Heydar Aliyev

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Heydar Aliyev_table_infobox_0

Heydar AliyevHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_0_0
3rd President of AzerbaijanHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_1_0
Prime MinisterHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_2_0 Surat Huseynov
Fuad Guliyev 
Artur Rasizade 
Ilham AliyevHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_2_1
Preceded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_3_0 Abulfaz ElchibeyHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_3_1
Succeeded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_4_0 Ilham AliyevHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_4_1
Speaker of the National AssemblyHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_5_0
PresidentHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_6_0 Abulfaz Elchibey

HimselfHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_6_1

Prime MinisterHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_7_0 Surat Huseynov

Fuad GuliyevHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_7_1

Preceded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_8_0 Isa GambarHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_8_1
Succeeded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_9_0 Rasul GuliyevHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_9_1
First Deputy Premier of the Soviet UnionHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_10_0
PresidentHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_11_0 Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)

Yuri Andropov Vasili Kuznetsov (acting) Konstantin Chernenko Vasili Kuznetsov (acting) Andrei GromykoHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_11_1

PremierHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_12_0 Nikolai Tikhonov

Nikolai RyzhkovHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_12_1

Preceded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_13_0 Ivan ArkhipovHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_13_1
Succeeded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_14_0 Andrei GromykoHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_14_1
Full member of the 26th, 27th PolitburoHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_15_0
First Secretary of the Communist Party of AzerbaijanHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_16_0
Preceded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_17_0 Veli AkhundovHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_17_1
Succeeded byHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_18_0 Kamran BaghirovHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_18_1
Candidate member of the 25th, 26th PolitburoHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_19_0
Personal detailsHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_20_0
BornHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_21_0 Heydar Alirza oğlu Aliyev

(1923-05-10)10 May 1923 Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan SSR, Transcaucasian SFSR, Soviet UnionHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_21_1

DiedHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_22_0 12 December 2003(2003-12-12) (aged 80)

Cleveland, Ohio, United StatesHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_22_1

NationalityHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_23_0 AzerbaijaniHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_23_1
Political partyHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_24_0 Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1945–1991)

New Azerbaijan Party (1992–2003)Heydar Aliyev_cell_0_24_1

Spouse(s)Heydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_25_0 Zarifa AliyevaHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_25_1
ChildrenHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_26_0 Sevil Aliyeva

Ilham AliyevHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_26_1

AwardsHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_27_0 Hero_of_Socialist_Labour Hero_of_Socialist_LabourHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_27_1
SignatureHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_28_0 Heydar Aliyev_cell_0_28_1
Military serviceHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_29_0
AllegianceHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_30_0 Soviet UnionHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_30_1
Branch/serviceHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_31_0 KGB of Azerbaijan SSRHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_31_1
Years of serviceHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_32_0 1941–1969Heydar Aliyev_cell_0_32_1
RankHeydar Aliyev_header_cell_0_33_0 Major GeneralHeydar Aliyev_cell_0_33_1

Heydar Alirza oğlu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev, [hejdær ælirzɑ oɣlu ælijef; Russian: Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев, romanized: Geydár Alíyevich Alíyev, [gʲɪjˈdar ɐˈlʲiʲɪvɪtɕ ɐˈlʲiʲɪf; 10 May 1923 – 12 December 2003) was an Azeri politician who served as the third President of Azerbaijan from October 1993 to October 2003. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_0

As the national president, he held constitutional powers, but his influence on Azerbaijani politics had begun years earlier. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_1

As a young man he had joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) and quickly rose to the rank of Major-General. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_2

The regime established by Heydar Aliyev in Azerbaijan has been described as dictatorial, authoritarian, and repressive. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_3

Political commentators highlight that Aliyev ran a heavy-handed police state, that he rigged elections and muzzled the press whereas others emphasize that his balanced policy brought stability to Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_4

Career in the Soviet era Heydar Aliyev_section_0

Early life Heydar Aliyev_section_1

According to his website, he was born in Nakhchivan City. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_5

After graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941 Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy), where he studied architecture. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_6

In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR Ministry of State Security Higher School in Leningrad. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_7

Aliyev's official biography also stated that he studied at Baku State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_8

According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad, graduating in 1944. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_9

He also attended senior staff professional development courses at the Dzerzhinsky Higher School of the KGB in Moscow in 1966. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_10

In 1948, he married Zarifa Aliyeva. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_11

On 12 October 1955, their daughter Sevil was born. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_12

On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_13

Zarifa Aliyeva died of cancer in 1985. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_14

Early career Heydar Aliyev_section_2

Heydar Aliyev served at the Archive Department of the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1941 to 1944, before his appointment to the head of General Department of the Council of People's Commissars of the Nakhchivan ASSR. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_15

H. Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_16

He proceeded to become the department head of State Security Committee of Azerbaijan SSR in 1950, after he graduated from Senior Staff Training School of the USSR State Security Committee. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_17

In 1954, as part of a government reform, NKGB became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_18

Aliyev rose quickly through the KGB ranks, becoming a deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani KGB in 1964, its chairman in 1967, and eventually reaching the rank of major general. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_19

Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev_section_3

Aliyev was elected First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Azerbaijan Communist Party at its Plenary Session held on 12 July 1969, amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_20

Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms; and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_21

In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_22

In 1977, he visited Iran. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_23

During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to considerably increased economic, social and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan SSR. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_24

Aliyev became perhaps the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and consistently promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_25

On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, responsible for transportation and social services. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_26

Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_27

Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_28

Despite that, CIA report states that, Heydar Aliyev became First Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and a full Politburo Member who publicly pledged to fight against corruption, free key state personnel and the economy of the Soviet Union from bribery. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_29

It is noted in the report that his colleagues understood his intention to deal harshly with corruption was serious and his commitment to the anti-corruption became his trademark within the Soviet Union. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_30

From KGB to leader of Azerbaijan SSR Heydar Aliyev_section_4

As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_31

Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_32

Aliyev became a candidate (non-voting) member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_33

He ran this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_34

Heydar Aliyev also served at the USSR Council of Ministers as the first deputy chairman in 1974-1979. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_35

His star waned following his appointment in 1985 under Mikhail Gorbachev. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_36

His political views became something of a liability to him in the era of perestroika, but he still exerted tremendous power in Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_37

Fall and re-invention Heydar Aliyev_section_5

After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in Moscow until 1990. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_38

He suffered a heart attack during this time. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_39

Aliyev opposed the January 1990 Soviet military crackdown in Baku, which had followed conflict regarding Nagorno-Karabakh since 1988 between Azerbaijan SSR and Armenia. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_40

Almost immediately after this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev left Moscow for his native Nakhchivan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_41

Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_42

He was elected to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR in Baku in October 1990. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_43

Under the pressure and criticism from the groups connected to his nemesis, the then-leader of Soviet Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov, Aliyev again returned to Nakhchivan, where he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in 1991. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_44

He resigned that same year from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_45

By December 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, despite Mutallibov's presidency Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_46

Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in the First Nagorno-Karabakh War with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_47

These events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front led by Abulfaz Elchibey. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_48

During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_49

The attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_50

During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_51

Heydar Aliyev was elected as the leader of New Azerbaijan Party at its constituent congress organized in Nakhchivan on November 21, 1992. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_52

In May–June 1993, when, as a result of a crisis in the government, the country was on the verge of a civil war and faced the peril of losing independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the then leaders of Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_53

On 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Surat Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_54

Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight he also assumed temporary presidential powers. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_55

In August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by the nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_56

In May 1994, Aliyev entered into a ceasefire agreement that still remains in force to this very day. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_57

However, the conflict remained unresolved, with Armenian control over Nagorno-Karabakh. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_58

Presidency Heydar Aliyev_section_6

On 3 October 1993, as a result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_59

On 11 October 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 77 per cent of the votes, he was re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_60

Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_61

Inaugurations Heydar Aliyev_section_7

On 10 October 1993, Heydar Aliyev took an oath as the third President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in a ceremony held in the Republic Palace. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_62

During the ceremony he stated: Heydar Aliyev_sentence_63

The inauguration of President Aliyev for the second term occurred on 18 October 1998 at the Republic Palace. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_64

His inauguration coincided with the celebration of the Independence Day on 18 October. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_65

After taking the oath, Heydar Aliyev delivered his speech and declared being loyal to his oath one more time: Heydar Aliyev_sentence_66

Domestic policy Heydar Aliyev_section_8

The Government under Aliyev's leadership carried out legal, political and economical measures between 1993 and 2003. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_67

Further, Commission for Legal Reforms was established, in 1998 capital punishment was abolished. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_68

The institute of the Human Rights Ombudsman was established, amnesty and pardon mechanisms were introduced. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_69

Simultaneously, the comprehensive economic reforms including the agrarian reform were carried out; the state property privatization was initiated; the industrial and agricultural crises were lifted. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_70

Constitutional reform Heydar Aliyev_section_9

Constitutional Commission was assembled by Heydar Aliyev in June 1995 in order to substitute 1978 Azerbaijan SSR Constitution. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_71

The first draft was ready in October for public debate and the final version composed of 5 chapters, 12 sections and 147 articles, was confirmed according to results of popular referendum held on November 12, 1995. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_72

As a result, separation of power was provided among 3 divisions: legislative (Milli Majlis), executive (President) and judicial (courts). Heydar Aliyev_sentence_73

President Heydar Aliyev suggested amendments to the Constitution of Azerbaijan in June 2002. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_74

First amendment to the Constitution of Azerbaijan was approved as the result of referendum took place in August 2002. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_75

Consequently, 39 amendments to 23 articles of the Constitution of Azerbaijan were made, proportional party list elections to Parliament was abolished; transferring presidential power to Prime Minister instead of Chairman of Milli Majlis in case of resignation of President was confirmed; simple majority was preferred in the procedure of calculating the results of presidential elections; citizens, courts and Ombudsman of Azerbaijan received right to appeal directly to the Constitutional Court of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_76

Abolition of Death Penalty Heydar Aliyev_section_10

Heydar Aliyev requested the elimination of the death penalty on 3 February 1998. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_77

On his speech addressed to Milli Majlis, Aliyev stated: "I am convinced that the abolition of the death penalty is a crucial step in the humanization of criminal justice policy, moreover it is an important stage in the reform of the legal system as a whole. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_78

Taking into consideration all the facts, I am submitting a draft law on amendments and additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedure and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan regarding the abolition of the capital punishment in the Republic of Azerbaijan in accordance with Article 96 of the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan for the discussion.” Milli Majlis approved the draft law, so on 10 February 1998 the “Law on Amendments and Additions to the Criminal, Criminal-Procedural and Corrective Labour Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan regarding the elimination of the death penalty in the Republic of Azerbaijan” was adopted. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_79

As a result, capital punishment was replaced with life imprisonment. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_80

Azerbaijan joined “Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty” on 22 January 1999. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_81

Establishment of Ombudsman Institution Heydar Aliyev_section_11

Heydar Aliyev issued a decree on “Measures for Ensuring Human and Civil Rights and Freedoms” on February 22, 1998. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_82

State Program on "Protection of Human Rights" was confirmed by the Presidential Order dated 18 June 1998. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_83

Ombudsman institution in Azerbaijan was established based on this State Program and commitments before CoE according to the Constitutional Law “On the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Azerbaijan” adopted on 28 December 2001 and Presidential Decree dated 5 March 2002 on implementation of this law. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_84

Elmira Süleymanova was appointed as the Commissioner for Human Rights (Ombudsman) among 3 nominees requested by later President Heydar Aliyev according to the Decision No. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_85

362 of the Milli Majlis on July 2, 2002. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_86

Agrarian and land reform Heydar Aliyev_section_12

Agrarian reforms implemented during the presidency of Heydar Aliyev can be divided into 2 phases: Heydar Aliyev_sentence_87

Heydar Aliyev_unordered_list_0

  • 1995-1997 - At the first stage the legislative base for agrarian sector was reestablished with adopting a number of legislative documents. Privatization of agriculture of Azerbaijan with dissolving the traditional collective and state farms was in the center of these laws, as the Law on “the Basis of Agrarian Reform” (18 February 1995); “Reform of state and collective farms” (18 February 1995);“Land Reform” (16 July 1996). On 10 January 1997 Heydar Aliyev issued a Decree on “Approval of some legal documents assuring implementation of agrarian reforms”. State Commission on Agrarian Reforms was formed by the Decree of Heydar Aliyev dated 2 March 1995.Heydar Aliyev_item_0_0
  • 1998-2001 - At the second phase the main attention was paid to post-privatization support and removing bureaucratic barriers to implement these reforms more effectively. Ministry of Agriculture was reorganized by presidential decree dated 6 June 1998 (On Ratification of the Statue on the Ministry of Agriculture), the law on “State land cadaster, land monitoring and structure” (22 December 1998), decree on “Land rent” (12 March 1999), law on “land market” (7 May 1999) was adopted, moreover The Land Code of Azerbaijani Republic was approved by the Law on “Approval of Land Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan” dated 25 June 1999.Heydar Aliyev_item_0_1

Foreign policy Heydar Aliyev_section_13

During the presidency of Heydar Aliyev, foreign policy of Azerbaijan was rebuilt and transformed into balanced policy. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_88

The bilateral relations between Azerbaijan and other countries, as well as cooperation with international organizations, started to deepen. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_89

Heydar Aliyev_unordered_list_1

  • Relations with United Nations. Azerbaijan began actively participating within the international organizations such as United Nations. Heydar Aliyev attended 49th session of UN General Assembly in 1994, in the special session of UN GA dedicated to 50th anniversary of United Nations in October 1995. He received former Secretary General of UN Boutros Boutros-Ghali in October 1994 in Baku. H.Aliyev met with Kofi Annan during his trip to USA in 1997 July. Heydar Aliyev addressed the Millennium Summit of UN held in September 2000 where he mentioned about Armenian invasion of Nagorno-Karabakh and adjacent regions, UN resolutions (822, 853, 874, 884) demanding unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed forces from the occupied Azerbaijani territories. After 11 September attacks, Azerbaijan joined anti-terror coalition of UN and cooperated with Office of Counter-Terrorism and Sanctions Committee of the UN SC. In October 2001, Azerbaijan joined International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism adopted by UN SC in 1999.Heydar Aliyev_item_1_2
  • Relations with NATO. Partnership for Peace (PfP) Framework Document was signed to enhance security and defense cooperation with NATO on May 4, 1994. Aliyev approved PfP Presentation Document on April 19, 1996. In November 1997, Azerbaijan joined the PfP Planning and Review Process. Azerbaijan became an associate member of due to the decision of NATO PA in November.Heydar Aliyev_item_1_3
  • Relations with EU. The Partnership and Cooperation Agreement came into force on June 22, 1999 which was signed in Luxembourg between the European Union and the Republic of Azerbaijan on cooperation in the field of trade, investment, economy, legislation, culture, immigration and the prevention of illicit trade on April 22, 1996. Azerbaijan received assistance from EU for the economic reforms in the country through TACIS and TRACECA programmes. “Restoration of the Historic Silk Road” international conference was organized in Baku on 8 September 1998 with the support of EU TACIS and TRACECA programmes based on the initiative of later presidents Heydar Aliyev and Eduard Shevardnadze.Heydar Aliyev_item_1_4

Heydar Aliyev_unordered_list_2

  • Relations with Council of Europe. Azerbaijan participated as a specially invited guest at the Council of Europe on 28 June 1996. Consequently, a number of resolutions and legal acts were adopted in 1996-2001 in order to improve legislative system of Azerbaijan to meet the requirements of European standards and international law. On 28 June 2000, Azerbaijan's admission to CoE as a full member was recommended at the session of PACE and Azerbaijan became the member a full member of CoE on 17 January with the official ceremony conducted on 25 January 2011. Presidential orders “On the implementation of the measures of the program of cooperation between the Council of Europe and the Republic of Azerbaijan” (July 8, 1996), "On the measures of Deepening Cooperation between the Council of Europe and the Republic of Azerbaijan" dated 20 January 1998, “On the measures of expanding cooperation between Azerbaijan and CoE for defending interests of the Republic of Azerbaijan in Council of Europe" dated 14 May 1999 were adopted by Heydar Aliyev.Heydar Aliyev_item_2_5
  • Relations with Russia. Heydar Aliyev gave importance to establish warmer relations with Russia than the previous leadership of Azerbaijan did. He stated in his speech at Milli Majlis on June 15, 1993 after being elected as the head of Parliament of Azerbaijan: "Russia, our northern neighbor, is absolutely a vast state. Undoubtedly, the relation based on independent principles between Azerbaijan and Russia must be better, broader and more fruitful". The Agreement on Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Security between Russia and Azerbaijan was signed on July 3, 1997. Heydar Aliyev paid his first official trip to Russia as a President of the Republic of Azerbaijan in July 1997 with the invitation of the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin. The relations with Russia developed further through Aliyev-Putin negotiations during their bilateral visits (Vladimir Putin visited Azerbaijan in 2001 and Heydar Aliyev paid a reciprocal visit to Russia in 2002). The Agreements on “The Status and Benefiting Principles of Gabala Radio Location Station”, “Long term economic cooperation agreement between Russian Federation and Azerbaijan Republic until the year 2010”, as well as “The common declaration of the President of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin and President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev” were signed in the latter meeting.Heydar Aliyev_item_2_6
  • Relations with US. Establishing closer relations and developing cooperation with USA was among the main directions of the foreign policy of the former President of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev. He stated in one of his speeches regarding this issue: “The relations of Azerbaijan with the United States are important as we need to learn the Western democracy, culture, achievements, to benefit from them, to use and apply them in Azerbaijan. In this regard, the United States is a special country for us". The relations between these two countries began to strengthen after oil contracts were signed between them as a result of Heydar Aliyev's oil strategy. Heydar Aliyev paid his first official visit to USA and met with President Bill Clinton on August 1, 1997. They signed Joint Statement on future relations between USA and Azerbaijan in defense and military issues. During this trip (27 July-5 August 1997), the statement on intentions of formation of bilateral dialogue between the US and Azerbaijan regarding the energy issues, the general agreement between the Government of the Azerbaijani Republic, the National Bank and the U.S. Export-Import Bank on the promotion of projects were signed. Additionally, 4 agreements on development and production sharing for the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian Sea were signed. Heydar Aliyev issued an order on “Measures to expand partnership relations between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the United States” on 2 September 1997 after the visit. Azerbaijan joined US-lead international coalition against terrorism after 11 September attacks, and sent a military contingent to Afghanistan. An amendment to the Freedom Support Act was adopted in 2002 (24 October) by the US Senate to allow the president of US to temporarily waive Section 907 which used to forbid to export any financial or humanitarian support to Azerbaijan.Heydar Aliyev_item_2_7

Oil strategy Heydar Aliyev_section_14

Heydar Aliyev used the oil potential of Azerbaijan to avoid the difficulties his country faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union by attracting foreign investment into Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_90

After a series of negotiations took place in Baku, Istanbul and Houston over a year,“Agreement on the Joint Development and Production Sharing for the Azeri and Chirag Fields and the Deep Water Portion of the Gunashli Field in the Azerbaijan Sector of the Caspian Sea” was signed in Baku on September 20, 1994, by the Government of Azerbaijan and the consortium of 11 oil companies from 6 countries (USA, UK, Russia, Norway, Turkey, Saudi Arabia) in the presence of Heydar Aliyev. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_91

State Oil Fund of Azerbaijan was established by the Presidential Decree of Heydar Aliyev in December 1999 to gather the income gained from oil profit with the aim of financing social and economic projects. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_92

As a result of oil strategy developed by Heydar Aliyev, Azerbaijani oil was planned to be carried through different routes as Baku-Supsa, BTC, etc. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_93

In order to export Azerbaijani oil to the European market, the presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey agreed on constructing Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline in 1998 in Ankara. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_94

The ground-breaking ceremony of BTC took place in September 2002 with the participation of Heydar Aliyev, Ahmet Necdet Sezer and Edward Shevardnadze. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_95

To export Azerbaijani crude oil to the Novorossiysk port of Russia was decided by the contract signed in Moscow on February 18, 1996, transportation of oil through this route was realized in October 1997. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_96

Establishment of the alternative Baku-Supsa route was agreed on March 8, 1996, by Heydar Aliyev and Edward Shevardnadze. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_97

This route started to operate in April 1999. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_98

Death and successor Heydar Aliyev_section_15

Main articles: Death and state funeral of Heydar Aliyev and Heydar Aliyev's cult of personality Heydar Aliyev_sentence_99

Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States at the Cleveland Clinic. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_100

He later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_101

He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_102

On 6 August Aliyev returned to the United States for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_103

He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003 and appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_104

On 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev died at the Cleveland Clinic. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_105

He was buried at the Alley of Honor cemetery in Baku. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_106

Heydar Aliyev's son Ilham Aliyev won the presidential election of 15 October 2003 but international observers again criticized the contest as falling well below expected standards. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_107

This transfer of power became the first case of top-level succession in the former Soviet Union. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_108

Honours Heydar Aliyev_section_16

See also: Statue of Heydar Aliyev, Mexico City Heydar Aliyev_sentence_109

Throughout his life, Heydar Aliyev was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honourable doctor of universities in many countries, including the Order of Lenin four times, the Order of the Red Star once and Hero of the Socialist Labor twice. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_110

On 27 March 1997 in Kyiv, Ukraine, Aliyev received Ukraine's highest award, the Yaroslav Mudry Order, and on 13 April 1999, Turkey's highest honour, the Peace Premium of Atatürk Order. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_111

On 3 April 2003, he was elected a professor and authorized member of the Academy of Safety of the Russian Federation, and was subsequently awarded the Premium of Y. V. Andropov. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_112

On 10 May 2003, he was decorated with the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First-Called—Russia's supreme award. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_113

A statue of Heydar Aliyev has been unveiled in a Tašmajdan Park in Belgrade whose renovation was aided by 2 million euros ($2.9 million) from the Azerbaijani government. Heydar Aliyev_sentence_114

Full list of honours and awards Heydar Aliyev_section_17

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See also Heydar Aliyev_section_18

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heydar Aliyev.