Hip hop

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This article is about the culture in general. Hip hop_sentence_0

For the music genre, see Hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_1

For other uses, see Hip hop (disambiguation). Hip hop_sentence_2

Hip hop or hip-hop is a culture and art movement that was created by African Americans, Latino Americans and Caribbean Americans in the Bronx, New York City. Hip hop_sentence_3

The origin of the name is often disputed. Hip hop_sentence_4

It is also argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. Hip hop_sentence_5

While the term hip hop is often used to refer exclusively to hip hop music (including rap), hip hop is characterized four key elements: "rapping" (also called MCing or emceeing), a rhythmic vocal rhyming style (orality); DJing (and turntablism), which is making music with record players and DJ mixers (aural/sound and music creation); b-boying/b-girling/breakdancing (movement/dance); and graffiti. Hip hop_sentence_6

Other elements are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement (intellectual/philosophical); beatboxing, a percussive vocal style; street entrepreneurship; hip hop language; and hip hop fashion and style, among others. Hip hop_sentence_7

The fifth element, although debated, is commonly considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. Hip hop_sentence_8

The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group that has been described as being a gang, a club, and a music group. Hip hop_sentence_9

Brother-sister duo DJ Kool Herc, and Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop_sentence_10

Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world. Hip hop_sentence_11

These elements were adapted and developed considerably, particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. Hip hop_sentence_12

Even as the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for hip hop culture. Hip hop_sentence_13

Hip hop is simultaneously a new and old phenomenon; the importance of sampling tracks, beats, and basslines from old records to the art form means that much of the culture has revolved around the idea of updating classic recordings, attitudes, and experiences for modern audiences. Hip hop_sentence_14

Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop_sentence_15

Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted and Latino musical genres such as blues, jazz, rag-time, funk, salsa, and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. Hip hop_sentence_16

In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement," inspired by Public Enemy's recordings. Hip hop_sentence_17

The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Justice, Political Awareness, and Community Awareness in music. Hip hop_sentence_18

Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. Hip hop_sentence_19

In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms such as online music streaming services, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Blackplanet & Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, Worldstarhiphop, SoundCloud, and Spotify. Hip hop_sentence_20

Etymology Hip hop_section_0

Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Hip hop_sentence_21

Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance. Hip hop_sentence_22

The group frequently performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." Hip hop_sentence_23

The name was originally meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture. Hip hop_sentence_24

The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, hop, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, and you don't stop". Hip hop_sentence_25

Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood then began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Hip hop_sentence_26

Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly ever a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit ('Rapper's Delight' by the Sugar Hill Gang on Sugarhill Records)." Hip hop_sentence_27

Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa also credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Hip hop_sentence_28

Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades, also did much to further popularize the term. Hip hop_sentence_29

The first use of the term in print, referring specifically to the culture and its elements, was in a January 1982 interview of Afrika Bambaataa by Michael Holman in the East Village Eye. Hip hop_sentence_30

The term gained further currency in September of that year in The Village Voice, in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who also published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Hip hop_sentence_31 Martins' Press. Hip hop_sentence_32

History Hip hop_section_1

1970s Hip hop_section_2

In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City. Hip hop_sentence_33

It focused on emceeing (or MCing) over house parties and neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop_sentence_34

Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities, particularly police and prisons. Hip hop_sentence_35

Historically, hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Hip hop_sentence_36

Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_37

Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement later spread across the entire borough. Hip hop_sentence_38

On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at his sister's back-to-school party. Hip hop_sentence_39

He extended the beat of a record by using two record players, isolating the percussion "breaks" by using a mixer to switch between the two records. Hip hop_sentence_40

Kool Herc's sister, Cindy Campbell, produced and funded the Back to School Party that became the "Birth of Hip Hop.". Hip hop_sentence_41

Herc's experiments with making music with record players became what we now know as breaking or "scratching." Hip hop_sentence_42

A second key musical element in hip hop music is emceeing (also called MCing or rapping). Hip hop_sentence_43

Emceeing is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, delivered at first without accompaniment and later done over a beat. Hip hop_sentence_44

This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping," a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners. Hip hop_sentence_45

The basic elements of hip hop—boasting raps, rival "posses" (groups), uptown "throw-downs," and political and social commentary—were all long present in African American music. Hip hop_sentence_46

MCing and rapping performers moved back and forth between the predominance of toasting songs packed with a mix of boasting, 'slackness' and sexual innuendo and a more topical, political, socially conscious style. Hip hop_sentence_47

The role of the MC originally was as a Master of Ceremonies for a DJ dance event. Hip hop_sentence_48

The MC would introduce the DJ and try to pump up the audience. Hip hop_sentence_49

The MC spoke between the DJ's songs, urging everyone to get up and dance. Hip hop_sentence_50

MCs would also tell jokes and use their energetic language and enthusiasm to rev up the crowd. Hip hop_sentence_51

Eventually, this introducing role developed into longer sessions of spoken, rhythmic wordplay, and rhyming, which became rapping. Hip hop_sentence_52

By 1979 hip hop music had become a mainstream genre. Hip hop_sentence_53

It spread across the world in the 1990s with controversial "gangsta" rap. Hip hop_sentence_54

Herc also developed upon break-beat deejaying, where the breaks of funk songs—the part most suited to dance, usually percussion-based—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties. Hip hop_sentence_55

This form of music playback, using hard funk and rock, formed the basis of hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_56

Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. Hip hop_sentence_57

He dubbed his dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls," or simply b-boys and b-girls. Hip hop_sentence_58

According to Herc, "breaking" was also street slang for "getting excited" and "acting energetically" Hip hop_sentence_59

DJs such as Grand Wizzard Theodore, Grandmaster Flash, and Jazzy Jay refined and developed the use of breakbeats, including cutting and scratching. Hip hop_sentence_60

The approach used by Herc was soon widely copied, and by the late 1970s, DJs were releasing 12-inch records where they would rap to the beat. Hip hop_sentence_61

Influential tunes included Fatback Band's "King Tim III (Personality Jock)," The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight," and Kurtis Blow's "Christmas Rappin'," all released in 1979. Hip hop_sentence_62

Herc and other DJs would connect their equipment to power lines and perform at venues such as public basketball courts and at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Bronx, New York, now officially a historic building. Hip hop_sentence_63

The equipment consisted of numerous speakers, turntables, and one or more microphones. Hip hop_sentence_64

By using this technique, DJs could create a variety of music, but according to Rap Attack by David Toop "At its worst the technique could turn the night into one endless and inevitably boring song". Hip hop_sentence_65

KC The Prince of Soul, a rapper-lyricist with Pete DJ Jones, is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC." Hip hop_sentence_66

Street gangs were prevalent in the poverty of the South Bronx, and much of the graffiti, rapping, and b-boying at these parties were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs. Hip hop_sentence_67

Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika Bambaataa founded the Zulu Nation, a loose confederation of street-dance crews, graffiti artists, and rap musicians. Hip hop_sentence_68

By the late 1970s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled "B Beats Bombarding Bronx", commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such as Kool Herc. Hip hop_sentence_69

The New York City blackout of 1977 saw widespread looting, arson, and other citywide disorders especially in the Bronx where a number of looters stole DJ equipment from electronics stores. Hip hop_sentence_70

As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside of the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding rate from 1977 onward. Hip hop_sentence_71

DJ Kool Herc's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people. Hip hop_sentence_72

Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy." Hip hop_sentence_73

Tony Tone, a member of the Cold Crush Brothers, stated that "hip hop saved a lot of lives". Hip hop_sentence_74

For inner-city youth, participating in hip hop culture became a way of dealing with the hardships of life as minorities within America, and an outlet to deal with the risk of violence and the rise of gang culture. Hip hop_sentence_75

MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting". Hip hop_sentence_76

Inspired by DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa created a street organization called Universal Zulu Nation, centered around hip hop, as a means to draw teenagers out of gang life, drugs and violence. Hip hop_sentence_77

The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track "The Message" (1982) by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects. Hip hop_sentence_78

"Young black Americans coming out of the civil rights movement have used hip hop culture in the 1980s and 1990s to show the limitations of the movement." Hip hop_sentence_79

Hip hop gave young African Americans a voice to let their issues be heard; "Like rock-and-roll, hip hop is vigorously opposed by conservatives because it romanticizes violence, law-breaking, and gangs". Hip hop_sentence_80

It also gave people a chance for financial gain by "reducing the rest of the world to consumers of its social concerns." Hip hop_sentence_81

In late 1979, Debbie Harry of Blondie took Nile Rodgers of Chic to such an event, as the main backing track used was the break from Chic's "Good Times". Hip hop_sentence_82

The new style influenced Harry, and Blondie's later hit single from 1981 "Rapture" became the first major single containing hip hop elements by a white group or artist to hit number one on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100—the song itself is usually considered new wave and fuses heavy pop music elements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end. Hip hop_sentence_83

1980s Hip hop_section_3

In 1980, Kurtis Blow released his self-titled debut album featuring the single "The Breaks", which became the first certified gold rap song. Hip hop_sentence_84

In 1982, Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force released the electro-funk track "Planet Rock". Hip hop_sentence_85

Instead of simply rapping over disco beats, Bambaataa and producer Arthur Baker created an electronic sound using the Roland TR-808 drum machine and sampling from Kraftwerk. Hip hop_sentence_86

"Planet Rock" is widely regarded as a turning point; fusing electro with hip hop, it was "like a light being switched on," resulting in a new genre. Hip hop_sentence_87

The track also helped popularize the 808, which became a cornerstone of hip hop music; Wired and Slate both described the machine as hip hop's equivalent to the Fender Stratocaster, which had dramatically influenced the development of rock music. Hip hop_sentence_88

Released in 1986, Licensed to Ill by the Beastie Boys became the first rap LP to top the Billboard album chart. Hip hop_sentence_89

Other groundbreaking records released in 1982 include "The Message" by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, "Nunk" by Warp 9, "Hip Hop, Be Bop (Don't Stop)" by Man Parrish, "Magic Wand" by Whodini, and "Buffalo Gals" by Malcolm McLaren. Hip hop_sentence_90

In 1983, Hashim created the influential electro funk tune "Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)", while Warp 9's "Light Years Away"(1983), "a cornerstone of early 80s beat box afrofuturism", introduced socially conscious themes from a Sci-Fi perspective, paying homage to music pioneer Sun Ra. Hip hop_sentence_91

Encompassing graffiti art, MCing/rapping, DJing and b-boying, hip hop became the dominant cultural movement of the minority-populated urban communities in the 1980s. Hip hop_sentence_92

The 1980s also saw many artists make social statements through hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_93

In 1982, Melle Mel and Duke Bootee recorded "The Message" (officially credited to Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five), a song that foreshadowed the socially conscious statements of Run-DMC's "It's like That" and Public Enemy's "Black Steel in the Hour of Chaos". Hip hop_sentence_94

During the 1980s, hip hop also embraced the creation of rhythm by using the human body, via the vocal percussion technique of beatboxing. Hip hop_sentence_95

Pioneers such as Doug E. Fresh, Biz Markie and Buffy from the Fat Boys made beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts. Hip hop_sentence_96

"Human Beatbox" artists would also sing or imitate turntablism scratching or other instrument sounds. Hip hop_sentence_97

The appearance of music videos changed entertainment: they often glorified urban neighborhoods. Hip hop_sentence_98

The music video for "Planet Rock" showcased the subculture of hip hop musicians, graffiti artists, and b-boys/b-girls. Hip hop_sentence_99

Many hip hop-related films were released between 1982 and 1985, among them Wild Style, Beat Street, Krush Groove, Breakin, and the documentary Style Wars. Hip hop_sentence_100

These films expanded the appeal of hip hop beyond the boundaries of New York. Hip hop_sentence_101

By 1984, youth worldwide were embracing the hip hop culture. Hip hop_sentence_102

The hip hop artwork and "slang" of U.S. urban communities quickly found its way to Europe, as the culture's global appeal took root. Hip hop_sentence_103

The four traditional dances of hip hop are rocking, b-boying/b-girling, locking and popping, all of which trace their origins to the late 1960s or early 1970s. Hip hop_sentence_104

Women artists have also been at the forefront of the hip hop movement since its inception in the Bronx. Hip hop_sentence_105

Nevertheless, as gangsta rap became the dominant force in hip hop music, there were many songs with misogynistic (anti-women) lyrics and many music videos depicted women in a sexualized fashion. Hip hop_sentence_106

The negation of female voice and perspective is an issue that has come to define mainstream hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_107

The recording industry is less willing to back female artists than their male counterparts, and when it does back them, often it places emphasis on their sexuality over their musical substance and artistic abilities. Hip hop_sentence_108

Since the turn of the century, female hip hop artists have struggled to get mainstream attention, with only a few, such as older artists like the female duo Salt N' Pepa to more contemporary ones like Lil' Kim and Nicki Minaj, reaching platinum status. Hip hop_sentence_109

1990s Hip hop_section_4

With the commercial success of gangsta rap in the early 1990s, the emphasis in lyrics shifted to drugs, violence, and misogyny. Hip hop_sentence_110

Early proponents of gangsta rap included groups and artists such as Ice-T, who recorded what some consider to be the first gangster rap single, "6 in the Mornin'", and N.W.A whose second album Niggaz4Life became the first gangsta rap album to enter the charts at number one. Hip hop_sentence_111

Gangsta rap also played an important part in hip hop becoming a mainstream commodity. Hip hop_sentence_112

Considering albums such as N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton, Eazy-E's Eazy-Duz-It, and Ice Cube's Amerikkka's Most Wanted were selling in such high numbers meant that black teens were no longer hip hop's sole buying audience. Hip hop_sentence_113

As a result, gangsta rap became a platform for artists who chose to use their music to spread political and social messages to parts of the country that were previously unaware of the conditions of ghettos. Hip hop_sentence_114

While hip hop music now appeals to a broader demographic, media critics argue that socially and politically conscious hip hop has been largely disregarded by mainstream America. Hip hop_sentence_115

Global innovations Hip hop_section_5

According to the U.S. Department of State, hip hop is "now the center of a mega music and fashion industry around the world" that crosses social barriers and cuts across racial lines. Hip hop_sentence_116

National Geographic recognizes hip hop as "the world's favorite youth culture" in which "just about every country on the planet seems to have developed its own local rap scene." Hip hop_sentence_117

Through its international travels, hip hop is now considered a "global musical epidemic". Hip hop_sentence_118

According to The Village Voice, hip hop is "custom-made to combat the anomie that preys on adolescents wherever nobody knows their name." Hip hop_sentence_119

Hip hop sounds and styles differ from region to region, but there are also instances of fusion genres. Hip hop_sentence_120

Hip hop culture has grown from the avoided genre to a genre that is followed by millions of fans worldwide. Hip hop_sentence_121

This was made possible by the adaptation of music in different locations, and the influence on style of behavior and dress. Hip hop_sentence_122

Not all countries have embraced hip hop, where "as can be expected in countries with strong local culture, the interloping wildstyle of hip hop is not always welcomed". Hip hop_sentence_123

This is somewhat the case in Jamaica, the homeland of the culture's father, DJ Kool Herc. Hip hop_sentence_124

However, despite hip hop music produced on the island lacking widespread local and international recognition, artists such as Five Steez have defied the odds by impressing online hip hop taste-makers and even reggae critics. Hip hop_sentence_125

Hartwig Vens argues that hip hop can also be viewed as a global learning experience. Hip hop_sentence_126

Author Jeff Chang argues that "the essence of hip hop is the cipher, born in the Bronx, where competition and community feed each other." Hip hop_sentence_127

He also adds, "Thousands of organizers from Cape Town to Paris use hip hop in their communities to address environmental justice, policing and prisons, media justice, and education.". Hip hop_sentence_128

While hip hop music has been criticized as a music that creates a divide between western music and music from the rest of the world, a musical "cross pollination" has taken place, which strengthens the power of hip hop to influence different communities. Hip hop_sentence_129

Hip hop's messages allow the under-privileged and the mistreated to be heard. Hip hop_sentence_130

These cultural translations cross borders. Hip hop_sentence_131

While the music may be from a foreign country, the message is something that many people can relate to- something not "foreign" at all. Hip hop_sentence_132

Even when hip hop is transplanted to other countries, it often retains its "vital progressive agenda that challenges the status quo." Hip hop_sentence_133

In Gothenburg, Sweden, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) incorporate graffiti and dance to engage disaffected immigrant and working class youths. Hip hop_sentence_134

Hip hop has played a small but distinct role as the musical face of revolution in the Arab Spring, one example being an anonymous Libyan musician, Ibn Thabit, whose anti-government songs fueled the rebellion. Hip hop_sentence_135

Commercialization Hip hop_section_6

In the early-to-mid 1980s, there wasn't an established hip hop music industry, as exists in the 2020s, with record labels, record producers, managers and Artists and Repertoire staff. Hip hop_sentence_136

Politicians and businesspeople maligned and ignored the hip hop movement. Hip hop_sentence_137

Most hip hop artists performed in their local communities and recorded in underground scenes. Hip hop_sentence_138

However, in the late 1980s, music industry executives realized that they could capitalize on the success of "gangsta rap." Hip hop_sentence_139

They made a formula that created "a titillating buffet of hypermasculinity and glorified violence." Hip hop_sentence_140

This type of rap was marketed to the new fan base: white males. Hip hop_sentence_141

They ignored the depictions of a harsh reality to focus on the sex and violence involved. Hip hop_sentence_142

In an article for The Village Voice, Greg Tate argues that the commercialization of hip hop is a negative and pervasive phenomenon, writing that "what we call hiphop is now inseparable from what we call the hip hop industry, in which the nouveau riche and the super-rich employers get richer". Hip hop_sentence_143

Ironically, this commercialization coincides with a decline in rap sales and pressure from critics of the genre. Hip hop_sentence_144

Even other musicians, like Nas and KRS-ONE have claimed "hip hop is dead" in that it has changed so much over the years to cater to the consumer that it has lost the essence for which it was originally created. Hip hop_sentence_145

However, in his book In Search Of Africa, Manthia Diawara states that hip hop is really a voice of people who are marginalized in modern society. Hip hop_sentence_146

He argues that the "worldwide spread of hip hop as a market revolution" is actually global "expression of poor people's desire for the good life," and that this struggle aligns with "the nationalist struggle for citizenship and belonging, but also reveals the need to go beyond such struggles and celebrate the redemption of the black individual through tradition." Hip hop_sentence_147

The problem may not be that female rappers do not have the same opportunities and recognition as their male counterparts; it may be that the music industry that is so defined by gender biases. Hip hop_sentence_148

Industry executives seem to bet on the idea that men won't want to listen to female rappers, so they are given fewer opportunities. Hip hop_sentence_149

As the hip hop genre has changed since the 1980s, the African-American cultural "tradition" that Diawara describes has little place in hip hop's mainstream artists music. Hip hop_sentence_150

The push toward materialism and market success by contemporary rappers such as Rick Ross, Lil Wayne and Jay Z has irked older hip hop fans and artists. Hip hop_sentence_151

They see the genre losing its community-based feel that focused more on black empowerment than wealth. Hip hop_sentence_152

The commercialization of the genre stripped it of its earlier political nature and the politics and marketing plans of major record labels have forced rappers to craft their music and images to appeal to white, affluent and suburban audiences. Hip hop_sentence_153

After realizing her friends were making music but not getting television exposure other than what was seen on Video Music Box, Darlene Lewis (model/lyricist), along with Darryl Washington and Dean Carroll, brought hip hop music to the First Exposure cable show on Paragon cable, and then created the On Broadway television show. Hip hop_sentence_154

There, rappers had opportunities to be interviewed and have their music videos played. Hip hop_sentence_155

This pre-dated MTV or Video Soul on BET. Hip hop_sentence_156

The commercialization has made hip hop less edgy and authentic, but it also has enabled hip hop artists to become successful. Hip hop_sentence_157

As top rappers grow wealthier and start more outside business ventures, this can indicate a stronger sense of black aspiration. Hip hop_sentence_158

As rappers such as Jay-Z and Kanye West establish themselves as artists and entrepreneurs, more young black people have hopes of achieving their goals. Hip hop_sentence_159

The lens through which one views the genre's commercialization can make it seem positive or negative. Hip hop_sentence_160

White and Latino pop rappers such as Macklemore, Iggy Azalea, Machine Gun Kelly, Eminem, Miley Cyrus, G-Eazy, Pitbull, Lil Pump, and Post Malone have often been criticized for commercializing hip hop and cultural appropriation. Hip hop_sentence_161

Miley Cyrus and Katy Perry, although not rappers, have been accused of cultural appropriation and commercializing hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_162

Katy Perry, a white woman, was criticized for her hip hop song "Dark Horse". Hip hop_sentence_163

Taylor Swift was also accused of cultural appropriation. Hip hop_sentence_164

Culture Hip hop_section_7

DJing and turntablism, MCing/rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art and beatboxing are the creative outlets that collectively make up hip hop culture and its revolutionary aesthetic. Hip hop_sentence_165

Like the blues, these arts were developed by African American communities to enable people to make a statement, whether political or emotional and participate in community activities. Hip hop_sentence_166

These practices spread globally around the 1980s as fans could "make it their own" and express themselves in new and creative ways in music, dance and other arts. Hip hop_sentence_167

DJing Hip hop_section_8

Main article: Turntablism Hip hop_sentence_168

DJing and turntablism are the techniques of manipulating sounds and creating music and beats using two or more phonograph turntables (or other sound sources, such as tapes, CDs or ) and a DJ mixer that is plugged into a PA system. Hip hop_sentence_169

One of the first few hip hop DJs was Kool DJ Herc, who created hip hop in the 1970s through the isolation and extending of "breaks" (the parts of albums that focused solely on the percussive beat). Hip hop_sentence_170

In addition to developing Herc's techniques, DJs Grandmaster Flowers, Grandmaster Flash, Grand Wizzard Theodore, and Grandmaster Caz made further innovations with the introduction of "scratching", which has become one of the key sounds associated with hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_171

Traditionally, a DJ will use two turntables simultaneously and mix between the two. Hip hop_sentence_172

These are connected to a DJ mixer, an amplifier, speakers, and various electronic music equipment such as a microphone and effects units. Hip hop_sentence_173

The DJ mixes the two albums currently in rotation and/or does "scratching" by moving one of the record platters while manipulating the crossfader on the mixer. Hip hop_sentence_174

The result of mixing two records is a unique sound created by the seemingly combined sound of two separate songs into one song. Hip hop_sentence_175

Although there is considerable overlap between the two roles, a DJ is not the same as a record producer of a music track. Hip hop_sentence_176

The development of DJing was also influenced by new turntablism techniques, such as beatmatching, a process facilitated by the introduction of new turntable technologies such as the Technics SL-1200 MK 2, first sold in 1978, which had a precise variable pitch control and a direct drive motor. Hip hop_sentence_177

DJs were often avid record collectors, who would hunt through used record stores for obscure soul records and vintage funk recordings. Hip hop_sentence_178

DJs helped to introduce rare records and new artists to club audiences. Hip hop_sentence_179

In the early years of hip hop, the DJs were the stars, as they created new music and beats with their record players. Hip hop_sentence_180

While DJing and turntablism continue to be used in hip hop music in the 2010s, the star role has increasingly been taken by MCs since the late 1970s, due to innovative, creative MCs such as Kurtis Blow and Melle Mel of Grandmaster Flash's crew, the Furious Five, who developed strong rapping skills. Hip hop_sentence_181

However, a number of DJs have gained stardom nonetheless in recent years. Hip hop_sentence_182

Famous DJs include Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, Mr. Hip hop_sentence_183 Magic, DJ Jazzy Jeff, DJ Charlie Chase, DJ Disco Wiz, DJ Scratch from EPMD, DJ Premier from Gang Starr, DJ Scott La Rock from Boogie Down Productions, DJ Pete Rock of Pete Rock & CL Smooth, DJ Muggs from Cypress Hill, Jam Master Jay from Run-DMC, Eric B. Hip hop_sentence_184 , DJ Screw from the Screwed Up Click and the inventor of the Chopped & Screwed style of mixing music, Funkmaster Flex, Tony Touch, DJ Clue, Mix Master Mike, Touch-Chill-Out, DJ Red Alert, and DJ Q-Bert. Hip hop_sentence_185

The underground movement of turntablism has also emerged to focus on the skills of the DJ. Hip hop_sentence_186

In the 2010s, there are turntablism competitions, where turntablists demonstrate advanced beat juggling and scratching skills. Hip hop_sentence_187

MCing Hip hop_section_9

Main article: Rapping Hip hop_sentence_188

Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting (bars), or just rhyming) refers to "spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics with a strong rhythmic accompaniment". Hip hop_sentence_189

Rapping typically features complex wordplay, rapid delivery, and a range of "street slang", some of which is unique to the hip hop subculture. Hip hop_sentence_190

While rapping is often done over beats, either done by a DJ, a beatboxer, it can also be done without accompaniment. Hip hop_sentence_191

It can be broken down into different components, such as "content", "flow" (rhythm and rhyme), and "delivery". Hip hop_sentence_192

Rapping is distinct from spoken word poetry in that it is performed in time to the beat of the music. Hip hop_sentence_193

The use of the word "rap" to describe quick and slangy speech or witty repartee long predates the musical form. Hip hop_sentence_194

MCing is a form of expression that is embedded within ancient African and Indigenous culture and oral tradition as throughout history verbal acrobatics or jousting involving rhymes were common within the Afro-American and Latino-American community. Hip hop_sentence_195

Graffiti Hip hop_section_10

Graffiti is the most controversial of hip hop's elements, as a number of the most notable graffiti pioneers say that they do not consider graffiti to be an element of hip hop, including Lady Pink, Seen, Blade, Fargo, Cholly Rock, Fuzz One, and Coco 144. Hip hop_sentence_196

Lady Pink says, "I don't think graffiti is hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_197

Frankly I grew up with disco music. Hip hop_sentence_198

There's a long background of graffiti as an entity unto itself," and Fargo says, "There is no correlation between hip hop and graffiti, one has nothing to do with the other." Hip hop_sentence_199

Hip hop pioneer Grandmaster Flash has also questioned the connection between hip hop and graffiti, saying, "You know what bugs me, they put hip hop with graffiti. Hip hop_sentence_200

How do they intertwine?" Hip hop_sentence_201

In America in the late 1960s, before hip hop, graffiti was used as a form of expression by political activists. Hip hop_sentence_202

In addition, gangs such as the Savage Skulls, La Familia Michoacana, and Savage Nomads used graffiti to mark territory. Hip hop_sentence_203

JULIO 204 was a Puerto Rican graffiti writer, one of the first graffiti writers in New York City. Hip hop_sentence_204

He was a member of the "Savage Skulls" gang, and started writing his nickname in his neighborhood as early as 1968. Hip hop_sentence_205

In 1971 the New York Times published an article ("'Taki 183' Spawns Pen Pals") about another graffiti writer, TAKI 183. Hip hop_sentence_206

According to the article Julio had been writing for a couple of years when Taki began tagging his own name all around the city. Hip hop_sentence_207

Taki also states in the article that Julio "was busted and stopped." Hip hop_sentence_208

Writers following in the wake of Taki and Tracy 168 would add their street number to their nickname, "bomb" (cover) a train with their work, and let the subway take it—and their fame, if it was impressive, or simply pervasive, enough—"all city". Hip hop_sentence_209

Julio 204 never rose to Taki's fame because Julio kept his tags localized to his own neighborhood. Hip hop_sentence_210

One of the most common forms of graffiti is tagging, or the act of stylizing your unique name or logo. Hip hop_sentence_211

Tagging began in Philadelphia and New York City and has expanded worldwide. Hip hop_sentence_212

Spray painting public property or the property of others without their consent can be considered vandalism, and the "tagger" may be subject to arrest and prosecution for the criminal act. Hip hop_sentence_213

Whether legal or not, the hip hop culture considers tagging buildings, trains, bridges and other structures as visual art, and consider the tags as part of a complex symbol system with its own social codes and subculture rules. Hip hop_sentence_214

Such art is in some cases now subject to federal protection in the US, making its erasure illegal. Hip hop_sentence_215

Bubble lettering held sway initially among writers from the Bronx, though the elaborate Brooklyn style Tracy 168 dubbed "wildstyle" would come to define the art. Hip hop_sentence_216

The early trend-setters were joined in the 1970s by artists like Dondi, Futura 2000, Daze, Blade, Lee Quiñones, Fab Five Freddy, Zephyr, Rammellzee, Crash, Kel, NOC 167 and Lady Pink. Hip hop_sentence_217

The relationship between graffiti and hip hop culture arises both from early graffiti artists engaging in other aspects of hip hop culture, Graffiti is understood as a visual expression of rap music, just as breaking is viewed as a physical expression. Hip hop_sentence_218

The 1983 film Wild Style is widely regarded as the first hip hop motion picture, which featured prominent figures within the New York graffiti scene during that period. Hip hop_sentence_219

The book Subway Art and the documentary Style Wars were also among the first ways the mainstream public were introduced to hip hop graffiti. Hip hop_sentence_220

Graffiti remains part of hip hop, while crossing into the mainstream art world with exhibits in galleries throughout the world. Hip hop_sentence_221

Breakdancing Hip hop_section_11

Main article: Breakdancing Hip hop_sentence_222

Breaking, also called B-boying/B-girling or breakdancing, is a dynamic, rhythmic style of dance which developed as one of the major elements of hip hop culture. Hip hop_sentence_223

Like many aspects of hip hop culture, breakdance borrows heavily from many cultures, including 1930s-era street dancing, Brazilian and Asian Martial arts, Russian folk dance, and the dance moves of James Brown, Michael Jackson, and California funk. Hip hop_sentence_224

Breaking took form in the South Bronx in the 1970s alongside the other elements of hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_225

Breakdancing is typically done with the accompaniment of hip hop music playing on a boom box or PA system. Hip hop_sentence_226

According to the 2002 documentary film The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy, DJ Kool Herc describes the "B" in B-boy as short for breaking, which at the time was slang for "going off", also one of the original names for the dance. Hip hop_sentence_227

However, early on the dance was known as the "boing" (the sound a spring makes). Hip hop_sentence_228

Dancers at DJ Kool Herc's parties saved their best dance moves for the percussion break section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style. Hip hop_sentence_229

The "B" in B-boy or B-girl also stands simply for break, as in break-boy or -girl. Hip hop_sentence_230

Before the 1990s, B-girls' presence was limited by their gender minority status, navigating sexual politics of a masculine-dominated scene, and a lack of representation or encouragement for women to participate in the form. Hip hop_sentence_231

The few B-girls who participated despite facing gender discrimination carved out a space for women as leaders within the breaking community, and the number of B-girls participating has increased. Hip hop_sentence_232

Breaking was documented in Style Wars, and was later given more focus in fictional films such as Wild Style and Beat Street. Hip hop_sentence_233

Early acts “mainly Latino Americans” include the Rock Steady Crew and New York City Breakers. Hip hop_sentence_234

Beatboxing Hip hop_section_12

Main article: Beatboxing Hip hop_sentence_235

Beatboxing is the technique of vocal percussion, in which a singer imitates drums and other percussion instruments with her or his voice. Hip hop_sentence_236

It is primarily concerned with the art of creating beats or rhythms using the human mouth. Hip hop_sentence_237

The term beatboxing is derived from the mimicry of the first generation of drum machines, then known as beatboxes. Hip hop_sentence_238

It was first popularized by Doug E. Fresh. Hip hop_sentence_239

As it is a way of creating hip hop music, it can be categorized under the production element of hip hop, though it does sometimes include a type of rapping intersected with the human-created beat. Hip hop_sentence_240

It is generally considered to be part of the same "Pillar" of hip hop as DJing—in other words, providing a musical backdrop or foundation for MC's to rap over. Hip hop_sentence_241

Beatboxers can create their beats just naturally, but many of the beatboxing effects are enhanced by using a microphone plugged into a PA system. Hip hop_sentence_242

This helps the beatboxer to make their beatboxing loud enough to be heard alongside a rapper, MC, turntablist, and other hip hop artists. Hip hop_sentence_243

Beatboxing was popular in the 1980s with prominent artists like the Darren "Buffy, the Human Beat Box" Robinson of the Fat Boys and Biz Markie displaying their skills within the media. Hip hop_sentence_244

It declined in popularity along with b-boying in the late 1980s, but has undergone a resurgence since the late 1990s, marked by the release of "Make the Music 2000." Hip hop_sentence_245

by Rahzel of The Roots. Hip hop_sentence_246

Beatmaking/producing Hip hop_section_13

Main article: Hip hop production Hip hop_sentence_247

Although it is not described as one of the four core elements that make up hip hop, music producing is another important element. Hip hop_sentence_248

In music, record producers play a similar role in sound recording that film directors play in making a movie. Hip hop_sentence_249

The record producer recruits and selects artists (rappers, MCs, DJs, beatboxers, and so on), plans the vision for the recording session, coaches the performers on their songs, chooses audio engineers, sets out a budget for hiring the artists and technical experts, and oversees the entire project. Hip hop_sentence_250

The exact roles of a producer depend on each individual, but some producers work with DJs and drum machine programmers to create beats, coach the DJs in the selection of sampled basslines, riffs and catch phrases, give advice to rappers, vocalists, MCs and other artists, give suggestions to performers on how to improve their flow and develop a unique personal style. Hip hop_sentence_251

Some producers work closely with the audio engineer to provide ideas on mixing, effects units (e.g., Autotuned vocal effects such as those popularized by T-Pain), micing of artists, and so on. Hip hop_sentence_252

The producer may independently develop the "concept" or vision for a project or album, or develop the vision in collaboration with the artists and performers. Hip hop_sentence_253

In hip hop, since the beginning of MCing, there have been producers who work in the studio, behind the scenes, to create the beats for MCs to rap over. Hip hop_sentence_254

Producers may find a beat they like on an old funk, soul, or disco record. Hip hop_sentence_255

They then isolate the beat and turn it into a loop. Hip hop_sentence_256

Alternatively, producers may create a beat with a drum machine or by hiring a drumkit percussionist to play acoustic drums. Hip hop_sentence_257

The producer could even mix and layer different methods, such as combining a sampled disco drum break with a drum machine track and some live, newly recorded percussion parts or a live electric bass player. Hip hop_sentence_258

A beat created by a hip hop producer may include other parts besides a drum beat, such as a sampled bassline from a funk or disco song, dialogue from a spoken word record or movie, or rhythmic "scratching" and "punches" done by a turntablist or DJ. Hip hop_sentence_259

An early beat maker was producer Kurtis Blow, who won producer of the year credits in 1983, 1984, and 1985. Hip hop_sentence_260

Known for the creation of sample and sample loops, Blow was considered the Quincy Jones of early hip hop, a reference to the prolific African American record producer, conductor, arranger, composer, musician and bandleader. Hip hop_sentence_261

One of the most influential beat makers was J. Dilla, a producer from Detroit who chopped samples by specific beats and would combine them together to create his unique sound. Hip hop_sentence_262

Those who create these beats are known as either beat makers or producers, however producers are known to have more input and direction on the overall the creation of a song or project, while a beat maker just provides or creates the beat. Hip hop_sentence_263

As Dr. Dre has said before "Once you finish the beat, you have to produce the record." Hip hop_sentence_264

The process of making beats includes sampling, "chopping", looping, sequencing beats, recording, mixing, and mastering. Hip hop_sentence_265

Most beats in hip hop are sampled from a pre-existing record. Hip hop_sentence_266

This means that a producer will take a portion or a "sample" of a song and reuse it as an instrumental section, beat or portion of their song. Hip hop_sentence_267

Some examples of this are The Isley Brothers' "Footsteps in the Dark Pts. Hip hop_sentence_268

1 and 2" being sampled to make Ice Cube's "Today Was a Good Day". Hip hop_sentence_269

Another example is Otis Redding's "Try a Little Tenderness" being sampled to create the song "Otis", released in 2011, by Kanye West and Jay-Z. Hip hop_sentence_270

"Chopping" is dissecting the song that you are sampling so that you "chop" out the part or parts of the song, be that the bassline, rhythm guitar part, drum break, or other music, you want to use in the beat. Hip hop_sentence_271

Looping is known as melodic or percussive sequence that repeats itself over a period of time, so basically a producer will make an even-number of bars of a beat (e.g., four bars or eight bars) repeat itself or "loop" of a full song length. Hip hop_sentence_272

This loop provides an accompaniment for an MC to rap over. Hip hop_sentence_273

The tools needed to make beats in the late 1970s were funk, soul, and other music genre records, record turntables, DJ mixers, audio consoles, and relatively inexpensive Portastudio-style multitrack recording devices. Hip hop_sentence_274

In the 1980s and 1990s, beat makers and producers used the new electronic and digital instruments that were developed, such as samplers, sequencers, drum machines, and synthesizers. Hip hop_sentence_275

From the 1970s to the 2010s, various beat makers and producers have used live instruments, such as drum kit or electric bass on some tracks. Hip hop_sentence_276

To record the finished beats or beat tracks, beat makers and producers use a variety of sound recording equipment, typically multitrack recorders. Hip hop_sentence_277

Digital Audio Workstations, also known as DAWs, became more common in the 2010s for producers. Hip hop_sentence_278

Some of the most used DAWs are FL Studio, Ableton Live, and Pro Tools. Hip hop_sentence_279

DAWs have made it possible for more people to be able to make beats in their own home studio, without going to a recording studio. Hip hop_sentence_280

Beat makers who own DAWs do not have to buy all the hardware that a recording studio needed in the 1980s (huge 72 channel audio consoles, multitrack recorders, racks of rackmount effects units), because 2010-era DAWs have everything they need to make beats on a good quality, fast laptop computer. Hip hop_sentence_281

Beats are such an integral part of rap music that many producers have been able to make instrumental mixtapes or albums. Hip hop_sentence_282

Even though these instrumentals have no rapping, listeners still enjoy the inventive ways the producer mixes different beats, samples and instrumental melodies. Hip hop_sentence_283

Examples of these are 9th Wonder's "Tutenkhamen" and J Dilla's "Donuts". Hip hop_sentence_284

Some hip hop records come in two versions: a beat with rapping over it, and an instrumental with just the beat. Hip hop_sentence_285

The instrumental in this case is provided so that DJs and turntablists can isolate breaks, beats and other music to create new songs. Hip hop_sentence_286

Language Hip hop_section_14

The development of hip hop linguistics is complex. Hip hop_sentence_287

Source material include the spirituals of slaves arriving in the new world, Jamaican dub music, the laments of jazz and blues singers, patterned cockney slang and radio deejays hyping their audience using rhymes. Hip hop_sentence_288

Hip hop has a distinctive associated slang. Hip hop_sentence_289

It is also known by alternate names, such as "Black English", or "Ebonics". Hip hop_sentence_290

Academics suggest its development stems from a rejection of the racial hierarchy of language, which held "White English" as the superior form of educated speech. Hip hop_sentence_291

Due to hip hop's commercial success in the late 1990s and early 2000s, many of these words have been assimilated into the cultural discourse of several different dialects across America and the world and even to non-hip hop fans. Hip hop_sentence_292

The word for example is particularly prolific. Hip hop_sentence_293

There are also a number of words which predate hip hop, but are often associated with the culture, with homie being a notable example. Hip hop_sentence_294

Sometimes, terms like what the dilly, yo are popularized by a single song (in this case, "Put Your Hands Where My Eyes Could See" by Busta Rhymes) and are only used briefly. Hip hop_sentence_295

One particular example is the rule-based slang of Snoop Dogg and E-40, who add -izzle or -izz to the end or middle of words. Hip hop_sentence_296

Hip Hop lyrics have also been known for containing swear words. Hip hop_sentence_297

In particular, the word "bitch" is seen in countless songs, from NWA's "A Bitch Iz a bitch" to Missy Elliot's "She is a Bitch." Hip hop_sentence_298

It is often used in the negative connotation of a woman who is a shallow "money grubber". Hip hop_sentence_299

Some female artists have tried to reclaim the word and use it as a term of empowerment. Hip hop_sentence_300

Regardless, the hip hop community has recently taken an interest in discussing the use of the word "bitch" and whether it is necessary in rap. Hip hop_sentence_301

Not only the particular words, but also the choice of which language in which rap is widely debated topic in international hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_302

In Canada, the use of non-standard variants of French, such as Franglais, a mix of French and English, by groups such as Dead Obies or Chiac (such as Radio Radio) has powerful symbolic implications for Canadian language politics and debates on Canadian identity. Hip hop_sentence_303

In the United States rappers choose to rap in English, Spanish, or Spanglish, depending on their own backgrounds and their intended audience. Hip hop_sentence_304

Social impact Hip hop_section_15

Effects Hip hop_section_16

Hip hop has made a considerable social impact since its inception in the 1970s. Hip hop_sentence_305

"Hip hop has also become relevant to the field of education because of its implications for understanding language, learning, identity, and curriculum." Hip hop_sentence_306

Orlando Patterson, a sociology professor at Harvard University, helps describe the phenomenon of how hip hop has spread rapidly around the world. Hip hop_sentence_307

Patterson argues that mass communication is controlled by the wealthy, the government, and major businesses in Third World nations and countries around the world. Hip hop_sentence_308

He also credits mass communication with creating a global cultural hip hop scene. Hip hop_sentence_309

As a result, the youth are influenced by the American hip hop scene and start their own forms of hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_310

Patterson believes that revitalization of hip hop music will occur around the world as traditional values are mixed with American hip hop music, and ultimately a global exchange process will develop that brings youth around the world to listen to a common musical form of hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_311

It has also been argued that rap music formed as a "cultural response to historic oppression and racism, a system for communication among black communities throughout the United States". Hip hop_sentence_312

This is due to the fact that the culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of the disenfranchised youth. Hip hop_sentence_313

In the 2010s, hip hop lyrics are starting to reflect original socially conscious themes. Hip hop_sentence_314

Rappers are starting to question the government's power and its oppressive role in some societies. Hip hop_sentence_315

Rap music has been a tool for political, social, and cultural empowerment outside the US. Hip hop_sentence_316

Members of minority communities—such as Algerians in France, and Turks in Germany—use rap as a platform to protest racism, poverty, and social structures. Hip hop_sentence_317

Linguistics Hip hop_section_17

Hip hop lyricism has gained a measure of legitimacy in academic and literary circles. Hip hop_sentence_318

Studies of hip hop linguistics are now offered at institutions such as the University of Toronto, where poet and author George Eliot Clarke has taught the potential power of hip hop music to promote social change. Hip hop_sentence_319

Greg Thomas of the University of Miami offers courses at both the undergraduate and graduate level studying the feminist and assertive nature of Lil' Kim's lyrics. Hip hop_sentence_320

Some academics, including Ernest Morrell and Jeffrey Duncan-Andrade, compare hip hop to the satirical works of great "Western canon" poets of the modern era, who use imagery and create a mood to criticize society. Hip hop_sentence_321

As quoted in their work "Promoting Academic Literacy with Urban Youth Through Engaging Hip Hop Culture": Hip hop_sentence_322

Censorship Hip hop_section_18

Hip hop music has been censored on radio and TV due to the explicit lyrics of certain genres. Hip hop_sentence_323

Many songs have been criticized for anti-establishment and sometimes violent messages. Hip hop_sentence_324

The use of profanity as well as graphic depictions of violence and sex in hip hop music videos and songs makes it hard to broadcast on television stations such as MTV, in music video form, and on radio. Hip hop_sentence_325

As a result, many hip hop recordings are broadcast in censored form, with offending language "bleeped" or blanked out of the soundtrack, or replaced with "clean" lyrics. Hip hop_sentence_326

The result – which sometimes renders the remaining lyrics unintelligible or contradictory to the original recording – has become almost as widely identified with the genre as any other aspect of the music, and has been parodied in films such as Austin Powers in Goldmember, in which Mike Myers' character Dr. Hip hop_sentence_327

Evil – performing in a parody of a hip hop music video ("Hard Knock Life (Ghetto Anthem)" by Jay-Z) – performs an entire verse that is blanked out. Hip hop_sentence_328

In 1995, Roger Ebert wrote: Hip hop_sentence_329

In 1990, Luther Campbell and his group 2 Live Crew filed a lawsuit against Broward County Sheriff Nick Navarro, because Navarro wanted to prosecute stores that sold the group's album As Nasty As They Wanna Be because of its obscene and vulgar lyrics. Hip hop_sentence_330

In June 1990, a U.S. Hip hop_sentence_331 district court judge labeled the album obscene and illegal to sell. Hip hop_sentence_332

However, in 1992, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit overturned the obscenity ruling from Judge Gonzalez, and the Supreme Court of the United States refused to hear Broward County's appeal. Hip hop_sentence_333

Professor Louis Gates testified on behalf of The 2 Live Crew, arguing that the material that the county alleged was profane actually had important roots in African-American vernacular, games, and literary traditions and should be protected. Hip hop_sentence_334

Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent culture of inner-city American black youths. Hip hop_sentence_335

The genre was pioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice-T, and was popularized in the later part of the 1980s by groups such as N.W.A. Hip hop_sentence_336

Ice-T released "6 in the Mornin'", which is often regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in 1986. Hip hop_sentence_337

After the national attention that Ice-T and N.W.A created in the late 1980s and early 1990s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_338

N.W.A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Hip hop_sentence_339

Their lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word "nigga". Hip hop_sentence_340

These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel. Hip hop_sentence_341

The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton, released in 1988. Hip hop_sentence_342

Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City. Hip hop_sentence_343

Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song "Fuck tha Police" earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing law enforcement's resentment of the song. Hip hop_sentence_344

Controversy surrounded Ice-T's song "Cop Killer" from the album Body Count. Hip hop_sentence_345

The song was intended to speak from the viewpoint of a criminal getting revenge on racist, brutal cops. Hip hop_sentence_346

Ice-T's rock song infuriated government officials, the National Rifle Association and various police advocacy groups. Hip hop_sentence_347

Consequently, Time Warner Music refused to release Ice-T's upcoming album Home Invasion because of the controversy surrounding "Cop Killer". Hip hop_sentence_348

Ice-T suggested that the furor over the song was an overreaction, telling journalist Chuck Philips "... they've done movies about nurse killers and teacher killers and student killers. Hip hop_sentence_349

[Actor] Arnold Schwarzenegger blew away dozens of cops as the Terminator. Hip hop_sentence_350

But I don't hear anybody complaining about that." Hip hop_sentence_351

Ice-T suggested to Philips that the misunderstanding of "Cop Killer" and the attempts to censor it had racial overtones: "The Supreme Court says it's OK for a white man to burn a cross in public. Hip hop_sentence_352

But nobody wants a black man to write a record about a cop killer." Hip hop_sentence_353

The White House administrations of both George Bush senior and Bill Clinton criticized the genre. Hip hop_sentence_354

"The reason why rap is under attack is because it exposes all the contradictions of American culture ... What started out as an underground art form has become a vehicle to expose a lot of critical issues that are not usually discussed in American politics. Hip hop_sentence_355

The problem here is that the White House and wanna-be's like Bill Clinton represent a political system that never intends to deal with inner city urban chaos," Sister Souljah told The Times. Hip hop_sentence_356

Until its discontinuation on July 8, 2006, BET ran a late-night segment titled BET: Uncut to air nearly-uncensored videos. Hip hop_sentence_357

The show was exemplified by music videos such as "Tip Drill" by Nelly, which was criticized for what many viewed as an exploitative depiction of women, particularly images of a man swiping a credit card between a stripper's buttocks. Hip hop_sentence_358

Public Enemy's "Gotta Give the Peeps What They Need" was censored on MTV, removing the words "free Mumia". Hip hop_sentence_359

After the attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Oakland, California group The Coup was under fire for the cover art on their album Party Music, which featured the group's two members holding a guitar tuner and two sticks as the Twin Towers exploded behind them despite the fact that it was created months before the actual event. Hip hop_sentence_360

The group, having politically radical and Marxist lyrical content, said the cover meant to symbolize the destruction of capitalism. Hip hop_sentence_361

Their record label pulled the album until a new cover could be designed. Hip hop_sentence_362

Product placement and endorsements Hip hop_section_19

Critics such as Businessweek's David Kiley argue that the discussion of products within hip hop culture may actually be the result of undisclosed product placement deals. Hip hop_sentence_363

Such critics allege that shilling or product placement takes place in commercial rap music, and that lyrical references to products are actually paid endorsements. Hip hop_sentence_364

In 2005, a proposed plan by McDonald's to pay rappers to advertise McDonald's products in their music was leaked to the press. Hip hop_sentence_365

After Russell Simmons made a deal with Courvoisier to promote the brand among hip hop fans, Busta Rhymes recorded the song "Pass the Courvoisier". Hip hop_sentence_366

Simmons insists that no money changed hands in the deal. Hip hop_sentence_367

The symbiotic relationship has also stretched to include car manufacturers, clothing designers and sneaker companies, and many other companies have used the hip hop community to make their name or to give them credibility. Hip hop_sentence_368

One such beneficiary was Jacob the Jeweler, a diamond merchant from New York. Hip hop_sentence_369

Jacob Arabo's clientele included Sean Combs, Lil' Kim and Nas. Hip hop_sentence_370

He created jewelry pieces from precious metals that were heavily loaded with diamond and gemstones. Hip hop_sentence_371

As his name was mentioned in the song lyrics of his hip hop customers, his profile quickly rose. Hip hop_sentence_372

Arabo expanded his brand to include gem-encrusted watches that retail for hundreds of thousands of dollars, gaining so much attention that Cartier filed a trademark-infringement lawsuit against him for putting diamonds on the faces of their watches and reselling them without permission. Hip hop_sentence_373

Arabo's profile increased steadily until his June 2006 arrest by the FBI on money laundering charges. Hip hop_sentence_374

While some brands welcome the support of the hip hop community, one brand that did not was Cristal champagne maker Louis Roederer. Hip hop_sentence_375

A 2006 article from The Economist magazine featured remarks from managing director Frederic Rouzaud about whether the brand's identification with rap stars could affect their company negatively. Hip hop_sentence_376

His answer was dismissive: "That's a good question, but what can we do? Hip hop_sentence_377

We can't forbid people from buying it. Hip hop_sentence_378

I'm sure Dom Pérignon or Krug [champagne] would be delighted to have their business." Hip hop_sentence_379

In retaliation, many hip hop icons such as Jay-Z and Sean Combs, who previously included references to "Cris", ceased all mentions and purchases of the champagne. Hip hop_sentence_380

50 Cent's deal with Vitamin Water, Dr. Hip hop_sentence_381 Dre's promotion of his Beats by Dr. Dre headphone line and Dr. Hip hop_sentence_382 Pepper, and Drake's commercial with Sprite are successful deals. Hip hop_sentence_383

Although product placement deals were not popular in the 1980s, MC Hammer was an early innovator in this type of strategy. Hip hop_sentence_384

With merchandise such as dolls, commercials for soft drinks and numerous television show appearances, Hammer began the trend of rap artists being accepted as mainstream pitchpeople for brands. Hip hop_sentence_385

Media Hip hop_section_20

Hip hop culture has had extensive coverage in the media, especially in relation to television; there have been a number of television shows devoted to or about hip hop, including in Europe ("H.I.P. Hip hop_sentence_386 H.O.P." Hip hop_sentence_387

in 1984). Hip hop_sentence_388

For many years, BET was the only television channel likely to play hip hop, but in recent years the channels VH1 and MTV have added a significant amount of hip hop to their play list. Hip hop_sentence_389

Run DMC became the first African American group to appear on MTV. Hip hop_sentence_390

With the emergence of the Internet, a number of online sites began to offer hip hop related video content. Hip hop_sentence_391

Magazines Hip hop_section_21

Hip hop magazines describe hip hop's culture, including information about rappers and MCs, new hip hop music, concerts, events, fashion and history. Hip hop_sentence_392

The first hip hop publication, The Hip Hop Hit List was published in the 1980s. Hip hop_sentence_393

It contained the first rap music record chart. Hip hop_sentence_394

It was put out by two brothers from Newark, New Jersey, Vincent and Charles Carroll (who was also in a hip hop group known as The Nastee Boyz). Hip hop_sentence_395

They knew the art form very well and noticed the need for a hip hop magazine. Hip hop_sentence_396

DJs and rappers did not have a way to learn about rap music styles and labels. Hip hop_sentence_397

The periodical began as the first Rap record chart and tip sheet for DJs and was distributed through national record pools and record stores throughout the New York City Tri-State area. Hip hop_sentence_398

One of the founding publishers, Charles Carroll noted, "Back then, all DJs came into New York City to buy their records but most of them did not know what was hot enough to spend money on, so we charted it." Hip hop_sentence_399

Jae Burnett became Vincent Carroll's partner and played an instrumental role in its later development. Hip hop_sentence_400

Another popular hip hop magazine that arose in the 1980s was Word Up magazine, an American magazine catering to the youth with an emphasis on hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_401

It featured articles on what is like to be a part of the hip hop community, promoted up-coming albums, bringing awareness to the projects that the artist was involved in, and also included posters of trending celebrities within the world of Hip Hop. Hip hop_sentence_402

The magazine was published monthly and mainly concerning rap, Hip Hop and R&B music. Hip hop_sentence_403

Word Up magazine was highly popular, it was even mentioned in the popular song by The Notorious B.I.G - Juicy "it was all a dream, use to read WordUp magazine". Hip hop_sentence_404

Word Up magazine was a part of pop culture. Hip hop_sentence_405

New York tourists from abroad took the publication back home with them to other countries to share it, creating worldwide interest in the culture and new art form. Hip hop_sentence_406

It had a printed distribution of 50,000, a circulation rate of 200,000 with well over 25,000 subscribers. Hip hop_sentence_407

The "Hip Hop Hit List" was also the first to define hip hop as a culture introducing the many aspects of the art form such as fashion, music, dance, the arts and most importantly the language. Hip hop_sentence_408

For instance, on the cover the headliner included the tag "All Literature was Produced to Meet Street Comprehension!" Hip hop_sentence_409

which proved their loyalty not only to the culture but also to the streets. Hip hop_sentence_410

Most interviews were written verbatim which included their innovative broken English style of writing. Hip hop_sentence_411

Some of the early charts were written in the graffiti format tag style but was made legible enough for the masses. Hip hop_sentence_412

The Carroll Brothers were also consultants to the many record companies who had no idea how to market hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_413

Vincent Carroll, the magazine's creator-publisher, went on to become a huge source for marketing and promoting the culture of hip hop, starting Blow-Up Media, the first hip hop marketing firm with offices in NYC's Tribeca district. Hip hop_sentence_414

At the age of 21, Vincent Carroll employed a staff of 15 and assisted in launching some of the culture's biggest and brightest stars (the Fugees, Nelly, the Outzidaz, feat. Hip hop_sentence_415

Eminem and many more). Hip hop_sentence_416

Later other publications spawned up including: Hip Hop Connection, XXL, Scratch, The Source and Vibe. Hip hop_sentence_417

Many individual cities have also produced their own local hip hop newsletters, while hip hop magazines with national distribution are found in a few other countries. Hip hop_sentence_418

The 21st century also ushered in the rise of online media, and hip hop fan sites now offer comprehensive hip hop coverage on a daily basis. Hip hop_sentence_419

Fashion Hip hop_section_22

Clothing, hair and other styles have been a big part of hip hop's social and cultural impact since the 1970s. Hip hop_sentence_420

Although the styles have changed over the decades, distinctive urban apparel and looks have been an important way for rappers, breakdancers and other hip hop community members to express themselves. Hip hop_sentence_421

As the hip hop music genre's popularity increased, so did the effect of its fashion. Hip hop_sentence_422

While there were early items synonymous with hip hop that crossed over into the mainstream culture, like Run-DMC's affinity for Adidas or the Wu-Tang Clan's championing of Clarks' Wallabees, it wasn't until its commercial peak that hip hop fashion became influential. Hip hop_sentence_423

Starting in the mid- to late 1990s, hip hop culture embraced some major designers and established a new connection with classic fashion. Hip hop_sentence_424

Brands such as Ralph Lauren, Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger all tapped into hip hop culture and gave very little in return. Hip hop_sentence_425

Moving into the new millennium, hip hop fashion consisted of baggy shirts, jeans, and jerseys. Hip hop_sentence_426

As names like Pharrell and Jay-Z started their own clothing lines and still others like Kanye West linked up with designers like Louis Vuitton, the clothes got tighter, more classically fashionable, and expensive. Hip hop_sentence_427

As hip hop has a seen a shift in the means by which its artists express their masculinity, from violence and intimidation to wealth-flaunting and entrepreneurship, it has also seen the emergence of rapper branding. Hip hop_sentence_428

The modern-day hip hop artist is no longer limited to music serving as their sole occupation or source of income. Hip hop_sentence_429

By the early 1990s, major apparel companies "[had] realized the economic potential of tapping into hip hop culture ... Tommy Hilfiger was one of the first major fashion designer[s] who actively courted rappers as a way of promoting his street wear". Hip hop_sentence_430

By joining forces, the artist and the corporation are able to jointly benefit from each other's resources. Hip hop_sentence_431

Hip Hop artists are trend-setters and taste-makers. Hip hop_sentence_432

Their fans range from minority groups who can relate to their professed struggles to majority groups who cannot truly relate but like to "consume the fantasy of living a more masculine life". Hip hop_sentence_433

The rappers provide the "cool, hip" factor while the corporations deliver the product, advertising, and financial assets. Hip hop_sentence_434

Tommy Hilfiger, one of the first mainstream designers to actively court rappers as a way of promoting his street wear, serves a prototypical example of the hip hip/fashion collaborations: Hip hop_sentence_435

Artists now use brands as a means of supplemental income to their music or are creating and expanding their own brands that become their primary source of income. Hip hop_sentence_436

As Harry Elam explains, there has been a movement "from the incorporation and redefinition of existing trends to actually designing and marketing products as hip hop fashion". Hip hop_sentence_437

Diversification Hip hop_section_23

Main article: List of hip hop genres Hip hop_sentence_438

Hip hop music has spawned dozens of subgenres which incorporate hip hop music production approaches, such as sampling, creating beats, or rapping. Hip hop_sentence_439

The diversification process stems from the appropriation of hip hop culture by other ethnic groups. Hip hop_sentence_440

There are many varying social influences that affect hip hop's message in different nations. Hip hop_sentence_441

It is frequently used as a musical response to perceived political and/or social injustices. Hip hop_sentence_442

In South Africa the largest form of hip hop is called Kwaito, which has had a growth similar to American hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_443

Kwaito is a direct reflection of a post apartheid South Africa and is a voice for the voiceless; a term that U.S. hip hop is often referred to. Hip hop_sentence_444

Kwaito is even perceived as a lifestyle, encompassing many aspects of life, including language and fashion. Hip hop_sentence_445

Kwaito is a political and party-driven genre, as performers use the music to express their political views, and also to express their desire to have a good time. Hip hop_sentence_446

Kwaito is a music that came from a once hated and oppressed people, but it is now sweeping the nation. Hip hop_sentence_447

The main consumers of Kwaito are adolescents and half of the South African population is under 21. Hip hop_sentence_448

Some of the large Kwaito artists have sold more than 100,000 albums, and in an industry where 25,000 albums sold is considered a gold record, those are impressive numbers. Hip hop_sentence_449

Kwaito allows the participation and creative engagement of otherwise socially excluded peoples in the generation of popular media. Hip hop_sentence_450

South African hip hop has made an impact worldwide, with performers such as Tumi, HipHop Pantsula, Tuks Senganga. Hip hop_sentence_451

In Jamaica, the sounds of hip hop are derived from American and Jamaican influences. Hip hop_sentence_452

Jamaican hip hop is defined both through dancehall and reggae music. Hip hop_sentence_453

Jamaican Kool Herc brought the sound systems, technology, and techniques of reggae music to New York during the 1970s. Hip hop_sentence_454

Jamaican hip hop artists often rap in both Brooklyn and Jamaican accents. Hip hop_sentence_455

Jamaican hip hop subject matter is often influenced by outside and internal forces. Hip hop_sentence_456

Outside forces such as the bling-bling era of today's modern hip hop and internal influences coming from the use of anti-colonialism and marijuana or "ganja" references which Rastafarians believe bring them closer to God. Hip hop_sentence_457

Author Wayne Marshall argues that "Hip hop, as with any number of African-American cultural forms before it, offers a range of compelling and contradictory significations to Jamaican artist and audiences. Hip hop_sentence_458

From "modern blackness" to "foreign mind", transnational cosmopolitanism to militant pan-Africanism, radical remixology to outright mimicry, hip hop in Jamaica embodies the myriad ways that Jamaicans embrace, reject, and incorporate foreign yet familiar forms." Hip hop_sentence_459

In the developing world, hip hop has made a considerable impact in the social context. Hip hop_sentence_460

Despite the lack of resources, hip hop has made considerable inroads. Hip hop_sentence_461

Due to limited funds, hip hop artists are forced to use very basic tools, and even graffiti, an important aspect of the hip hop culture, is constrained due to its unavailability to the average person. Hip hop_sentence_462

Hip hop has begun making inroads with more than black artists. Hip hop_sentence_463

There are number of other minority artists who are taking center stage as many first generation minority children come of age. Hip hop_sentence_464

One example is rapper Awkwafina, an Asian-American, who raps about being Asian as well as being female. Hip hop_sentence_465

She, like many others, use rap to express her experiences as a minority not necessarily to "unite" minorities together but to tell her story. Hip hop_sentence_466

Many hip hop artists from the developing world come to the United States to seek opportunities. Hip hop_sentence_467

Maya Arulpragasm (A.K.A. Hip hop_sentence_468 M.I.A. Hip hop_sentence_469 ), a Sri Lanka-born Tamil hip hop artist claims, "I'm just trying to build some sort of bridge, I'm trying to create a third place, somewhere in between the developed world and the developing world.". Hip hop_sentence_470

Another music artist using hip hop to provide a positive message to young Africans is Emmanuel Jal, a former child soldier from South Sudan. Hip hop_sentence_471

Jal is one of the few South Sudanese music artists to have broken through on an international level with his unique form of hip hop and a positive message in his lyrics. Hip hop_sentence_472

Jal has attracted the attention of mainstream media and academics with his story and use of hip hop as a healing medium for war-afflicted people in Africa and he has also been sought out on the international lecture fora such as TED. Hip hop_sentence_473

Many K-Pop artists in South Korea have been influenced by hip hop and many South Korean artists perform hip hop music. Hip hop_sentence_474

In Seoul, South Korea, Koreans b-boy. Hip hop_sentence_475

Education Hip hop_section_24

Scholars argue that hip hop can have an empowering effect on youth. Hip hop_sentence_476

While there is misogyny, violence, and drug use in rap music videos and lyrics, hip hop also displays many positive themes of self-reliance, resilience, and self-esteem. Hip hop_sentence_477

These messages can be inspiring for a youth living in poverty. Hip hop_sentence_478

A lot of rap songs contain references to strengthening the African American community promoting social causes. Hip hop_sentence_479

Social workers have used hip hop to build a relationship with at-risk youth and develop a deeper connection with the child. Hip hop_sentence_480

Hip hop has the potential to be taught as a way of helping people see the world more critically, be it through forms of writing, creating music, or social activism. Hip hop_sentence_481

The lyrics of hip hop have been used to learn about literary devices such as metaphor, imagery, irony, tone, theme, motif, plot, and point of view. Hip hop_sentence_482

Organizations and facilities are providing spaces and programs for communities to explore making and learning about hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_483

An example is the IMP Labs in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Hip hop_sentence_484

Many dance studios and colleges now offer lessons in hip hop alongside tap and ballet, as well as KRS-ONE teaching hip hop lectures at Harvard University. Hip hop_sentence_485

Hip hop producer 9th Wonder and former rapper-actor Christopher "Play" Martin from hip hop group Kid-n-Play have taught hip hop history classes at North Carolina Central University and 9th Wonder has also taught a "Hip Hop Sampling Soul" class at Duke University. Hip hop_sentence_486

In 2007, the Cornell University Library established a Hip Hop Collection to collect and make accessible the historical artifacts of hip hop culture and to ensure their preservation for future generations. Hip hop_sentence_487

The hip-hop community has been a major factor in educating its listeners on HIV/AIDS, a disease that has affected the community very closely. Hip hop_sentence_488

One of the biggest artists of early hip-hop Eazy-E, a member of N.W.A had died of AIDS in 1995. Hip hop_sentence_489

Since then many artists, producers, choreographers and many others from many different locations have tried to make an impact and raise awareness of HIV in the hip-hop community. Hip hop_sentence_490

Many artists have made songs as sort of PSA's to raise awareness of HIV for hip-hop listeners, some songs that raise awareness are Salt N Pepa – Let's Talk About AIDS, Coolio – Too Hot and more. Hip hop_sentence_491

Tanzanian artists such as Professor Jay and the group Afande Sele are notable for their contributions to this genre of hip-hop music and the awareness they have spread for HIV. Hip hop_sentence_492

American writer, activist and hip-hop artist Tim'm T. West who was diagnosed with AIDS in 1999, formed queer hip-hop group Deep Dickollective who got together to rap about the HIV pandemic among queer black men and LGBTQ activism in hip-hop. Hip hop_sentence_493

A non-profit organization out of New York City called Hip Hop 4 Life, strives to educate the youth, especially the low income youth about social and political problems in their areas of interest, which includes hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_494

Hip Hop 4 Life has held many events around the New York City area to raise awareness for HIV and other problems surrounding these low income children and their communities. Hip hop_sentence_495

Values and philosophy Hip hop_section_25

Essentialism Hip hop_section_26

Since the age of slavery, music has long been the language of African American identity. Hip hop_sentence_496

Because reading and writing were forbidden under the auspices of slavery, music became the only accessible form of communication. Hip hop_sentence_497

Hundreds of years later, in inner-city neighborhoods plagued by high illiteracy and dropout rates, music remains the most dependable medium of expression. Hip hop_sentence_498

Hip Hop is thus to modern day as Negro Spirituals are to the plantations of the old South: the emergent music articulates the terrors of one's environment better than written, or spoken word, thereby forging an "unquestioned association of oppression with creativity [that] is endemic" to African American culture". Hip hop_sentence_499

As a result, lyrics of rap songs have often been treated as "confessions" to a number of violent crimes in the United States. Hip hop_sentence_500

It is also considered to be the duty of rappers and other hip hop artists (DJs, dancers) to "represent" their city and neighborhood. Hip hop_sentence_501

This demands being proud of being from disadvantaged cities neighborhoods that have traditionally been a source of shame, and glorifying them in lyrics and graffiti. Hip hop_sentence_502

This has potentially been one of the ways that hip hop has become regarded as a "local" rather than "foreign" genre of music in so many countries around the world in just a few decades. Hip hop_sentence_503

Nevertheless, sampling and borrowing from a number of genres and places is also a part of the hip hop milieu, and an album like the surprise hit Kala by Anglo-Tamil rapper M.I.A. Hip hop_sentence_504

was recorded in locations all across the world and features sounds from a different country on every track. Hip hop_sentence_505

According to scholar Joseph Schloss, the essentialist perspective of Hip Hop conspicuously obfuscates the role that individual style and pleasure plays in the development of the genre. Hip hop_sentence_506

Schloss notes that Hip Hop is forever fossilized as an inevitable cultural emergent, as if "none of hip-hop's innovators had been born, a different group of poor black youth from the Bronx would have developed hip-hop in exactly the same way". Hip hop_sentence_507

However, while the pervasive oppressive conditions of the Bronx were likely to produce another group of disadvantaged youth, he questions whether they would be equally interested, nonetheless willing to put in as much time and energy into making music as Grandmaster Flash, DJ Kool Herc, and Afrika Bambaataa. Hip hop_sentence_508

He thus concludes that Hip Hop was a result of choice, not fate, and that when individual contributions and artistic preferences are ignored, the genre's origin becomes overly attributed to collective cultural oppression. Hip hop_sentence_509

Authenticity Hip hop_section_27

Hip hop music artists and advocates have stated that hip hop has been an authentic (true and "real") African-American artistic and cultural form since its emergence in inner-city Bronx neighborhoods in the 1970s. Hip hop_sentence_510

Some music critics, scholars and political commentators have denied hip hop's authenticity. Hip hop_sentence_511

Advocates who claim hip hop is an authentic music genre state that it is an ongoing response to the violence and discrimination experienced by black people in the United States, from the slavery that existed into the 19th century, to the lynchings of the 20th century and the ongoing racial discrimination faced by blacks. Hip hop_sentence_512

Paul Gilroy and Alexander Weheliye state that unlike disco, jazz, R&B, house music, and other genres that were developed in the African-American community and which were quickly adopted and then increasingly controlled by white music industry executives, hip hop has remained largely controlled by African American artists, producers and executives. Hip hop_sentence_513

In his book, Phonographies, Weheliye describes the political and cultural affiliations that hip hop music enables. Hip hop_sentence_514

In contrast, Greg Tate states that the market-driven, commodity form of commercial hip hop has uprooted the genre from the celebration of African-American culture and the messages of protest that predominated in its early forms. Hip hop_sentence_515

Tate states that the commodification and commercialization of hip hop culture undermines the dynamism of the genre for African-American communities. Hip hop_sentence_516

These two dissenting understandings of hip hop's scope and influence frame debates that revolve around hip hop's possession of or lack of authenticity. Hip hop_sentence_517

Anticipating the market arguments of Tate and others, both Gilroy and Weheliye assert that hip hop has always had a different function than Western popular music as a whole, a function that exceeds the constraints of market capitalism. Hip hop_sentence_518

Weheliye notes, "Popular music, generally in the form of recordings, has and still continues to function as one of the main channels of communication between the different geographical and cultural points in the African diaspora, allowing artists to articulate and perform their diasporic citizenship to international audiences and establish conversations with other diasporic communities." Hip hop_sentence_519

For Paul Gilroy, hip hop proves an outlet of articulation and a sonic space in which African Americans can exert control and influence that they often lack in other sociopolitical and economic domains. Hip hop_sentence_520

In "Phonographies", Weheyliye explains how new sound technologies used in hip hop encourage "diasporic citizenship" and African-American cultural and political activities. Hip hop_sentence_521

Gilroy states that the "power of [hip hop] music [lies] in developing black struggles by communicating information, organizing consciousness, and testing out or deploying ... individual or collective" forms of African-American cultural and political actions. Hip hop_sentence_522

In the third chapter of The Black Atlantic, "Jewels Brought from Bondage: Black Music and the Politics of Authenticity", Gilroy asserts that these elements influence the production of and the interpretation of black cultural activities. Hip hop_sentence_523

What Gilroy calls the "Black Atlantic" music's rituals and traditions are a more expansive way of thinking about African-American "blackness", a way that moves beyond contemporary debates around essentialist and anti-essentialist arguments. Hip hop_sentence_524

As such, Gilroy states that music has been and remains a central staging ground for debates over the work, responsibility, and future role of black cultural and artistic production. Hip hop_sentence_525

Traditional vs. progressive views Hip hop_section_28

Old-school hip hop performer DJ Kool Herc, along with traditional hip hop artists Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Caz, originally held views against mainstream rap. Hip hop_sentence_526

However, recent interviews indicate they have changed their ways to a certain extent. Hip hop_sentence_527

However, rappers like KRS-One still feel a strong disapproval of the rap industry, especially through mainstream media. Hip hop_sentence_528

In b-boying, most supporters have begun to slowly involve more industry sponsorship through events on the World BBoy Series and through the UDEF powered by Silverback Open. Hip hop_sentence_529

Other b-boys have begun to accept using the term breakdance, but only if the term b-boying is too difficult to communicate to the general public. Hip hop_sentence_530

Regardless of such, b-boys and b-girls still exist to showing lack of support to jams and events that they feel represent the culture as a sport, form of entertainment and as well through capitalism. Hip hop_sentence_531

Battle Rap as an industry has also been strongly supported by old-school/ golden-era legends such as Herc, Kid Capri and KRS-One. Hip hop_sentence_532

Reception Hip hop_section_29

Commercialization and stereotyping Hip hop_section_30

In 2012, hip hop and rap pioneer Chuck D, from the group Public Enemy criticized young hip hop artists from the 2010s, stating that they have taken a music genre with extensive roots in underground music and turned it into commercialized pop music. Hip hop_sentence_533

In particular, seminal figures in the early underground, politically motivated music, such as Ice-T, have criticized current hip hop artists for being more concerned with image than substance. Hip hop_sentence_534

Critics have stated that 2010s hip hop artists are contributing to cultural stereotyping of African-American culture and are poseur gangsters. Hip hop_sentence_535

Critics have also stated that hip hop music promotes drug use and violence. Hip hop_sentence_536

Hip hop has been criticized by rock-centric critics who state that hip hop is not a true art form and who state that rock and roll music is more authentic. Hip hop_sentence_537

These critics are advocating a viewpoint called "rockism" which favors music written and performed by the individual artist (as seen in some famous singer-songwriter-led rock bands) and is against 2000s (decade)-era hip hop, which these critics argue give too large a role to record producers and digital sound recording. Hip hop_sentence_538

Hip hop is seen as being too violent and explicit, in comparison with rock. Hip hop_sentence_539

Some contend that the criticisms have racial overtones, as these critics deny that hip hop is an art form and praising rock genres that prominently feature white males. Hip hop_sentence_540

Marginalization of women Hip hop_section_31

Main article: Misogyny in rap music Hip hop_sentence_541

The hip hop music genre and its subculture has been criticized for its gender bias and its negative impacts on women in African-American culture. Hip hop_sentence_542

Gangsta rap artists such as Eazy-E, Snoop Dogg, and Dr. Hip hop_sentence_543 Dre have, primarily in the 90's, rapped lyrics that portray women as sex toys and inferior to or otherwise dependent upon men. Hip hop_sentence_544

Between 1987 and 1993, over 400 hip hop songs had lyrics that described violence toward women including rape, assault, and murder. Hip hop_sentence_545

These anti-women hip hop lyrics have led some male listeners to make physical threats toward women and they have created negative stereotypes of young urban African-American women. Hip hop_sentence_546

Hip hop music frequently promotes masculine hegemony and it depicts women as individuals who must rely on men. Hip hop_sentence_547

The portrayal of women in hip hop lyrics and videos tends to be violent, degrading, and highly sexualized. Hip hop_sentence_548

There is a high frequency of songs with lyrics that are demeaning, or depict sexual violence or sexual assault towards women. Hip hop_sentence_549

Videos often portray idealized female bodies and depict women as being the object of male pleasure. Hip hop_sentence_550

The misrepresentation of women, primarily woman of color, as objects rather than other human beings and the presence of male dominance in hip hop extends back to the birth of the genre. Hip hop_sentence_551

However, many female artists have also emerged in shedding light on both their personal issues and the misrepresentations of women in hip-hip and culture. Hip hop_sentence_552

These artists include but are not limited to Queen Latifah, TLC and MC Lyte. Hip hop_sentence_553

Despite the success of them and others, female rappers remain proportionally few in the mainstream industry. Hip hop_sentence_554

Very few female artists have been recognized in hip hop, and the most popular, successful and influential artists, record producers and music executives are males. Hip hop_sentence_555

Women who are in rap groups, such as Lauryn Hill of the Fugees, tend to have less advantages and opportunities than male artists. Hip hop_sentence_556

Female artists have received significantly less recognition in hip hop. Hip hop_sentence_557

Only one female artist has won Best Rap album of the year at the Grammy Awards since the category was added in 1995. Hip hop_sentence_558

In addition, African American female hip hop artists have been recognized even less in the industry. Hip hop_sentence_559

Salt-N-Pepa felt when they were establishing themselves as a successful group, they had to prove doubters wrong, stating that "being women in hip hop at a time when it wasn't that many women, we felt like we had more to prove." Hip hop_sentence_560

Marginalization of Latinas Hip hop_section_32

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip hop.