Hart Crane

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Hart Crane_table_infobox_0

Hart CraneHart Crane_header_cell_0_0_0
BornHart Crane_header_cell_0_1_0 Harold Hart Crane

(1899-07-21)July 21, 1899 Garrettsville, Ohio, U.S.Hart Crane_cell_0_1_1

DiedHart Crane_header_cell_0_2_0 April 27, 1932(1932-04-27) (aged 32)

Gulf of MexicoHart Crane_cell_0_2_1

OccupationHart Crane_header_cell_0_3_0 PoetHart Crane_cell_0_3_1
NationalityHart Crane_header_cell_0_4_0 AmericanHart Crane_cell_0_4_1
PeriodHart Crane_header_cell_0_5_0 1916–1932Hart Crane_cell_0_5_1
Literary movementHart Crane_header_cell_0_6_0 ModernismHart Crane_cell_0_6_1
Notable worksHart Crane_header_cell_0_7_0 The BridgeHart Crane_cell_0_7_1

Harold Hart Crane (July 21, 1899 – April 27, 1932) was an American poet. Hart Crane_sentence_0

Provoked and inspired by T. Hart Crane_sentence_1 S. Eliot, Crane wrote modernist poetry that was difficult, highly stylized, and ambitious in its scope. Hart Crane_sentence_2

In his most ambitious work, The Bridge, Crane sought to write an epic poem, in the vein of The Waste Land, that expressed a more optimistic view of modern, urban culture than the one that he found in Eliot's work. Hart Crane_sentence_3

In the years following his suicide at the age of 32, Crane has been hailed by playwrights, poets, and literary critics alike (including Robert Lowell, Derek Walcott, Tennessee Williams, and Harold Bloom), as being one of the most influential poets of his generation. Hart Crane_sentence_4

Life and work Hart Crane_section_0

Hart Crane was born in Garrettsville, Ohio, the son of Clarence A. Crane and Grace Edna Hart. Hart Crane_sentence_5

His father was a successful Ohio businessman who invented the Life Savers candy and held the patent, but sold it for $2,900 before the brand became popular. Hart Crane_sentence_6

He made other candy and accumulated a fortune from the candy business with chocolate bars. Hart Crane_sentence_7

Crane's mother and father were constantly fighting, and they divorced early in April 1917. Hart Crane_sentence_8

Crane dropped out of East High School in Cleveland during his junior year and left for New York City, promising his parents he would attend Columbia University later. Hart Crane_sentence_9

His parents, in the middle of their divorce proceedings, were upset. Hart Crane_sentence_10

Crane took various copywriting jobs and moved between friends' apartments in Manhattan. Hart Crane_sentence_11

Between 1917 and 1924 he moved back and forth between New York and Cleveland, working as an advertising copywriter and a worker in his father's factory. Hart Crane_sentence_12

From Crane's letters, it appears that New York was where he felt most at home, and much of his poetry is set there. Hart Crane_sentence_13

Career Hart Crane_section_1

Throughout the early 1920s, small but well-respected literary magazines published some of Crane's poems, gaining him among the avant-garde a respect that White Buildings (1926), his first volume, ratified and strengthened. Hart Crane_sentence_14

White Buildings contains many of Crane's best poems, including "For the Marriage of Faustus and Helen", and "Voyages", a sequence of erotic poems. Hart Crane_sentence_15

They were written while he was falling in love with Emil Opffer, a Danish merchant mariner. Hart Crane_sentence_16

"Faustus and Helen" was part of a larger artistic struggle to meet modernity with something more than despair. Hart Crane_sentence_17

Crane identified T. Hart Crane_sentence_18 S. Eliot with that kind of despair, and while he acknowledged the greatness of The Waste Land, he also said it was "so damned dead", an impasse, and characterized by a refusal to see "certain spiritual events and possibilities". Hart Crane_sentence_19

Crane's self-appointed work would be to bring those spiritual events and possibilities to poetic life, and so create "a mystical synthesis of America". Hart Crane_sentence_20

Crane returned to New York in 1928, living with friends and taking temporary jobs as a copywriter, or living off unemployment and the charity of friends and his father. Hart Crane_sentence_21

For a time he lived in Brooklyn at 77 Willow Street until his lover, Opffer, invited him to live in Opffer's father's home at 110 Columbia Heights in Brooklyn Heights. Hart Crane_sentence_22

Crane was overjoyed at the views the location afforded him. Hart Crane_sentence_23

He wrote his mother and grandmother in the spring of 1924: Hart Crane_sentence_24

His ambition to synthesize America was expressed in The Bridge (1930), intended to be an uplifting counter to Eliot's The Waste Land. Hart Crane_sentence_25

The Brooklyn Bridge is both the poem's central symbol and its poetic starting point. Hart Crane_sentence_26

Crane found a place to start his synthesis in Brooklyn. Hart Crane_sentence_27

Arts patron Otto H. Kahn gave him $2,000 to begin work on the epic poem. Hart Crane_sentence_28

When he wore out his welcome at the Opffers', Crane left for Paris in early 1929, but failed to leave his personal problems behind. Hart Crane_sentence_29

His drinking, always a problem, became notably worse during the late 1920s, while he was finishing The Bridge. Hart Crane_sentence_30

In Paris in February 1929, Harry Crosby, who with his wife Caresse Crosby owned the fine arts press Black Sun Press, offered Crane the use of their country retreat, Le Moulin du Soleil in Ermenonville. Hart Crane_sentence_31

They hoped he could use the time to concentrate on completing The Bridge. Hart Crane_sentence_32

Crane spent several weeks at their estate where he roughed out a draft of the "Cape Hatteras" section, a key part of his epic poem. Hart Crane_sentence_33

In late June that year, Crane returned from the south of France to Paris. Hart Crane_sentence_34

Crosby noted in his journal, "Hart C. back from Marseilles where he slept with his thirty sailors and he began again to drink Cutty Sark." Hart Crane_sentence_35

Crane got drunk at the Cafe Select and fought with waiters over his tab. Hart Crane_sentence_36

When the Paris police were called, he fought with them and was beaten. Hart Crane_sentence_37

They arrested and jailed him, fining him 800 francs. Hart Crane_sentence_38

After Hart had spent six days in prison at La Santé, Crosby paid Crane's fine and advanced him money for the passage back to the United States, where he finally finished The Bridge. Hart Crane_sentence_39

The work received poor reviews, and Crane's sense of failure became crushing. Hart Crane_sentence_40

Death Hart Crane_section_2

Crane visited Mexico in 1931–32 on a Guggenheim Fellowship, and his drinking continued as he suffered from bouts of alternating depression and elation. Hart Crane_sentence_41

When Peggy Cowley, wife of his friend Malcolm Cowley, agreed to a divorce, she joined Crane. Hart Crane_sentence_42

As far as is known, she was his only heterosexual partner. Hart Crane_sentence_43

"The Broken Tower", one of his last published poems, emerged from that affair. Hart Crane_sentence_44

Crane still felt himself a failure, in part because he recommenced homosexual activity in spite of his relationship with Cowley. Hart Crane_sentence_45

While en route to New York aboard the steamship Orizaba, he was beaten after making sexual advances to a male crew member. Hart Crane_sentence_46

Just before noon on April 27, 1932, Hart Crane jumped overboard into the Gulf of Mexico. Hart Crane_sentence_47

Although he had been drinking heavily and left no suicide note, witnesses believed his intentions to be suicidal, as several reported that he exclaimed "Goodbye, everybody!" Hart Crane_sentence_48

before throwing himself overboard. Hart Crane_sentence_49

His body was never recovered. Hart Crane_sentence_50

A marker on his father's tombstone at Park Cemetery outside Garrettsville, Portage County, Ohio includes the inscription, "Harold Hart Crane 1899–1932 lost at sea". Hart Crane_sentence_51

Poetics Hart Crane_section_3

Crane's critical effort, like those of Keats and Rilke, is mostly to be found in his letters: he corresponded regularly with Allen Tate, Yvor Winters, and Gorham Munson, and shared critical dialogues with Eugene O'Neill, William Carlos Williams, E. Hart Crane_sentence_52 E. Cummings, Sherwood Anderson, Kenneth Burke, Waldo Frank, Harriet Monroe, Marianne Moore, and Gertrude Stein. Hart Crane_sentence_53

He was also an acquaintance of H. Hart Crane_sentence_54 P. Lovecraft, who eventually would voice concern over Crane's premature aging due to alcohol abuse. Hart Crane_sentence_55

Most serious work on Crane begins with his letters, selections of which are available in many editions of his poetry; his letters to Munson, Tate, Winters, and his patron, Otto Hermann Kahn, are particularly insightful. Hart Crane_sentence_56

His two most famous stylistic defenses emerged from correspondences: his Emersonian "General Aims and Theories" (1925) was written to urge Eugene O'Neill's critical foreword to White Buildings, then passed around among friends, yet unpublished during Crane's life; and the famous "Letter to Harriet Monroe" (1926) was part of an exchange for the publication of "At Melville's Tomb" in Poetry. Hart Crane_sentence_57

The literary critic Adam Kirsch has argued that "[Crane has been] a special case in the canon of American modernism, his reputation never quite as secure as that of Eliot or Stevens." Hart Crane_sentence_58

"Logic of Metaphor" Hart Crane_section_4

As with Eliot's "objective correlative", a certain vocabulary haunts Crane criticism, his "logic of metaphor" being perhaps the most vexed. Hart Crane_sentence_59

His most quoted formulation is in the circulated, if long unpublished, "General Aims and Theories": "As to technical considerations: the motivation of the poem must be derived from the implicit emotional dynamics of the materials used, and the terms of expression employed are often selected less for their logical (literal) significance than for their associational meanings. Hart Crane_sentence_60

Via this and their metaphorical inter-relationships, the entire construction of the poem is raised on the organic principle of a 'logic of metaphor,' which antedates our so-called pure logic, and which is the genetic basis of all speech, hence consciousness and thought-extension." Hart Crane_sentence_61

There is also some mention of it, though it is not so much presented as a critical neologism, in his letter to Harriet Monroe: "The logic of metaphor is so organically entrenched in pure sensibility that it can't be thoroughly traced or explained outside of historical sciences, like philology and anthropology." Hart Crane_sentence_62

L. S. Dembo's influential study of The Bridge, Hart Crane's Sanskrit Charge (1960), reads this 'logic' well within the familiar rhetoric of the Romantics: "The Logic of metaphor was simply the written form of the 'bright logic' of the imagination, the crucial sign stated, the Word made words.... As practiced, the logic of metaphor theory is reducible to a fairly simple linguistic principle: the symbolized meaning of an image takes precedence over its literal meaning; regardless of whether the vehicle of an image makes sense, the reader is expected to grasp its tenor. Hart Crane_sentence_63

Difficulty Hart Crane_section_5

The publication of White Buildings was delayed by Eugene O'Neill's struggle (and eventual failure) to articulate his appreciation in a foreword to it; and many critics since have used Crane's difficulty as an excuse for a quick dismissal. Hart Crane_sentence_64

Even a young Tennessee Williams, then falling in love with Crane's poetry, could "hardly understand a single line—of course the individual lines aren't supposed to be intelligible. Hart Crane_sentence_65

The message, if there actually is one, comes from the total effect.". Hart Crane_sentence_66

It was not lost on Crane, then, that his poetry was difficult. Hart Crane_sentence_67

Some of his best, and practically only, essays originated as encouraging epistles: explications and stylistic apologies to editors, updates to his patron, and the variously well-considered or impulsive letters to his friends. Hart Crane_sentence_68

It was, for instance, only his exchange with Harriet Monroe at Poetry, when she initially refused to print "At Melville's Tomb", that urged Crane to describe his "logic of metaphor" in print. Hart Crane_sentence_69

And describe it he did, then complaining: Hart Crane_sentence_70

Monroe was not impressed, though she acknowledged that others were, and printed the exchange alongside the poem: Hart Crane_sentence_71

In any case, Crane had a relatively well-developed rhetoric for the defense of his poems; here is an excerpt from "General Aims and Theories": Hart Crane_sentence_72

"Homosexual Text" Hart Crane_section_6

As a boy, he had a sexual relationship with a man. Hart Crane_sentence_73

He associated his sexuality with his vocation as a poet. Hart Crane_sentence_74

Raised in the Christian Science tradition of his mother, he never ceased to view himself as a social pariah. Hart Crane_sentence_75

However, as poems such as "Repose of Rivers" make clear, he felt that this sense of alienation was necessary in order for him to attain the visionary insight that formed the basis for his poetic work. Hart Crane_sentence_76

Recent queer criticism have suggested reading Crane's poems—"The Broken Tower," "My Grandmother's Love Letters," the "Voyages" series, and others—with an eye to homosexual meanings in the text. Hart Crane_sentence_77

Queer theorist Tim Dean argues, for instance, that the obscurity of Crane's style owes partially to the necessities of being a semi-public homosexual—not quite closeted, but also, as legally and culturally necessary, not open: "The intensity responsible for Crane's particular form of difficulty involves not only linguistic considerations but also culturally subjective concerns. Hart Crane_sentence_78

This intensity produces a kind of privacy that is comprehensible in terms of the cultural construction of homosexuality and its attendant institutions of privacy." Hart Crane_sentence_79

Thomas Yingling objects to the traditional, New Critical and Eliotic readings of Crane, arguing that the "American myth criticism and formalist readings" have "depolarized and normalized our reading of American poetry, making any homosexual readings seem perverse." Hart Crane_sentence_80

Even more than a personal or political problem, though, Yingling argues that such "biases" obscure much of what the poems make clear; he cites, for instance, the last lines of "My Grandmother's Love Letters" from White Buildings as a haunting description of estrangement from the norms of (heterosexual) family life: Hart Crane_sentence_81

Brian Reed has contributed to a project of critical reintegration of queer criticism with other critical methods, suggesting that an overemphasis on the sexual biography of Crane's poetry can skew a broader appreciation of his overall work. Hart Crane_sentence_82

In one example of Reed's approach, he published a close reading of Crane's lyric poem, "Voyages," (a love poem that Crane wrote for his lover Emil Opffer) on the Poetry Foundation website, analyzing the poem based strictly on the content of the text itself and not on outside political or cultural matters. Hart Crane_sentence_83

Influence Hart Crane_section_7

Crane was admired by artists such as Allen Tate, Eugene O'Neill, Kenneth Burke, Edmund Wilson, E. Hart Crane_sentence_84 E. Cummings and William Carlos Williams. Hart Crane_sentence_85

Although Hart had his sharp critics, among them Marianne Moore and Ezra Pound, Moore did publish his work, as did T. S. Eliot, who, moving even further out of Pound's sphere, may have borrowed some of Crane's imagery for Four Quartets, in the beginning of East Coker, which is reminiscent of the final section of The River, from The Bridge. Hart Crane_sentence_86

Important mid-century American poets, such as John Berryman and Robert Lowell, cited Crane as a significant influence. Hart Crane_sentence_87

Both poets also wrote about Crane in their poetry. Hart Crane_sentence_88

Berryman wrote him one of his famous elegies in The Dream Songs, and Lowell published his "Words for Hart Crane" in Life Studies (1959): "Who asks for me, the Shelley of my age, / must lay his heart out for my bed and board." Hart Crane_sentence_89

Lowell thought that Crane was the most important American poet of the generation to come of age in the 1920s, stating that "[Crane] got out more than anybody else ... he somehow got New York City; he was at the center of things in the way that no other poet was." Hart Crane_sentence_90

Lowell also described Crane as being "less limited than any other poet of his generation." Hart Crane_sentence_91

Perhaps most reverently, Tennessee Williams said that he wanted to be "given back to the sea" at the "point most nearly determined as the point at which Hart Crane gave himself back". Hart Crane_sentence_92

One of Williams's last plays, a "ghost play" titled "Steps Must Be Gentle", explores Crane's relationship with his mother. Hart Crane_sentence_93

In a 1991 interview with Antonio Weiss of The Paris Review, the literary critic Harold Bloom talked about how Crane, along with William Blake, initially sparked his interest in literature at a very young age: Hart Crane_sentence_94

More recently, the American poet Gerald Stern wrote an essay on Crane in which he stated, "Some, when they talk about Crane, emphasize his drinking, his chaotic life, his self-doubt, and the dangers of his sexual life, but he was able to manage these things, even though he died at 32, and create a poetry that was tender, attentive, wise, and radically original." Hart Crane_sentence_95

At the conclusion of his essay, Stern writes, "Crane is always with me, and whatever I wrote, short poem or long, strange or unstrange—his voice, his tone, his sense of form, his respect for life, his love of the word, his vision have affected me. Hart Crane_sentence_96

But I don't want, in any way, to exploit or appropriate this amazing poet whom I am, after all, so different from, he who may be, finally, the great poet, in English, of the twentieth century." Hart Crane_sentence_97

Such important affections have made Crane a "poet's poet". Hart Crane_sentence_98

Thomas Lux offered, for instance: "If the devil came to me and said 'Tom, you can be dead and Hart can be alive,' I'd take the deal in a heartbeat if the devil promised, when arisen, Hart would have to go straight into A.A." Hart Crane_sentence_99

Yvor Winters, noted for generally-stern criticism, praised some of Crane's poetry in In Defense of Reason, though he heavily criticized Crane's works and poetics. Hart Crane_sentence_100

Beyond poetry, Crane's suicide inspired several works of art by noted artist Jasper Johns, including "Periscope", "Land's End", and "Diver", as well as the "Symphony for Three Orchestras" by Elliott Carter (inspired by The Bridge) and the painting Eight Bells' Folly, Memorial for Hart Crane by Marsden Hartley. Hart Crane_sentence_101

Depictions Hart Crane_section_8

Crane is the subject of The Broken Tower, a 2011 American student film by the actor James Franco who wrote, directed, and starred in the film which was the Master thesis project for his MFA in filmmaking at New York University. Hart Crane_sentence_102

He loosely based his script on Paul Mariani's 1999 nonfiction book The Broken Tower: A Life of Hart Crane. Hart Crane_sentence_103

Despite being a student film, The Broken Tower was shown at the Los Angeles Film Festival in 2011 and received DVD distribution in 2012 by Focus World Films. Hart Crane_sentence_104

Crane appears as a character in Samuel R. Delany's novella "Atlantis: Model 1924", and in The Illuminatus! Hart Crane_sentence_105 Trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson. Hart Crane_sentence_106


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hart Crane.