Hillary Clinton

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Hillary Clinton_table_infobox_0

Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_0_0
67th United States Secretary of StateHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_1_0
PresidentHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_2_0 Barack ObamaHillary Clinton_cell_0_2_1
DeputyHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_3_0 Hillary Clinton_cell_0_3_1
Preceded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_4_0 Condoleezza RiceHillary Clinton_cell_0_4_1
Succeeded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_5_0 John KerryHillary Clinton_cell_0_5_1
United States Senator

from New YorkHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_6_0

Preceded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_7_0 Daniel Patrick MoynihanHillary Clinton_cell_0_7_1
Succeeded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_8_0 Kirsten GillibrandHillary Clinton_cell_0_8_1
First Lady of the United StatesHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_9_0
PresidentHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_10_0 Bill ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_0_10_1
Preceded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_11_0 Barbara BushHillary Clinton_cell_0_11_1
Succeeded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_12_0 Laura BushHillary Clinton_cell_0_12_1
11th Chancellor of Queen's University BelfastHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_13_0
Preceded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_14_0 Thomas J. MoranHillary Clinton_cell_0_14_1
First Lady of ArkansasHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_15_0
GovernorHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_16_0 Bill ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_0_16_1
Preceded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_17_0 Gay Daniels WhiteHillary Clinton_cell_0_17_1
Succeeded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_18_0 Betty TuckerHillary Clinton_cell_0_18_1
GovernorHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_19_0 Bill ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_0_19_1
Preceded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_20_0 Barbara PryorHillary Clinton_cell_0_20_1
Succeeded byHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_21_0 Gay Daniels WhiteHillary Clinton_cell_0_21_1
Personal detailsHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_22_0
BornHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_23_0 Hillary Diane Rodham
(1947-10-26) October 26, 1947 (age 73)

Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Hillary Clinton_cell_0_23_1

Political partyHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_24_0 Democratic (1968–present)Hillary Clinton_cell_0_24_1
Other political

affiliationsHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_25_0

Republican (before 1968)Hillary Clinton_cell_0_25_1
Spouse(s)Hillary Clinton_header_cell_0_26_0 Bill Clinton ​(m. 1975)​Hillary Clinton_cell_0_26_1
ChildrenHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_27_0 Chelsea ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_0_27_1
ParentsHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_28_0 Hillary Clinton_cell_0_28_1
ResidenceHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_29_0 Chappaqua, New York, U.S.

Washington, D.C., U.S.Hillary Clinton_cell_0_29_1

EducationHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_30_0 Wellesley College (BA)

Yale University (JD)Hillary Clinton_cell_0_30_1

Net worthHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_31_0 US$45 million (October 2015)Hillary Clinton_cell_0_31_1
SignatureHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_32_0 Hillary Clinton_cell_0_32_1
WebsiteHillary Clinton_header_cell_0_33_0 Q6294#P856Hillary Clinton_cell_0_33_1

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (née Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Hillary Clinton_sentence_0

Clinton became the first woman to be nominated for president of the United States by a major political party when she won the Democratic Party nomination in 2016. Hillary Clinton_sentence_1

She was the first woman to win the popular vote in an American presidential election, which she lost to Donald Trump. Hillary Clinton_sentence_2

Raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. Hillary Clinton_sentence_3

After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future president Bill Clinton in 1975; the two had met at Yale. Hillary Clinton_sentence_4

In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families. Hillary Clinton_sentence_5

She was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978 and became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year. Hillary Clinton_sentence_6

The National Law Journal twice listed her as one of the hundred most influential lawyers in America. Hillary Clinton_sentence_7

Clinton was the first lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and again from 1983 to 1992. Hillary Clinton_sentence_8

As First Lady of the United States, Clinton advocated for healthcare reform. Hillary Clinton_sentence_9

In 1994, her major initiative—the Clinton health care plan—failed to gain approval from Congress. Hillary Clinton_sentence_10

In 1997 and 1999, Clinton played a leading role in advocating the creation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Adoption and Safe Families Act, and the Foster Care Independence Act. Hillary Clinton_sentence_11

Clinton advocated for gender equality at the 1995 UN conference on women. Hillary Clinton_sentence_12

Her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_13

In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female senator from New York. Hillary Clinton_sentence_14

She was re-elected in 2006 and chaired the Senate Democratic Steering and Outreach Committee from 2003 to 2007. Hillary Clinton_sentence_15

During her Senate tenure, Clinton advocated for medical benefits for first responders whose health was damaged in the September 11 attacks. Hillary Clinton_sentence_16

She supported the resolution authorizing the Iraq War in 2002 but opposed the surge of U.S. troops in 2007. Hillary Clinton_sentence_17

In 2008, Clinton ran for president but was defeated by eventual winner Barack Obama in the Democratic primaries. Hillary Clinton_sentence_18

Clinton was U.S. secretary of state in the first term of the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013. Hillary Clinton_sentence_19

During her tenure, Clinton established the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review. Hillary Clinton_sentence_20

She responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya but was harshly criticized by Republicans for the failure to prevent or adequately respond to the 2012 Benghazi attack. Hillary Clinton_sentence_21

Clinton helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and a regime of international sanctions against Iran in an effort to force it to curtail its nuclear program; this effort eventually led to the multinational JCPOA nuclear agreement in 2015. Hillary Clinton_sentence_22

Her use of a private email server when she was Secretary of State was the subject of intense scrutiny; while no charges were filed against Clinton, the email controversy was the single most covered topic during the 2016 presidential election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_23

Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016. Hillary Clinton_sentence_24

After winning the Democratic nomination, she ran in the general election with Virginia senator Tim Kaine as her running mate. Hillary Clinton_sentence_25

Clinton lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College despite winning a plurality of the popular vote. Hillary Clinton_sentence_26

Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, and launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups. Hillary Clinton_sentence_27

She is the current chancellor of Queen's University Belfast in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Hillary Clinton_sentence_28

Early life and education Hillary Clinton_section_0

Early life Hillary Clinton_section_1

Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 26, 1947, at Edgewater Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois. Hillary Clinton_sentence_29

She was raised in a United Methodist family who first lived in Chicago. Hillary Clinton_sentence_30

When she was three years old, her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge. Hillary Clinton_sentence_31

Her father, Hugh Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent, and managed a small but successful textile business, which he had founded. Hillary Clinton_sentence_32

Her mother, Dorothy Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, English, French Canadian (from Quebec), Scottish, and Welsh descent. Hillary Clinton_sentence_33

Clinton has two younger brothers, Hugh and Tony. Hillary Clinton_sentence_34

As a child, Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools she attended in Park Ridge. Hillary Clinton_sentence_35

She participated in swimming and softball and earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout. Hillary Clinton_sentence_36

She has often told the story of being inspired by U.S. efforts during the Space Race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut, only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program. Hillary Clinton_sentence_37

She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council and school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society. Hillary Clinton_sentence_38

She was elected class vice president for her junior year but then lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys, one of whom told her that "you are really stupid if you think a girl can be elected president". Hillary Clinton_sentence_39

For her senior year, she and other students were transferred to the then-new Maine South High School. Hillary Clinton_sentence_40

There she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted "most likely to succeed." Hillary Clinton_sentence_41

She graduated in 1965 in the top five percent of her class. Hillary Clinton_sentence_42

Rodham's mother wanted her to have an independent, professional career. Hillary Clinton_sentence_43

Her father, who was otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender. Hillary Clinton_sentence_44

She was raised in a politically conservative household, and she helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the very close 1960 U.S. presidential election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_45

She saw evidence of electoral fraud (such as voting list entries showing addresses that were empty lots) against Republican candidate Richard Nixon, and later volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the 1964 election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_46

Rodham's early political development was shaped mostly by her high school history teacher (like her father, a fervent anti-communist), who introduced her to Goldwater's The Conscience of a Conservative and by her Methodist youth minister (like her mother, concerned with issues of social justice), with whom she saw and afterwards briefly met, civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. at a 1962 speech in Chicago's Orchestra Hall. Hillary Clinton_sentence_47

Wellesley College years Hillary Clinton_section_2

In 1965, Rodham enrolled at Wellesley College, where she majored in political science. Hillary Clinton_sentence_48

During her first year, she was president of the Wellesley Young Republicans. Hillary Clinton_sentence_49

As the leader of this "Rockefeller Republican"-oriented group, she supported the elections of moderate Republicans John Lindsay to mayor of New York City and Massachusetts attorney general Edward Brooke to the United States Senate. Hillary Clinton_sentence_50

She later stepped down from this position. Hillary Clinton_sentence_51

In 2003 Clinton would write that her views concerning the civil rights movement and the Vietnam War were changing in her early college years. Hillary Clinton_sentence_52

In a letter to her youth minister at that time, she described herself as "a mind conservative and a heart liberal". Hillary Clinton_sentence_53

In contrast to the factions in the 1960s that advocated radical actions against the political system, she sought to work for change within it. Hillary Clinton_sentence_54

By her junior year, Rodham became a supporter of the antiwar presidential nomination campaign of Democrat Eugene McCarthy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_55

In early 1968 she was elected president of the Wellesley College Government Association, a position she held until early 1969. Hillary Clinton_sentence_56

Following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., Rodham organized a two-day student strike and worked with Wellesley's black students to recruit more black students and faculty. Hillary Clinton_sentence_57

In her student government role, she played a role in keeping Wellesley from being embroiled in the student disruptions common to other colleges. Hillary Clinton_sentence_58

A number of her fellow students thought she might some day become the first female president of the United States. Hillary Clinton_sentence_59

To help her better understand her changing political views, Professor Alan Schechter assigned Rodham to intern at the House Republican Conference, and she attended the "Wellesley in Washington" summer program. Hillary Clinton_sentence_60

Rodham was invited by moderate New York Republican representative Charles Goodell to help Governor Nelson Rockefeller's late-entry campaign for the Republican nomination. Hillary Clinton_sentence_61

Rodham attended the 1968 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. Hillary Clinton_sentence_62

However, she was upset by the way Richard Nixon's campaign portrayed Rockefeller and by what she perceived as the convention's "veiled" racist messages, and she left the Republican Party for good. Hillary Clinton_sentence_63

Rodham wrote her senior thesis, a critique of the tactics of radical community organizer Saul Alinsky, under Professor Schechter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_64

(Years later, while she was the first lady, access to her thesis was restricted at the request of the White House and it became the subject of some speculation. Hillary Clinton_sentence_65

The thesis was later released.) Hillary Clinton_sentence_66

In 1969, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts, with departmental honors in political science. Hillary Clinton_sentence_67

After some fellow seniors requested that the college administration allow a student speaker at commencement, she became the first student in Wellesley College history to speak at the event. Hillary Clinton_sentence_68

Her address followed that of the commencement speaker, Senator Edward Brooke. Hillary Clinton_sentence_69

After her speech, she received a standing ovation that lasted seven minutes. Hillary Clinton_sentence_70

She was featured in an article published in Life magazine, because of the response to a part of her speech that criticized Senator Brooke. Hillary Clinton_sentence_71

She also appeared on Irv Kupcinet's nationally syndicated television talk show as well as in Illinois and New England newspapers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_72

She was asked to speak at the 50th anniversary convention of the League of Women Voters in Washington, D.C., the next year. Hillary Clinton_sentence_73

That summer, she worked her way across Alaska, washing dishes in Mount McKinley National Park and sliming salmon in a fish processing cannery in Valdez (which fired her and shut down overnight when she complained about unhealthy conditions). Hillary Clinton_sentence_74

Yale Law School and postgraduate studies Hillary Clinton_section_3

Rodham then entered Yale Law School, where she was on the editorial board of the Yale Review of Law and Social Action. Hillary Clinton_sentence_75

During her second year, she worked at the Yale Child Study Center, learning about new research on early childhood brain development and working as a research assistant on the seminal work, Beyond the Best Interests of the Child (1973). Hillary Clinton_sentence_76

She also took on cases of child abuse at Yale–New Haven Hospital, and volunteered at New Haven Legal Services to provide free legal advice for the poor. Hillary Clinton_sentence_77

In the summer of 1970, she was awarded a grant to work at Marian Wright Edelman's Washington Research Project, where she was assigned to Senator Walter Mondale's Subcommittee on Migratory Labor. Hillary Clinton_sentence_78

There she researched various migrant workers' issues including education, health and housing. Hillary Clinton_sentence_79

Edelman later became a significant mentor. Hillary Clinton_sentence_80

Rodham was recruited by political advisor Anne Wexler to work on the 1970 campaign of Connecticut U.S. Senate candidate Joseph Duffey. Hillary Clinton_sentence_81

Rodham later crediting Wexler with providing her first job in politics. Hillary Clinton_sentence_82

In the spring of 1971, she began dating fellow law student Bill Clinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_83

During the summer, she interned at the Oakland, California, law firm of Treuhaft, Walker and Burnstein. Hillary Clinton_sentence_84

The firm was well known for its support of constitutional rights, civil liberties and radical causes (two of its four partners were current or former Communist Party members); Rodham worked on child custody and other cases. Hillary Clinton_sentence_85

Clinton canceled his original summer plans and moved to live with her in California; the couple continued living together in New Haven when they returned to law school. Hillary Clinton_sentence_86

The following summer, Rodham and Clinton campaigned in Texas for unsuccessful 1972 Democratic presidential candidate George McGovern. Hillary Clinton_sentence_87

She received a Juris Doctor degree from Yale in 1973, having stayed on an extra year to be with Clinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_88

He first proposed marriage to her following graduation, but she declined, uncertain if she wanted to tie her future to his. Hillary Clinton_sentence_89

Rodham began a year of postgraduate study on children and medicine at the Yale Child Study Center. Hillary Clinton_sentence_90

In late 1973 her first scholarly article, "Children Under the Law", was published in the Harvard Educational Review. Hillary Clinton_sentence_91

Discussing the new children's rights movement, the article stated that "child citizens" were "powerless individuals" and argued that children should not be considered equally incompetent from birth to attaining legal age, but instead that courts should presume competence on a case-by-case basis, except when there is evidence otherwise. Hillary Clinton_sentence_92

The article became frequently cited in the field. Hillary Clinton_sentence_93

Marriage, family, law career and first ladyship of Arkansas Hillary Clinton_section_4

From the East Coast to Arkansas Hillary Clinton_section_5

During her postgraduate studies, Rodham was staff attorney for Edelman's newly founded Children's Defense Fund in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and as a consultant to the Carnegie Council on Children. Hillary Clinton_sentence_94

In 1974, she was a member of the impeachment inquiry staff in Washington, D.C., and advised the House Committee on the Judiciary during the Watergate scandal. Hillary Clinton_sentence_95

Under the guidance of Chief Counsel John Doar and senior member Bernard W. Nussbaum, Rodham helped research procedures of impeachment and the historical grounds and standards for it. Hillary Clinton_sentence_96

The committee's work culminated with the resignation of President Richard Nixon in August 1974. Hillary Clinton_sentence_97

By then, Rodham was viewed as someone with a bright political future. Hillary Clinton_sentence_98

Democratic political organizer and consultant Betsey Wright moved from Texas to Washington the previous year to help guide Rodham's career. Hillary Clinton_sentence_99

Wright thought Rodham had the potential to become a future senator or president. Hillary Clinton_sentence_100

Meanwhile, boyfriend Bill Clinton had repeatedly asked Rodham to marry him, but she continued to demur. Hillary Clinton_sentence_101

After failing the District of Columbia bar exam and passing the Arkansas exam, Rodham came to a key decision. Hillary Clinton_sentence_102

As she later wrote, "I chose to follow my heart instead of my head". Hillary Clinton_sentence_103

She thus followed Clinton to Arkansas, rather than staying in Washington, where career prospects were brighter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_104

He was then teaching law and running for a seat in the U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_105 House of Representatives in his home state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_106

In August 1974, Rodham moved to Fayetteville, Arkansas, and became one of only two female faculty members in the School of Law at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. Hillary Clinton_sentence_107

Early Arkansas years Hillary Clinton_section_6

At the university, Rodham taught classes in criminal law. Hillary Clinton_sentence_108

She was considered a rigorous teacher who was tough with her grades. Hillary Clinton_sentence_109

Rodham became the first director of a new legal aid clinic at the school, where she secured support from the local bar association and gained federal funding. Hillary Clinton_sentence_110

As a court-appointed lawyer, Rodham was required to act as defense counsel to a man accused of raping a 12-year-old girl; after her request to be relieved of the assignment failed, Rodham used an effective defense and counseled her client to plead guilty to a lesser charge. Hillary Clinton_sentence_111

She has called the trial a "terrible case". Hillary Clinton_sentence_112

During her time in Fayetteville, Rodham and several other women founded the city's first rape crisis center. Hillary Clinton_sentence_113

Rodham still harbored doubts about getting married; she was concerned that her separate identity would be lost, and that her accomplishments would be viewed in light of someone else. Hillary Clinton_sentence_114

In 1974, Bill Clinton lost an Arkansas congressional race, facing incumbent Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt. Hillary Clinton_sentence_115

Rodham and Bill Clinton bought a house in Fayetteville in the summer of 1975 and she agreed to marry him. Hillary Clinton_sentence_116

The wedding took place on October 11, 1975, in a Methodist ceremony in their living room. Hillary Clinton_sentence_117

A story about the marriage in the Arkansas Gazette indicated that she decided to retain the name Hillary Rodham. Hillary Clinton_sentence_118

Her motivation was threefold. Hillary Clinton_sentence_119

She wanted to keep the couple's professional lives separate, avoid apparent conflicts of interest, and as she told a friend at the time, "it showed that I was still me". Hillary Clinton_sentence_120

The decision upset both mothers, who were more traditional. Hillary Clinton_sentence_121

In 1976, Rodham temporarily relocated to Indianapolis to work as an Indiana state campaign organizer for the presidential campaign of Jimmy Carter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_122

In November 1976, Bill Clinton was elected Arkansas attorney general, and the couple moved to the state capital of Little Rock. Hillary Clinton_sentence_123

In February 1977, Rodham joined the venerable Rose Law Firm, a bastion of Arkansan political and economic influence. Hillary Clinton_sentence_124

She specialized in patent infringement and intellectual property law while working pro bono in child advocacy; she rarely performed litigation work in court. Hillary Clinton_sentence_125

Rodham maintained her interest in children's law and family policy, publishing the scholarly articles "Children's Policies: Abandonment and Neglect" in 1977 and "Children's Rights: A Legal Perspective" in 1979. Hillary Clinton_sentence_126

The latter continued her argument that children's legal competence depended upon their age and other circumstances and that in serious medical rights cases, judicial intervention was sometimes warranted. Hillary Clinton_sentence_127

An American Bar Association chair later said, "Her articles were important, not because they were radically new but because they helped formulate something that had been inchoate." Hillary Clinton_sentence_128

Historian Garry Wills would later describe her as "one of the more important scholar-activists of the last two decades". Hillary Clinton_sentence_129

Conservatives said her theories would usurp traditional parental authority, would allow children to file frivolous lawsuits against their parents, and exemplified critical legal studies run amok. Hillary Clinton_sentence_130

In 1977, Rodham cofounded Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, a state-level alliance with the Children's Defense Fund. Hillary Clinton_sentence_131

Later that year, President Jimmy Carter (for whom Rodham had been the 1976 campaign director of field operations in Indiana) appointed her to the board of directors of the Legal Services Corporation. Hillary Clinton_sentence_132

She held that position from 1978 until the end of 1981. Hillary Clinton_sentence_133

From mid-1978 to mid-1980, she was the chair of that board, the first woman to hold the job. Hillary Clinton_sentence_134

During her time as chair, funding for the corporation was expanded from $90 million to $300 million; subsequently, she successfully fought President Ronald Reagan's attempts to reduce the funding and change the nature of the organization. Hillary Clinton_sentence_135

Following her husband's November 1978 election as governor of Arkansas, Rodham became that state's first lady in January 1979. Hillary Clinton_sentence_136

She would hold that title for twelve nonconsecutive years (1979–81, 1983–92). Hillary Clinton_sentence_137

Clinton appointed his wife to be the chair of the Rural Health Advisory Committee the same year, where she secured federal funds to expand medical facilities in Arkansas's poorest areas without affecting doctors' fees. Hillary Clinton_sentence_138

In 1979, Rodham became the first woman to be made a full partner in Rose Law Firm. Hillary Clinton_sentence_139

From 1978 until they entered the White House, she had a higher salary than her husband. Hillary Clinton_sentence_140

During 1978 and 1979, while looking to supplement their income, Rodham engaged in the trading of cattle futures contracts; an initial $1,000 investment generated nearly $100,000 when she stopped trading after ten months. Hillary Clinton_sentence_141

At this time, the couple began their ill-fated investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation real estate venture with Jim and Susan McDougal. Hillary Clinton_sentence_142

Both of these became subjects of controversy in the 1990s. Hillary Clinton_sentence_143

On February 27, 1980, Rodham gave birth to the couple's only child, a daughter whom they named Chelsea. Hillary Clinton_sentence_144

In November 1980, Bill Clinton was defeated in his bid for re-election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_145

Later Arkansas years Hillary Clinton_section_7

Two years after leaving office, Bill Clinton returned to his job as governor of Arkansas after winning the election of 1982. Hillary Clinton_sentence_146

During her husband's campaign, Hillary began to use the name "Hillary Clinton", or sometimes "Mrs. Bill Clinton", to assuage the concerns of Arkansas voters; she also took a leave of absence from Rose Law to campaign for him full-time. Hillary Clinton_sentence_147

During her second stint as the first lady of Arkansas, she made a point of using Hillary Rodham Clinton as her name. Hillary Clinton_sentence_148

She was named chair of the Arkansas Education Standards Committee in 1983, where she sought to reform the state's court-sanctioned public education system. Hillary Clinton_sentence_149

In one of the Clinton governorship's most important initiatives, she fought a prolonged but ultimately successful battle against the Arkansas Education Association to establish mandatory teacher testing and state standards for curriculum and classroom size. Hillary Clinton_sentence_150

It became her introduction into the politics of a highly visible public policy effort. Hillary Clinton_sentence_151

In 1985, she introduced Arkansas's Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youth, a program that helps parents work with their children in preschool preparedness and literacy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_152

She was named Arkansas Woman of the Year in 1983 and Arkansas Mother of the Year in 1984. Hillary Clinton_sentence_153

Clinton continued to practice law with the Rose Law Firm while she was the first lady of Arkansas. Hillary Clinton_sentence_154

She earned less than the other partners, as she billed fewer hours but still made more than $200,000 in her final year there. Hillary Clinton_sentence_155

The firm considered her a "rainmaker" because she brought in clients, partly thanks to the prestige she lent it and to her corporate board connections. Hillary Clinton_sentence_156

She was also very influential in the appointment of state judges. Hillary Clinton_sentence_157

Bill Clinton's Republican opponent in his 1986 gubernatorial re-election campaign accused the Clintons of conflict of interest because Rose Law did state business; the Clintons countered the charge by saying that state fees were walled off by the firm before her profits were calculated. Hillary Clinton_sentence_158

From 1982 to 1988, Clinton was on the board of directors, sometimes as chair, of the New World Foundation, which funded a variety of New Left interest groups. Hillary Clinton_sentence_159

From 1987 to 1991, she was the first chair of the American Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession, created to address gender bias in the legal profession and induce the association to adopt measures to combat it. Hillary Clinton_sentence_160

She was twice named by The National Law Journal as one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America—in 1988 and 1991. Hillary Clinton_sentence_161

When Bill Clinton thought about not running again for governor in 1990, Hillary Clinton considered running. Hillary Clinton_sentence_162

Private polls were unfavorable, however, and in the end he ran and was re-elected for the final time. Hillary Clinton_sentence_163

Clinton was chairman of the board of the Children's Defense Fund and on the board of the Arkansas Children's Hospital's Legal Services (1988–92) In addition to her positions with nonprofit organizations, she also held positions on the corporate board of directors of TCBY (1985–92), Wal-Mart Stores (1986–92) and Lafarge (1990–92). Hillary Clinton_sentence_164

TCBY and Wal-Mart were Arkansas-based companies that were also clients of Rose Law. Hillary Clinton_sentence_165

Clinton was the first female member on Wal-Mart's board, added following pressure on chairman Sam Walton to name a woman to it. Hillary Clinton_sentence_166

Once there, she pushed successfully for Wal-Mart to adopt more environmentally friendly practices. Hillary Clinton_sentence_167

She was largely unsuccessful in her campaign for more women to be added to the company's management and was silent about the company's famously anti-labor union practices. Hillary Clinton_sentence_168

According to Dan Kaufman, awareness of this later became a factor in her loss of credibility with organized labor, helping contribute to her loss in the 2016 election, where slightly less than half of union members voted for Donald Trump. Hillary Clinton_sentence_169

Bill Clinton presidential campaign of 1992 Hillary Clinton_section_8

Clinton received sustained national attention for the first time when her husband became a candidate for the 1992 Democratic presidential nomination. Hillary Clinton_sentence_170

Before the New Hampshire primary, tabloid publications printed allegations that Bill Clinton had engaged in an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_171

In response, the Clintons appeared together on 60 Minutes, where Bill denied the affair, but acknowledged "causing pain in my marriage". Hillary Clinton_sentence_172

This joint appearance was credited with rescuing his campaign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_173

During the campaign, Hillary made culturally disparaging remarks about Tammy Wynette's outlook on marriage as described in her classic song "Stand by Your Man". Hillary Clinton_sentence_174

Later in the campaign, she commented she could have chosen to be like women staying home and baking cookies and having teas, but wanted to pursue her career instead. Hillary Clinton_sentence_175

The remarks were widely criticized, particularly by those who were, or defended, stay-at-home mothers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_176

In retrospect, she admitted they were ill-considered. Hillary Clinton_sentence_177

Bill said that in electing him, the nation would "get two for the price of one", referring to the prominent role his wife would assume. Hillary Clinton_sentence_178

Beginning with Daniel Wattenberg's August 1992 The American Spectator article "The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock", Hillary's own past ideological and ethical record came under attack from conservatives. Hillary Clinton_sentence_179

At least twenty other articles in major publications also drew comparisons between her and Lady Macbeth. Hillary Clinton_sentence_180

First Lady of the United States (1993–2001) Hillary Clinton_section_9

When Bill Clinton took office as president in January 1993, Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first lady. Hillary Clinton_sentence_181

Her press secretary reiterated she would be using that form of her name. Hillary Clinton_sentence_182

She was the first in this role to have a postgraduate degree and her own professional career up to the time of entering the White House. Hillary Clinton_sentence_183

She was also the first to have an office in the West Wing of the White House in addition to the usual first lady offices in the East Wing. Hillary Clinton_sentence_184

She was part of the innermost circle vetting appointments to the new administration. Hillary Clinton_sentence_185

Her choices filled at least eleven top-level positions and dozens more lower-level ones. Hillary Clinton_sentence_186

After Eleanor Roosevelt, Clinton was regarded as the most openly empowered presidential wife in American history. Hillary Clinton_sentence_187

Some critics called it inappropriate for the first lady to play a central role in public policy matters. Hillary Clinton_sentence_188

Supporters pointed out that Clinton's role in policy was no different from that of other White House advisors, and that voters had been well aware she would play an active role in her husband's presidency. Hillary Clinton_sentence_189

Bill Clinton's campaign promise of "two for the price of one" led opponents to refer derisively to the Clintons as "co-presidents" or sometimes use the Arkansas label "Billary". Hillary Clinton_sentence_190

The pressures of conflicting ideas about the role of a first lady were enough to send Hillary Clinton into "imaginary discussions" with the also-politically active Eleanor Roosevelt. Hillary Clinton_sentence_191

From the time she came to Washington, Hillary also found refuge in a prayer group of the Fellowship that featured many wives of conservative Washington figures. Hillary Clinton_sentence_192

Triggered in part by the death of her father in April 1993, she publicly sought to find a synthesis of Methodist teachings, liberal religious political philosophy and Tikkun editor Michael Lerner's "politics of meaning" to overcome what she saw as America's "sleeping sickness of the soul"; that would lead to a willingness "to remold society by redefining what it means to be a human being in the twentieth century, moving into a new millennium". Hillary Clinton_sentence_193

Health care and other policy initiatives Hillary Clinton_section_10

See also: Clinton health care plan of 1993 Hillary Clinton_sentence_194

In January 1993, President Clinton named Hillary to chair a task force on National Health Care Reform, hoping to replicate the success she had in leading the effort for Arkansas education reform. Hillary Clinton_sentence_195

Unconvinced regarding the merits of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), she privately urged that passage of health care reform be given higher priority. Hillary Clinton_sentence_196

The recommendation of the task force became known as the Clinton health care plan. Hillary Clinton_sentence_197

This was a comprehensive proposal that would require employers to provide health coverage to their employees through individual health maintenance organizations. Hillary Clinton_sentence_198

Its opponents quickly derided the plan as "Hillarycare" and it even faced opposition from some Democrats in Congress. Hillary Clinton_sentence_199

Some protesters against the proposed plan became vitriolic and during a July 1994 bus tour to rally support for the plan, Clinton wore a bulletproof vest at times. Hillary Clinton_sentence_200

Failing to gather enough support for a floor vote in either the House or the Senate (although Democrats controlled both chambers), the proposal was abandoned in September 1994. Hillary Clinton_sentence_201

Clinton later acknowledged in her memoir that her political inexperience partly contributed to the defeat but cited many other factors. Hillary Clinton_sentence_202

The first lady's approval ratings, which had generally been in the high-50 percent range during her first year, fell to 44 percent in April 1994 and 35 percent by September 1994. Hillary Clinton_sentence_203

Republicans made the Clinton health care plan a major campaign issue of the 1994 midterm elections. Hillary Clinton_sentence_204

They saw a net gain of 54 seats in the House election and eight in the Senate election, winning control of both; many analysts and pollsters found the plan to be a major factor in the Democrats' defeat, especially among independent voters. Hillary Clinton_sentence_205

The White House subsequently sought to downplay Clinton's role in shaping policy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_206

Opponents of universal health care would continue to use "Hillarycare" as a pejorative label for similar plans by others. Hillary Clinton_sentence_207

Along with senators Ted Kennedy and Orrin Hatch, Clinton was a force behind the passage of the State Children's Health Insurance Program in 1997. Hillary Clinton_sentence_208

This federal bill gave state support to children whose parents could not provide them health coverage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_209

She conducted outreach efforts on behalf of enrolling children in the program once it became law. Hillary Clinton_sentence_210

She promoted nationwide immunization against childhood diseases and encouraged older women to get a mammogram for breast cancer screening, with coverage provided by Medicare. Hillary Clinton_sentence_211

She successfully sought to increase research funding for prostate cancer and childhood asthma at the National Institutes of Health. Hillary Clinton_sentence_212

She worked to investigate reports of an illness that affected veterans of the Gulf War, which became known as the Gulf War syndrome. Hillary Clinton_sentence_213

Enactment of welfare reform was a major goal of Bill Clinton's presidency. Hillary Clinton_sentence_214

When the first two bills on the issue came from a Republican-controlled Congress lacking protections for people coming off welfare, however, Hillary urged him to veto the bills, which he did. Hillary Clinton_sentence_215

A third version came up during his 1996 general election campaign that restored some of the protections but cut the scope of benefits in other areas; critics, including her past mentor Edelman, urged her to get the president to veto it again. Hillary Clinton_sentence_216

But she decided to support the bill, which became the Welfare Reform Act of 1996, as the best political compromise available. Hillary Clinton_sentence_217

This caused a rift with Edelman that Hillary later called "sad and painful". Hillary Clinton_sentence_218

Together with Attorney General Janet Reno, Clinton helped create the Office on Violence Against Women at the Department of Justice. Hillary Clinton_sentence_219

In 1997, she initiated and shepherded the Adoption and Safe Families Act, which she regarded as her greatest accomplishment as the first lady. Hillary Clinton_sentence_220

In 1999, she was instrumental in the passage of the Foster Care Independence Act, which doubled federal monies for teenagers aging out of foster care. Hillary Clinton_sentence_221

As First Lady of the United States, Clinton was the host for various White House conferences. Hillary Clinton_sentence_222

These included one on Child Care (1997), on Early Childhood Development and Learning (1997), and on Children and Adolescents (2000). Hillary Clinton_sentence_223

She also hosted the first-ever White House Conference on Teenagers (2000), and the first-ever White House Conference on Philanthropy (1999). Hillary Clinton_sentence_224

Clinton traveled to 79 countries during this time, breaking the record for most-traveled first lady previously held by Pat Nixon. Hillary Clinton_sentence_225

She did not hold a security clearance or attend National Security Council meetings, but played a role in U.S. diplomacy attaining its objectives. Hillary Clinton_sentence_226

A March 1995 five-nation trip to South Asia, on behest of the U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_227 State Department, without her husband, sought to improve relations with India and Pakistan. Hillary Clinton_sentence_228

Clinton was troubled by the plight of women she encountered, but found a warm response from the people of the countries she visited, and gained a better relationship with the American press corps. Hillary Clinton_sentence_229

The trip was a transformative experience for her and presaged her eventual career in diplomacy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_230

In a September 1995 speech before the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, Clinton argued forcefully against practices that abused women around the world and in the People's Republic of China itself. Hillary Clinton_sentence_231

She declared, "it is no longer acceptable to discuss women's rights as separate from human rights". Hillary Clinton_sentence_232

Delegates from over 180 countries heard her say: "If there is one message that echoes forth from this conference, let it be that human rights are women's rights and women's rights are human rights, once and for all." Hillary Clinton_sentence_233

In doing so, she resisted both internal administration and Chinese pressure to soften her remarks. Hillary Clinton_sentence_234

The speech became a key moment in the empowerment of women and years later women around the world would recite Clinton's key phrases. Hillary Clinton_sentence_235

During the late 1990s, she was one of the most prominent international figures to speak out against the treatment of Afghan women by the Taliban. Hillary Clinton_sentence_236

She helped create Vital Voices, an international initiative sponsored by the U.S. to encourage the participation of women in the political processes of their countries. Hillary Clinton_sentence_237

It and Clinton's own visits encouraged women to make themselves heard in the Northern Ireland peace process. Hillary Clinton_sentence_238

In 1997, Clinton returned to Northern Ireland to deliver the inaugural Joyce McCartan lecture at the University of Ulster in honour of the community campaigner she had meet during her visit in Belfast in 1995. Hillary Clinton_sentence_239

Whitewater and other investigations Hillary Clinton_section_11

Further information on these investigations: Whitewater controversy, Travelgate, , and Hillary Clinton cattle futures controversy Hillary Clinton_sentence_240

Clinton was a subject of several investigations by the United States Office of the Independent Counsel, committees of the U.S. Congress and the press. Hillary Clinton_sentence_241

The Whitewater controversy was the focus of media attention from its publication in a New York Times report during the 1992 presidential campaign and throughout her time as the first lady. Hillary Clinton_sentence_242

The Clintons had lost their late-1970s investment in the Whitewater Development Corporation; at the same time, their partners in that investment, Jim and Susan McDougal, operated Madison Guaranty, a savings and loan institution that retained the legal services of Rose Law Firm and may have been improperly subsidizing Whitewater losses. Hillary Clinton_sentence_243

Madison Guaranty later failed, and Clinton's work at Rose was scrutinized for a possible conflict of interest in representing the bank before state regulators her husband had appointed. Hillary Clinton_sentence_244

She said she had done minimal work for the bank. Hillary Clinton_sentence_245

Independent counsels Robert Fiske and Kenneth Starr subpoenaed Clinton's legal billing records; she said she did not know where they were. Hillary Clinton_sentence_246

After a two-year search, the records were found in the first lady's White House book room and delivered to investigators in early 1996. Hillary Clinton_sentence_247

The delayed appearance of the records sparked intense interest and another investigation concerning how they surfaced and where they had been. Hillary Clinton_sentence_248

Clinton's staff attributed the problem to continual changes in White House storage areas since the move from the Arkansas Governor's Mansion. Hillary Clinton_sentence_249

On January 26, 1996, Clinton became the first spouse of a U.S. president to be subpoenaed to testify before a federal grand jury. Hillary Clinton_sentence_250

After several Independent Counsels had investigated, a final report was issued in 2000 that stated there was insufficient evidence that either Clinton had engaged in criminal wrongdoing. Hillary Clinton_sentence_251

Scrutiny of the May 1993 firings of the White House Travel Office employees, an action that became known as "Travelgate", began with charges that the White House had used audited financial irregularities in the Travel Office operation as an excuse to replace the staff with friends from Arkansas. Hillary Clinton_sentence_252

The 1996 discovery of a two-year-old White House memo led to the investigation being focused on whether Clinton had orchestrated the firings and whether the statements she made to investigators about her role in the firings were true. Hillary Clinton_sentence_253

The 2000 final Independent Counsel report concluded she was involved in the firings and that she had made "factually false" statements, but that there was insufficient evidence that she knew the statements were false or knew that her actions would lead to firings, to prosecute her. Hillary Clinton_sentence_254

In March 1994, newspaper reports revealed that Clinton had earned spectacular profits from cattle futures trading in 1978–79. Hillary Clinton_sentence_255

The press made allegations that Clinton had engaged in a conflict of interest and disguised a bribery. Hillary Clinton_sentence_256

Several individuals analyzed her trading records, but no formal investigation was made and she was never charged with any wrongdoing. Hillary Clinton_sentence_257

An outgrowth of the "Travelgate" investigation was the June 1996 discovery of improper White House access to hundreds of FBI background reports on former Republican White House employees, an affair that some called "". Hillary Clinton_sentence_258

Accusations were made that Clinton had requested these files and she had recommended hiring an unqualified individual to head the White House Security Office. Hillary Clinton_sentence_259

The 2000 final Independent Counsel report found no substantial or credible evidence that Clinton had any role or showed any misconduct in the matter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_260

In early 2001, a controversy arose over gifts that were sent to the White House; there was a question whether the furnishings were White House property or the Clintons' personal property. Hillary Clinton_sentence_261

During the last year of Bill Clinton's time in office, those gifts were shipped to the Clintons' private residence. Hillary Clinton_sentence_262

It Takes a Village release and tour Hillary Clinton_section_12

See also: It Takes a Village Hillary Clinton_sentence_263

In 1996, Clinton presented a vision for American children in the book It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us. Hillary Clinton_sentence_264

In January 1996, she went on a ten-city book tour and made numerous television appearances to promote the book, although she was frequently hit with questions about her involvement in the Whitewater and Travelgate controversies. Hillary Clinton_sentence_265

The book spent 18 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller List that year, including three weeks at number one. Hillary Clinton_sentence_266

By 2000, it had sold 450,000 copies in hardcover and another 200,000 in paperback. Hillary Clinton_sentence_267

Clinton received the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album in 1997 for the book's audio recording. Hillary Clinton_sentence_268

Response to Lewinsky scandal Hillary Clinton_section_13

Further information: Clinton–Lewinsky scandal Hillary Clinton_sentence_269

In 1998, the Clintons' private concerns became the subject of much speculation when investigations revealed the president had engaged in an extramarital affair with 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky. Hillary Clinton_sentence_270

Events surrounding the Lewinsky scandal eventually led to the impeachment of the president by the House of Representatives; he was later acquitted by the senate. Hillary Clinton_sentence_271

When the allegations against her husband were first made public, Hillary Clinton stated that the allegations were part of a "vast right-wing conspiracy". Hillary Clinton_sentence_272

She characterized the Lewinsky charges as the latest in a long, organized, collaborative series of charges by Bill's political enemies rather than any wrongdoing by her husband. Hillary Clinton_sentence_273

She later said she had been misled by her husband's initial claims that no affair had taken place. Hillary Clinton_sentence_274

After the evidence of President Clinton's encounters with Lewinsky became incontrovertible, she issued a public statement reaffirming her commitment to their marriage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_275

Privately, she was reported to be furious at him and was unsure if she wanted to remain in the marriage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_276

The White House residence staff noticed a pronounced level of tension between the couple during this period. Hillary Clinton_sentence_277

Public reaction varied. Hillary Clinton_sentence_278

Women variously admired her strength and poise in private matters that were made public. Hillary Clinton_sentence_279

They sympathized with her as a victim of her husband's insensitive behavior and criticized her as being an enabler to her husband's indiscretions. Hillary Clinton_sentence_280

They also accused her of cynically staying in a failed marriage as a way of keeping or even fostering her own political influence. Hillary Clinton_sentence_281

In the wake of the revelations, her public approval ratings shot upward to around 70 percent, the highest they had ever been. Hillary Clinton_sentence_282

In her 2003 memoir, she would attribute her decision to stay married to "a love that has persisted for decades" and add: "No one understands me better and no one can make me laugh the way Bill does. Hillary Clinton_sentence_283

Even after all these years, he is still the most interesting, energizing and fully alive person I have ever met." Hillary Clinton_sentence_284

Issues that surrounded the Lewinsky scandal left Bill Clinton with substantial legal bills. Hillary Clinton_sentence_285

In 2014, Hillary would say she and Bill had left the White House "not only dead broke, but in debt". Hillary Clinton_sentence_286

The statement may have been literally accurate but ignored the potentially enormous earning power of ex-presidents who give paid speeches after leaving office. Hillary Clinton_sentence_287

The couple would also have the ability to secure loans from banks. Hillary Clinton_sentence_288

Other books and initiatives Hillary Clinton_section_14

Other books published by Clinton when she was the first lady include Dear Socks, Dear Buddy: Kids' Letters to the First Pets (1998) and An Invitation to the White House: At Home with History (2000). Hillary Clinton_sentence_289

In 2001, she wrote an afterword to the children's book Beatrice's Goat. Hillary Clinton_sentence_290

She was the founding chair of Save America's Treasures, a nationwide effort matching federal funds with private donations to preserve and restore historic items and sites. Hillary Clinton_sentence_291

This included the flag that inspired "The Star-Spangled Banner" and the First Ladies National Historic Site in Canton, Ohio. Hillary Clinton_sentence_292

She also published a weekly syndicated newspaper column titled "Talking It Over" from 1995 to 2000. Hillary Clinton_sentence_293

It focused on her experiences and those of women, children and families she met during her travels around the world. Hillary Clinton_sentence_294

Traditional duties Hillary Clinton_section_15

She was head of the White House Millennium Council and hosted Millennium Evenings, a series of lectures that discussed futures studies, one of which became the first live simultaneous webcast from the White House. Hillary Clinton_sentence_295

Clinton also created the first White House Sculpture Garden, located in the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden, which displayed large contemporary American works of art loaned by museums. Hillary Clinton_sentence_296

In the White House, Clinton placed donated handicrafts of contemporary American artisans, such as pottery and glassware, on rotating display in the state rooms. Hillary Clinton_sentence_297

She oversaw the restoration of the Blue Room to be historically authentic to the period of James Monroe, and the Map Room to how it looked during World War II. Hillary Clinton_sentence_298

Working with Arkansas interior decorator Kaki Hockersmith over an eight-year period, she oversaw extensive, privately funded redecoration efforts around the building, often trying to make it look brighter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_299

These included changing of the Treaty Room and a presidential study to have a 19th-century look. Hillary Clinton_sentence_300

Overall the redecoration brought mixed notices, with Victorian furnishings for the Lincoln Sitting Room being criticized the most. Hillary Clinton_sentence_301

Clinton hosted many large-scale events at the White House, including a state dinner for visiting Chinese dignitaries, a New Year's Eve celebration at the turn of the 21st century and a state dinner honoring the bicentennial of the White House in November 2000. Hillary Clinton_sentence_302

United States Senate (2001–2009) Hillary Clinton_section_16

Main article: United States Senate career of Hillary Clinton Hillary Clinton_sentence_303

2000 U.S. Senate election Hillary Clinton_section_17

Main article: 2000 United States Senate election in New York Hillary Clinton_sentence_304

When New York's long-serving U.S. senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan announced his retirement in November 1998, several prominent Democratic figures, including Representative Charles Rangel of New York, urged Clinton to run for his open seat in the Senate election of 2000. Hillary Clinton_sentence_305

Once she decided to run, the Clintons purchased a home in Chappaqua, New York, north of New York City, in September 1999. Hillary Clinton_sentence_306

She became the first wife of the president of the United States to be a candidate for elected office. Hillary Clinton_sentence_307

Initially, Clinton expected to face Rudy Giuliani—the mayor of New York City—as her Republican opponent in the election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_308

Giuliani withdrew from the race in May 2000 after being diagnosed with prostate cancer and matters related to his failing marriage became public. Hillary Clinton_sentence_309

Clinton then faced Rick Lazio, a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives who represented New York's 2nd congressional district. Hillary Clinton_sentence_310

Throughout the campaign, opponents accused Clinton of carpetbagging, because she had never resided in New York State or participated in the state's politics before the 2000 Senate race. Hillary Clinton_sentence_311

Bill de Blasio was Clinton's campaign manager. Hillary Clinton_sentence_312

She began her drive to the U.S. Senate by visiting all 62 counties in the state, in a "listening tour" of small-group settings. Hillary Clinton_sentence_313

She devoted considerable time in traditionally Republican Upstate New York regions. Hillary Clinton_sentence_314

Clinton vowed to improve the economic situation in those areas, promising to deliver 200,000 jobs to the state over her term. Hillary Clinton_sentence_315

Her plan included tax credits to reward job creation and encourage business investment, especially in the high-tech sector. Hillary Clinton_sentence_316

She called for personal tax cuts for college tuition and long-term care. Hillary Clinton_sentence_317

The contest drew national attention. Hillary Clinton_sentence_318

During a September debate, Lazio blundered when he seemed to invade Clinton's personal space by trying to get her to sign a fundraising agreement. Hillary Clinton_sentence_319

Their campaigns, along with Giuliani's initial effort, spent a record combined $90 million. Hillary Clinton_sentence_320

Clinton won the election on November 7, 2000, with 55 percent of the vote to Lazio's 43 percent. Hillary Clinton_sentence_321

She was sworn in as U.S. senator on January 3, 2001, and as George W. Bush was still 17 days away from being inaugurated as president after winning the 2000 presidential election, that meant from January 3–20, she simultaneously held the titles of First Lady and Senator – a first in U.S. history. Hillary Clinton_sentence_322

Publisher Simon & Schuster paid Clinton a near-record advance of $8 million in December 2000 for her autobiography, released in 2003, as Living History. Hillary Clinton_sentence_323

First term Hillary Clinton_section_18

Upon entering the Senate, Clinton maintained a low public profile and built relationships with senators from both parties. Hillary Clinton_sentence_324

She forged alliances with religiously inclined senators by becoming a regular participant in the Senate Prayer Breakfast. Hillary Clinton_sentence_325

She sat on five Senate committees: Committee on Budget (2001–02), Committee on Armed Services (2003–09), Committee on Environment and Public Works (2001–09), Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (2001–09) and Special Committee on Aging. Hillary Clinton_sentence_326

She was also a member of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (2001–09). Hillary Clinton_sentence_327

Following the September 11 terrorist attacks, Clinton sought to obtain funding for the recovery efforts in New York City and security improvements in her state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_328

Working with New York's senior senator, Chuck Schumer, she was instrumental in securing $21 billion in funding for the World Trade Center site's redevelopment. Hillary Clinton_sentence_329

She subsequently took a leading role in investigating the health issues faced by 9/11 first responders. Hillary Clinton_sentence_330

Clinton voted for the USA Patriot Act in October 2001. Hillary Clinton_sentence_331

In 2005, when the act was up for renewal, she expressed concerns with the USA Patriot Act Reauthorization Conference Report regarding civil liberties. Hillary Clinton_sentence_332

In March 2006 she voted in favor of the USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act of 2005 that had gained large majority support. Hillary Clinton_sentence_333

Clinton strongly supported the 2001 U.S. military action in Afghanistan, saying it was a chance to combat terrorism while improving the lives of Afghan women who suffered under the Taliban government. Hillary Clinton_sentence_334

Clinton voted in favor of the October 2002 Iraq War Resolution, which authorized President George W. Bush to use military force against Iraq. Hillary Clinton_sentence_335

After the Iraq War began, Clinton made trips to Iraq and Afghanistan to visit American troops stationed there. Hillary Clinton_sentence_336

On a visit to Iraq in February 2005, Clinton noted that the insurgency had failed to disrupt the democratic elections held earlier and that parts of the country were functioning well. Hillary Clinton_sentence_337

Observing that war deployments were draining regular and reserve forces, she co-introduced legislation to increase the size of the regular U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_338 Army by 80,000 soldiers to ease the strain. Hillary Clinton_sentence_339

In late 2005, Clinton said that while immediate withdrawal from Iraq would be a mistake, Bush's pledge to stay "until the job is done" was also misguided, as it gave Iraqis "an open-ended invitation not to take care of themselves". Hillary Clinton_sentence_340

Her stance caused frustration among those in the Democratic Party who favored quick withdrawal. Hillary Clinton_sentence_341

Clinton supported retaining and improving health benefits for reservists and lobbied against the closure of several military bases, especially those in New York. Hillary Clinton_sentence_342

She used her position on the Armed Services Committee to forge close relationships with a number of high-ranking military officers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_343

By 2014 and 2015 Clinton had fully reversed herself on the Iraq War Resolution, saying she "got it wrong" and the vote in support had been a "mistake". Hillary Clinton_sentence_344

Clinton voted against President Bush's two major tax cut packages, the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 and the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003. Hillary Clinton_sentence_345

Simon & Schuster released Living History: The book set a first-week sales record for a nonfiction work, went on to sell more than one million copies in the first month following publication, and was translated into twelve foreign languages. Hillary Clinton_sentence_346

Clinton's audio recording of the book earned her a nomination for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album. Hillary Clinton_sentence_347

Clinton voted against the 2005 confirmation of John Roberts as chief justice of the United States and the 2006 confirmation of Samuel Alito to the U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_348 Supreme Court, filibustering the latter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_349

In 2005, Clinton called for the Federal Trade Commission to investigate how hidden sex scenes showed up in the controversial video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas. Hillary Clinton_sentence_350

Along with senators Joe Lieberman and Evan Bayh, she introduced the Family Entertainment Protection Act, intended to protect children from inappropriate content found in video games. Hillary Clinton_sentence_351

In 2004 and 2006, Clinton voted against the Federal Marriage Amendment that sought to prohibit same-sex marriage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_352

Looking to establish a "progressive infrastructure" to rival that of American conservatism, Clinton played a formative role in conversations that led to the 2003 founding of former Clinton administration chief of staff John Podesta's Center for American Progress, shared aides with Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, founded in 2003 and advised the Clintons' former antagonist David Brock's Media Matters for America, created in 2004. Hillary Clinton_sentence_353

Following the 2004 Senate elections, she successfully pushed new Democratic Senate leader Harry Reid to create a Senate war room to handle daily political messaging. Hillary Clinton_sentence_354

2006 reelection campaign Hillary Clinton_section_19

Main article: 2006 United States Senate election in New York Hillary Clinton_sentence_355

In November 2004, Clinton announced she would seek a second Senate term. Hillary Clinton_sentence_356

She easily won the Democratic nomination over opposition from antiwar activist Jonathan Tasini. Hillary Clinton_sentence_357

The early frontrunner for the Republican nomination, Westchester County District Attorney Jeanine Pirro, withdrew from the contest after several months of poor campaign performance. Hillary Clinton_sentence_358

Clinton's eventual opponent in the general election was Republican candidate John Spencer, a former Mayor of Yonkers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_359

Clinton won the election on November 7, 2006, with 67 percent of the vote to Spencer's 31 percent, carrying all but four of New York's sixty-two counties. Hillary Clinton_sentence_360

Her campaign spent $36 million for her reelection, more than any other candidate for Senate in the 2006 elections. Hillary Clinton_sentence_361

Some Democrats criticized her for spending too much in a one-sided contest, while some supporters were concerned she did not leave more funds for a potential presidential bid in 2008. Hillary Clinton_sentence_362

In the following months, she transferred $10 million of her Senate funds toward her presidential campaign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_363

Second term Hillary Clinton_section_20

Clinton opposed the Iraq War troop surge of 2007, for both military and domestic political reasons (by the following year, she was privately acknowledging the surge had been successful). Hillary Clinton_sentence_364

In March of that year, she voted in favor of a war-spending bill that required President Bush to begin withdrawing troops from Iraq by a deadline; it passed almost completely along party lines but was subsequently vetoed by Bush. Hillary Clinton_sentence_365

In May, a compromise war funding bill that removed withdrawal deadlines but tied funding to progress benchmarks for the Iraqi government passed the Senate by a vote of 80–14 and would be signed by Bush; Clinton was one of those who voted against it. Hillary Clinton_sentence_366

She responded to General David Petraeus's September 2007 Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq by saying, "I think that the reports that you provide to us really require a willing suspension of disbelief." Hillary Clinton_sentence_367

In March 2007, in response to the dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy, Clinton called on Attorney General Alberto Gonzales to resign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_368

Regarding the high-profile, hotly debated immigration reform bill known as the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, Clinton cast several votes in support of the bill, which eventually failed to gain cloture. Hillary Clinton_sentence_369

As the financial crisis of 2007–08 reached a peak with the liquidity crisis of September 2008, Clinton supported the proposed bailout of the U.S. financial system, voting in favor of the $700 billion law that created the Troubled Asset Relief Program, saying it represented the interests of the American people. Hillary Clinton_sentence_370

It passed the Senate 74–25. Hillary Clinton_sentence_371

In 2007, Clinton and Virginia senator Jim Webb called for an investigation into whether the body armor issued to soldiers in Iraq was adequate. Hillary Clinton_sentence_372

2008 presidential campaign Hillary Clinton_section_21

Main articles: Hillary Clinton 2008 presidential campaign and Hillary Clinton 2008 presidential primary campaign Hillary Clinton_sentence_373

Clinton had been preparing for a potential candidacy for U.S. president since at least early 2003. Hillary Clinton_sentence_374

On January 20, 2007, she announced via her website the formation of a presidential exploratory committee for the United States presidential election of 2008, stating: "I'm in and I'm in to win." Hillary Clinton_sentence_375

No woman had ever been nominated by a major party for the presidency, and no first lady had ever run for president. Hillary Clinton_sentence_376

When Bill Clinton became president in 1993, a blind trust was established; in April 2007, the Clintons liquidated the blind trust to avoid the possibility of ethical conflicts or political embarrassments as Hillary undertook her presidential race. Hillary Clinton_sentence_377

Later disclosure statements revealed the couple's worth was now upwards of $50 million. Hillary Clinton_sentence_378

They had earned over $100 million since 2000—most of it coming from Bill's books, speaking engagements and other activities. Hillary Clinton_sentence_379

Throughout the first half of 2007, Clinton led candidates competing for the Democratic presidential nomination in opinion polls for the election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_380

Senator Barack Obama of Illinois and former senator John Edwards of North Carolina were her strongest competitors. Hillary Clinton_sentence_381

The biggest threat to her campaign was her past support of the Iraq War, which Obama had opposed from the beginning. Hillary Clinton_sentence_382

Clinton and Obama both set records for early fundraising, swapping the money lead each quarter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_383

At the end of October, Clinton fared poorly in her debate performance against Obama, Edwards, and her other opponents. Hillary Clinton_sentence_384

Obama's message of change began to resonate with the Democratic electorate better than Clinton's message of experience. Hillary Clinton_sentence_385

In the first vote of 2008, she placed third in the January 3 Iowa Democratic caucus behind Obama and Edwards. Hillary Clinton_sentence_386

Obama gained ground in national polling in the next few days, with all polls predicting a victory for him in the New Hampshire primary. Hillary Clinton_sentence_387

Clinton gained a surprise win there on January 8, narrowly defeating Obama. Hillary Clinton_sentence_388

It was the first time a woman had won a major American party's presidential primary for the purposes of delegate selection. Hillary Clinton_sentence_389

Explanations for Clinton's New Hampshire comeback varied but often centered on her being seen more sympathetically, especially by women, after her eyes welled with tears and her voice broke while responding to a voter's question the day before the election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_390

The nature of the contest fractured in the next few days. Hillary Clinton_sentence_391

Several remarks by Bill Clinton and other surrogates, and a remark by Hillary Clinton concerning Martin Luther King Jr. and Lyndon B. Johnson, were perceived by many as, accidentally or intentionally, limiting Obama as a racially oriented candidate or otherwise denying the post-racial significance and accomplishments of his campaign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_392

Despite attempts by both Hillary and Obama to downplay the issue, Democratic voting became more polarized as a result, with Clinton losing much of her support among African Americans. Hillary Clinton_sentence_393

She lost by a two-to-one margin to Obama in the January 26, South Carolina primary, setting up, with Edwards soon dropping out, an intense two-person contest for the twenty-two February 5 Super Tuesday states. Hillary Clinton_sentence_394

Bill Clinton had made more statements attracting criticism for their perceived racial implications late in the South Carolina campaign, and his role was seen as damaging enough to her that a wave of supporters within and outside of the campaign said the former president "needs to stop". Hillary Clinton_sentence_395

The South Carolina campaign had done lasting damage to Clinton, eroding her support among the Democratic establishment and leading to the prized endorsement of Obama by Ted Kennedy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_396

On Super Tuesday, Clinton won the largest states, such as California, New York, New Jersey and Massachusetts, while Obama won more states; they almost evenly split the total popular vote. Hillary Clinton_sentence_397

But Obama was gaining more pledged delegates for his share of the popular vote due to better exploitation of the Democratic proportional allocation rules. Hillary Clinton_sentence_398

The Clinton campaign had counted on winning the nomination by Super Tuesday and was unprepared financially and logistically for a prolonged effort; lagging in Internet fundraising as Clinton began loaning money to her campaign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_399

There was continuous turmoil within the campaign staff, and she made several top-level personnel changes. Hillary Clinton_sentence_400

Obama won the next eleven February contests across the country, often by large margins and took a significant pledged delegate lead over Clinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_401

On March 4, Clinton broke the string of losses by winning in Ohio among other places, where her criticism of NAFTA, a major legacy of her husband's presidency, helped in a state where the trade agreement was unpopular. Hillary Clinton_sentence_402

Throughout the campaign, Obama dominated caucuses, for which the Clinton campaign largely ignored and failed to prepare. Hillary Clinton_sentence_403

Obama did well in primaries where African Americans or younger, college-educated, or more affluent voters were heavily represented; Clinton did well in primaries where Hispanics or older, non-college-educated, or working-class white voters predominated. Hillary Clinton_sentence_404

Behind in delegates, Clinton's best hope of winning the nomination came in persuading uncommitted, party-appointed superdelegates. Hillary Clinton_sentence_405

Following the final primaries on June 3, 2008, Obama had gained enough delegates to become the presumptive nominee. Hillary Clinton_sentence_406

In a speech before her supporters on June 7, Clinton ended her campaign and endorsed Obama. Hillary Clinton_sentence_407

By campaign's end, Clinton had won 1,640 pledged delegates to Obama's 1,763; at the time of the clinching, Clinton had 286 superdelegates to Obama's 395, with those numbers widening to 256 versus 438 once Obama was acknowledged the winner. Hillary Clinton_sentence_408

Clinton and Obama each received over 17 million votes during the nomination process with both breaking the previous record. Hillary Clinton_sentence_409

Clinton was the first woman to run in the primary or caucus of every state and she eclipsed, by a very wide margin, Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's 1972 marks for most votes garnered and delegates won by a woman. Hillary Clinton_sentence_410

Clinton gave a passionate speech supporting Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention and campaigned frequently for him in fall 2008, which concluded with his victory over McCain in the general election on November 4. Hillary Clinton_sentence_411

Clinton's campaign ended up severely in debt; she owed millions of dollars to outside vendors and wrote off the $13 million that she lent it herself. Hillary Clinton_sentence_412

The debt was eventually paid off by the beginning of 2013. Hillary Clinton_sentence_413

Secretary of State (2009–2013) Hillary Clinton_section_22

Main article: Hillary Clinton's tenure as Secretary of State Hillary Clinton_sentence_414

See also: Foreign policy of Barack Obama Hillary Clinton_sentence_415

Nomination and confirmation Hillary Clinton_section_23

In mid-November 2008, President-elect Obama and Clinton discussed the possibility of her serving as secretary of state in his administration. Hillary Clinton_sentence_416

She was initially quite reluctant, but on November 20 she told Obama she would accept the position. Hillary Clinton_sentence_417

On December 1, President-elect Obama formally announced that Clinton would be his nominee for secretary of state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_418

Clinton said she did not want to leave the Senate, but that the new position represented a "difficult and exciting adventure". Hillary Clinton_sentence_419

As part of the nomination and to relieve concerns of conflict of interest, Bill Clinton agreed to accept several conditions and restrictions regarding his ongoing activities and fundraising efforts for the William J. Clinton Foundation and the Clinton Global Initiative. Hillary Clinton_sentence_420

The appointment required a Saxbe fix, passed and signed into law in December 2008. Hillary Clinton_sentence_421

Confirmation hearings before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee began on January 13, 2009, a week before the Obama inauguration; two days later, the committee voted 16–1 to approve Clinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_422

By this time, her public approval rating had reached 65 percent, the highest point since the Lewinsky scandal. Hillary Clinton_sentence_423

On January 21, 2009, Clinton was confirmed in the full Senate by a vote of 94–2. Hillary Clinton_sentence_424

Clinton took the oath of office of secretary of state, resigning from the Senate later that day. Hillary Clinton_sentence_425

She became the first former first lady to be a member of the United States Cabinet. Hillary Clinton_sentence_426

First half of tenure Hillary Clinton_section_24

Clinton spent her initial days as secretary of state telephoning dozens of world leaders and indicating that U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_427 foreign policy would change direction: "We have a lot of damage to repair." Hillary Clinton_sentence_428

She advocated an expanded role in global economic issues for the State Department, and cited the need for an increased U.S. diplomatic presence, especially in Iraq where the Defense Department had conducted diplomatic missions. Hillary Clinton_sentence_429

Clinton announced the most ambitious of her departmental reforms, the Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, which establishes specific objectives for the State Department's diplomatic missions abroad; it was modeled after a similar process in the Defense Department that she was familiar with from her time on the Senate Armed Services Committee. Hillary Clinton_sentence_430

The first such review was issued in late 2010. Hillary Clinton_sentence_431

It called for the U.S. leading through "civilian power" as a cost-effective way of responding to international challenges and defusing crises. Hillary Clinton_sentence_432

It also sought to institutionalize goals of empowering women throughout the world. Hillary Clinton_sentence_433

A cause Clinton advocated throughout her tenure was the adoption of cookstoves in the developing world, to foster cleaner and more environmentally sound food preparation and reduce smoke dangers to women. Hillary Clinton_sentence_434

In a 2009 internal debate regarding the War in Afghanistan, Clinton sided with the military's recommendations for a maximal "Afghanistan surge", recommending 40,000 troops and no public deadline for withdrawal. Hillary Clinton_sentence_435

She prevailed over Vice President Joe Biden's opposition but eventually supported Obama's compromise plan to send an additional 30,000 troops and tie the surge to a timetable for eventual withdrawal. Hillary Clinton_sentence_436

In March 2009, Clinton presented Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov with a "reset button" symbolizing U.S. attempts to rebuild ties with that country under its new president, Dmitry Medvedev. Hillary Clinton_sentence_437

The photo op was remembered for a mistranslation into Russian. Hillary Clinton_sentence_438

The policy, which became known as the Russian reset, led to improved cooperation in several areas during Medvedev's time in office. Hillary Clinton_sentence_439

Relations would worsen considerably, however, following Vladimir Putin's return to the position in 2012. Hillary Clinton_sentence_440

In October 2009, on a trip to Switzerland, Clinton's intervention overcame last-minute snags and saved the signing of an historic Turkish–Armenian accord that established diplomatic relations and opened the border between the two long-hostile nations. Hillary Clinton_sentence_441

In Pakistan, she engaged in several unusually blunt discussions with students, talk show hosts and tribal elders, in an attempt to repair the Pakistani image of the U.S. Beginning in 2010, she helped organize a diplomatic isolation and international sanctions regime against Iran, in an effort to force curtailment of that country's nuclear program; this would eventually lead to the multinational Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action being agreed to in 2015. Hillary Clinton_sentence_442

Clinton and Obama forged a good working relationship without power struggles; she was a team player within the administration and a defender of it to the outside and was careful that neither she nor her husband would upstage the president. Hillary Clinton_sentence_443

Clinton formed an alliance with Secretary of Defense Gates as they shared similar strategic outlooks. Hillary Clinton_sentence_444

Obama and Clinton both approached foreign policy as a largely non-ideological, pragmatic exercise. Hillary Clinton_sentence_445

She met with him weekly but did not have the close, daily relationship that some of her predecessors had had with their presidents; moreover, certain key areas of policymaking were kept inside the White House or Pentagon. Hillary Clinton_sentence_446

Nevertheless, the president had trust in her actions. Hillary Clinton_sentence_447

In a prepared speech in January 2010, Clinton drew analogies between the Iron Curtain and the free and unfree Internet. Hillary Clinton_sentence_448

Chinese officials reacted negatively towards it. Hillary Clinton_sentence_449

The speech garnered attention as the first time a senior American official had clearly defined the Internet as a key element of American foreign policy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_450

In July 2010, she visited South Korea, where she and Cheryl Mills worked to convince SAE-A, a large apparel subcontractor, to invest in Haiti despite the company's deep concerns about plans to raise the minimum wage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_451

In the summer of 2010, the South Korean company signed a contract at the US State Department, ensuring that the Caracol Industrial Park would have a key tenant. Hillary Clinton_sentence_452

This was part of the "build back better" program initiated by her husband, named UN Special Envoy to Haiti in 2009 after a tropical storm season caused $1 billion in damages to the island. Hillary Clinton_sentence_453

In January 2011, Clinton traveled to Haiti in order to help pave the way for the election of Michel Martelly. Hillary Clinton_sentence_454

Second half of tenure Hillary Clinton_section_25

The 2011 Egyptian protests posed the most challenging foreign policy crisis yet for the Obama administration. Hillary Clinton_sentence_455

Clinton's public response quickly evolved from an early assessment that the government of Hosni Mubarak was "stable", to a stance that there needed to be an "orderly transition [to] a democratic participatory government", to a condemnation of violence against the protesters. Hillary Clinton_sentence_456

Obama came to rely upon Clinton's advice, organization and personal connections in the behind-the-scenes response to developments. Hillary Clinton_sentence_457

As Arab Spring protests spread throughout the region, Clinton was at the forefront of a U.S. response that she recognized was sometimes contradictory, backing some regimes while supporting protesters against others. Hillary Clinton_sentence_458

As the Libyan Civil War took place, Clinton's shift in favor of military intervention aligned her with Ambassador to the UN Susan Rice and National Security Council figure Samantha Power. Hillary Clinton_sentence_459

This was a key turning point in overcoming internal administration opposition from Defense Secretary Gates, security advisor Thomas E. Donilon and counterterrorism advisor John Brennan in gaining the backing for, and Arab and U.N. approval of, the 2011 military intervention in Libya. Hillary Clinton_sentence_460

Secretary Clinton testified to Congress that the administration did not need congressional authorization for its military intervention in Libya, despite objections from some members of both parties that the administration was violating the War Powers Resolution. Hillary Clinton_sentence_461

The State Department's legal advisor argued the same point when the Resolution's 60-day limit for unauthorized wars was passed (a view that prevailed in a legal debate within the Obama administration). Hillary Clinton_sentence_462

Clinton later used U.S. allies and what she called "convening power" to promote unity among the Libyan rebels as they eventually overthrew the Gaddafi regime. Hillary Clinton_sentence_463

The aftermath of the Libyan Civil War saw the country becoming a failed state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_464

The wisdom of the intervention and interpretation of what happened afterward would become the subject of considerable debate. Hillary Clinton_sentence_465

During April 2011, internal deliberations of the president's innermost circle of advisors over whether to order U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_466 special forces to conduct a raid into Pakistan against Osama bin Laden, Clinton was among those who argued in favor, saying the importance of getting bin Laden outweighed the risks to the U.S. relationship with Pakistan. Hillary Clinton_sentence_467

Following the completion of the mission on May 2 resulting in bin Laden's death, Clinton played a key role in the administration's decision not to release photographs of the dead al-Qaeda leader. Hillary Clinton_sentence_468

During internal discussions regarding Iraq in 2011, Clinton argued for keeping a residual force of up to 10,000–20,000 U.S. troops there. Hillary Clinton_sentence_469

(All of them ended up being withdrawn after negotiations for a revised U.S.–Iraq Status of Forces Agreement failed.) Hillary Clinton_sentence_470

In a speech before the United Nations Human Rights Council in December 2011, Clinton said that, "Gay rights are human rights", and that the U.S. would advocate for gay rights and legal protections of gay people abroad. Hillary Clinton_sentence_471

The same period saw her overcome internal administration opposition with a direct appeal to Obama and stage the first visit to Burma by a U.S. secretary of state since 1955. Hillary Clinton_sentence_472

She met with Burmese leaders as well as opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi and sought to support the 2011 Burmese democratic reforms. Hillary Clinton_sentence_473

She also said the 21st century would be "America's Pacific century", a declaration that was part of the Obama administration's "pivot to Asia". Hillary Clinton_sentence_474

During the Syrian Civil War, Clinton and the Obama administration initially sought to persuade Syrian president Bashar al-Assad to engage popular demonstrations with reform. Hillary Clinton_sentence_475

As government violence allegedly rose in August 2011, they called for him to resign from the presidency. Hillary Clinton_sentence_476

The administration joined several countries in delivering non-lethal assistance to so-called rebels opposed to the Assad government and humanitarian groups working in Syria. Hillary Clinton_sentence_477

During mid-2012, Clinton formed a plan with CIA Director David Petraeus to further strengthen the opposition by arming and training vetted groups of Syrian rebels. Hillary Clinton_sentence_478

The proposal was rejected by White House officials who were reluctant to become entangled in the conflict, fearing that extremists hidden among the rebels might turn the weapons against other targets. Hillary Clinton_sentence_479

In December 2012, Clinton was hospitalized for a few days for treatment of a blood clot in her right transverse venous sinus. Hillary Clinton_sentence_480

Her doctors had discovered the clot during a follow-up examination for a concussion she had sustained when she fainted and fell nearly three weeks earlier, as a result of severe dehydration from a viral intestinal ailment acquired during a trip to Europe. Hillary Clinton_sentence_481

The clot, which caused no immediate neurological injury, was treated with anticoagulant medication, and her doctors have said she has made a full recovery. Hillary Clinton_sentence_482

Overall themes Hillary Clinton_section_26

Throughout her time in office (and mentioned in her final speech concluding it), Clinton viewed "smart power" as the strategy for asserting U.S. leadership and values. Hillary Clinton_sentence_483

In a world of varied threats, weakened central governments and increasingly important nongovernmental entities, smart power combined military hard power with diplomacy and U.S. soft power capacities in global economics, development aid, technology, creativity and human rights advocacy. Hillary Clinton_sentence_484

As such, she became the first secretary of state to methodically implement the smart power approach. Hillary Clinton_sentence_485

In debates over use of military force, she was generally one of the more hawkish voices in the administration. Hillary Clinton_sentence_486

In August 2011 she hailed the ongoing multinational military intervention in Libya and the initial U.S. response towards the Syrian Civil War as examples of smart power in action. Hillary Clinton_sentence_487

Clinton greatly expanded the State Department's use of social media, including Facebook and Twitter, to get its message out and to help empower citizens of foreign countries vis-à-vis their governments. Hillary Clinton_sentence_488

And in the Mideast turmoil, Clinton particularly saw an opportunity to advance one of the central themes of her tenure, the empowerment and welfare of women and girls worldwide. Hillary Clinton_sentence_489

Moreover, in a formulation that became known as the "Hillary Doctrine", she viewed women's rights as critical for U.S. security interests, due to a link between the level of violence against women and gender inequality within a state, and the instability and challenge to international security of that state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_490

In turn, there was a trend of women around the world finding more opportunities, and in some cases feeling safer, as the result of her actions and visibility. Hillary Clinton_sentence_491

Clinton visited 112 countries during her tenure, making her the most widely traveled secretary of state (Time magazine wrote that "Clinton's endurance is legendary".) Hillary Clinton_sentence_492

The first secretary of state to visit countries like Togo and East Timor, she believed that in-person visits were more important than ever in the virtual age. Hillary Clinton_sentence_493

As early as March 2011, she indicated she was not interested in serving a second term as secretary of state should Obama be re-elected in 2012; in December 2012, following that re-election, Obama nominated Senator John Kerry to be Clinton's successor. Hillary Clinton_sentence_494

Her last day as secretary of state was February 1, 2013. Hillary Clinton_sentence_495

Upon her departure, analysts commented that Clinton's tenure did not bring any signature diplomatic breakthroughs as some other secretaries of state had accomplished, and highlighted her focus on goals she thought were less tangible but would have more lasting effect. Hillary Clinton_sentence_496

She has also been criticized for accepting millions in dollars in donations from foreign governments to the Clinton Foundation during her tenure as Secretary of State. Hillary Clinton_sentence_497

Benghazi attack and subsequent hearings Hillary Clinton_section_27

See also: 2012 Benghazi attack and United States House Select Committee on Benghazi Hillary Clinton_sentence_498

On September 11, 2012, the U.S. diplomatic mission in Benghazi, Libya, was attacked, resulting in the deaths of the U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_499

Ambassador, J. Hillary Clinton_sentence_500 Christopher Stevens and three other Americans. Hillary Clinton_sentence_501

The attack, questions surrounding the security of the U.S. consulate, and the varying explanations given afterward by administration officials for what had happened became politically controversial in the U.S. On October 15, Clinton took responsibility for the question of security lapses saying the differing explanations were due to the inevitable fog of war confusion after such events. Hillary Clinton_sentence_502

On December 19, a panel led by Thomas R. Pickering and Michael Mullen issued its report on the matter. Hillary Clinton_sentence_503

It was sharply critical of State Department officials in Washington for ignoring requests for more guards and safety upgrades and for failing to adapt security procedures to a deteriorating security environment. Hillary Clinton_sentence_504

It focused its criticism on the department's Bureau of Diplomatic Security and Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs; four State Department officials at the assistant secretary level and below were removed from their posts as a consequence. Hillary Clinton_sentence_505

Clinton said she accepted the conclusions of the report and that changes were underway to implement its suggested recommendations. Hillary Clinton_sentence_506

Clinton gave testimony to two congressional foreign affairs committees on January 23, 2013, regarding the Benghazi attack. Hillary Clinton_sentence_507

She defended her actions in response to the incident, and while still accepting formal responsibility, said she had had no direct role in specific discussions beforehand regarding consulate security. Hillary Clinton_sentence_508

Congressional Republicans challenged her on several points, to which she responded. Hillary Clinton_sentence_509

In particular, after persistent questioning about whether or not the administration had issued inaccurate "talking points" after the attack, Clinton responded with the much-quoted rejoinder, "With all due respect, the fact is we had four dead Americans. Hillary Clinton_sentence_510

Was it because of a protest or was it because of guys out for a walk one night who decided that they'd they go kill some Americans? Hillary Clinton_sentence_511

What difference at this point does it make? Hillary Clinton_sentence_512

It is our job to figure out what happened and do everything we can to prevent it from ever happening again, Senator." Hillary Clinton_sentence_513

In November 2014, the House Intelligence Committee issued a report that concluded there had been no wrongdoing in the administration's response to the attack. Hillary Clinton_sentence_514

The House Select Committee on Benghazi was created in May 2014 and conducted a two-year investigation related to the 2012 attack. Hillary Clinton_sentence_515

Its actions were often seen through the prism of domestic politics. Hillary Clinton_sentence_516

This was especially the case in September 2015, when House majority leader Kevin McCarthy credited the Benghazi hearings with lowering Clinton's poll numbers, thereby contradicting the Republicans' previous talking points on the investigation. Hillary Clinton_sentence_517

On October 22, 2015, Clinton testified at an all-day and nighttime session before the committee. Hillary Clinton_sentence_518

The hearing included many heated exchanges between committee members and Clinton and among the committee members themselves. Hillary Clinton_sentence_519

Clinton was widely seen as emerging largely unscathed from the hearing, because of what the media perceived as a calm and unfazed demeanor and a lengthy, meandering, repetitive line of questioning from the committee. Hillary Clinton_sentence_520

The committee issued competing final reports in June 2016 that broke along partisan lines. Hillary Clinton_sentence_521

The Republican report offered some new details about the attack but no new evidence of culpability by Clinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_522

Email scandal Hillary Clinton_section_28

Main article: Hillary Clinton email controversy Hillary Clinton_sentence_523

A controversy arose in March 2015, when the State Department's inspector general revealed that Clinton had used personal email accounts on a non-government, privately maintained server exclusively—instead of email accounts maintained on federal government servers—when conducting official business during her tenure as secretary of state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_524

Some experts, officials, members of Congress and political opponents contended that her use of private messaging system software and a private server violated State Department protocols and procedures, and federal laws and regulations governing recordkeeping requirements. Hillary Clinton_sentence_525

The controversy occurred against the backdrop of Clinton's 2016 presidential election campaign and hearings held by the House Select Committee on Benghazi. Hillary Clinton_sentence_526

In a joint statement released on July 15, 2015, the inspector general of the State Department and the inspector general of the intelligence community said their review of the emails found information that was classified when sent, remained so at the time of their inspection and "never should have been transmitted via an unclassified personal system". Hillary Clinton_sentence_527

They also stated unequivocally this classified information should never have been stored outside of secure government computer systems. Hillary Clinton_sentence_528

Clinton had said over a period of months that she kept no classified information on the private server that she set up in her house. Hillary Clinton_sentence_529

Government policy, reiterated in the nondisclosure agreement signed by Clinton as part of gaining her security clearance, is that sensitive information can be considered as classified even if not marked as such. Hillary Clinton_sentence_530

After allegations were raised that some of the emails in question fell into the so-called "born classified" category, an FBI probe was initiated regarding how classified information was handled on the Clinton server. Hillary Clinton_sentence_531

The New York Times reported in February 2016 that nearly 2,100 emails stored on Clinton's server were retroactively marked classified by the State Department. Hillary Clinton_sentence_532

Additionally, the intelligence community's inspector general wrote Congress to say that some of the emails "contained classified State Department information when originated". Hillary Clinton_sentence_533

In May 2016, the inspector general of the State Department criticized her use of a private email server while secretary of state, stating that she had not requested permission for this and would not have received it if she had asked. Hillary Clinton_sentence_534

Clinton maintained she did not send or receive any emails from her personal server that were confidential at the time they were sent. Hillary Clinton_sentence_535

In a Democratic debate with Bernie Sanders on February 4, 2016, Clinton said, "I never sent or received any classified material—they are retroactively classifying it." Hillary Clinton_sentence_536

On July 2, 2016, Clinton stated: "Let me repeat what I have repeated for many months now, I never received nor sent any material that was marked classified." Hillary Clinton_sentence_537

On July 5, 2016, the FBI concluded its investigation. Hillary Clinton_sentence_538

In a statement, FBI director James Comey said: Hillary Clinton_sentence_539

Out of 30,000, three emails were found to be marked as classified, although they lacked classified headers and were marked only with a small "c" in parentheses, described as "portion markings" by Comey. Hillary Clinton_sentence_540

He also said it was possible Clinton was not "technically sophisticated" enough to understand what the three classified markings meant. Hillary Clinton_sentence_541

The probe found Clinton used her personal email extensively while outside the United States, both sending and receiving work-related emails in the territory of sophisticated adversaries. Hillary Clinton_sentence_542

Comey acknowledged that it was "possible that hostile actors gained access to Secretary Clinton's personal email account". Hillary Clinton_sentence_543

He added that "[although] we did not find clear evidence that Secretary Clinton or her colleagues intended to violate laws governing the handling of classified information, there is evidence that they were extremely careless in their handling of very sensitive, highly classified information". Hillary Clinton_sentence_544

Nevertheless, Comey asserted that "no reasonable prosecutor" would bring criminal charges in this case, despite the existence of "potential violations of the statutes regarding the handling of classified information". Hillary Clinton_sentence_545

The FBI recommended that the Justice Department decline to prosecute. Hillary Clinton_sentence_546

On July 6, 2016, U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch—who had met privately with Bill Clinton on June 27—confirmed that the probe into Clinton's use of private email servers would be closed without criminal charges. Hillary Clinton_sentence_547

On October 28, 2016, Comey notified Congress that the FBI had begun looking into newly discovered Clinton emails. Hillary Clinton_sentence_548

Law enforcement officials said that while investigating allegedly illicit text messages from Anthony Weiner, husband of Clinton aide Huma Abedin, to a 15-year-old girl in North Carolina, they discovered emails related to Clinton's private server on a laptop computer belonging to Weiner. Hillary Clinton_sentence_549

On November 6, Comey notified Congress that the FBI had not changed the conclusion it had reached in July. Hillary Clinton_sentence_550

The notification was later cited by Clinton as a factor in her loss in the 2016 presidential election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_551

The emails controversy received more media coverage than any other topic during the 2016 presidential election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_552

In September 2019, the State Department finished its internal review into 33,000 emails that Clinton had turned over. Hillary Clinton_sentence_553

The investigation that began in 2016 found 588 violations of security procedures and found that Clinton's use of personal email server increased the risk of compromising State Department information. Hillary Clinton_sentence_554

In 91 cases, the culpability of sending classified information could be attributed to 38 people, but the review concluded there was "no persuasive evidence of systemic, deliberate mishandling of classified information". Hillary Clinton_sentence_555

Clinton Foundation, Hard Choices, and speeches Hillary Clinton_section_29

Main articles: Clinton Foundation and Hard Choices Hillary Clinton_sentence_556

When Clinton left the State Department, she returned to private life for the first time in thirty years. Hillary Clinton_sentence_557

She and her daughter joined her husband as named members of the Bill, Hillary & Chelsea Clinton Foundation in 2013. Hillary Clinton_sentence_558

There she focused on early childhood development efforts, including an initiative called Too Small to Fail and a $600 million initiative to encourage the enrollment of girls in secondary schools worldwide, led by former Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard. Hillary Clinton_sentence_559

In 2014, Clinton published a second memoir, Hard Choices, which focused on her time as secretary of state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_560

As of July 2015, the book has sold about 280,000 copies. Hillary Clinton_sentence_561

Clinton also led the No Ceilings: The Full Participation Project, a partnership with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to gather and study data on the progress of women and girls around the world since the Beijing conference in 1995; its March 2015 report said that while "There has never been a better time in history to be born a woman ... this data shows just how far we still have to go." Hillary Clinton_sentence_562

The foundation began accepting new donations from foreign governments, which it had stopped doing while she was secretary of state. Hillary Clinton_sentence_563

However, even though the Clinton Foundation had stopped taking donations from foreign governments, they continued to take large donations from foreign citizens who were sometimes linked to their governments. Hillary Clinton_sentence_564

She began work on another volume of memoirs and made appearances on the paid speaking circuit. Hillary Clinton_sentence_565

There she received $200,000–225,000 per engagement, often appearing before Wall Street firms or at business conventions. Hillary Clinton_sentence_566

She also made some unpaid speeches on behalf of the foundation. Hillary Clinton_sentence_567

For the fifteen months ending in March 2015, Clinton earned over $11 million from her speeches. Hillary Clinton_sentence_568

For the overall period 2007–14, the Clintons earned almost $141 million, paid some $56 million in federal and state taxes and donated about $15 million to charity. Hillary Clinton_sentence_569

As of 2015, she was estimated to be worth over $30 million on her own, or $45–53 million with her husband. Hillary Clinton_sentence_570

Clinton resigned from the board of the foundation in April 2015, when she began her presidential campaign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_571

The foundation said it would accept new foreign governmental donations from six Western nations only. Hillary Clinton_sentence_572

2016 presidential campaign Hillary Clinton_section_30

Main article: Hillary Clinton 2016 presidential campaign Hillary Clinton_sentence_573

Further information: 2016 United States presidential election, 2016 Democratic Party presidential candidates, 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries, and 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak Hillary Clinton_sentence_574

On April 12, 2015, Clinton formally announced her candidacy for the presidency in the 2016 election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_575

She had a campaign-in-waiting already in place, including a large donor network, experienced operatives and the Ready for Hillary and Priorities USA Action political action committees and other infrastructure. Hillary Clinton_sentence_576

Prior to her campaign, Clinton had claimed in an interview on NDTV in May 2012 that she would not seek the presidency again, but later wrote in her 2014 autobiography Hard Choices that she had not decided. Hillary Clinton_sentence_577

The campaign's headquarters were established in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Hillary Clinton_sentence_578

Her campaign focused on: raising middle class incomes, establishing universal preschool, making college more affordable and improving the Affordable Care Act. Hillary Clinton_sentence_579

Initially considered a prohibitive favorite to win the Democratic nomination, Clinton faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from democratic socialist Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont. Hillary Clinton_sentence_580

His longtime stance against the influence of corporations and the wealthy in American politics resonated with a dissatisfied citizenry troubled by the effects of income inequality in the U.S. and contrasted with Clinton's Wall Street ties. Hillary Clinton_sentence_581

In the initial contest of the primaries season, Clinton only very narrowly won the Iowa Democratic caucuses, held February 1, over an increasingly popular Sanders— the first woman to win them. Hillary Clinton_sentence_582

In the first primary, held in New Hampshire on February 9, she lost to Sanders by a wide margin. Hillary Clinton_sentence_583

Sanders was an increasing threat in the next contest, the Nevada caucuses on February 20, but Clinton managed a five-percentage-point win, aided by final-days campaigning among casino workers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_584

Clinton followed that with a lopsided victory in the South Carolina primary on February 27. Hillary Clinton_sentence_585

These two victories stabilized her campaign and showed an avoidance of the management turmoil that harmed her 2008 effort. Hillary Clinton_sentence_586

On March 1 Super Tuesday, Clinton won seven of eleven contests, including a string of dominating victories across the South buoyed, as in South Carolina, by African-American voters. Hillary Clinton_sentence_587

She opened up a significant lead in pledged delegates over Sanders. Hillary Clinton_sentence_588

She maintained this delegate lead across subsequent contests during the primary season, with a consistent pattern throughout. Hillary Clinton_sentence_589

Sanders did better among younger, whiter, more rural and more liberal voters and states that held caucuses or where eligibility was open to independents. Hillary Clinton_sentence_590

Clinton did better among older, black and Hispanic voter populations, and in states that held primaries or where eligibility was restricted to registered Democrats. Hillary Clinton_sentence_591

By June 5, 2016, she had earned enough pledged delegates and supportive superdelegates for the media to consider her the presumptive nominee. Hillary Clinton_sentence_592

On June 7, after winning most of the states in the final major round of primaries, Clinton held a victory rally in Brooklyn becoming the first woman to claim the status of presumptive nominee for a major American political party. Hillary Clinton_sentence_593

By campaign's end, Clinton had won 2,219 pledged delegates to Sanders' 1,832; with an estimated 594 superdelegates compared to Sanders' 47. Hillary Clinton_sentence_594

She received almost 17 million votes during the nominating process, as opposed to Sanders' 13 million. Hillary Clinton_sentence_595

Clinton was formally nominated at the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia on July 26, 2016, becoming the first woman to be nominated for president by a major U.S. political party. Hillary Clinton_sentence_596

Her choice of vice presidential running mate, Senator Tim Kaine, was nominated by the convention the following day. Hillary Clinton_sentence_597

Her opponents in the general election included Republican Donald Trump, Libertarian Gary Johnson and Jill Stein of the Green Party. Hillary Clinton_sentence_598

Around the time of the convention, WikiLeaks released emails that suggested the DNC and the Clinton campaign tilted the primary in Clinton's favor. Hillary Clinton_sentence_599

Clinton held a significant lead in national polls over Trump throughout most of 2016. Hillary Clinton_sentence_600

In early July, Trump and Clinton were tied in major polls following the FBI's conclusion of its investigation into her emails. Hillary Clinton_sentence_601

FBI Director James Comey concluded Clinton had been "extremely careless" in her handling of classified government material. Hillary Clinton_sentence_602

In late July, Trump gained his first lead over Clinton in major polls following a three to four percentage point convention bounce at the Republican National Convention. Hillary Clinton_sentence_603

This was in line with the average bounce in conventions since 2004, although it was toward the low side by historical standards. Hillary Clinton_sentence_604

Following Clinton's seven percentage point convention bounce at the Democratic National Convention, she regained a significant lead in national polls at the start of August. Hillary Clinton_sentence_605

In fall 2016, Clinton and Tim Kaine published Stronger Together, which outlined their vision for the United States. Hillary Clinton_sentence_606

Clinton was defeated by Donald Trump in the November 8, 2016, presidential election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_607

By the early morning hours of November 9, Trump had received 279 projected electoral college votes, with 270 needed to win; media sources proclaimed him the winner. Hillary Clinton_sentence_608

Clinton then phoned Trump to concede and to congratulate him on his victory, whereupon Trump gave his victory speech. Hillary Clinton_sentence_609

The next morning Clinton made a public concession speech in which she acknowledged the pain of her loss, but called on her supporters to accept Trump as their next president, saying: "We owe him an open mind and a chance to lead." Hillary Clinton_sentence_610

Though Clinton lost the election by capturing only 232 electoral votes to Trump's 306, she won the popular vote by more than 2.8 million votes, or 2.1% of the voter base. Hillary Clinton_sentence_611

She is the fifth presidential candidate in U.S. history to win the popular vote but lose the election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_612

She won the most votes of any candidate who did not take office and the third-most votes of any candidate in history, though she did not have the greatest percentage win of a losing candidate. Hillary Clinton_sentence_613

(Andrew Jackson won the popular vote by 10.4% but lost to John Quincy Adams). Hillary Clinton_sentence_614

On December 19, 2016, when electors formally voted, Clinton lost five of her initial 232 votes due to faithless electors, with three of her Washington votes being cast instead for Colin Powell, one being cast for Faith Spotted Eagle, and one in Hawaii being cast for Bernie Sanders. Hillary Clinton_sentence_615

Post-2016 election activities Hillary Clinton_section_31

In their respective capacities as a former president and a former first lady, Bill and Hillary Clinton attended the inauguration of Donald Trump with their daughter, Chelsea. Hillary Clinton_sentence_616

The morning of the inauguration Clinton wrote on her Twitter account, "I'm here today to honor our democracy & its enduring values, I will never stop believing in our country & its future." Hillary Clinton_sentence_617

Clinton delivered a St. Hillary Clinton_sentence_618 Patrick's Day speech in Scranton, Pennsylvania, on March 17, 2017, referring to reports of her being seen taking walks in the woods around Chappaqua following her loss in the presidential election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_619

Clinton indicated her readiness to emerge from "the woods" and become politically active again. Hillary Clinton_sentence_620

On March 24, 2017, after the postponement of a Congressional vote to repeal the Affordable Care Act, Clinton labeled the day "a victory for the 24,000,000 people at risk of losing their health insurance" and warned of an ongoing battle to maintain coverage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_621

She went on to call the American Health Care Act "a disastrous bill" during a San Francisco speech four days later. Hillary Clinton_sentence_622

After the House narrowly passed the American Health Care Act on May 4, Clinton dubbed it a "shameful failure of policy & morality by GOP". Hillary Clinton_sentence_623

On June 23, the day after Senate Republicans revealed a draft of their healthcare reform legislation, Clinton tweeted, "This is a critical moment about choosing people over politics. Hillary Clinton_sentence_624

Speak out against this bill." Hillary Clinton_sentence_625

Clinton commented that she would not seek public office again in April. Hillary Clinton_sentence_626

On April 6, in response to the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack, Clinton said the U.S. should take out Bashar al-Assad's airfields and thereby "prevent him from being able to use them to bomb innocent people and drop sarin gas on them". Hillary Clinton_sentence_627

In May 2017 Clinton announced the formation of Onward Together, a new political action committee that she wrote is "dedicated to advancing the progressive vision that earned nearly 66 million votes in the last election". Hillary Clinton_sentence_628

In a June 2017 appearance at a Baltimore fundraiser for the Elijah Cummings Youth Program in Israel (ECYP), Clinton condemned the 2017 Portland train attack: "When violence motivated by hatred from, Portland, Oregon, to College Park, ends the lives of young Americans, this program's mission of spreading tolerance is more urgent than ever." Hillary Clinton_sentence_629

On June 14, after the Congressional baseball shooting, Clinton tweeted, "2 sides take the field tomorrow, but we're all ultimately on one team. Hillary Clinton_sentence_630

My thoughts are with the members of Congress, staff & heroic police." Hillary Clinton_sentence_631

Clinton's third memoir, What Happened, an account of her loss in the 2016 election, was released on September 12, 2017, by Simon & Schuster, in print, e-book, and as an audiobook read by the author. Hillary Clinton_sentence_632

A book tour and a series of interviews and personal appearances were arranged for the launch. Hillary Clinton_sentence_633

What Happened sold 300,000 copies in its first week, less than her 2003 memoir, Living History, but triple the first-week sales of her previous memoir, 2014's Hard Choices. Hillary Clinton_sentence_634

Simon & Schuster announced that What Happened had sold more e-books in its first-week than any nonfiction e-book since 2010. Hillary Clinton_sentence_635

As of December 10, 2017, the book had sold 448,947 hardcover copies. Hillary Clinton_sentence_636

An announcement was made in February 2017 that efforts were under way to render her 1996 book It Takes a Village as a picture book. Hillary Clinton_sentence_637

Marla Frazee, a two-time winner of the Caldecott Medal, was announced as the illustrator. Hillary Clinton_sentence_638

Clinton had worked on it with Frazee during her 2016 presidential election campaign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_639

The result was published on the same day of publication as What Happened. Hillary Clinton_sentence_640

The book is aimed at preschool-aged children, although a few messages are more likely better understood by adults. Hillary Clinton_sentence_641

In October 2017, she was awarded an honorary doctorate from Swansea University, whose College of Law was renamed the Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law in her honor. Hillary Clinton_sentence_642

In October 2018, Hillary and Bill Clinton announced plans for a 13-city speaking tour in various cities in the United States and Canada between November 2018 and May 2019. Hillary Clinton_sentence_643

Hillary was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in law (LLD) at Queen's University Belfast on October 10, 2018, after giving a speech on Northern Ireland and the impacts of Brexit at Whitla Hall, Belfast. Hillary Clinton_sentence_644

In June 2018, Trinity College Dublin awarded her with an honorary doctorate (LLD). Hillary Clinton_sentence_645

A package that contained a pipe bomb was sent to Clinton's home in Washington, D.C, on October 24, 2018. Hillary Clinton_sentence_646

It was intercepted by the Secret Service. Hillary Clinton_sentence_647

Similar packages were sent to several other Democratic leaders and to CNN. Hillary Clinton_sentence_648

On March 4, 2019, Clinton announced that she would not run for president in 2020. Hillary Clinton_sentence_649

In October 2019, Trump tweeted that Clinton should run for a third time, prompting her response of "don't tempt me". Hillary Clinton_sentence_650

On April 28, 2020, Clinton endorsed former Vice President Joe Biden for president in the 2020 election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_651

Clinton delivered a speech in the 2020 Democratic National Convention. Hillary Clinton_sentence_652

On October 28, 2020, Clinton announced that she is on the Democratic slate of electors for the state of New York in the 2020 election. Hillary Clinton_sentence_653

Comments on President Trump Hillary Clinton_section_32

On February 27, 2017, Clinton called on President Trump to address the shooting of two Indian men by Adam Purinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_654

On May 2, Clinton said Trump's use of Twitter "doesn't work" when pursuing important negotiations. Hillary Clinton_sentence_655

"Kim Jong Un ... [is] always interested in trying to get Americans to come to negotiate to elevate their status and their position". Hillary Clinton_sentence_656

Negotiations with North Korea should not take place without "a broader strategic framework to try to get China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, to put the kind of pressure on the regime that will finally bring them to the negotiating table with some kind of realistic prospect for change." Hillary Clinton_sentence_657

While delivering the commencement speech at her alma mater Wellesley College on May 26, Clinton asserted President Trump's 2018 budget proposal was "a con" for underfunding domestic programs. Hillary Clinton_sentence_658

On June 1, when President Trump announced withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement, Clinton tweeted that it was a "historic mistake". Hillary Clinton_sentence_659

On September 29, 2019, in an interview with CBS News Sunday Morning, Clinton described Trump as a "threat" to the country's standing in the world; an "illegitimate president", despite having won the election; and a "corrupt human tornado". Hillary Clinton_sentence_660

Chancellor of Queen's University Belfast Hillary Clinton_section_33

On January 2, 2020, it was announced that Hillary Clinton would take up the position of Chancellor at Queen's University Belfast after her husband had previously played a role in the Northern Ireland peace process and the signing of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. Hillary Clinton_sentence_661

Clinton became the 11th and first female chancellor of the university, filling the position that had been vacant since 2018 after the death of her predecessor, Thomas J. Moran. Hillary Clinton_sentence_662

Commenting on taking up the position, she said that "the university is making waves internationally for its research and impact and I am proud to be an ambassador and help grow its reputation for excellence". Hillary Clinton_sentence_663

Queen's Pro-Chancellor Stephen Prenter said that Clinton on her appointment "will be an incredible advocate for Queen's" who can act as an "inspirational role model". Hillary Clinton_sentence_664

Political positions Hillary Clinton_section_34

Main article: Political positions of Hillary Clinton Hillary Clinton_sentence_665

Using her Senate votes, several organizations have attempted to measure Clinton's place on the political spectrum scientifically. Hillary Clinton_sentence_666

National Journal's 2004 study of roll-call votes assigned Clinton a rating of 30 on the political spectrum, relative to the Senate at the time, with a rating of 1 being most liberal and 100 being most conservative. Hillary Clinton_sentence_667

National Journal's subsequent rankings placed her as the 32nd-most liberal senator in 2006 and 16th-most liberal senator in 2007. Hillary Clinton_sentence_668

A 2004 analysis by political scientists Joshua D. Clinton of Princeton University and Simon Jackman and Doug Rivers of Stanford University found her likely to be the sixth-to-eighth-most liberal senator. Hillary Clinton_sentence_669

The Almanac of American Politics, edited by Michael Barone and Richard E. Cohen, rated her votes from 2003 through 2006 as liberal or conservative, with 100 as the highest rating, in three areas: Economic, Social and Foreign. Hillary Clinton_sentence_670

Averaged for the four years, the ratings are: Economic = 75 liberal, 23 conservative; Social = 83 liberal, 6 conservative; Foreign = 66 liberal, 30 conservative. Hillary Clinton_sentence_671

Total average = 75 liberal, 20 conservative. Hillary Clinton_sentence_672

According to FiveThirtyEight's measure of political ideology, "Clinton was one of the most liberal members during her time in the Senate." Hillary Clinton_sentence_673

Organizations have also attempted to provide more recent assessments of Clinton after she reentered elective politics in 2015. Hillary Clinton_sentence_674

Based on her stated positions from the 1990s to the present, On the Issues places her in the "Left Liberal" region on their two-dimensional grid of social and economic ideologies, with a social score of 80 on a scale of zero more-restrictive to 100 less-government stances, with an economic score of ten on a scale of zero more-restrictive to 100 less-government stances. Hillary Clinton_sentence_675

Crowdpac, which does a data aggregation of campaign contributions, votes and speeches, gives her a 6.5L rating on a one-dimensional left-right scale from 10L (most liberal) to 10C (most conservative). Hillary Clinton_sentence_676

Through 2008, she had an average lifetime 90 percent "Liberal Quotient" from Americans for Democratic Action, and a lifetime eight percent rating from the American Conservative Union. Hillary Clinton_sentence_677

In March 2016, Clinton laid out a detailed economic plan, which The New York Times called "optimistic" and "wide-ranging". Hillary Clinton_sentence_678

Basing her economic philosophy on inclusive capitalism, Clinton proposed a "clawback" that would rescind tax relief and other benefits for companies that move jobs overseas; providing incentives for companies that share profits with employees, communities and the environment, rather than focusing on short-term profits to increase stock value and rewarding shareholders; increasing collective bargaining rights; and placing an "exit tax" on companies that move their headquarters out of America to pay a lower tax rate overseas. Hillary Clinton_sentence_679

Clinton currently opposes the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) (though she previously described it as "the gold standard" of trade deals). Hillary Clinton_sentence_680

She supports the U.S. Hillary Clinton_sentence_681 Export-Import Bank and holds that "any trade deal has to produce jobs and raise wages and increase prosperity and protect our security". Hillary Clinton_sentence_682

As senator (2001–2009), her record on trade was mixed; she voted in favor of some trade agreements but not others. Hillary Clinton_sentence_683

Given the climate of unlimited campaign contributions following the Supreme Court's Citizens United decision, Clinton called for a constitutional amendment to limit "unaccountable money" in politics. Hillary Clinton_sentence_684

In July 2016, she "committed" to introducing a U.S. constitutional amendment that would result in overturning the 2010 Citizens United decision. Hillary Clinton_sentence_685

On December 7, 2015, Clinton presented her detailed plans for regulating Wall Street financial activities in the New York Times. Hillary Clinton_sentence_686

Accepting the scientific consensus on climate change, Clinton supports cap-and-trade, and opposed the Keystone XL pipeline. Hillary Clinton_sentence_687

She supported "equal pay for equal work", to address current shortfalls in how much women are paid to do the same jobs men do. Hillary Clinton_sentence_688

Clinton has explicitly focused on family issues and supports universal preschool. Hillary Clinton_sentence_689

These programs would be funded by proposing tax increases on the wealthy, including a "fair share surcharge". Hillary Clinton_sentence_690

Clinton supported the Affordable Care Act and would have added a "public option" that competed with private insurers and enabled people "50 or 55 and up" to buy into Medicare. Hillary Clinton_sentence_691

On LGBT rights, she supports the right to same-sex marriage, a position that has changed throughout her political career. Hillary Clinton_sentence_692

In 2000, she was against such marriages altogether. Hillary Clinton_sentence_693

In 2006, she said only that she would support a state's decision to permit same-sex marriages, but opposed federally amending the Constitution to permit same-sex marriage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_694

While running for president in 2007, she again reiterated her opposition to same-sex marriage, although expressed her support of civil unions. Hillary Clinton_sentence_695

2013 marked the first time that Clinton expressed support for a national right to same-sex marriage. Hillary Clinton_sentence_696

In 2000, she was the first spouse of a US president to march in an LGBT pride parade. Hillary Clinton_sentence_697

In 2016, she was the first major-party presidential candidate ever to write an op-ed for an LGBT newspaper (Philadelphia Gay News). Hillary Clinton_sentence_698

Clinton held that allowing undocumented immigrants to have a path to citizenship "[i]s at its heart a family issue", and expressed support for Obama's Deferred Action for Parental Accountability (DAPA) program, which would allow up to five million undocumented immigrants to gain deferral of deportation and authorization to legally work in the United States. Hillary Clinton_sentence_699

However, in 2014, Clinton stated that unaccompanied children crossing the border "should be sent back." Hillary Clinton_sentence_700

She opposed and criticized Trump's call to temporarily ban Muslims from entering the United States. Hillary Clinton_sentence_701

Expressing support for Common Core she said, "The really unfortunate argument that's been going on around Common Core, it's very painful because the Common Core started off as a bipartisan effort. Hillary Clinton_sentence_702

It was actually nonpartisan. Hillary Clinton_sentence_703

It wasn't politicized ... Iowa has had a testing system based on a core curriculum for a really long time. Hillary Clinton_sentence_704

And [speaking to Iowans] you see the value of it, you understand why that helps you organize your whole education system. Hillary Clinton_sentence_705

And a lot of states unfortunately haven't had that and so don't understand the value of a core, in this sense a Common Core." Hillary Clinton_sentence_706

On foreign affairs, Clinton voted in favor of the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq in October 2002, a vote she later "regretted". Hillary Clinton_sentence_707

She favored arming Syria's rebel fighters in 2012 and has called for the removal of Syrian president Bashar al-Assad. Hillary Clinton_sentence_708

She supported the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 and the NATO-led military intervention in Libya to oust former Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi in 2011. Hillary Clinton_sentence_709

Clinton is in favor of maintaining American influence in the Middle East. Hillary Clinton_sentence_710

She has told the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, "America can't ever be neutral when it comes to Israel's security and survival." Hillary Clinton_sentence_711

Clinton expressed support for Israel's right to defend itself during the 2006 Lebanon War and 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. Hillary Clinton_sentence_712

In April 2017, Clinton called for strikes against Syrian airfields. Hillary Clinton_sentence_713

In 2000, Clinton advocated for the elimination of the electoral college. Hillary Clinton_sentence_714

She promised to co-sponsor legislation that would abolish it, resulting in the direct election of the president. Hillary Clinton_sentence_715

She reiterated her position against the Electoral College as she cast her vote as an elector in the Electoral College for Joe Biden in 2020 Hillary Clinton_sentence_716

Religious views Hillary Clinton_section_35

Clinton has been a lifelong Methodist, attending various churches throughout her lifetime and all are part of the United Methodist Church: Hillary Clinton_sentence_717

Clinton discussed her faith at 2014 United Methodist Women church rally at the Kentucky International Convention Center in Louisville, Kentucky. Hillary Clinton_sentence_718

However, she has seldom discussed her faith while campaigning. Hillary Clinton_sentence_719

She has openly discussed her Christianity on several occasions, discussing for example the importance of loving one's neighbor as oneself, of helping the poor and "creating opportunities for others to be lifted up". Hillary Clinton_sentence_720

Clinton has also expressed disappointment that "Christianity, which has such great love at its core, is sometimes used to condemn so quickly and judge so harshly." Hillary Clinton_sentence_721

Professor Paul Kengor, author of God and Hillary Clinton: A Spiritual Life has suggested that Clinton's political positions are rooted in her faith. Hillary Clinton_sentence_722

She often expresses a maxim often attributed to John Wesley: "Do all the good you can, by all the means you can, in all the ways you can." Hillary Clinton_sentence_723

In fact, Clinton repeated this saying in her acceptance speech at the 2016 Democratic National Convention, adding that her mother Dorothy "made sure I learned [these] words from our Methodist faith". Hillary Clinton_sentence_724

Cultural and political image Hillary Clinton_section_36

Main article: Cultural and political image of Hillary Clinton Hillary Clinton_sentence_725

Over a hundred books and scholarly works have been written about Clinton. Hillary Clinton_sentence_726

A 2006 survey by the New York Observer found "a virtual cottage industry" of "anti-Clinton literature" put out by Regnery Publishing and other conservative imprints. Hillary Clinton_sentence_727

Some titles include Madame Hillary: The Dark Road to the White House, Hillary's Scheme: Inside the Next Clinton's Ruthless Agenda to Take the White House and Can She Be Stopped? Hillary Clinton_sentence_728

Hillary Clinton Will Be the Next President of the United States Unless ... Books praising Clinton did not sell nearly as well (other than her memoirs and those of her husband). Hillary Clinton_sentence_729

When she ran for Senate in 2000, several fundraising groups such as Save Our Senate and the Emergency Committee to Stop Hillary Rodham Clinton sprang up to oppose her. Hillary Clinton_sentence_730

Don Van Natta found that Republican and conservative groups viewed her as a reliable "bogeyman" to mention in fundraising letters, on a par with Ted Kennedy, and the equivalent of Democratic and liberal appeals mentioning Newt Gingrich. Hillary Clinton_sentence_731

Clinton has also been featured in the media and popular culture in a wide spectrum of perspectives. Hillary Clinton_sentence_732

In 1995, writer Todd S. Purdum of The New York Times characterized Clinton as a Rorschach test, an assessment echoed at the time by feminist writer and activist Betty Friedan, who said, "Coverage of Hillary Clinton is a massive Rorschach test of the evolution of women in our society." Hillary Clinton_sentence_733

She has been the subject of many satirical impressions on Saturday Night Live, beginning with her time as the first lady. Hillary Clinton_sentence_734

She has made guest appearances on the show herself, in 2008 and in 2015, to face-off with her doppelgängers. Hillary Clinton_sentence_735

Jonathan Mann wrote songs about her including "The Hillary Shimmy Song", which went viral. Hillary Clinton_sentence_736

She has often been described in the popular media as a polarizing figure, though some argue otherwise. Hillary Clinton_sentence_737

In the early stages of her 2008 presidential campaign, a Time magazine cover showed a large picture of her with two checkboxes labeled "Love Her", "Hate Her". Hillary Clinton_sentence_738

Mother Jones titled its profile of her "Harpy, Hero, Heretic: Hillary". Hillary Clinton_sentence_739

Following Clinton's "choked up moment" and related incidents in the run-up to the January 2008 New Hampshire primary, both The New York Times and Newsweek found that discussion of gender's role in the campaign had moved into the national political discourse. Hillary Clinton_sentence_740

Newsweek editor Jon Meacham summed up the relationship between Clinton and the American public by saying the New Hampshire events, "brought an odd truth to light: though Hillary Rodham Clinton has been on the periphery or in the middle of national life for decades ... she is one of the most recognizable but least understood figures in American politics". Hillary Clinton_sentence_741

Once she became secretary of state, Clinton's image seemed to improve dramatically among the American public and become one of a respected world figure. Hillary Clinton_sentence_742

Her favorability ratings dropped, however, after she left office and began to be viewed in the context of partisan politics once more. Hillary Clinton_sentence_743

By September 2015, with her 2016 presidential campaign underway and beset by continued reports regarding her private email usage at the State Department, her ratings had slumped to some of her lowest levels ever. Hillary Clinton_sentence_744

During 2016 she acknowledged that: "I'm not a natural politician, in case you haven't noticed." Hillary Clinton_sentence_745

Electoral history Hillary Clinton_section_37

Main article: Electoral history of Hillary Clinton Hillary Clinton_sentence_746

2000 senate election Hillary Clinton_section_38

Hillary Clinton_table_general_1

2000 United States Senate election in New YorkHillary Clinton_table_caption_1
PartyHillary Clinton_header_cell_1_0_0 CandidateHillary Clinton_header_cell_1_0_2 VotesHillary Clinton_header_cell_1_0_3 %Hillary Clinton_header_cell_1_0_4 ±%Hillary Clinton_header_cell_1_0_5
Hillary Clinton_cell_1_1_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_1_1_1 Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_1_1_2 3,747,310Hillary Clinton_cell_1_1_3 55.3Hillary Clinton_cell_1_1_4 Hillary Clinton_cell_1_1_5
Hillary Clinton_cell_1_2_0 RepublicanHillary Clinton_cell_1_2_1 Rick LazioHillary Clinton_cell_1_2_2 2,915,730Hillary Clinton_cell_1_2_3 43.0Hillary Clinton_cell_1_2_4 Hillary Clinton_cell_1_2_5

2006 senate election Hillary Clinton_section_39

Hillary Clinton_table_general_2

2006 United States Senate election in New YorkHillary Clinton_table_caption_2
PartyHillary Clinton_header_cell_2_0_0 CandidateHillary Clinton_header_cell_2_0_2 VotesHillary Clinton_header_cell_2_0_3 %Hillary Clinton_header_cell_2_0_4 ±%Hillary Clinton_header_cell_2_0_5
Hillary Clinton_cell_2_1_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_2_1_1 Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_2_1_2 3,008,428Hillary Clinton_cell_2_1_3 67.0Hillary Clinton_cell_2_1_4 +11.7Hillary Clinton_cell_2_1_5
Hillary Clinton_cell_2_2_0 RepublicanHillary Clinton_cell_2_2_1 John SpencerHillary Clinton_cell_2_2_2 1,392,189Hillary Clinton_cell_2_2_3 31.0Hillary Clinton_cell_2_2_4 −12.0Hillary Clinton_cell_2_2_5

2008 presidential election Hillary Clinton_section_40

Hillary Clinton_table_general_3

2008 Democratic Party presidential primariesHillary Clinton_table_caption_3
PartyHillary Clinton_header_cell_3_0_0 CandidateHillary Clinton_header_cell_3_0_2 VotesHillary Clinton_header_cell_3_0_3 %Hillary Clinton_header_cell_3_0_4
Hillary Clinton_cell_3_1_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_3_1_1 Barack ObamaHillary Clinton_cell_3_1_2 17,584,692 (popular votes)

2,272.5 delegates (33 states)Hillary Clinton_cell_3_1_3

47.3% of popular voteHillary Clinton_cell_3_1_4
Hillary Clinton_cell_3_2_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_3_2_1 Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_3_2_2 17,857,501 (popular votes)

1,978 delegates (23 states)Hillary Clinton_cell_3_2_3

48.0% of popular voteHillary Clinton_cell_3_2_4

2016 presidential election Hillary Clinton_section_41

Hillary Clinton_table_general_4

2016 Democratic Party presidential primariesHillary Clinton_table_caption_4
PartyHillary Clinton_header_cell_4_0_0 CandidateHillary Clinton_header_cell_4_0_2 VotesHillary Clinton_header_cell_4_0_3 %Hillary Clinton_header_cell_4_0_4
Hillary Clinton_cell_4_1_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_4_1_1 Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_4_1_2 16,914,722 (popular votes)

2,842 delegates (34 states)Hillary Clinton_cell_4_1_3

55.2% of popular voteHillary Clinton_cell_4_1_4
Hillary Clinton_cell_4_2_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_4_2_1 Bernie SandersHillary Clinton_cell_4_2_2 13,206,428 (popular votes)

1,865 delegates (23 states)Hillary Clinton_cell_4_2_3

43.1% of popular voteHillary Clinton_cell_4_2_4

Hillary Clinton_table_general_5

2016 United States presidential electionHillary Clinton_table_caption_5
PartyHillary Clinton_header_cell_5_0_0 CandidateHillary Clinton_header_cell_5_0_2 VotesHillary Clinton_header_cell_5_0_3 %Hillary Clinton_header_cell_5_0_4
Hillary Clinton_cell_5_1_0 RepublicanHillary Clinton_cell_5_1_1 Donald TrumpHillary Clinton_cell_5_1_2 62,984,828 (popular votes)

304 electors (30 states + ME−02)Hillary Clinton_cell_5_1_3

46.1% (popular vote)

56.5% (electoral vote)Hillary Clinton_cell_5_1_4

Hillary Clinton_cell_5_2_0 DemocraticHillary Clinton_cell_5_2_1 Hillary ClintonHillary Clinton_cell_5_2_2 65,853,514 (popular votes)

227 electors (20 states + DC)Hillary Clinton_cell_5_2_3

48.2% (popular vote)

42.2% (electoral vote)Hillary Clinton_cell_5_2_4

Books and recordings Hillary Clinton_section_42

See also: Bibliography of Hillary Clinton Hillary Clinton_sentence_747

Hillary Clinton_table_infobox_6

External videoHillary Clinton_header_cell_6_0_0

Hillary Clinton_unordered_list_0

Ancestry Hillary Clinton_section_43

See also Hillary Clinton_section_44

Hillary Clinton_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillary Clinton.