_35

It dispelled any notion of what songwriting is supposed to be. Hardcore punk_sentence_36

It's its own form." Hardcore punk_sentence_37

According to AllMusic, the overall blueprint for hardcore was playing louder, harder and faster. Hardcore punk_sentence_38

Hardcore was a reaction to the "cosmopolitan art-school" style of new wave music. Hardcore punk_sentence_39

Hardcore "eschew[ed] nuance, technique, [and] the avant-garde", and instead emphasized "speed and rhythmic intensity" using unpredictable song forms and abrupt tempo changes. Hardcore punk_sentence_40

The impact of powerful volume is important in hardcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_41

Noisey magazine describes one hardcore band as "an all-encompassing, full-volume assault" in which "[e]very instrument sounds like it's competing for the most power and highest volume." Hardcore punk_sentence_42

Scott Wilson states that the hardcore of the Bad Brains emphasized two elements: "off-the-charts" loudness which reached a level of threatening, powerful "uncompromising noise" and rhythm, in place of the typically focused-on elements in mainstream rock music, harmony and pitch (i.e., melody). Hardcore punk_sentence_43

Hardcore vocalists often shout, scream or chant along with the music, using "vocal intensity" and an abrasive tone. Hardcore punk_sentence_44

The shouting of hardcore vocalists is often accompanied by audience members who are singing along, making the hardcore vocalist like the "leader of a mob". Hardcore punk_sentence_45

Steven Blush describes one early Minor Threat show where the crowd was singing the lyrics so loud they could be heard over the PA system. Hardcore punk_sentence_46

Hardcore vocal lines are often based on minor scales and songs may include shouted background vocals from the other band members. Hardcore punk_sentence_47

Hardcore lyrics expressed the "frustration and political disillusionment" of youth who were against 1980s-era affluence, consumerism, greed, Reagan politics and authority. Hardcore punk_sentence_48

The polarizing socio-political messages in hardcore lyrics (and outrageous on-stage behaviour) meant that the genre garnered no mainstream popularity. Hardcore punk_sentence_49

In hardcore, guitarists frequently play fast power chords with a heavily distorted and amplified tone, creating what has been called a "buzzsaw" sound. Hardcore punk_sentence_50

Guitar parts can sometimes be complex, technically versatile, and rhythmically challenging. Hardcore punk_sentence_51

Hardcore guitarists use some approaches that are similar to their thrash counterparts: "...very high output pickups", "lots of upper midrange", "a full, bass-heavy" tone and the use of both guitar amp distortion and a "Tube Screamer or similar overdrive pedal", but without speaker distortion. Hardcore punk_sentence_52

Guitar melody lines usually use the same minor scales used by vocalists (although some solos use pentatonic scales). Hardcore punk_sentence_53

Hardcore guitarists sometimes play solos, octave leads and grooves, as well as tapping into the various feedback and harmonic noises available to them. Hardcore punk_sentence_54

There are generally fewer guitar solos in hardcore than in mainstream rock, because solos were viewed as representing the "excess and superficiality" of mainstream commercial rock. Hardcore punk_sentence_55

Hardcore bassists use varied rhythms in their basslines, ranging from longer held notes (whole notes and half notes) to quarter notes, to rapid eighth note or sixteenth note runs. Hardcore punk_sentence_56

To play rapid bass lines that would be hard to play with the fingers, some bassists use a pick. Hardcore punk_sentence_57

Some bassists play fuzz bass by overdriving their bass tone. Hardcore punk_sentence_58

Hardcore drumming, with the drummer hitting them aggressively, has been called the "engine" and most essential element of the genre's aggressive sound of "unrelenting anger". Hardcore punk_sentence_59

Two other key elements for hardcore drummers are playing "tight" with the other musicians, especially the bassist (this does not mean metronomic time; indeed coordinated tempo shifts are used in many important hardcore albums) and the drummer should have listened to a lot of hardcore, so that she or he can understand the "raw emotions" it expresses. Hardcore punk_sentence_60

Lucky Lehrer, the drummer and co-founder of the Circle Jerks in 1979, was an early developer of hardcore drumming; he has been called the "Godfather of hardcore drumming" and Flipside zine calls him the best punk drummer. Hardcore punk_sentence_61

According to Tobias Hurwitz, '[h]ardcore drumming falls somewhere between the straight-ahead rock styles of old-school punk and the frantic, warp-speed bashing of thrash." Hardcore punk_sentence_62

Some hardcore punk drummers play fast D beat one moment and then drop tempo into elaborate musical breakdowns in the next. Hardcore punk_sentence_63

Drummers typically play eighth notes on the cymbals, because at the tempos used in hardcore it would be difficult to play a smaller subdivision of the beat. Hardcore punk_sentence_64

Dancing Hardcore punk_section_2

Further information: Moshing Hardcore punk_sentence_65

The early 1980s hardcore punk scene developed slam dancing (also called moshing), a style of dance in which participants push or slam into each other, and stage diving. Hardcore punk_sentence_66

Moshing works as a vehicle for expressing anger by "represent[ing] a way of playing at violence or roughness that allowed participants to mark their difference from the banal niceties of middle-class culture." Hardcore punk_sentence_67

Moshing is in another way a "parody of violence," that nevertheless leaves participants bruised and sometimes bleeding. Hardcore punk_sentence_68

The term mosh came into use in the early 1980s American hardcore scene in Washington, D.C. A performance by Fear on the 1981 Halloween episode of Saturday Night Live was cut short when moshers, including John Belushi and members of a few hardcore punk bands, invaded the stage, damaged studio equipment and used profanity. Hardcore punk_sentence_69

Those band members included John Joseph and Harley Flanagan of Cro-Mags and John Brannon of Negative Approach and Ian Mackaye of Minor Threat. Hardcore punk_sentence_70

Fashion Hardcore punk_section_3

Many North American hardcore punk fans adopted a dressed-down style of T-shirts, jeans, combat boots or sneakers and crewcut-style haircuts. Hardcore punk_sentence_71

Women in the hardcore scene typically wore army pants, band T-shirts and hooded sweatshirts. Hardcore punk_sentence_72

The clothing style was a reflection of hardcore ideology, which included dissatisfaction with suburban America and the hypocrisy of American culture. Hardcore punk_sentence_73

It was essentially deconstruction of American fashion staples—ripped jeans, holey T-shirts, torn stockings for women, and work boots. Hardcore punk_sentence_74

The style of the 1980s hardcore scene contrasted with the more provocative fashion styles of late 1970s punk rockers. Hardcore punk_sentence_75

Siri C. Brockmeier writes that "hardcore kids do not look like punks", since hardcore scene members wore basic clothing and short haircuts, in contrast to the "embellished leather jackets and pants" worn in the punk scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_76

Lauraine Leblanc, however, claims that the standard hardcore punk clothing and styles included torn jeans, leather jackets, spiked armbands, dog collars, mohawk hairstyles, DIY ornamentation of clothes with studs, painted band names, political statements, and patches. Hardcore punk_sentence_77

Tiffini A. Travis and Perry Hardy describe the look that was common in the San Francisco hardcore scene as consisting of biker-style leather jackets, chains, studded wristbands, multiple piercings, painted or tattooed statements (e.g., an anarchy symbol) and hairstyles ranging from military-style haircuts dyed black or blonde to mohawks and shaved heads. Hardcore punk_sentence_78

Circle Jerks frontman Keith Morris wrote: "the ... punk scene was basically based on English fashion. Hardcore punk_sentence_79

But we had nothing to do with that. Hardcore punk_sentence_80

Black Flag and the Circle Jerks were so far from that. Hardcore punk_sentence_81

We looked like the kid who worked at the gas station or sub. Hardcore punk_sentence_82

shop." Hardcore punk_sentence_83

Henry Rollins stated that for him, getting dressed up meant putting on a black shirt and some dark pants; taking an interest in fashion as being a distraction. Hardcore punk_sentence_84

Jimmy Gestapo from Murphy's Law describes his own transition from dressing in a punk style (spiked hair and a bondage belt) to adopting a hardcore style (shaved head and boots) as being based on needing more functional clothing. Hardcore punk_sentence_85

Politics Hardcore punk_section_4

See also: Punk ideologies Hardcore punk_sentence_86

Hardcore punk lyrics often express anti-establishment, anti-militarist, anti-authoritarian, anti-violence, and pro-environmentalist sentiments, in addition to other typically left-wing, anarchist, or egalitarian political views. Hardcore punk_sentence_87

During the 1980s, the subculture often rejected what was perceived to be "yuppie" materialism and interventionist American foreign policy. Hardcore punk_sentence_88

Numerous hardcore punk bands have taken far left political stances such as anarchism or other varieties of socialism and in the 1980s expressed opposition to political leaders such as then US president Ronald Reagan and British prime minister Margaret Thatcher. Hardcore punk_sentence_89

Reagan's economic policies, sometimes dubbed Reaganomics, and social conservatism were common subjects for criticism by hardcore bands of the time. Hardcore punk_sentence_90

Jimmy Gestapo of Murphy's Law, however, endorsed Reagan and even went as far to call then former-president Jimmy Carter a "pussy" in a 1986 New York Magazine cover story. Hardcore punk_sentence_91

Shortly after Reagan's death in 2004, the Maximumrocknroll radio show aired an episode composed of anti-Reagan songs by early hardcore punk bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_92

Certain hardcore punk bands have conveyed messages sometimes deemed "politically incorrect" by placing offensive content in their lyrics and relying on stage antics to shock listeners and people in their audience. Hardcore punk_sentence_93

Boston band the F.U. Hardcore punk_sentence_94

's generated controversy with their 1983 album, "My America", whose lyrics contained what appeared to be conservative and patriotic views. Hardcore punk_sentence_95

Its messages were sometimes taken literally, when they were actually intended as a parody of conservative bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_96

Another act from Massachusetts, Vile, were known to insult women, minorities and gay people in their lyrics and would even go as far as putting their albums on the windshields of people's cars. Hardcore punk_sentence_97

On the other hand, Tim Yohannan and the influential punk rock fanzine Maximumrocknroll were criticized by some punks for acting as the "politically correct scene police", having what was perceived to be "a very narrow definition of what fits into Punk", apparently being "authoritarian and trying to dominate the scene" with their views. Hardcore punk_sentence_98

During the 2001–2009 United States presidency of George W. Bush, it was not uncommon for hardcore bands to express anti-Bush messages. Hardcore punk_sentence_99

During the 2004 United States presidential election, several hardcore punk artists and bands were involved with the anti-Bush political activist group PunkVoter. Hardcore punk_sentence_100

A minority of hardcore musicians have expressed right wing views, such as the band Antiseen, whose guitarist Joe Young ran for public office as a North Carolina Libertarian. Hardcore punk_sentence_101

Former Misfits singer Michale Graves appeared on an episode of The Daily Show, voicing support for George W. Bush, on behalf of the Conservative Punk website. Hardcore punk_sentence_102

Etymology Hardcore punk_section_5

Hardcore historian Steven Blush states that the Vancouver-based band D.O.A. Hardcore punk_sentence_103 's 1981 album, Hardcore '81 "was where the genre got its name." Hardcore punk_sentence_104

This album also helped to make people aware of the term "hardcore". Hardcore punk_sentence_105

Konstantin Butz states that while the origin of the expression "hardcore" "cannot be ascribed to a specific place or time", the term is "usually associated with the further evolution of California's L.A. Hardcore punk_sentence_106

Punk Rock scene", which included young skateboarders. Hardcore punk_sentence_107

A September 1981 article by Tim Sommer shows the author applying the term to the "15 or so" punk bands gigging around the city at that time, which he considered a belated development relative to Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Washington D.C. Blush said that the term "hardcore" is also a reference to the sense of being "fed up" with the existing punk and new wave music. Hardcore punk_sentence_108

Blush also states that the term refers to "an extreme: the absolute most Punk." Hardcore punk_sentence_109

Kelefa Sanneh states that the term "hardcore" referred to an attitude of "turning inwards" towards the scene and "ignoring broader society", all with the goal of achieving a sense of "shared purpose" and being part of a community. Hardcore punk_sentence_110

Sanneh cites Agnostic Front's band member selection approach as an example of hardcore's emphasis on "scene citizenship"; prospective members of the band were chosen based on being part of the local hardcore scene and being regularly in the moshing pit at shows, rather than based on a musical audition. Hardcore punk_sentence_111

History Hardcore punk_section_6

Late 1970s and early 1980s Hardcore punk_section_7

United States Hardcore punk_section_8

Los Angeles Hardcore punk_section_9

Michael Azerrad states that "[by] 1979 the original punk scene [in Southern California] had almost completely died out." Hardcore punk_sentence_112

"They were replaced by a bunch of toughs coming in from outlying suburbs who were only beginning to discover punk's speed, power and aggression";"dispensing with all pretension, these kids boiled the music down to its essence, then revved up the tempos...and called the result "hardcore", creating a music that was "younger, faster and angrier, [and] full of...pent-up rage..." Hardcore historian Steven Blush states that for West coasters, the first hardcore record was Out of Vogue by the Santa Ana band Middle Class. Hardcore punk_sentence_113

The band pioneered a shouted, fast version of punk rock which would shape the hardcore sound that would soon emerge. Hardcore punk_sentence_114

In terms of impact upon the hardcore scene, Black Flag has been deemed the most influential group. Hardcore punk_sentence_115

Michael Azerrad, author of Our Band Could Be Your Life, calls Black Flag the "godfathers" of hardcore punk and states that even "...more than the flagship band of American hardcore", they were "...required listening for anyone who was interested in underground music." Hardcore punk_sentence_116

Blush states that Black Flag defined American hardcore in the same way that the Sex Pistols defined punk. Hardcore punk_sentence_117

Formed in Hermosa Beach, California by guitarist and primary songwriter Greg Ginn, they played their first show in December 1977. Hardcore punk_sentence_118

Originally called Panic, they changed their name to Black Flag in 1978. Hardcore punk_sentence_119

By 1979, Black Flag were joined by another South Bay hardcore band, the Minutemen, who they shared a practice space with until both bands were evicted, as well as the Circle Jerks (which featured Black Flag's original singer, Keith Morris). Hardcore punk_sentence_120

From Hollywood, two other bands playing hardcore punk, Fear and the Germs, were featured with Black Flag and the Circle Jerks in Penelope Spheeris' 1981 documentary The Decline of Western Civilization. Hardcore punk_sentence_121

By the time the film was released, other hardcore bands from Los Angeles County were also making a name for themselves including Bad Religion, Descendents, Red Kross, Rhino 39, Suicidal Tendencies, Wasted Youth, Youth Brigade, and Youth Gone Mad. Hardcore punk_sentence_122

Neighboring Orange County had the Adolescents, Agent Orange, China White, Shattered Faith, and T.S.O.L. Hardcore punk_sentence_123 , while north of Los Angeles, around Oxnard, California, a hardcore scene known as "nardcore" developed with bands like Agression, Ill Repute, Dr. Know, and Rich Kids on LSD. Hardcore punk_sentence_124

Whilst popular traditional punk bands such as the Ramones, the Clash, and Sex Pistols were signed to major record labels, the hardcore punk bands were generally not. Hardcore punk_sentence_125

Black Flag, however, was briefly signed to MCA subsidiary Unicorn Records, but were dropped because an executive considered their music to be "anti-parent". Hardcore punk_sentence_126

Instead of trying to be courted by the major labels, hardcore bands started their own independent record labels and distributed their records themselves. Hardcore punk_sentence_127

Ginn started SST Records, which released Black Flag's debut EP Nervous Breakdown in 1979. Hardcore punk_sentence_128

SST went on to release a number of albums by other hardcore artists, and was described by Azerrad as "easily the most influential and popular underground indie of the Eighties." Hardcore punk_sentence_129

SST was followed by a number of other successful artist-run labels—including BYO Records (started by Shawn and Mark Stern of Youth Brigade), Epitaph Records (started by Brett Gurewitz of Bad Religion), New Alliance Records (started by the Minutemen's D. Boon and Mike Watt), as well as fan-run labels like Frontier Records and Slash Records. Hardcore punk_sentence_130

Bands also funded and organized their own tours. Hardcore punk_sentence_131

Black Flag's tours in 1980 and 1981 brought them in contact with developing hardcore scenes in many parts of North America, and blazed trails that were followed by other touring bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_132

Concerts in the early Los Angeles hardcore scene increasingly became sites of violent battles between police and concertgoers. Hardcore punk_sentence_133

Another source of violence in LA was tension created by what one writer calls the invasion of "antagonistic suburban poseurs" into hardcore venues. Hardcore punk_sentence_134

Violence at hardcore concerts was portrayed in episodes of the popular television shows CHiPs and Quincy, M.E.. Hardcore punk_sentence_135

In the pre-Internet era, fanzines, commonly called zines, enabled hardcore scene members to learn about bands, clubs, and record labels. Hardcore punk_sentence_136

Zines typically included reviews of shows and records, interviews with bands, letters, ads for records and labels, and were DIY products, "proudly amateur, usually handmade. Hardcore punk_sentence_137

A zine called We Got Power described the Los Angeles scene from 1981 to 1984, and it included show reviews and band interviews with groups including D.O.A., the Misfits, Black Flag, Suicidal Tendencies and the Circle Jerks. Hardcore punk_sentence_138

San Francisco Hardcore punk_section_10

Shortly after Black Flag debuted in Los Angeles, Dead Kennedys were formed in San Francisco. Hardcore punk_sentence_139

While the band's early releases were played in a style closer to traditional punk rock, In God We Trust, Inc. (1981) marked a shift into hardcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_140

Similar to Black Flag and Youth Brigade, Dead Kennedys released their albums on their own label, which in DK's case was Alternative Tentacles. Hardcore punk_sentence_141

While not as large as the scene in Los Angeles, the hardcore scene of the early 1980s included a number of noteworthy bands originating from the San Francisco Bay Area, including Bl'ast, Crucifix, The Faction, Fang, Flipper, and Whipping Boy. Hardcore punk_sentence_142

Additionally, during this time, seminal Texas-based bands Dirty Rotten Imbeciles, the Dicks, MDC, Rhythm Pigs, and Verbal Abuse all relocated to San Francisco. Hardcore punk_sentence_143

The scene was helped in particular by the San Francisco club Mabuhay Gardens, whose promoter, Dirk Dirksen, became known as "The Pope of Punk". Hardcore punk_sentence_144

Another important local institution was Tim Yohannan's fanzine, Maximumrocknroll, as well as his show on Berkeley, California public radio station KPFA Maximum RocknRoll Radio Show, which played the younger Northern California bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_145

One of those bands was Tales of Terror from Sacramento. Hardcore punk_sentence_146

Many, including Mark Arm, cite Tales of Terror as a key inspiration for the then-burgeoning grunge scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_147

Washington, D.C. Hardcore punk_section_11

Main article: Washington, D.C. hardcore Hardcore punk_sentence_148

The first hardcore punk band to form on the east coast of the United States was Washington, D.C.'s Bad Brains. Hardcore punk_sentence_149

Initially formed in 1977 as a jazz fusion ensemble called Mind Power, and consisting of all African-American members, their early foray into hardcore featured some of the fastest tempos in rock music. Hardcore punk_sentence_150

The band released its debut single, "Pay to Cum", in 1980, and were influential in establishing the D.C. hardcore scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_151

Hardcore historian Steven Blush calls the single the first East coast hardcore record. Hardcore punk_sentence_152

Ian MacKaye and Jeff Nelson, influenced by Bad Brains, formed the band Teen Idles in 1979. Hardcore punk_sentence_153

The group broke up in 1980, and MacKaye and Nelson went on to form Minor Threat, who became a big influence on the hardcore punk genre. Hardcore punk_sentence_154

The band used faster rhythms and more aggressive, less melodic riffs than was common at the time. Hardcore punk_sentence_155

Minor Threat popularized the straight edge movement with its song "Straight Edge", which spoke out against alcohol, drugs and promiscuity. Hardcore punk_sentence_156

MacKaye and Nelson ran their own record label, Dischord Records, which released records by D.C. hardcore bands including: the Faith, Iron Cross, Scream, State of Alert, Government Issue, Void, and DC's Youth Brigade. Hardcore punk_sentence_157

The Flex Your Head compilation was a seminal document of the early 1980s DC hardcore scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_158

The record label was run out of the Dischord House, a Washington, D.C. punk house. Hardcore punk_sentence_159

Henry Rollins, who would come to prominence as lead singer of the California-based Black Flag, as well as his own later Rollins Band, grew up in Washington D.C., singing for State of Alert, and was influenced by the music of Bad Brains and the bands of his childhood friend Ian MacKaye. Hardcore punk_sentence_160

Boston Hardcore punk_section_12

Seminal Boston area hardcore bands included the F.U. Hardcore punk_sentence_161 's, the Freeze, Gang Green, Jerry's Kids, Siege, DYS, Negative FX, and SS Decontrol. Hardcore punk_sentence_162

Members of the latter three bands were influenced by D.C.'s straight edge scene, and were part of "the Boston Crew", a mostly straight edge group of friends known to physically fight people who used alcohol or drugs. Hardcore punk_sentence_163

Members of the Boston Crew would later go on to form the band Slapshot, and also included future Mighty Mighty Bosstones singer Dicky Barrett, who was then a member of the band Impact Unit, and drew the artwork for the DYS album Brotherhood. Hardcore punk_sentence_164

In 1982, Modern Method Records released This Is Boston, Not L.A., a compilation album of the Boston hardcore scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_165

In addition to Modern Method was Taang! Hardcore punk_sentence_166 Records, who released material by a number of the aforementioned Boston hardcore bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_167

Further outside of Boston were Western Massachusetts bands Deep Wound (which featured future Dinosaur Jr. members J Mascis and Lou Barlow) and the Outpatients, both of whom would come to Boston to play shows. Hardcore punk_sentence_168

From New Hampshire was G.G. Hardcore punk_sentence_169 Allin, a solo singer who contrary to straight edge used copious drugs and eventually died of a heroin overdose. Hardcore punk_sentence_170

Allin's stage show included defecating on stage and then throwing his feces at the audience. Hardcore punk_sentence_171

New York Hardcore punk_section_13

Main article: New York hardcore Hardcore punk_sentence_172

The New York City hardcore scene emerged in 1981 when Bad Brains moved to the city from Washington, D.C. Starting in 1981, there was an influx of new hardcore bands in the city including Agnostic Front, Beastie Boys, Cro-Mags, The Mob, Murphy's Law, Reagan Youth, and Warzone. Hardcore punk_sentence_173

A number of other bands associated with New York hardcore scene came from New Jersey, including Misfits, Adrenalin OD and Hogan's Heroes. Hardcore punk_sentence_174

Steven Blush calls the Misfits "crucial to the rise of hardcore." Hardcore punk_sentence_175

New York hardcore had more emphasis on rhythm, in part due to the use of palm-muted guitar chords, an approach called the NY hardcore "chug". Hardcore punk_sentence_176

The New York scene was known for its tough ethos, its "thuggery", and club shows that were a chaotic "proving ground" or even a "battleground". Hardcore punk_sentence_177

The early 1980s, the New York hardcore scene centered around squats and clubhouses. Hardcore punk_sentence_178

After these were closed down, the scene was emanating in a small after-hours bar, A7, on the lower east side of Manhattan, and later around the famous bar CBGB. Hardcore punk_sentence_179

For several years, CBGB held weekly hardcore matinees on Sundays. Hardcore punk_sentence_180

The matinees stopped in 1990 when violence led Kristal to ban hardcore shows at the club. Hardcore punk_sentence_181

Early radio support in New York's surrounding tri-state area came from Pat Duncan, who had hosted live punk and hardcore bands weekly on WFMU since 1979. Hardcore punk_sentence_182

Bridgeport, Connecticut's WPKN had a radio show featuring hardcore called Capital Radio, hosted by Brad Morrison, beginning in February 1979 and continuing weekly until late 1983. Hardcore punk_sentence_183

In New York City, Tim Sommer hosted Noise The Show on WNYU. Hardcore punk_sentence_184

By 1984, the Ramones, one of the original New York punk bands, were experimenting with hardcore, with two songs, "Wart Hog" and "Endless Vacation" on their album Too Tough To Die. Hardcore punk_sentence_185

Other American regions Hardcore punk_section_14

Minneapolis hardcore consisted of bands such as Hüsker Dü and the Replacements, while Chicago had Articles of Faith, Big Black and Naked Raygun. Hardcore punk_sentence_186

The Detroit area was home to Crucifucks, Degenerates, the Meatmen, Negative Approach, Spite and Violent Apathy. Hardcore punk_sentence_187

From Ohio was Maumee's Necros and Dayton's Toxic Reasons. Hardcore punk_sentence_188

The zine Touch and Go covered this Midwest hardcore scene from 1979 to 1983. Hardcore punk_sentence_189

JFA and Meat Puppets were both from Phoenix, Arizona;, 7 Seconds were from Reno, Nevada; and Butthole Surfers, Big Boys, the Dicks, Dirty Rotten Imbeciles (D.R.I. Hardcore punk_sentence_190

), Really Red, Verbal Abuse and MDC were from Texas. Hardcore punk_sentence_191

Portland, Oregon hardcore punk bands included Poison Idea and Final Warning, while north of there, Washington state included the Accüsed, Melvins, the Fartz, and 10 Minute Warning (the latter two included future Guns N' Roses member Duff McKagan). Hardcore punk_sentence_192

Other prominent hardcore bands from this time that came from areas without large scenes include Raleigh, North Carolina's Corrosion of Conformity. Hardcore punk_sentence_193

Canada Hardcore punk_section_15

Main article: Canadian hardcore punk Hardcore punk_sentence_194

D.O.A. Hardcore punk_sentence_195

formed in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1978 and were one of the first bands to refer to its style as "hardcore", with the release of their album Hardcore '81. Hardcore punk_sentence_196

Other early hardcore bands from British Columbia included Dayglo Abortions, the Subhumans and the Skulls. Hardcore punk_sentence_197

Nomeansno is a hardcore band originally from Victoria, British Columbia and now located in Vancouver. Hardcore punk_sentence_198

SNFU formed in Edmonton in 1981 and also later relocated to Vancouver. Hardcore punk_sentence_199

Bunchofuckingoofs, from the Kensington Market neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario, formed in November 1983 as a response to "a local war with glue huffing Nazi skinheads." Hardcore punk_sentence_200

In Montreal, The Asexuals helped fertilize a scene that became a necessary tour stop for punk and hardcore bands headed to the Northeast. Hardcore punk_sentence_201

United Kingdom Hardcore punk_section_16

In the United Kingdom a fertile hardcore scene took root early on. Hardcore punk_sentence_202

Referred to under a number of names including "U.K. Hardcore", "UK 82", "second wave punk", "real punk", and "No Future punk", it took the previous punk sound and added the incessant, heavy drumbeats and heavily distorted guitar sound of new wave of British heavy metal bands, especially Motörhead. Hardcore punk_sentence_203

Formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent, Discharge played a large role in influencing other European hardcore bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_204

AllMusic calls the band's sound a "high-speed noise overload" characterized by "ferocious noise blasts." Hardcore punk_sentence_205

Their style of hardcore punk was coined as D-beat, a term referring to a distinctive drum beat that a number of 1980s imitators of Discharge are associated with. Hardcore punk_sentence_206

Another UK band, the Varukers, were one of the original D-beat bands, Scottish band the Exploited were also influential, with the term "UK 82" (used to refer to UK hardcore in the early 1980s) being taken from one of their songs. Hardcore punk_sentence_207

They contrasted with early American hardcore bands by placing an emphasis on appearance. Hardcore punk_sentence_208

Frontman Walter "Wattie" Buchan had a giant red mohawk and the band continued to wear swastikas, an approach influenced by the wearing of this symbol by 1970s punks such as Sid Vicious. Hardcore punk_sentence_209

Because of this, the Exploited were labeled by others in the scene as "cartoon punks". Hardcore punk_sentence_210

Other influential UK hardcore bands from this period included Anti-Establishment, Antisect, Broken Bones, Chaos UK, Charged GBH, Conflict, Dogsflesh, English Dogs, and grindcore innovators Napalm Death. Hardcore punk_sentence_211

Other countries Hardcore punk_section_17

There was a dynamic Italian hardcore punk scene in the 1980s. Hardcore punk_sentence_212

Inspired by UK bands such as Crass and Discharge, many Italian groups had lyrics that were anti-war and anti-NATO. Hardcore punk_sentence_213

Groups included Wretched, Raw Power, and Negazione. Hardcore punk_sentence_214

The Last White Christmas festival, held in Pisa on Dec. 4, 1983, was an important concert for Italian groups. Hardcore punk_sentence_215

Sweden developed several influential hardcore bands, including Anti Cimex, Disfear, and Mob 47. Hardcore punk_sentence_216

Finland produced some influential hardcore bands, including Terveet Kädet, one of the first hardcore groups to emerge in the country. Hardcore punk_sentence_217

In Eastern Europe notable hardcore bands included Hungaria's Galloping Coroners from 1975, Yugoslavia's 1980s-era Niet from Ljubljana, and KBO! Hardcore punk_sentence_218

A Japanese hardcore scene arose to protest the social and economic changes sweeping the country in the late 1970s and during the 1980s. Hardcore punk_sentence_219

The band SS is regarded as the first, forming in 1977. Hardcore punk_sentence_220

Bands such as the Stalin and GISM soon followed, both forming in 1980. Hardcore punk_sentence_221

Other notable Japanese hardcore bands include: Balzac, Disclose (a D-beat band), Garlic Boys, Gauze, SOB, and the Star Club. Hardcore punk_sentence_222

Mid to late 1980s Hardcore punk_section_18

Genre changes Hardcore punk_section_19

The mid-1980s were a time of transition for the hardcore scene, with a number of influential bands from earlier in the decade changing their sound or breaking up. Hardcore punk_sentence_223

Starting with their 1984 album My War, which coincided with the band members growing their hair long, Black Flag were criticized for having “gone heavy metal”. Hardcore punk_sentence_224

The albums second side was called a road map for sludge metal, as well as being influenced by doom metal bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_225

Black Flag's eventual breakup in 1986, would coincide with the breakup of one of the other most influential hardcore bands, the Dead Kennedys. Hardcore punk_sentence_226

By 1985, Boston bands SS Decontrol and DYS became metal bands, while The F.U. Hardcore punk_sentence_227 's did the same, but changed their name to "Straw Dogs". Hardcore punk_sentence_228

By the end of the year, both SSD and DYS had broken up. Hardcore punk_sentence_229

Other bands in the mid-80s that went from being strictly hardcore to adding more metal riffs, developed an even heavier sound, with Corrosion of Conformity, Cro-Mags, and D.R.I. Hardcore punk_sentence_230 , becoming known as crossover thrash bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_231

Bad Religion briefly broke up in 1984, after making the progressive rock album Into the Unknown. Hardcore punk_sentence_232

They returned to their roots on the 1985 Back to the Known EP, and then began their embrace of more melodic straightforward punk rock, starting with 1988's Suffer. Hardcore punk_sentence_233

In 1986, Los Angeles's Youth Brigade changed their name to "The Brigade", and changed their sound to a style that The Los Angeles Times compared to mainstream bands like U2, R.E.M. Hardcore punk_sentence_234 , and Big Country. Hardcore punk_sentence_235

They would breakup the next year. Hardcore punk_sentence_236

Bands such as Minutemen, Meat Puppets, Hüsker Dü, and the Replacements, changed their style becoming alternative rock. Hardcore punk_sentence_237

T.S.O.L, who had already embraced goth rock, became a hard rock band with 1986's Revenge, being compared to Poison and Faster Pussycat, and going on tour with Guns N' Roses. Hardcore punk_sentence_238

Red Kross's second album, 1987's Neurotica, was described as a blend of pop rock and art rock. Hardcore punk_sentence_239

The Beastie Boys gained fame by playing hip hop, and Bad Brains incorporated more reggae into their music, such as in their 1989 album Quickness. Hardcore punk_sentence_240

Youth crew Hardcore punk_section_20

During the later 1980s, a new group of bands emerged influenced by straight edge, known as the youth crew movement. Hardcore punk_sentence_241

Extending on original straight edge bands groundwork of lyrically expressing views against drugs, alcohol and promiscuous sex, youth crew also focused on issues such as vegetarianism or veganism The movement consisted of bands such as Bold, Gorilla Biscuits, and Youth of Today in the New York area, Chain of Strength and Inside Out in Southern California, and a scene in Durham, England heavily inspired by the sound of U.S. youth crew and straight edge bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_242

Members of the Durham scene would eventually form the band the Voorhees. Hardcore punk_sentence_243

1990s and 2000s Hardcore punk_section_21

In the beginning of the 1990s, a variety of different styles of hardcore bands arose, such as melodic hardcore (Avail, Lifetime, Kid Dynamite), emo (Endpoint), D-beat (Aus Rotten), powerviolence (Charles Bronson, Dropdead, Rorschach), thrashcore (Voorhees), mathcore (Converge), screamo (Heroin, Portraits of Past) and rapcore (Biohazard). Hardcore punk_sentence_244

While the 1990s had many different sounds and styles emerging, the genre primarily branched into two directions; new school metallic hardcore (also referred as metalcore), which incorporated aspects of thrash metal and death metal for a heavier and more technical sound, and old school, reminiscent of the classic beginnings of hardcore punk. Hardcore punk_sentence_245

"New school" bands such as Earth Crisis, Snapcase, Strife, Hatebreed, 108, Integrity and Damnation A.D. dominated the scene in the early 1990s, but towards the end of the decade, a new-found interest in "old school" had developed, represented by bands like Battery, Ten Yard Fight, In My Eyes, Good Clean Fun, H2O and Better Than a Thousand. Hardcore punk_sentence_246

A Swedish hardcore scene also emerged in the 1990s, with bands such as Refused and Raised Fist. Hardcore punk_sentence_247

Straight edge and hardline Hardcore punk_section_22

During this time, a more militant subculture of straight edge called hardline emerged. Hardcore punk_sentence_248

In the late 90s, Elgin James, a musician involved in the militant faction of the Boston straight edge scene, helped found the organization Friends Stand United. Hardcore punk_sentence_249

By the early 2000s, there were FSU chapters in Philadelphia, Chicago, Arizona, Los Angeles, Seattle, upstate New York and New Jersey, and they were considered to have about 200 members. Hardcore punk_sentence_250

The Federal Bureau of Investigation, eventually classified FSU as a street gang, which used violent methods and repeatedly assault people at hardcore shows and on Boston streets. Hardcore punk_sentence_251

In conjunction with the gang activities, James eventually did time in jail for extortion. Hardcore punk_sentence_252

In addition to James' band Righteous Jams, straight edge hardcore bands from this era also included fellow Boston area bands Bane, Embrace Today, Have Heart, In My Eyes, Ten Yard Fight, Verse, and Youth Attack. Hardcore punk_sentence_253

Outside of Boston were straight edge scenes in Southern California with bands such as Chain of Strength, Inside Out, Over My Dead Body, Strife, Throwdown, and Unbroken, Seattle with Champion, Trial, and Undertow, while Arma Angelus, Harm's Way, all came from Chicago. Hardcore punk_sentence_254

Other bands across the world included Abhinanda, Allegiance, Battery, Bishop, Casey Jones, Clear, Count Me Out, Down to Nothing, Final Exit, The Geeks, Indecision, Liferuiner, Mouthpiece, Rambo, Separation, Snapcase, Step Forward, Vitamin X, Wisdom in Chains, and xCrosscheckx, as well as bands that combined straight edge with animal rights like Earth Crisis, ACxDC, Asunto, Chokehold, First Blood, Good Clean Fun, Most Precious Blood, One King Down, Point of No Return, Raid, and Vegan Reich. Hardcore punk_sentence_255

Further bands meshed straight edge with additional causes such as Christian hardcore bands Call to Preserve, The Red Baron, xLooking Forwardx, Jewish band Sons of Abraham, queercore band Limp Wrist, right-wing anti-immigrant band One Life Crew, and anti-capitalism bands Manliftingbanner and Refused. Hardcore punk_sentence_256

Mainstream success Hardcore punk_section_23

During this era in mainstream music, punk rock became a mainstream success in 1994 with popular bands like Green Day, The Offspring, and Rancid. Hardcore punk_sentence_257

While typically playing pop punk, Green Day's 1997 album Nimrod contained two songs ("Platypus [I Hate You]" and "Take Back") that were described as hardcore, while The Offspring frontman Dexter Holland started Nitro Records, a label which released music from a number of hardcore bands including AFI, A Wilhelm Scream, Crime in Stereo, Ensign, The Letters Organize, No Trigger, and T.S.O.L.. Hardcore punk_sentence_258

Meanwhile, Rancid would record a hardcore album with 2000's Rancid. Hardcore punk_sentence_259

The same year punk became popular again in 1994, Sick of It All released the major label album Scratch the Surface. Hardcore punk_sentence_260

According to lead singer Lou Koller, people were thinking they would go from a hardcore band to sounding like Green Day, so they intentionally made an album heavier than anything they'd done before. Hardcore punk_sentence_261

The album became a surprise success, with the single "Step Down" becoming a staple on MTV, thanks to a tongue-in-cheek music video featuring a roving reporter “exposing” the world of hardcore, and showing how to do various hardcore dance moves. Hardcore punk_sentence_262

With the increased popularity of punk rock in the mid-1990s and the 2000s, additional hardcore bands signed with major record labels. Hardcore punk_sentence_263

The next was New York's H2O, who released its album Go (2001) for MCA. Hardcore punk_sentence_264

Despite an extensive tour and an appearance on Late Night with Conan O'Brien, the album was not commercially successful, and when the label folded, the band and the label parted ways. Hardcore punk_sentence_265

In 2002, AFI signed to DreamWorks Records but changed their sound considerably for its successful major label debut Sing the Sorrow. Hardcore punk_sentence_266

Chicago's Rise Against were signed by Geffen Records, and three of its releases on the label were certified platinum by the RIAA. Hardcore punk_sentence_267

Like AFI, Rise Against gradually diminished hardcore elements from their music, culminating with 2008's Appeal to Reason, which lacked the intensity found in their earlier albums. Hardcore punk_sentence_268

Notable independent label Bridge 9 Records saw several of their artists rise to prominence, including Defeater, Verse and Have Heart, who had a Billboard chart entry with their second album, 'Songs To Scream At The Sun'. Hardcore punk_sentence_269

In an AllMusic review, Greg Prato wrote about the label's band Energy that "While you wouldn't go quite as far as calling Energy "a hardcore Boy band," the group's leanings toward the mainstream are undeniable throughout Invasions of the Mind". Hardcore punk_sentence_270

United Kingdom band Gallows were signed to Warner Bros. Records for £1 million. Hardcore punk_sentence_271

Their major label debut Grey Britain was described as being even more aggressive than their previous material, and the band was subsequently dropped from the label. Hardcore punk_sentence_272

The success of the band led to other British hardcore acts of the time gain notability like The Ghost of a Thousand and Heights. Hardcore punk_sentence_273

Los Angeles band the Bronx briefly appeared on Island Def Jam Music Group for the release of their 2006 self-titled album, which was named one of the top 40 albums of the year by Spin magazine. Hardcore punk_sentence_274

They appeared in the Darby Crash biopic What We Do Is Secret, playing members of Black Flag. Hardcore punk_sentence_275

In 2007, Toronto's Fucked Up appeared on MTV Live Canada, where they were introduced as "Effed Up". Hardcore punk_sentence_276

During the performance of its song "Baiting the Public", the majority of the audience was moshing, which caused $2000 in damages to the set. Hardcore punk_sentence_277

Fucked Up went on to win the 2009 Polaris Music Prize for the album The Chemistry of Common Life. Hardcore punk_sentence_278

Australian hardcore also took off during this time with bands like Break Even and 50 Lions (formed in 2005), and Iron Mind (formed in 2006). Hardcore punk_sentence_279

The genre was played on the national Triple J network on the short.fast.loud program. Hardcore punk_sentence_280

Australian labels that released hardcore music include Broken Hive Records, Resist Records and UNFD Records. Hardcore punk_sentence_281

2010s Hardcore punk_section_24

Partly due to developments in digital communications, there has been a rise in interaction between hardcore scenes in different places and subgenres, particularly in Europe. Hardcore punk_sentence_282

In September 2017, Bandcamp Daily wrote that Fluff Fest, which has been held in Czechia since 2000 and features an international lineup of independent bands ranging in style from crust punk to screamo, "has established itself as the main DIY hardcore punk event in Europe". Hardcore punk_sentence_283

Code Orange formed in Pittsburgh in 2008, their 2014 sophomore album I Am King reached number 96 on the Billboard 200, and its follow up, 2017's Forever peaked and number 62. Hardcore punk_sentence_284

Baltimore hardcore band Turnstile, who formed in 2010, signed Roadrunner Records in 2017 and released their sophomore album Time & Space in 2018, which reached number one on the Billboard Heatseekers chart. Hardcore punk_sentence_285

Kentucky hardcore band Knocked Loose formed in 2013 and released their debut album Laugh Tracks in 2016, which peaked at number 163 on the Billboard 200. Hardcore punk_sentence_286

Its follow up A Different Shade of Blue was released in 2019 and peaked at number 26. Hardcore punk_sentence_287

Other bands like Varials, SeeYouSpaceCowboy, Vein and Wristmeetrazor also gained popularity during this period. Hardcore punk_sentence_288

In the mid–2010s a number of British hardcore punk bands began being represented as members of a new musical movement dubbed the New Wave of British Hardcore (often abbreviated to NWOBHC), a term coined by Adam Malik from The Essence Records. Hardcore punk_sentence_289

Bands who are a part of the movement generally take influence from '80s Boston and New York hardcore bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_290

Bands associated with the movement include Arms Race, Violent Reaction, Big Cheese, Higher Power, Perspex Flesh, Mob Rules, the Flex and Blind Authority. Hardcore punk_sentence_291

Some bands such as Rapture, Violent Reaction and Payday are straight edge. Hardcore punk_sentence_292

In 2019, Boston hardcore band Have Heart reunited for performances in four different locations after a ten-year breakup. Hardcore punk_sentence_293

One of these performances was outside the Worcester Palladium, which drew around 10,000 attendees, making the most attended hardcore show that wasn't a festival. Hardcore punk_sentence_294

Hardcore in the late-2010s saw a significant growth of the scene, to involve bands taking influence from style generally disassociated with it, such as industrial, heavy metal, post-punk and nu metal. Hardcore punk_sentence_295

Around this time, mainstream rappers began to associate themselves with the hardcore scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_296

Playboi Carti included a performance from a hardcore show as the front cover for his 2018 album Die Lit, Denzel Curry collaborated with Bad Brains and Fucked Up in 2019 and rap groups Suicideboys and City Morgue were joined on tour by hardcore bands Turnstile and Trash Talk. Hardcore punk_sentence_297

Rappers Wicca Phase Springs Eternal and Ghostemane even began playing music by performing in hardcore bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_298

In September 2019, rap group Injury Reserve released a collaborative track with Code Orange and JPEGMafia. Hardcore punk_sentence_299

In recent years, Muslim hardcore bands have emerged in the US, Canada, Pakistan, and Indonesia. Hardcore punk_sentence_300

The development of Muslim hardcore has been traced to the impact of a 2010 film Taqwacore, a documentary about the Muslim hardcore scene. Hardcore punk_sentence_301

Bands include the Kominas from Boston, the all-girl Secret Trial Five from Toronto, Al Thawra (The Power) from Chicago "and even a few bands out in Pakistan and Indonesia." Hardcore punk_sentence_302

Influence Hardcore punk_section_25

See also: List of hardcore genres Hardcore punk_sentence_303

Hardcore punk has spawned a number of subgenres, fusion genres and derivative forms. Hardcore punk_sentence_304

Its subgenres include D-beat, emo, melodic hardcore and thrashcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_305

Important fusion genres include crossover thrash, crust punk, grindcore, and metalcore, all of which fuse hardcore punk with extreme metal. Hardcore punk_sentence_306

Key derivatives include post-hardcore and skate punk, and hardcore punk has also influenced a number of heavy metal sub genres. Hardcore punk_sentence_307

Metallica and Slayer, pioneers of the heavy metal subgenre thrash metal, were influenced by a number of hardcore bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_308

Metallica's cover album Garage Inc. included covers of two Discharge and three Misfits songs, while Slayer's cover album Undisputed Attitude consisted of covers of predominately hardcore punk bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_309

The Washington state band Melvins, aside from their influence on grunge, helped create what would be known as sludge metal, which is also a combination between Black Sabbath-style music and hardcore punk. Hardcore punk_sentence_310

This genre developed during the early 1990s, in the Southern United States (particularly in the New Orleans metal scene). Hardcore punk_sentence_311

Some of the pioneering bands of sludge metal were: Eyehategod, Crowbar, Down, Buzzov*en, Acid Bath and Corrosion of Conformity. Hardcore punk_sentence_312

Later, bands such as Isis and Neurosis, with similar influences, created a style that relies mostly on ambience and atmosphere that would eventually be named atmospheric sludge metal or post-metal. Hardcore punk_sentence_313

Fusion and subgenres Hardcore punk_section_26

D-beat Hardcore punk_section_27

Main article: D-beat Hardcore punk_sentence_314

D-beat (also known as discore or kängpunk) is a hardcore punk subgenre, developed in the early 1980s by imitators of the band Discharge, after whom the genre is named, as well as a drum beat characteristic of this subgenre. Hardcore punk_sentence_315

The bands Discharge and the Varukers are pioneers of the D-beat genre. Hardcore punk_sentence_316

Robbie Mackey of Pitchfork Media described D-beat as "hardcore drumming set against breakneck riffage and unintelligible howls about anarchy, working-stiffs-as-rats, and banding together to, you know, fight." Hardcore punk_sentence_317

Emo and post-hardcore Hardcore punk_section_28

The 1980s saw the development of post-hardcore, which took the hardcore style in a more complex and dynamic direction, with a focus on singing rather than screaming. Hardcore punk_sentence_318

The post-hardcore style first took shape in Chicago, with bands such as Big Black, the Effigies and Naked Raygun. Hardcore punk_sentence_319

It later developed in Washington, DC within the community of bands on Ian MacKaye's Dischord Records, with bands such as Fugazi, the Nation of Ulysses, and Jawbox. Hardcore punk_sentence_320

The style has extended until the late 2000s. Hardcore punk_sentence_321

The mid-80s Washington, D.C. post-hardcore scene would also see the birth of emo. Hardcore punk_sentence_322

Guy Picciotto formed Rites of Spring in 1984, breaking free of hardcore's self-imposed boundaries in favor of melodic guitars, varied rhythms, and deeply personal, impassioned lyrics dealing with nostalgia, romantic bitterness, and poetic desperation. Hardcore punk_sentence_323

Other D.C. bands such as Gray Matter, Beefeater, Fire Party, Dag Nasty, also became connected to this movement. Hardcore punk_sentence_324

The style was dubbed "emo", "emo-core", or "post-harDCore" (in reference to one of the names given to the Washington, D.C. hardcore scene). Hardcore punk_sentence_325

Thrashcore and powerviolence Hardcore punk_section_29

Often confused with crossover thrash and sometimes thrash metal, is thrashcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_326

Thrashcore (also known as fastcore) is a subgenre of hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s. Hardcore punk_sentence_327

It is essentially sped-up hardcore punk, with bands often using blast beats. Hardcore punk_sentence_328

Just as hardcore punk groups distinguished themselves from their punk rock predecessors by their greater intensity and aggression, thrashcore groups (often identified simply as "thrash") sought to play at breakneck tempos that would radicalize the innovations of hardcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_329

Early American thrashcore groups included Cryptic Slaughter (Santa Monica), D.R.I. Hardcore punk_sentence_330

(Houston), Septic Death (Boise) and Siege (Weymouth, Massachusetts). Hardcore punk_sentence_331

Thrashcore spun off into powerviolence, another raw and dissonant subgenre of hardcore punk. Hardcore punk_sentence_332

Other notable powerviolence bands include Man is the Bastard and Spazz. Hardcore punk_sentence_333

Grindcore Hardcore punk_section_30

Grindcore is an extreme genre of music that began the early to mid-1980s. Hardcore punk_sentence_334

Grindcore music relies on heavy metal instrumentation and eventually changed into a genre similar to death metal. Hardcore punk_sentence_335

Grindcore vocals, according to AllMusic, range "from high-pitched shrieks to low, throat-shredding growls and barks". Hardcore punk_sentence_336

Grindcore also features blast beats; according to Adam MacGregor of Dusted, "the blast-beat generally comprises a repeated, sixteenth-note figure played at a very fast tempo, and divided uniformly among the kick drum, snare and ride, crash, or hi-hat cymbal." Hardcore punk_sentence_337

The band Napalm Death invented the grindcore genre; their debut album Scum was described by AllMusic as "perhaps the most representative example of" grindcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_338

Heavy hardcore Hardcore punk_section_31

Main article: Heavy hardcore Hardcore punk_sentence_339

Heavy hardcore is a style of hardcore punk which has deep, hoarse vocals, down-tuned electric guitars, blast beats, and slow breakdowns. Hardcore punk_sentence_340

More heavy metal-influenced than traditional hardcore punk, Strife, Shai Hulud, Madball and Hatebreed all are heavy hardcore bands. Hardcore punk_sentence_341

Metalcore Hardcore punk_section_32

Metalcore is a fusion genre that merges hardcore punk with extreme metal. Hardcore punk_sentence_342

Metalcore has screaming, growling, heavy guitar riffs, breakdowns, and double bass drumming. Hardcore punk_sentence_343

Heavy metal-hardcore punk hybrids arose in the mid-1980s and would also radicalize the innovations of hardcore as the two genres and their ideologies intertwined noticeably, resulting in two main genres one being metalcore. Hardcore punk_sentence_344

The term has been used to refer to bands that were not purely hardcore nor purely metal such as Earth Crisis, Integrity and Hogan's Heroes. Hardcore punk_sentence_345

During the 2000s there was a metalcore explosion and bands like Bullet for My Valentine, Killswitch Engage, Atreyu, Shadows Fall, and As I Lay Dying all had some popularity. Hardcore punk_sentence_346

Grunge Hardcore punk_section_33

In the mid-1980s, northern West Coast bands such as Melvins, Flipper and Green River developed a sludgy, "aggressive sound that melded the slower tempos of heavy metal with the intensity of hardcore," creating an alternative rock subgenre known as grunge. Hardcore punk_sentence_347

Grunge evolved from the local Seattle punk rock scene, and it was inspired by bands such as the Fartz, 10 Minute Warning and the Accüsed. Hardcore punk_sentence_348

Grunge fuses elements of hardcore and heavy metal, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Hardcore punk_sentence_349

Grunge's key guitar influences included Black Flag and the Melvins. Hardcore punk_sentence_350

Black Flag's 1984 record My War, on which the band combined heavy metal with their traditional sound, made a strong impact in Seattle. Hardcore punk_sentence_351

Digital hardcore Hardcore punk_section_34

Nintendocore, another musical style, fuses hardcore with video game music, chiptune, and 8-bit music. Hardcore punk_sentence_352

See also Hardcore punk_section_35

Hardcore punk_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hardcore punk.