Hip hop music

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For other uses, see Hip hop (disambiguation). Hip hop music_sentence_0

Hip hop music_table_infobox_0

Hip hopHip hop music_header_cell_0_0_0
Stylistic originsHip hop music_header_cell_0_1_0 Hip hop music_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsHip hop music_header_cell_0_2_0 Early 1970s, The Bronx, New York City, New York, U.S.Hip hop music_cell_0_2_1
Typical instrumentsHip hop music_header_cell_0_3_0 Hip hop music_cell_0_3_1
Derivative formsHip hop music_header_cell_0_4_0 Hip hop music_cell_0_4_1
SubgenresHip hop music_header_cell_0_5_0
Fusion genresHip hop music_header_cell_0_6_0
Regional scenesHip hop music_header_cell_0_7_0
Other topicsHip hop music_header_cell_0_8_0

Hip hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular music developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans and Latino Americans in the Bronx borough of New York City in the 1970s. Hip hop music_sentence_1

It consists of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. Hip hop music_sentence_2

It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Hip hop music_sentence_3

Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records (or synthesized beats and sounds), and rhythmic beatboxing. Hip hop music_sentence_4

While often used to refer solely to rapping, "hip hop" refers to the practice of the entire subculture. Hip hop music_sentence_5

The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing, turntablism, scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks. Hip hop music_sentence_6

Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African American youth residing in the Bronx. Hip hop music_sentence_7

At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop music_sentence_8

Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became widely available and affordable. Hip hop music_sentence_9

Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Hip hop music_sentence_10

Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Hip hop music_sentence_11

Hip hop music was not officially recorded for play on radio or television until 1979, largely due to poverty during the genre's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods. Hip hop music_sentence_12

Old school hip hop was the first mainstream wave of the genre, marked by its disco influence and party-oriented lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_13

The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles and spread around the world. Hip hop music_sentence_14

New school hip hop was the genre's second wave, marked by its electro sound, and led into Golden age hip hop, an innovative period between the mid-1980s and mid-1990s. Hip hop music_sentence_15

The gangsta rap subgenre, focused on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth, gained popularity at this time. Hip hop music_sentence_16

West Coast hip hop was dominated by G-funk in the early-mid 1990s, while East Coast hip hop was dominated by jazz rap, alternative hip hop, and hardcore rap. Hip hop music_sentence_17

Hip hop continued to diversify at this time with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_18

Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top-selling music genre by 1999. Hip hop music_sentence_19

The popularity of hip hop music continued through the late 1990s to mid-2000s with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into other genres of popular music, such as neo soul, nu metal, and R&B. Hip hop music_sentence_20

The United States also saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics, and alternative hip hop began to secure a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of its artists. Hip hop music_sentence_21

During the late 2000s and early 2010s "blog era", rappers were able to build up a following through online methods of music distribution, such as social media and blogs, and mainstream hip hop took on a more melodic, sensitive direction following the commercial decline of gangsta rap. Hip hop music_sentence_22

The trap and mumble rap subgenres have become the most popular form of hip hop during the mid-late 2010s and early 2020s. Hip hop music_sentence_23

In 2017, rock music was usurped by hip hop as the most popular genre in the United States. Hip hop music_sentence_24

Origin of the term Hip hop music_section_0

The words "hip" and "hop" have a long history behind the two words being used together. Hip hop music_sentence_25

In the1950's older folks referred to teen house parties as "hippity hops".The creation of the term hip hop is often credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. Hip hop music_sentence_26

However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, and DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. Hip hop music_sentence_27

It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching. Hip hop music_sentence_28

Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance. Hip hop music_sentence_29

For example, he would say something along the lines of “I said a hip-hop, a hibbit, hibby-dibby, hip-hip-hop and you don’t stop." Hip hop music_sentence_30

which was quickly used by other artists such as The Sugarhill Gang in "Rapper's Delight". Hip hop music_sentence_31

Universal Zulu Nation founder Afrika Bambaataa, also known as "The Godfather" is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a derogatory term to describe the type of music. Hip hop music_sentence_32

The term was first used in print to refer to the music by reporter Robert Flipping, Jr. in a February 1979 article in The New Pittsburgh Courier, and to refer to the culture in a January 1982 interview of Afrika Bambaataa by Michael Holman in the East Village Eye. Hip hop music_sentence_33

The term gained further currency in September of that year in another Bambaataa interview in The Village Voice, by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_34

Precursors Hip hop music_section_1

Musical elements anticipating hip hop music have been identified in blues, jazz and rhythm and blues recordings from the 1950s and earlier, including several records by Bo Diddley. Hip hop music_sentence_35

Muhammad Ali's 1963 spoken-word album I Am the Greatest is regarded by some writers as an early example of hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_36

Pigmeat Markham's 1968 single "Here Comes the Judge" is one of several songs said to be the earliest hip hop record. Hip hop music_sentence_37

Leading up to hip hop, there were spoken-word artists such as the Last Poets who released their debut album in 1970, and Gil Scott-Heron, who gained a wide audience with his 1971 track "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised". Hip hop music_sentence_38

These artists combined spoken word and music to create a kind of "proto-rap" vibe. Hip hop music_sentence_39

1973–1979: Early years Hip hop music_section_2

Origins Hip hop music_section_3

Hip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s in New York City from the multicultural exchange between African-American youth from the United States and young immigrants and children of immigrants from countries in the Caribbean. Hip hop music_sentence_40

Hip hop music in its infancy has been described as an outlet and a voice for the disenfranchised youth of marginalized backgrounds and low-income areas, as the hip hop culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives. Hip hop music_sentence_41

Many of the people who helped establish hip hop culture, including DJ Kool Herc, DJ Disco Wiz, Grandmaster Flash, and Afrika Bambaataa were of Latin American or Caribbean origin. Hip hop music_sentence_42

It is hard to pinpoint the exact musical influences that most affected the sound and culture of early hip hop because of the multicultural nature of New York City. Hip hop music_sentence_43

Hip hop's early pioneers were influenced by a mix of music from their cultures and the cultures they were exposed to as a result of the diversity of U.S. cities. Hip hop music_sentence_44

New York City experienced a heavy Jamaican hip hop influence during the 1990s. Hip hop music_sentence_45

This influence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly because of the heightened immigration of Jamaicans to New York City and the American-born Jamaican youth who were coming of age during the 1990s. Hip hop music_sentence_46

In the 1970s, block parties were increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African-American, Caribbean and Latino youth residing in the Bronx. Hip hop music_sentence_47

Block parties incorporated DJs, who played popular genres of music, especially funk and soul music. Hip hop music_sentence_48

Due to the positive reception, DJs began isolating the percussive breaks of popular songs. Hip hop music_sentence_49

This technique was common in Jamaican dub music, and was largely introduced into New York by immigrants from the Caribbean, including DJ Kool Herc, one of the pioneers of hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_50

Because the percussive breaks in funk, soul and disco records were generally short, Herc and other DJs began using two turntables to extend the breaks. Hip hop music_sentence_51

Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptu toasting, a spoken type of boastful poetry and speech over music. Hip hop music_sentence_52

On August 11, 1973, DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at his sister's back-to-school party. Hip hop music_sentence_53

He extended the beat of a record by using two record players, isolating the percussion "breaks" by using a mixer to switch between the two records. Hip hop music_sentence_54

Herc's experiments with making music with record players became what we now know as breaking or "scratching". Hip hop music_sentence_55

A second key musical element in hip hop music is emceeing (also called MCing or rapping). Hip hop music_sentence_56

Emceeing is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, delivered at first without accompaniment and later done over a beat. Hip hop music_sentence_57

This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping", a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners. Hip hop music_sentence_58

The basic elements of hip hop—boasting raps, rival "posses" (groups), uptown "throw-downs", and political and social commentary—were all long present in African American music. Hip hop music_sentence_59

MCing and rapping performers moved back and forth between the predominance of "toasting" songs packed with a mix of boasting, 'slackness' and sexual innuendo and a more topical, political, socially conscious style. Hip hop music_sentence_60

The role of the MC originally was as a Master of Ceremonies for a DJ dance event. Hip hop music_sentence_61

The MC would introduce the DJ and try to pump up the audience. Hip hop music_sentence_62

The MC spoke between the DJ's songs, urging everyone to get up and dance. Hip hop music_sentence_63

MCs would also tell jokes and use their energetic language and enthusiasm to rev up the crowd. Hip hop music_sentence_64

Eventually, this introducing role developed into longer sessions of spoken, rhythmic wordplay, and rhyming, which became rapping. Hip hop music_sentence_65

By 1979 hip hop music had become a mainstream genre. Hip hop music_sentence_66

It spread across the world in the 1990s with controversial "gangsta" rap. Hip hop music_sentence_67

Herc also developed upon break-beat deejaying, where the breaks of funk songs—the part most suited to dance, usually percussion-based—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties. Hip hop music_sentence_68

This form of music playback, using hard funk and rock, formed the basis of hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_69

Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. Hip hop music_sentence_70

He dubbed his dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls", or simply b-boys and b-girls. Hip hop music_sentence_71

According to Herc, "breaking" was also street slang for "getting excited" and "acting energetically". Hip hop music_sentence_72

DJs such as Grand Wizzard Theodore, Grandmaster Flash, and Jazzy Jay refined and developed the use of breakbeats, including cutting and scratching. Hip hop music_sentence_73

As turntable manipulation continued to evolve a new technique that came from it was needle dropping. Hip hop music_sentence_74

Needle dropping was created by Grandmaster Flash, it is prolonged short drum breaks by playing two copies of a record simultaneously and moving the needle on one turntable back to the start of the break while the other played.The approach used by Herc was soon widely copied, and by the late 1970s, DJs were releasing 12-inch records where they would rap to the beat. Hip hop music_sentence_75

Popular tunes included Kurtis Blow's "The Breaks" and The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight". Hip hop music_sentence_76

Herc and other DJs would connect their equipment to power lines and perform at venues such as public basketball courts and at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Bronx, New York, now officially a historic building. Hip hop music_sentence_77

The equipment consisted of numerous speakers, turntables, and one or more microphones. Hip hop music_sentence_78

By using this technique, DJs could create a variety of music, but according to Rap Attack by David Toop "At its worst the technique could turn the night into one endless and inevitably boring song". Hip hop music_sentence_79

KC The Prince of Soul, a rapper-lyricist with Pete DJ Jones, is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC". Hip hop music_sentence_80

Street gangs were prevalent in the poverty of the South Bronx, and much of the graffiti, rapping, and b-boying at these parties were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs. Hip hop music_sentence_81

Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika Bambaataa founded the Zulu Nation, a loose confederation of street-dance crews, graffiti artists, and rap musicians. Hip hop music_sentence_82

By the late 1970s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled "B Beats Bombarding Bronx", commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such as Kool Herc. Hip hop music_sentence_83

The New York City blackout of 1977 saw widespread looting, arson, and other citywide disorders especially in the Bronx where a number of looters stole DJ equipment from electronics stores. Hip hop music_sentence_84

As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside of the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding rate from 1977 onward. Hip hop music_sentence_85

DJ Kool Herc's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people. Hip hop music_sentence_86

Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy." Hip hop music_sentence_87

Tony Tone, a member of the Cold Crush Brothers, stated that "hip hop saved a lot of lives". Hip hop music_sentence_88

For inner-city youth, participating in hip hop culture became a way of dealing with the hardships of life as minorities within America, and an outlet to deal with the risk of violence and the rise of gang culture. Hip hop music_sentence_89

MC Kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting". Hip hop music_sentence_90

Inspired by DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa created a street organization called Universal Zulu Nation, centered around hip hop, as a means to draw teenagers out of gang life, drugs and violence. Hip hop music_sentence_91

The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track "The Message" by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects. Hip hop music_sentence_92

"Young black Americans coming out of the civil rights movement have used hip hop culture in the 1980s and 1990s to show the limitations of the hip hop movement." Hip hop music_sentence_93

Hip hop gave young African Americans a voice to let their issues be heard; "Like rock-and-roll, hip hop is vigorously opposed by conservatives because it romanticises violence, law-breaking, and gangs". Hip hop music_sentence_94

It also gave people a chance for financial gain by "reducing the rest of the world to consumers of its social concerns." Hip hop music_sentence_95

In late 1979, Debbie Harry of Blondie took Nile Rodgers of Chic to such an event, as the main backing track used was the break from Chic's "Good Times". Hip hop music_sentence_96

The new style influenced Harry, and Blondie's later hit single from 1981 "Rapture" became the first single containing hip hop elements to hit number one on the U.S. Billboard Hot 100—the song itself is usually considered new wave and fuses heavy pop music elements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end. Hip hop music_sentence_97

Boxer Muhammad Ali, as an influential African-American celebrity, was widely covered in the media. Hip hop music_sentence_98

Ali influenced several elements of hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_99

Both in the boxing ring and in media interviews, Ali became known in the 1960s for being "rhyming trickster" in the 1960s. Hip hop music_sentence_100

Ali used a "funky delivery" for his comments, which included "boasts, comical trash talk, [and] the endless quotabl[e]" lines. Hip hop music_sentence_101

According to Rolling Stone, his "freestyle skills" (a reference to a type of vocal improvisation in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject or structure) and his "rhymes, flow, and braggadocio" would "one day become typical of old school MCs" like Run–D.M.C. Hip hop music_sentence_102

and LL Cool J, the latter citing Ali as an influence. Hip hop music_sentence_103

Hip hop music in its infancy has been described as an outlet and a "voice" for the disenfranchised youth of low-income and marginalized economic areas, as the hip hop culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives. Hip hop music_sentence_104

Technology Hip hop music_section_4

Hip hop's early evolution occurred around the time that sampling technology and drum-machines became widely available to the general public at a cost that was affordable to the average consumer—not just professional studios. Hip hop music_sentence_105

Drum-machines and samplers were combined in machines that came to be known as MPC's or 'Music Production Centers', early examples of which would include the Linn 9000. Hip hop music_sentence_106

The first sampler that was broadly adopted to create this new kind of music was the Mellotron used in combination with the TR-808 drum machine. Hip hop music_sentence_107

Mellotrons and Linn's were succeeded by the AKAI, in the late 1980s. Hip hop music_sentence_108

Turntablist techniques – such as rhythmic "scratching" (pushing a record back and forth while the needle is in the groove to create new sounds and sound effects, an approach attributed to Grand Wizzard Theodore), beat mixing and/or beatmatching, and beat juggling – eventually developed along with the percussion breaks, creating a musical accompaniment or base that could be rapped over in a manner similar to signifying. Hip hop music_sentence_109

As well, the art of Jamaican toasting, a style of talking or chanting into a microphone, often in a boastful style, while beats play over a sound system, was an important influence on the development of hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_110

Toasting is another influence found in Jamaican dub music. Hip hop music_sentence_111

Introduction of rapping Hip hop music_section_5

Rapping, also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically and rhythmically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat. Hip hop music_sentence_112

Beats, almost always in 4/4 time signature, can be created by sampling and/or sequencing portions of other songs by a producer. Hip hop music_sentence_113

They also incorporate synthesizers, drum machines, and live bands. Hip hop music_sentence_114

Rappers may write, memorize, or improvise their lyrics and perform their works a cappella or to a beat. Hip hop music_sentence_115

Hip hop music predates the introduction of rapping into hip hop culture, and rap vocals are absent from many hip hop tracks, such as "Hip Hop, Be Bop (Don't Stop)" by Man Parrish; "Chinese Arithmetic" by Eric B. Hip hop music_sentence_116

& Rakim; "Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)" and "We're Rocking the Planet" by Hashim; and "Destination Earth" by Newcleus. Hip hop music_sentence_117

However, the majority of the genre has been accompanied by rap vocals, such as the Sci-fi influenced electro hip hop group Warp 9. Hip hop music_sentence_118

Female rappers appeared on the scene in the late 1970s and early 80s, including Bronx artist MC Sha-Rock, member of the Funky Four Plus One, credited with being the first female MC and The Sequence, a hip hop trio signed to Sugar Hill Records, the first all female group to release a rap record, Funk You Up. Hip hop music_sentence_119

The roots of rapping are found in African-American music and ultimately African music, particularly that of the griots of West African culture. Hip hop music_sentence_120

The African-American traditions of signifyin', the dozens, and jazz poetry all influence hip hop music, as well as the call and response patterns of African and African-American religious ceremonies. Hip hop music_sentence_121

Early popular radio disc jockeys of the Black-appeal radio period broke into broadcast announcing by using these techniques under the jive talk of the post WWII swing era in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Hip hop music_sentence_122

DJ Nat D. was the M.C. Hip hop music_sentence_123

at one of the most pitiless places for any aspiring musician trying to break into show business, Amateur Night at the Palace theatre on Beale Street in Memphis, Tennessee. Hip hop music_sentence_124

There he was master of ceremonies from 1935 until 1947 along with his sideman, D.J.Rufus Thomas. Hip hop music_sentence_125

It was there he perfected the dozens, signifyin' and the personality jock jive patter that would become his schtick when he became the first black radio announcer on the air south of the Mason–Dixon line. Hip hop music_sentence_126

Jive popularized black appeal radio, it was the language of the black youth, the double entendres and slightly obscene wordplay was a godsend to radio, re-invigorating ratings at flagging outlets that were losing audience share and flipping to the new format of R&B with black announcers. Hip hop music_sentence_127

The 10% of African-Americans who heard his broadcasts found that the music he promoted on radio in 1949 was also in the jukeboxes up north in the cities. Hip hop music_sentence_128

They were also finding other D.J's like Chicago's Al Benson on WJJD, Austin's Doctor Hep Cat on KVET and Atlanta's Jockey Jack on WERD speaking the same rhyming, cadence laden rap style. Hip hop music_sentence_129

Once the white owned stations realized the new upstarts were grabbing their black market share and that Big Band and swing jazz was no longer 'hip', some white D.J's emulated the southern 'mushmouth' and jive talk, letting their audience think they too were African-American, playing the blues and Be-Bop. Hip hop music_sentence_130

John R Richbourg had a southern drawl that listeners to Nashville's WLAC nighttime R&B programming were never informed belonged not to a black D.J., as were other white D.J's at the station. Hip hop music_sentence_131

Dr. Hep Cat's rhymes were published in a dictionary of jive talk, The Jives of Dr. Hepcat, in 1953. Hip hop music_sentence_132

Jockey jack is the infamous Jack the Rapper of Family Affair fame, after his radio convention that was a must attend for every rap artist in the 1980s and 1990s These jive talking rappers of the 1950s black appeal radio format were the source and inspiration of Soul singer James Brown, and musical 'comedy' acts such as Rudy Ray Moore, Pigmeat Markham and Blowfly that are often considered "godfathers" of hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_133

Within New York City, performances of spoken-word poetry and music by artists such as The Last Poets, Gil Scott-Heron and Jalal Mansur Nuriddin had a significant impact on the post-civil rights era culture of the 1960s and '1970s, and thus the social environment in which hip hop music was created. Hip hop music_sentence_134

"Hip-Hop" vs "Rap" Hip hop music_section_6

There are many people that do not understand the definitions of both rap and hip-hop. Hip hop music_sentence_135

While they do have many similarities, they are indeed different. Hip hop music_sentence_136

There are also disagreements about whether or not the two terms can be used interchangeably. Hip hop music_sentence_137

This is even happens amongst hip-hop's most knowledgeable writers, performers, and listeners. Hip hop music_sentence_138

The most common view that is seen, is that hip-hop is a cultural movement that emerged in the South Bronx in New York City during the 1970s, MCing (or rapping) is one of the primary four elements. Hip hop music_sentence_139

Hip-hop's other three essential elements are graffiti art (or aerosol art), break dancing, and DJing. Hip hop music_sentence_140

Rap music has become by far the most celebrated expression of hip-hop culture, largely as a result of its being the easiest to market to a mass audience. Hip hop music_sentence_141

Jamaican origins of outdoor sound systems Hip hop music_section_7

Further information: Sound system (Jamaican) Hip hop music_sentence_142

AM radio at many stations were limited by the 'broadcast Day' as special licenses were required to transmit at night. Hip hop music_sentence_143

Those that had such licenses were heard far out to sea and in the Caribbean, where Jocko Henderson and Jockey Jack were American DJs who were listened to at night from broadcast transmitters located in Miami, Florida. Hip hop music_sentence_144

Jocko came to have an outsized influence on Jamaican Emcees during the '50s as the R&B music played on the Miami stations was different from that played on JBC, which re-broadcast BBC and local music styles. Hip hop music_sentence_145

In Jamaica, DJs would set up large roadside sound systems in towns and villages, playing music for informal gatherings, mostly folks who wandered down from country hills looking for excitement at the end of the week. Hip hop music_sentence_146

There the DJs would allow 'Toasts' by an Emcee, which copied the style of the American DJs listened to on AM transistor radios. Hip hop music_sentence_147

It was by this method that Jive talk, rapping and rhyming was transposed to the island and locally the style was transformed by 'Jamaican lyricism', or the local patois. Hip hop music_sentence_148

Hip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s in New York City from the multicultural exchange between African-American youth from the United States and young immigrants and children of immigrants from countries in the Caribbean. Hip hop music_sentence_149

What would be later described as 'block parties' in the US was a reality since the 1950s all over Jamaica, as MCs (called DJs in Jamaica) were talking and rapping over records at 'sound system' parties since at least 1949. Hip hop music_sentence_150

Some were influenced by the vocal style of the earliest African-American radio MCs (including Jocko Henderson's Rocket Ship Show of the 1950s, which rhymed and was influenced by scat singing), which could be heard over the radio in Jamaica. Hip hop music_sentence_151

The first records by Jamaican DJs, including Sir Lord Comic (The Great Wuga Wuga, 1967) came as part of the local dance hall culture, which featured 'specials,' unique mixes or 'versions' pressed on soft discs or acetate discs, and rappers (called DJs) such as King Stitt, Count Machuki, U-Roy, I-Roy, Big Youth and many others. Hip hop music_sentence_152

Recordings of talk-over, which is a different style from the dancehall's DJ style, were also made by Jamaican artists such as Prince Buster and Lee "Scratch" Perry (Judge Dread) as early as 1967, somehow rooted in the 'talking blues' tradition. Hip hop music_sentence_153

The first full-length Jamaican DJ record was a duet on a Rastafarian topic by Kingston ghetto dwellers U-Roy and Peter Tosh named Righteous Ruler (produced by Lee "Scratch" Perry in 1969). Hip hop music_sentence_154

The first DJ hit record was Fire Corner by Coxsone's Downbeat sound system DJ, King Stitt that same year; 1970 saw a multitude of DJ hit records in the wake of U-Roy's early, massive hits, most famously Wake the Town and many others. Hip hop music_sentence_155

As the tradition of remix (which also started in Jamaica where it was called 'version' and 'dub') developed, established young Jamaican DJ/rappers from that period, who had already been working for sound systems for years, were suddenly recorded and had many local hit records, widely contributing to the reggae craze triggered by Bob Marley's impact in the 1970s. Hip hop music_sentence_156

The main Jamaican DJs of the early 1970s were King Stitt, Samuel The First, Count Machuki, Johnny Lover (who 'versioned' songs by Bob Marley and the Wailers as early as 1971), Dave Barker, Scotty, Lloyd Young, Charlie Ace and others, as well as soon-to-be reggae stars U-Roy, Dennis Alcapone, I-Roy, Prince Jazzbo, Prince Far I, Big Youth and Dillinger. Hip hop music_sentence_157

Dillinger scored the first international rap hit record with Cocaine in my Brain in 1976 (based on the Do It Any Way You Wanna Do rhythm by People's Choice as re-recorded by Sly and Robbie), where he even used a New York accent, consciously aiming at the new NYC rap market. Hip hop music_sentence_158

The Jamaican DJ dance music was deeply rooted in the sound system tradition that made music available to poor people in a very poor country where live music was only played in clubs and hotels patronized by the middle and upper classes. Hip hop music_sentence_159

By 1973 Jamaican sound system enthusiast DJ Kool Herc moved to the Bronx, taking with him Jamaica's sound system culture, and teamed up with another Jamaican, Coke La Rock, at the mike. Hip hop music_sentence_160

Although other influences, most notably musical sequencer Grandmaster Flowers of Brooklyn and Grandwizard Theodore of the Bronx contributed to the birth of hip hop in New York, and although it was downplayed in most US books about hip hop, the main root of this sound system culture was Jamaican. Hip hop music_sentence_161

The roots of rap in Jamaica are explained in detail in Bruno Blum's book, 'Le Rap'. Hip hop music_sentence_162

DJ Kool Herc and Coke La Rock provided an influence on the vocal style of rapping by delivering simple poetry verses over funk music breaks, after party-goers showed little interest in their previous attempts to integrate reggae-infused toasting into musical sets. Hip hop music_sentence_163

DJs and MCs would often add call and response chants, often consisting of a basic chorus, to allow the performer to gather his thoughts (e.g. "one, two, three, y'all, to the beat"). Hip hop music_sentence_164

Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic delivery, incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort to differentiate themselves and to entertain the audience. Hip hop music_sentence_165

These early raps incorporated the dozens, a product of African-American culture. Hip hop music_sentence_166

Kool Herc & the Herculoids were the first hip hop group to gain recognition in New York, but the number of MC teams increased over time. Hip hop music_sentence_167

Often these were collaborations between former gangs, such as Afrikaa Bambaataa's Universal Zulu Nation—now an international organization. Hip hop music_sentence_168

Melle Mel, a rapper with The Furious Five is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC". Hip hop music_sentence_169

During the early 1970s B-boying arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive and frenetic style. Hip hop music_sentence_170

The style was documented for release to a worldwide audience for the first time in documentaries and movies such as Style Wars, Wild Style, and Beat Street. Hip hop music_sentence_171

The term "B-boy" was coined by DJ Kool Herc to describe the people who would wait for the break section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style. Hip hop music_sentence_172

Although there were many early MCs that recorded solo projects of note, such as DJ Hollywood, Kurtis Blow and Spoonie Gee, the number of solo artists did not increase until later with the rise of soloists with stage presence and drama, such as LL Cool J. Hip hop music_sentence_173

Most early hip hop was dominated by groups where collaboration between the members was integral to the show. Hip hop music_sentence_174

An example would be the early hip hop group Funky Four Plus One, who performed on Saturday Night Live in 1981. Hip hop music_sentence_175

1979–1983: Old school hip hop Hip hop music_section_8

Transition to recording Hip hop music_section_9

The earliest hip hop music was performed live, at house parties and block party events, and it was not recorded. Hip hop music_sentence_176

Prior to 1979, recorded hip hop music consisted mainly of PA system soundboard recordings of live party shows and early hip hop mixtapes by DJs. Hip hop music_sentence_177

Puerto Rican DJ Disco Wiz is credited as the first hip hop DJ to create a "mixed plate," or mixed dub recording, when, in 1977, he combined sound bites, special effects and paused beats to technically produce a sound recording. Hip hop music_sentence_178

The first hip hop record is widely regarded to be The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight", from 1979. Hip hop music_sentence_179

It was the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream and was where hip hop music got its name from (from the opening bar). Hip hop music_sentence_180

However, much controversy surrounds this assertion as some regard the March 1979 single "King Tim III (Personality Jock)" by The Fatback Band, as a rap record. Hip hop music_sentence_181

There are various other claimants for the title of first hip hop record. Hip hop music_sentence_182

By the early 1980s, all the major elements and techniques of the hip hop genre were in place, and by 1982, the electronic (electro) sound had become the trend on the street and in dance clubs. Hip hop music_sentence_183

New York City radio station WKTU featured Warp 9's "Nunk," in a commercial to promote the station's signature sound of emerging hip hop Though not yet mainstream, hip hop had begun to permeate the music scene outside of New York City; it could be found in cities as diverse as Los Angeles, Atlanta, Chicago, Washington, D.C., Baltimore, Dallas, Kansas City, San Antonio, Miami, Seattle, St. Hip hop music_sentence_184

Louis, New Orleans, Houston, and Toronto. Hip hop music_sentence_185

Indeed, "Funk You Up" (1979), the first hip hop record released by a female group, and the second single released by Sugar Hill Records, was performed by The Sequence, a group from Columbia, South Carolina which featured Angie Stone. Hip hop music_sentence_186

Despite the genre's growing popularity, Philadelphia was, for many years, the only city whose contributions could be compared to New York City's. Hip hop music_sentence_187

Hip hop music became popular in Philadelphia in the late 1970s. Hip hop music_sentence_188

The first released record was titled "Rhythm Talk", by Jocko Henderson. Hip hop music_sentence_189

The New York Times had dubbed Philadelphia the "Graffiti Capital of the World" in 1971. Hip hop music_sentence_190

Philadelphia native DJ Lady B recorded "To the Beat Y'All" in 1979, and became the first female solo hip hop artist to record music. Hip hop music_sentence_191

Schoolly D, starting in 1984 and also from Philadelphia, began creating a style that would later be known as gangsta rap. Hip hop music_sentence_192

Influence of disco Hip hop music_section_10

Hip hop music was influenced by disco music, as disco also emphasized the key role of the DJ in creating tracks and mixes for dancers, and old school hip hop often used disco tracks as beats. Hip hop music_sentence_193

At the same time however, hip hop music was also a backlash against certain subgenres of late 1970s disco. Hip hop music_sentence_194

While the early disco was African-American and Italian-American-created underground music developed by DJs and producers for the dance club subculture, by the late 1970s, disco airwaves were dominated by mainstream, expensively recorded music industry-produced disco songs. Hip hop music_sentence_195

According to Kurtis Blow, the early days of hip hop were characterized by divisions between fans and detractors of disco music. Hip hop music_sentence_196

Hip hop had largely emerged as "a direct response to the watered down, Europeanised, disco music that permeated the airwaves". Hip hop music_sentence_197

The earliest hip hop was mainly based on hard funk loops sourced from vintage funk records. Hip hop music_sentence_198

However, by 1979, disco instrumental loops/tracks had become the basis of much hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_199

This genre was called "disco rap". Hip hop music_sentence_200

Ironically, the rise of hip hop music also played a role in the eventual decline in disco's popularity. Hip hop music_sentence_201

The disco sound had a strong influence on early hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_202

Most of the early rap/hip-hop songs were created by isolating existing disco bass-guitar bass lines and dubbing over them with MC rhymes. Hip hop music_sentence_203

The Sugarhill Gang used Chic's "Good Times" as the foundation for their 1979 hit "Rapper's Delight", generally considered to be the song that first popularized rap music in the United States and around the world. Hip hop music_sentence_204

In 1982, Afrika Bambaataa released the single "Planet Rock", which incorporated electronica elements from Kraftwerk's "Trans-Europe Express" and "Numbers" as well as YMO's "Riot in Lagos". Hip hop music_sentence_205

The Planet Rock sound also spawned a hip-hop electronic dance trend, electro music, which included songs such as Planet Patrol's "Play at Your Own Risk" (1982), C Bank's "One More Shot" (1982), Cerrone's "Club Underworld" (1984), Shannon's "Let the Music Play" (1983), Freeez's "I.O.U." Hip hop music_sentence_206

(1983), Midnight Star's "Freak-a-Zoid" (1983), Chaka Khan's "I Feel For You" (1984). Hip hop music_sentence_207

DJ Pete Jones, Eddie Cheeba, DJ Hollywood, and Love Bug Starski were disco-influenced hip hop DJs. Hip hop music_sentence_208

Their styles differed from other hip hop musicians who focused on rapid-fire rhymes and more complex rhythmic schemes. Hip hop music_sentence_209

Afrika Bambaataa, Paul Winley, Grandmaster Flash, and Bobby Robinson were all members of third s latter group. Hip hop music_sentence_210

In Washington, D.C. go-go emerged as a reaction against disco and eventually incorporated characteristics of hip hop during the early 1980s. Hip hop music_sentence_211

The DJ-based genre of electronic music behaved similarly, eventually evolving into underground styles known as house music in Chicago and techno in Detroit. Hip hop music_sentence_212

Diversification of styles Hip hop music_section_11

Further information: List of hip hop genres Hip hop music_sentence_213

The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. Hip hop music_sentence_214

New York City became a veritable laboratory for the creation of new hip hop sounds. Hip hop music_sentence_215

Early examples of the diversification process can be heard in tracks such as Grandmaster Flash's "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel" (1981), a single consisting entirely of sampled tracks as well as Afrika Bambaataa's "Planet Rock" (1982), and Warp 9's "Nunk," (1982) which signified the fusion of hip hop music with electro. Hip hop music_sentence_216

In addition, Rammellzee & K-Rob's "Beat Bop" (1983) was a 'slow jam' which had a dub influence with its use of reverb and echo as texture and playful sound effects. Hip hop music_sentence_217

"Light Years Away," by Warp 9 (1983), (produced and written by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher) described as a "cornerstone of early 80s beatbox afrofuturism," by the UK paper, The Guardian, introduced social commentary from a sci-fi perspective. Hip hop music_sentence_218

In the 1970s, hip hop music typically used samples from funk and later, from disco. Hip hop music_sentence_219

The mid-1980s marked a paradigm shift in the development of hip hop, with the introduction of samples from rock music, as demonstrated in the albums King of Rock and Licensed to Ill. Hip hop music_sentence_220

Hip hop prior to this shift is characterized as old-school hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_221

In 1980, the Roland Corporation launched the TR-808 Rhythm Composer. Hip hop music_sentence_222

It was one of the earliest programmable drum machines, with which users could create their own rhythms rather than having to use preset patterns. Hip hop music_sentence_223

Though it was a commercial failure, over the course of the decade the 808 attracted a cult following among underground musicians for its affordability on the used market, ease of use, and idiosyncratic sounds, particularly its deep, "booming" bass drum. Hip hop music_sentence_224

It became a cornerstone of the emerging electronic, dance, and hip hop genres, popularized by early hits such as Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force's "Planet Rock". Hip hop music_sentence_225

The 808 was eventually used on more hit records than any other drum machine; its popularity with hip hop in particular has made it one of the most influential inventions in popular music, comparable to the Fender Stratocaster's influence on rock. Hip hop music_sentence_226

Over time sampling technology became more advanced. Hip hop music_sentence_227

However, earlier producers such as Marley Marl used drum machines to construct their beats from small excerpts of other beats in synchronisation, in his case, triggering three Korg sampling-delay units through a Roland 808. Hip hop music_sentence_228

Later, samplers such as the E-mu SP-1200 allowed not only more memory but more flexibility for creative production. Hip hop music_sentence_229

This allowed the filtration and layering different hits, and with a possibility of re-sequencing them into a single piece. Hip hop music_sentence_230

With the emergence of a new generation of samplers such as the AKAI S900 in the late 1980s, producers did not have to create complex, time-consuming tape loops. Hip hop music_sentence_231

Public Enemy's first album was created with the help of large tape loops. Hip hop music_sentence_232

The process of looping a break into a breakbeat now became more commonly done with a sampler, now doing the job which so far had been done manually by the DJs using turntables. Hip hop music_sentence_233

In 1989, DJ Mark James, under the moniker "45 King", released "The 900 Number", a breakbeat track created by synchronizing samplers and vinyl records. Hip hop music_sentence_234

The lyrical content and other instrumental accompaniment of hip hop developed as well. Hip hop music_sentence_235

The early lyrical styles in the 1970, which tended to be boasts and clichéd chants, were replaced with metaphorical lyrics exploring a wider range of subjects. Hip hop music_sentence_236

As well, the lyrics were performed over more complex, multi-layered instrumental accompaniment. Hip hop music_sentence_237

Artists such as Melle Mel, Rakim, Chuck D, KRS-One and Warp 9 revolutionized hip hop by transforming it into a more mature art form, with sophisticated arrangements, often featuring "gorgeous textures and multiple layers" The influential single "The Message" (1982) by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five is widely considered to be the pioneering force for conscious rap. Hip hop music_sentence_238

Independent record labels like Tommy Boy, Prism Records and became successful in the early 1980s, releasing records at a furious pace in response to the demand generated by local radio stations and club DJs. Hip hop music_sentence_239

Early 1980s electro music and rap were catalysts that sparked the hip hop movement, led by artists such as Cybotron, Hashim, Afrika Bambaataa, Planet Patrol, Newcleus and Warp 9. Hip hop music_sentence_240

In the New York City recording scene, artists collaborated with producer/writers such as Arthur Baker, John Robie, Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, exchanging ideas that contributed to the development of hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_241

Some rappers eventually became mainstream pop performers. Hip hop music_sentence_242

Kurtis Blow's appearance in a Sprite soda pop commercial marked the first hip hop musician to do a commercial for a major product. Hip hop music_sentence_243

The 1981 songs "Rapture" by Blondie and "Christmas Wrapping" by the new wave band The Waitresses were among the first pop songs to utilize rap. Hip hop music_sentence_244

In 1982, Afrika Bambaataa introduced hip hop to an international audience with "Planet Rock." Hip hop music_sentence_245

Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the context of the United States. Hip hop music_sentence_246

However, during the 1980s, it began its spread and became a part of the music scene in dozens of countries. Hip hop music_sentence_247

Greg Wilson was the first DJ to introduce electro hip hop to UK club audiences in the early 1980s, opting for the dub or instrumental versions of Nunk by Warp 9, Extra T's "ET Boogie," Hip Hop, Be Bop (Don't Stop) by Man Parrish, Planet Rock and Dirty Talk (Klein + M.B.O. Hip hop music_sentence_248

song). Hip hop music_sentence_249

In the early part of the decade, B-boying became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Japan, Australia and South Africa. Hip hop music_sentence_250

In South Africa, the breakdance crew Black Noise established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade. Hip hop music_sentence_251

Musician and presenter Sidney became France's first black TV presenter with his show H.I.P. Hip hop music_sentence_252

H.O.P. Hip hop music_sentence_253

which screened on TF1 during 1984, a first for the genre worldwide. Hip hop music_sentence_254

Sidney is considered the father of French hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_255

Radio Nova helped launch other French hip hop stars including Dee Nasty, whose 1984 album Paname City Rappin' along with compilations Rapattitude 1 and 2 contributed to a general awareness of hip hop in France. Hip hop music_sentence_256

Hip hop has always kept a very close relationship with the Latino community in New York. Hip hop music_sentence_257

DJ Disco Wiz and the Rock Steady Crew were among early innovators from Puerto Rico, combining English and Spanish in their lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_258

The Mean Machine recorded their first song under the label "Disco Dreams" in 1981, while Kid Frost from Los Angeles began his career in 1982. Hip hop music_sentence_259

Cypress Hill was formed in 1988 in the suburb of South Gate outside Los Angeles when Senen Reyes (born in Havana) and his younger brother Ulpiano Sergio (Mellow Man Ace) moved from Cuba to South Gate with his family in 1971. Hip hop music_sentence_260

They teamed up with DVX from Queens (New York), Lawrence Muggerud (DJ Muggs) and Louis Freese (B-Real), a Mexican/Cuban-American native of Los Angeles. Hip hop music_sentence_261

After the departure of "Ace" to begin his solo career, the group adopted the name of Cypress Hill named after a street running through a neighborhood nearby in South Los Angeles. Hip hop music_sentence_262

Japanese hip hop is said to have begun when Hiroshi Fujiwara returned to Japan and started playing hip hop records in the early 1980s. Hip hop music_sentence_263

Japanese hip hop generally tends to be most directly influenced by old school hip hop, taking the era's catchy beats, dance culture, and overall fun and carefree nature and incorporating it into their music. Hip hop music_sentence_264

Hip hop became one of the most commercially viable mainstream music genres in Japan, and the line between it and pop music is frequently blurred. Hip hop music_sentence_265

1983–1986: New school hip hop Hip hop music_section_12

Main article: New school hip hop Hip hop music_sentence_266

The new school of hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C. Hip hop music_sentence_267

and LL Cool J. Hip hop music_sentence_268

As with the hip hop preceding it (which subsequently became known as old school hip hop), the new school came predominantly from New York City. Hip hop music_sentence_269

The new school was initially characterized in form by drum machine-led minimalism, with influences from rock music, a hip hop "metal music for the 80s–a hard-edge ugly/beauty trance as desperate and stimulating as New York itself." Hip hop music_sentence_270

It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. Hip hop music_sentence_271

In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street b-boy attitude. Hip hop music_sentence_272

These elements contrasted sharply with much of the previous funk- and disco-influenced hip hop groups, whose music was often characterized by novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers, and "party rhymes" (not all artists prior to 1983–84 had these styles). Hip hop music_sentence_273

New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and they produced more cohesive LP albums than their old school counterparts. Hip hop music_sentence_274

By 1986, their releases began to establish the hip-hop album as a fixture of mainstream music. Hip hop music_sentence_275

Hip hop music became commercially successful, as exemplified by the Beastie Boys' 1986 album Licensed to Ill, which was the first rap album to hit No. Hip hop music_sentence_276

1 on the Billboard charts. Hip hop music_sentence_277

1986–1997: Golden age hip hop Hip hop music_section_13

Main article: Golden age hip hop Hip hop music_sentence_278

Hip hop's "golden age" (or "golden era") is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hop, produced between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, which is characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence. Hip hop music_sentence_279

There were strong themes of Afrocentrism and political militancy in golden age hip hop lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_280

The music was experimental and the sampling drew on eclectic sources. Hip hop music_sentence_281

There was often a strong jazz influence in the music. Hip hop music_sentence_282

The artists and groups most often associated with this phase are Public Enemy, Boogie Down Productions, Eric B. Hip hop music_sentence_283

& Rakim, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Gang Starr, Big Daddy Kane and the Jungle Brothers. Hip hop music_sentence_284

The golden age is noted for its innovation – a time "when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre" according to Rolling Stone. Hip hop music_sentence_285

Referring to "hip-hop in its golden age", Spin's editor-in-chief Sia Michel says, "there were so many important, groundbreaking albums coming out right about that time", and MTV's Sway Calloway adds: "The thing that made that era so great is that nothing was contrived. Hip hop music_sentence_286

Everything was still being discovered and everything was still innovative and new". Hip hop music_sentence_287

Writer William Jelani Cobb says "what made the era they inaugurated worthy of the term golden was the sheer number of stylistic innovations that came into existence... in these golden years, a critical mass of mic prodigies were literally creating themselves and their art form at the same time". Hip hop music_sentence_288

Carl Stoffers of New York Daily News describes the golden age as "spanning from approximately 1986 to 1997." Hip hop music_sentence_289

In their article "In Search of the Golden Age Hip-Hop Sound", music theorists Ben Duinker and Denis Martin of Empirical Musicology Review use "the 11 years between and including 1986 and 1996 as chronological boundaries" to define the golden age, beginning with the releases of Run-DMC's Raising Hell and the Beastie Boys' Licensed to Ill and ending the deaths of Tupac Shakur and the Notorious B.I.G.. Hip hop music_sentence_290

Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hop Hip hop music_section_14

Main articles: Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hop Hip hop music_sentence_291

Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that reflects the violent lifestyles of inner-city American black youths. Hip hop music_sentence_292

Gangsta is a non-rhotic pronunciation of the word gangster. Hip hop music_sentence_293

The genre was pioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice-T, and was popularized in the later part of the 1980s by groups like N.W.A. Hip hop music_sentence_294

Schoolly D released "P.S.K. Hip hop music_sentence_295

What Does It Mean? Hip hop music_sentence_296

", which is often regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in 1985, which was followed by Ice-T's "6 in the Mornin'" in 1986. Hip hop music_sentence_297

After the national attention and controversy that Ice-T and N.W.A created in the late 1980s and early 1990s, as well as the mainstreaming of G-funk in the mid-1990s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_298

Some gangsta rappers were known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap. Hip hop music_sentence_299

N.W.A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Hip hop music_sentence_300

Their lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word "nigga". Hip hop music_sentence_301

These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel. Hip hop music_sentence_302

The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton, released in 1988. Hip hop music_sentence_303

Straight Outta Compton would establish West Coast hip hop as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City. Hip hop music_sentence_304

Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song "Fuck tha Police" earned a letter from FBI Assistant Director, Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing law enforcement's resentment of the song. Hip hop music_sentence_305

Controversy surrounded Ice-T's album Body Count, in particular over its song "Cop Killer". Hip hop music_sentence_306

The song was intended to speak from the viewpoint of a criminal getting revenge on racist, brutal cops. Hip hop music_sentence_307

Ice-T's rock song infuriated government officials, the National Rifle Association and various police advocacy groups. Hip hop music_sentence_308

Consequently, Time Warner Music refused to release Ice-T's upcoming album Home Invasion because of the controversy surrounding "Cop Killer". Hip hop music_sentence_309

Ice-T suggested that the furor over the song was an overreaction, telling journalist Chuck Philips "...they've done movies about nurse killers and teacher killers and student killers. Hip hop music_sentence_310

[Actor] Arnold Schwarzenegger blew away dozens of cops as the Terminator. Hip hop music_sentence_311

But I don't hear anybody complaining about that." Hip hop music_sentence_312

In the same interview, Ice-T suggested to Philips that the misunderstanding of Cop Killer and the attempts to censor it had racial overtones: "The Supreme Court says it's OK for a white man to burn a cross in public. Hip hop music_sentence_313

But nobody wants a black man to write a record about a cop killer." Hip hop music_sentence_314

The subject matter inherent in gangsta rap more generally has caused controversy. Hip hop music_sentence_315

The White House administrations of both George H.W. Hip hop music_sentence_316

Bush and Bill Clinton criticized the genre. Hip hop music_sentence_317

"The reason why rap is under attack is because it exposes all the contradictions of American culture ...What started out as an underground art form has become a vehicle to expose a lot of critical issues that are not usually discussed in American politics. Hip hop music_sentence_318

The problem here is that the White House and wanna-bes like Bill Clinton represent a political system that never intends to deal with inner city urban chaos," Sister Souljah told The Times. Hip hop music_sentence_319

Due to the influence of Ice-T and N.W.A, gangsta rap is often viewed as a primarily West Coast phenomenon, despite the contributions of East Coast acts like Schoolly D and Boogie Down Productions in shaping the genre. Hip hop music_sentence_320

Mainstream breakthrough Hip hop music_section_15

In 1990, Public Enemy's Fear of a Black Planet was a significant success with music critics and consumers. Hip hop music_sentence_321

The album played a key role in hip hop's mainstream emergence in 1990, dubbed by Billboard editor Paul Grein as "the year that rap exploded". Hip hop music_sentence_322

In a 1990 article on its commercial breakthrough, Janice C. Thompson of Time wrote that hip hop "has grown into the most exciting development in American pop music in more than a decade." Hip hop music_sentence_323

Thompson noted the impact of Public Enemy's 1989 single "Fight the Power", rapper Tone Lōc's single Wild Thing being the best-selling single of 1989, and that at the time of her article, nearly a third of the songs on the Billboard Hot 100 were hip hop songs. Hip hop music_sentence_324

In a similar 1990 article, Robert Hilburn of the Los Angeles Times put hip hop music's commercial emergence into perspective: Hip hop music_sentence_325

In 1990, while working with the hip house group Snap! Hip hop music_sentence_326

, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage a former member of the Zulu Nation is credited for carving the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings. Hip hop music_sentence_327

The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Justice, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Hip hop music_sentence_328

Ronald Savage is known as the Son of the Hip Hop Movement. Hip hop music_sentence_329

MC Hammer hit mainstream success with the multi platinum album Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em. Hip hop music_sentence_330

The record reached #1 and the first single, "U Can't Touch This" charted on the top ten of the Billboard Hot 100. Hip hop music_sentence_331

MC Hammer became one of the most successful rappers of the early nineties and one of the first household names in the genre. Hip hop music_sentence_332

The album raised rap music to a new level of popularity. Hip hop music_sentence_333

It was the first hip-hop album certified diamond by the RIAA for sales of over ten million. Hip hop music_sentence_334

It remains one of the genre's all-time best-selling albums. Hip hop music_sentence_335

To date, the album has sold as many as 18 million units. Hip hop music_sentence_336

Released in 1990, "Ice Ice Baby" by Vanilla Ice was the first hip hop single to top the Billboard charts in the U.S. Hip hop music_sentence_337

It also reached number one in the UK, Australia among others and has been credited for helping diversify hip hop by introducing it to a mainstream audience. Hip hop music_sentence_338

In 1992, Dr. Hip hop music_sentence_339

Dre released The Chronic. Hip hop music_sentence_340

As well as helping to establish West Coast gangsta rap as more commercially viable than East Coast hip hop, this album founded a style called G Funk, which soon came to dominate West Coast hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_341

The style was further developed and popularized by Snoop Dogg's 1993 album Doggystyle. Hip hop music_sentence_342

However, hip hop was still met with resistance from black radio, including urban contemporary radio stations. Hip hop music_sentence_343

Russell Simmons said in 1990, "Black radio [stations] hated rap from the start and there's still a lot of resistance to it". Hip hop music_sentence_344

Despite the lack of support from some black radio stations, hip hop became a best-selling music genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999 with 81 million CDs sold. Hip hop music_sentence_345

By the late 1990s hip hop was artistically dominated by the Wu-Tang Clan, Diddy and the Fugees. Hip hop music_sentence_346

The Beastie Boys continued their success throughout the decade crossing color lines and gaining respect from many different artists. Hip hop music_sentence_347

Record labels based out of Atlanta, St. Hip hop music_sentence_348

Louis, and New Orleans also gained fame for their local scenes. Hip hop music_sentence_349

The midwest rap scene was also notable, with the fast vocal styles from artists such as Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Tech N9ne, and Twista. Hip hop music_sentence_350

By the end of the decade, hip hop was an integral part of popular music, and many American pop songs had hip hop components. Hip hop music_sentence_351

East vs. West rivalry Hip hop music_section_16

Main article: East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry Hip hop music_sentence_352

The East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry was a feud from 1991 to 1997 between artists and fans of the East Coast hip hop and West Coast hip hop scenes in the United States, especially from 1994 to 1997. Hip hop music_sentence_353

Focal points of the feud were East Coast-based rapper The Notorious B.I.G. (and his New York-based label, Bad Boy Records) and West Coast-based rapper Tupac Shakur, (and his Los Angeles-based label, Death Row Records).This rivalry started before the rappers themselves hit the scene. Hip hop music_sentence_354

Because New York is the birthplace of hip-hop, artists from the West Coast felt as if they were not receiving the same media coverage and public attention as the East Coast.As time went on both rappers began to grow in fame and as they both became more known the tensions continued to arise. Hip hop music_sentence_355

Eventually both artists were fatally shot following drive-by shootings by unknown assailants in 1997 and 1996, respectively. Hip hop music_sentence_356

East Coast hip hop Hip hop music_section_17

Main article: East Coast hip hop Hip hop music_sentence_357

In the early 1990s East Coast hip hop was dominated by the Native Tongues posse, which was loosely composed of De La Soul with producer Prince Paul, A Tribe Called Quest, the Jungle Brothers, as well as their loose affiliates 3rd Bass, Main Source, and the less successful Black Sheep and KMD. Hip hop music_sentence_358

Although originally a "daisy age" conception stressing the positive aspects of life, darker material (such as De La Soul's thought-provoking "Millie Pulled a Pistol on Santa") soon crept in. Hip hop music_sentence_359

Artists such as Masta Ace (particularly for SlaughtaHouse), Brand Nubian, Public Enemy, Organized Konfusion, and Tragedy Khadafi had a more overtly-militant pose, both in sound and manner. Hip hop music_sentence_360

In 1993, the Wu-Tang Clan's Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) revitalized the New York hip hop scene by pioneering an East Coast hardcore rap equivalent in intensity to what was being produced on the West Coast. Hip hop music_sentence_361

According to Allmusic, the production on two Mobb Deep albums, The Infamous (1995) and Hell on Earth (1996), are "indebted" to RZA's early production with the Wu-Tang Clan. Hip hop music_sentence_362

The success of albums such as Nas's Illmatic and Notorious B.I.G.'s Ready to Die in 1994 cemented the status of the East Coast during a time of West Coast dominance. Hip hop music_sentence_363

In a March 2002 issue of The Source Magazine, Nas referred to 1994 as "a renaissance of New York [City] Hip-Hop." Hip hop music_sentence_364

The productions of RZA, particularly for the Wu-Tang Clan, became influential with artists such as Mobb Deep due to the combination of somewhat detached instrumental loops, highly compressed and processed drums, and gangsta lyrical content. Hip hop music_sentence_365

Wu-Tang solo albums such as Raekwon the Chef's Only Built 4 Cuban Linx, Ghostface Killah's Ironman, and GZA's Liquid Swords are now viewed as classics along with Wu-Tang "core" material. Hip hop music_sentence_366

The clan's base extended into further groups called "Wu-affiliates". Hip hop music_sentence_367

Producers such as DJ Premier (primarily for Gang Starr but also for other affiliated artists, such as Jeru the Damaja), Pete Rock (with CL Smooth, and supplying beats for many others), Buckwild, Large Professor, Diamond D, and Q-Tip supplied beats for numerous MCs at the time, regardless of location. Hip hop music_sentence_368

Albums such as Nas's Illmatic, O.C. Hip hop music_sentence_369

's Word...Life (1994), and Jay-Z's Reasonable Doubt (1996) are made up of beats from this pool of producers. Hip hop music_sentence_370

The rivalry between the East Coast and the West Coast rappers eventually turned personal. Hip hop music_sentence_371

Later in the decade the business acumen of the Bad Boy Records tested itself against Jay-Z and his Roc-A-Fella Records and, on the West Coast, Death Row Records. Hip hop music_sentence_372

The mid to late 1990s saw a generation of rappers such as the members of D.I.T.C. Hip hop music_sentence_373

such as the late Big L and Big Pun. Hip hop music_sentence_374

On the East Coast, although the "big business" end of the market dominated matters commercially the late 1990s to early 2000s saw a number of relatively successful East Coast indie labels such as Rawkus Records (with whom Mos Def and Talib Kweli garnered success) and later Def Jux. Hip hop music_sentence_375

The history of the two labels is intertwined, the latter having been started by EL-P of Company Flow in reaction to the former, and offered an outlet for more underground artists such as Mike Ladd, Aesop Rock, Mr Lif, RJD2, Cage and Cannibal Ox. Hip hop music_sentence_376

Other acts such as the Hispanic Arsonists and slam poet turned MC Saul Williams met with differing degrees of success. Hip hop music_sentence_377

West Coast hip hop Hip hop music_section_18

Main article: West Coast hip hop Hip hop music_sentence_378

After N.W.A. Hip hop music_sentence_379

broke up, former member Dr. Hip hop music_sentence_380

Dre released The Chronic in 1992, which peaked at #1 on the R&B/hip hop chart, #3 on the pop chart, and spawned a #2 pop single with "Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang". Hip hop music_sentence_381

The Chronic took West Coast rap in a new direction, influenced strongly by P funk artists, melding smooth and easy funk beats with slowly-drawled lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_382

This came to be known as G-funk and dominated mainstream hip hop in the early-mid 1990s through a roster of artists on Suge Knight's Death Row Records, including Tupac Shakur, whose double disc album All Eyez on Me was a big hit with hit songs "Ambitionz az a Ridah" and "2 of Amerikaz Most Wanted"; and Snoop Doggy Dogg, whose Doggystyle included the top ten hits "What's My Name?" Hip hop music_sentence_383

and "Gin and Juice". Hip hop music_sentence_384

As the Los Angeles-based Death Row built an empire around Dre, Snoop, and Tupac, it also entered into a rivalry with New York City's Bad Boy Records, led by Puff Daddy and The Notorious B.I.G.. Hip hop music_sentence_385

Detached from this scene were other artists such as Freestyle Fellowship and The Pharcyde, as well as more underground artists such as the Solesides collective (DJ Shadow and Blackalicious amongst others), Jurassic 5, Ugly Duckling, People Under The Stairs, Tha Alkaholiks, and earlier Souls of Mischief, who represented a return to hip hop's roots of sampling and well-planned rhyme schemes. Hip hop music_sentence_386

Further diversification Hip hop music_section_19

Further information: List of hip hop genres Hip hop music_sentence_387

In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging on the national scene. Hip hop music_sentence_388

Southern rap became popular in the early 1990s. Hip hop music_sentence_389

The first Southern rappers to gain national attention were the Geto Boys out of Houston, Texas. Hip hop music_sentence_390

Southern rap's roots can be traced to the success of Geto Boy's Grip It! Hip hop music_sentence_391

On That Other Level in 1989, the Rick Rubin produced The Geto Boys in 1990, and We Can't Be Stopped in 1991. Hip hop music_sentence_392

The Houston area also produced other artists that pioneered the early southern rap sound such as UGK and the solo career of Scarface. Hip hop music_sentence_393

Atlanta hip hop artists were key in further expanding rap music and bringing southern hip hop into the mainstream. Hip hop music_sentence_394

Releases such as Arrested Development's 3 Years, 5 Months and 2 Days in the Life Of... in 1992, Goodie Mob's Soul Food in 1995 and OutKast's ATLiens in 1996 were all critically acclaimed. Hip hop music_sentence_395

Other distinctive regional sounds from St. Hip hop music_sentence_396

Louis, Chicago, Washington D.C., Detroit and others began to gain popularity. Hip hop music_sentence_397

During the golden age, elements of hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music. Hip hop music_sentence_398

The first waves of rap rock, rapcore, and rap metal — respective fusions of hip hop and rock, hardcore punk, and heavy metal — became popular among mainstream audiences at this time; Run-DMC, the Beastie Boys, and Rage Against the Machine were among the most well-known bands in these fields. Hip hop music_sentence_399

In Hawaii, bands such as Sudden Rush combined hip hop elements with the local language and political issues to form a style called na mele paleoleo. Hip hop music_sentence_400

Digable Planets' 1993 release Reachin' (A New Refutation of Time and Space) was an influential jazz rap record sampling the likes of Don Cherry, Sonny Rollins, Art Blakey, Herbie Mann, Herbie Hancock, Grant Green, and Rahsaan Roland Kirk. Hip hop music_sentence_401

It spawned the hit single "Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)" which reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100. Hip hop music_sentence_402

1997–2006: Bling era Hip hop music_section_20

Commercialization and new directions Hip hop music_section_21

During the late 1990s, in the wake of the deaths of Tupac Shakur and The Notorious B.I.G., a new commercial sound emerged in the hip hop scene, sometimes referred to as the "bling era", "jiggy era", (derived from Will Smith's "Gettin' Jiggy wit It", or "shiny suit era". Hip hop music_sentence_403

Before the late 1990s, gangsta rap, while a huge-selling genre, had been regarded as well outside of the pop mainstream, committed to representing the experience of the inner-city and not "selling out" to the pop charts. Hip hop music_sentence_404

However, the rise of Sean "Puff Daddy" Combs's Bad Boy Records, propelled by the massive crossover success of Combs's 1997 ensemble album No Way Out, signaled a major stylistic change in gangsta rap (and mainstream hip hop in general), as it would become even more commercially successful and popularly accepted. Hip hop music_sentence_405

Silky R&B-styled hooks and production, more materialist subject matter, and samples of hit soul and pop songs from the 1970s and 1980s were the staples of this sound, which was showcased by producers such as Combs, Timbaland, The Trackmasters, The Neptunes, and Scott Storch. Hip hop music_sentence_406

Also achieving similar levels of success at this time were Master P and his No Limit label in New Orleans; Master P built up a roster of artists (the No Limit posse) based out of New Orleans, and incorporated G funk and Miami bass influences in his music. Hip hop music_sentence_407

The New Orleans upstart Cash Money label was also gaining popularity during this time, with emerging artists such as Birdman, Lil Wayne, B.G, and Juvenile. Hip hop music_sentence_408

Many of the rappers who achieved mainstream success at this time, such as Nelly, Puff Daddy, Jay-Z, the later career of Fat Joe and his Terror Squad, Mase, Ja Rule, Fabolous, and Cam'ron, had a pop-oriented style, while others such as Big Pun, Fat Joe (in his earlier career), DMX, Eminem, 50 Cent and his G-Unit, and The Game enjoyed commercial success at this time with a grittier style. Hip hop music_sentence_409

Although white rappers like the Beastie Boys, House of Pain, and 3rd Bass previously had some popular success or critical acceptance from the hip hop community, Eminem's success, beginning in 1999 with the platinum The Slim Shady LP, surprised many. Hip hop music_sentence_410

Hip hop influences also found their way increasingly into mainstream pop during this period, particularly in genres such as R&B (e.g. R. Hip hop music_sentence_411

Kelly, Akon, TLC, Destiny's Child, Beyonce, Ashanti, Aliyah, Usher), neo soul (e.g. Lauryn Hill, Erykah Badu, Jill Scott), and nu metal (e.g. Korn, Limp Bizkit). Hip hop music_sentence_412

Dr. Dre remained an important figure in this era, making his comeback in 1999 with the album 2001. Hip hop music_sentence_413

In 2000, he produced The Marshall Mathers LP by Eminem, and also produced 50 Cent's 2003 album Get Rich or Die Tryin', which debuted at number one on the U.S. Hip hop music_sentence_414

Billboard 200 charts. Hip hop music_sentence_415

Jay-Z represented the cultural triumph of hip hop in this era. Hip hop music_sentence_416

As his career progressed, he went from performing artist to entrepreneur, label president, head of a clothing line, club owner, and market consultant—along the way breaking Elvis Presley's record for most number one albums on the Billboard magazine charts by a solo artist. Hip hop music_sentence_417

Rise of alternative hip hop Hip hop music_section_22

Alternative hip hop, which was introduced in the 1980s and then declined, resurged in the early-mid 2000s with the rejuvenated interest in indie music by the general public. Hip hop music_sentence_418

The genre began to attain a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, and Gnarls Barkley. Hip hop music_sentence_419

Not only did OutKast's Speakerboxxx/The Love Below receive high acclaim from music critics, manage to appeal to listeners of all ages, and span numerous musical genres – including rap, rock, R&B, punk, jazz, indie, country, pop, electronica and gospel – but it also spawned two number-one hit singles and has been certified diamond by selling 11 times platinum by the RIAA for shipping more than 11 million units, becoming one of the best selling hip-hop albums of all time as well as winning a Grammy Award for Album of the Year at the 46th Annual Grammy Awards being only the second rap album to do so. Hip hop music_sentence_420

Previously, alternative hip hop acts had attained much critical acclaim, but received relatively little exposure through radio and other media outlets; during this time, alternative hip hop artists such as The Roots, Dilated Peoples, Gnarls Barkley, Mos Def, and Aesop Rock began to achieve significant recognition. Hip hop music_sentence_421

Glitch hop and wonky music Hip hop music_section_23

Main articles: Glitch hop and Wonky (music) Hip hop music_sentence_422

Glitch hop and wonky music evolved following the rise of trip hop, dubstep and intelligent dance music (IDM). Hip hop music_sentence_423

Both glitch hop and wonky music frequently reflect the experimental nature of IDM and the heavy bass featured in dubstep songs. Hip hop music_sentence_424

While trip hop has been described as being a distinct British upper-middle class take on hip-hop, glitch-hop and wonky music have much more stylistic diversity. Hip hop music_sentence_425

Both genres are melting pots of influence. Hip hop music_sentence_426

Glitch hop contains echoes of 1980s pop music, Indian ragas, eclectic jazz and West Coast rap. Hip hop music_sentence_427

Los Angeles, London, Glasgow and a number of other cities have become hot spots for these scenes, and underground scenes have developed across the world in smaller communities. Hip hop music_sentence_428

Both genres often pay homage to older and more well established electronic music artists such as Radiohead, Aphex Twin and Boards of Canada as well as independent hip hop producers like J Dilla and Madlib. Hip hop music_sentence_429

Glitch hop is a fusion genre of hip hop and glitch music that originated in the early to mid-2000s in the United States and Europe. Hip hop music_sentence_430

Musically, it is based on irregular, chaotic breakbeats, glitchy basslines and other typical sound effects used in glitch music, like skips. Hip hop music_sentence_431

Glitch hop artists include Prefuse 73, Dabrye and Flying Lotus. Hip hop music_sentence_432

Wonky is a subgenre of hip hop that originated around 2008, but most notably in the United States and United Kingdom, and among international artists of the Hyperdub music label, under the influence of glitch hop and dubstep. Hip hop music_sentence_433

Wonky music is of the same glitchy style as glitch hop, but it was specifically noted for its melodies, rich with "mid-range unstable synths". Hip hop music_sentence_434

Scotland has become one of the most prominent wonky scenes, with artists like Hudson Mohawke and Rustie. Hip hop music_sentence_435

Glitch hop and wonky are popular among a relatively smaller audience interested in alternative hip hop and electronic music (especially dubstep); neither glitch hop nor wonky have achieved mainstream popularity. Hip hop music_sentence_436

However, artists like Flying Lotus, The Glitch Mob and Hudson Mohawke have seen success in other avenues. Hip hop music_sentence_437

Flying Lotus's music has earned multiple positive reviews on the independent music review site Pitchfork.com as well as a prominent (yet uncredited) spot during Adult Swim commercial breaks. Hip hop music_sentence_438

Hudson Mohawke is one of few glitch hop artists to play at major music festivals such as Sasquatch! Hip hop music_sentence_439

Music Festival. Hip hop music_sentence_440

Crunk music Hip hop music_section_24

Main article: Crunk Hip hop music_sentence_441

Crunk is a regional hip hop genre that originated in Tennessee in the southern United States in the 1990s, influenced by Miami bass. Hip hop music_sentence_442

One of the pioneers of crunk, Lil Jon, said that it was a fusion of hip hop, electro, and electronic dance music. Hip hop music_sentence_443

The style was pioneered and commercialized by artists from Memphis, Tennessee and Atlanta, Georgia, gaining considerable popularity in the mid-2000s via Lil Jon and the Ying Yang Twins. Hip hop music_sentence_444

Looped, stripped-down drum machine rhythms are usually used. Hip hop music_sentence_445

The Roland TR-808 and 909 are among the most popular. Hip hop music_sentence_446

The drum machine loops are usually accompanied by simple, repeated synthesizer melodies and heavy bass "stabs". Hip hop music_sentence_447

The tempo of the music is somewhat slower than hip-hop, around the speed of reggaeton. Hip hop music_sentence_448

The focal point of crunk is more often the beats and instrumental music rather than the lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_449

Crunk rappers, however, often shout and scream their lyrics, creating an aggressive, almost heavy, style of hip-hop. Hip hop music_sentence_450

While other subgenres of hip-hop address sociopolitical or personal concerns, crunk is almost exclusively "party music", favoring call and response hip-hop slogans in lieu of more substantive approaches. Hip hop music_sentence_451

Crunk helped southern hip hop gain mainstream prominence during this period, as the classic East and West Coast styles of the 1990s gradually lost power. Hip hop music_sentence_452

2006–2014: Blog era Hip hop music_section_25

Snap music and influence of the Internet Hip hop music_section_26

Main article: Snap music Hip hop music_sentence_453

Snap rap (also known as ringtone rap) is a subgenre of crunk that emerged from Atlanta, Georgia in the late 1990s. Hip hop music_sentence_454

The genre gained mainstream popularity in the mid-late 2000s, and artists from other southern states such as Tennessee also began to emerge performing in this style. Hip hop music_sentence_455

Tracks commonly consist of a Roland TR-808 bass drum, hi-hat, bass, finger snapping, a main groove, and a simplistic vocal hook. Hip hop music_sentence_456

Hit snap songs include "Lean wit It, Rock wit It" by "Dem Franchize Boyz", "Laffy Taffy" by D4L, "It's Goin' Down" by Yung Joc, and "Crank That (Soulja Boy)" by Soulja Boy Tell 'Em. Hip hop music_sentence_457

In retrospect, Soulja Boy has been credited with setting trends in hip hop, such as self-publishing his songs through the Internet (which helped them go viral) and paving the way for a new wave of younger artists. Hip hop music_sentence_458

Decline in sales Hip hop music_section_27

Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, leading Time magazine to question if mainstream hip-hop was "dying." Hip hop music_sentence_459

Billboard Magazine found that, since 2000, rap sales dropped 44%, and declined to 10% of all music sales, which, while still a commanding figure when compared to other genres, is a significant drop from the 13% of all music sales where rap music regularly placed. Hip hop music_sentence_460

According to Courtland Milloy of The Washington Post, for the first time on five years, no rap albums were among the top 10 sellers in 2006. Hip hop music_sentence_461

NPR culture critic Elizabeth Blair noted that, "some industry experts say young people are fed up with the violence, degrading imagery and lyrics." Hip hop music_sentence_462

However, the 2005 report Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year-Olds found that hip hop music is by far the most popular music genre for children and teenagers with 65 percent of 8- to-18-year-olds listening to it on a daily basis. Hip hop music_sentence_463

Other journalists say the music is just as popular as it ever was, but that fans have found other means to consume the music, such as illegally downloading music through P2P networks, instead of purchasing albums and singles from legitimate stores. Hip hop music_sentence_464

For example, Flo Rida is known for his low album sales regardless of his singles being mainstream and having digital success. Hip hop music_sentence_465

His second album R.O.O.T.S. Hip hop music_sentence_466

sold only 200,000+ total units in the U.S., which could not line up to the sales of the album's lead single "Right Round". Hip hop music_sentence_467

This also happened to him in 2008. Hip hop music_sentence_468

Some put the blame on the lack of strong lyrical content that hip hop once had, such as Soulja Boy's 2007 debut album souljaboytellem.com which was met with negative reviews. Hip hop music_sentence_469

Lack of sampling, a key element of early hip hop, has also been noted for the decrease in quality of modern albums. Hip hop music_sentence_470

For example, there are only four samples used in 2008's Paper Trail by T.I. Hip hop music_sentence_471

, while there are 35 samples in 1998's Moment of Truth by Gang Starr. Hip hop music_sentence_472

The decrease in sampling is in part due to it being too expensive for producers. Hip hop music_sentence_473

In Byron Hurt's documentary Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, he claims that hip hop had changed from "clever rhymes and dance beats" to "advocating personal, social and criminal corruption." Hip hop music_sentence_474

Despite the fall in record sales throughout the music industry, hip-hop has remained a popular genre, with hip-hop artists still regularly topping the Billboard 200 Charts. Hip hop music_sentence_475

In the first half of 2009 alone artists such as Eminem, Rick Ross, The Black Eyed Peas, and Fabolous all had albums that reached the #1 position on the Billboard 200 charts. Hip hop music_sentence_476

Eminem's album Relapse was one of the fastest selling albums of 2009. Hip hop music_sentence_477

Innovation and revitalization Hip hop music_section_28

By the late 2000s, alternative hip hop had secured its place within the mainstream, due in part to the declining commercial viability of gangsta rap. Hip hop music_sentence_478

Industry observers view the sales race between Kanye West's Graduation and 50 Cent's Curtis as a turning point for hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_479

West emerged the victor, selling nearly a million copies in the first week alone, proving that innovative rap music could be just as commercially viable as gangsta rap, if not more so. Hip hop music_sentence_480

Although he designed it as a melancholic pop rather than rap, Kanye's following 808s & Heartbreak would have a significant effect on hip hop music. Hip hop music_sentence_481

While his decision to sing about love, loneliness, and heartache for the entirety of the album was at first heavily criticized by music audiences and the album predicted to be a flop, its subsequent critical acclaim and commercial success encouraged other mainstream rappers to take greater creative risks with their music. Hip hop music_sentence_482

During the release of The Blueprint 3, New York rap mogul Jay-Z revealed that next studio album would be an experimental effort, stating, "... it's not gonna be a #1 album. Hip hop music_sentence_483

That's where I'm at right now. Hip hop music_sentence_484

I wanna make the most experimental album I ever made." Hip hop music_sentence_485

Jay-Z elaborated that like Kanye, he was unsatisfied with contemporary hip hop, was being inspired by indie-rockers like Grizzly Bear, and asserted his belief that the indie rock movement would play an important role in the continued evolution of hip-hop. Hip hop music_sentence_486

The alternative hip hop movement was not limited only to the United States, as rappers such as Somali-Canadian poet K'naan, Japanese rapper Shing02, and Sri Lankan British artist M.I.A. Hip hop music_sentence_487

achieved considerable worldwide recognition. Hip hop music_sentence_488

In 2009, Time magazine placed M.I.A in the Time 100 list of "World's Most Influential people" for having "global influence across many genres." Hip hop music_sentence_489

Global-themed movements have also sprung out of the international hip-hop scene with microgenres like "Islamic Eco-Rap" addressing issues of worldwide importance through traditionally disenfranchised voices. Hip hop music_sentence_490

Due in part to the increasing use of music distribution through social media and bloging, many alternative and non-alternative rappers found acceptance by far-reaching audiences, hence why this era of hip hop is sometimes termed the "blog era". Hip hop music_sentence_491

Several artists, such as Kid Cudi and Drake, managed to attain chart-topping hit songs, "Day 'n' Nite" and "Best I Ever Had" respectively, by releasing their music on free online mixtapes without the help of a major record label. Hip hop music_sentence_492

Emerging artists at the time such as Wale, Kendrick Lamar, J. Hip hop music_sentence_493

Cole, Lupe Fiasco, The Cool Kids, Jay Electronica, and B.o.B were noted by critics as expressing eclectic sounds, sensitive life experiences, and vulnerable emotions that were rarely seen in the prior bling era. Hip hop music_sentence_494

Also at this time, the Auto-Tune vocal effect was bolstered in popularity by rapper T-Pain, who elaborated on the effect and made active use of Auto-Tune in his songs. Hip hop music_sentence_495

He cites new jack swing producer Teddy Riley and funk artist Roger Troutman's use of the Talk Box as inspirations for his own use of Auto-Tune. Hip hop music_sentence_496

T-Pain became so associated with Auto-Tune that he had an iPhone App named after him that simulated the effect, called "I Am T-Pain". Hip hop music_sentence_497

Eventually dubbed the "T-Pain effect", the use of Auto-Tune became a popular fixture of late 2000s and early 2010s hip hop, examples being Snoop Dogg's "Sexual Eruption", Lil Wayne's "Lollipop", Kanye West's album 808s & Heartbreak, and The Black Eyed Peas' number-one hit "Boom Boom Pow". Hip hop music_sentence_498

2014–present: Trap and mumble rap era Hip hop music_section_29

Main articles: Trap music (hip hop) and Mumble rap Hip hop music_sentence_499

Trap music is a subgenre of rap originating from the late 1990s to early 2000s. Hip hop music_sentence_500

It grew in the mid-late 2010s to become a mainstream sensation, frequently having songs top the Billboard hip hop charts. Hip hop music_sentence_501

It is typified by double or triple-time sub-divided hi-hats, heavy kick drums from the Roland TR-808 drum machine, layered synthesizers and an overall dark, ominous or bleak atmosphere. Hip hop music_sentence_502

The strong influence of the sound led to other artists within the genre to move towards the trap sound, with a notable example being Jay-Z and Kanye West on their joint song, "H A M". Hip hop music_sentence_503

Other artists not within the hip hop genre have also experimented with trap, such as "7/11" by Beyoncé and "Dark Horse" by Katy Perry featuring Juicy J. Hip hop music_sentence_504

Major artists to arise from the genre in the 2010s include Waka Flocka Flame, Future, Chief Keef, Migos, Young Thug, Travis Scott, Kodak Black, 21 Savage, Lil Uzi Vert, XXXTentacion, Ski Mask the Slump God, Juice Wrld, Trippie Redd, Lil Pump, Smokepurpp, Rae Sremmurd, Tekashi 6ix9ine, NBA YoungBoy, Lil Baby, and Fetty Wap, among others. Hip hop music_sentence_505

Trap artists that originated in the 2000s were able to recapture mainstream success in the 2010s with the rise of trap, including 2 Chainz, Gucci Mane and Juicy J, becoming more successful in the latter part of their career than when they debuted. Hip hop music_sentence_506

Trap producers to reach mainstream success include Metro Boomin, London on da Track, and Mike WiLL Made-It. Hip hop music_sentence_507

Critics of the trap genre have used the term "mumble rap" to describe the heavily auto-tuned, and sometimes hard to understand, delivery of verses from a majority of the artists. Hip hop music_sentence_508

Artists longstanding within the genre have had their own comments regarding the rise of mumble rap, such as Rick Rubin stating that Eminem was confused by it, and Snoop Dogg claiming that he can't differentiate between artists. Hip hop music_sentence_509

Black Thought, lead rapper from The Roots, stated that the "game has changed. Hip hop music_sentence_510

It's different. Hip hop music_sentence_511

The standards are different, the criteria that's taken into consideration in determining validity is different. Hip hop music_sentence_512

We're at a point in history where lyricism almost comes last in very many regards." Hip hop music_sentence_513

On July 17, 2017, Forbes reported that hip-hop/R&B (which Nielsen SoundScan classifies as being the same genre) has recently usurped rock as the most consumed musical genre, becoming the most popular genre in music for the first time in U.S. history. Hip hop music_sentence_514

Age of streaming Hip hop music_section_30

The rise of streaming platforms such as Spotify and Apple Music in the mid-late 2010s greatly impacted the entire music business as a whole. Hip hop music_sentence_515

Despite being a free streaming-only mixtape with no commercial release, Chance the Rapper's Coloring Book won Best Rap Album at the 2017 Grammy Awards, being the first streaming album of all time to win a Grammy Award. Hip hop music_sentence_516

Kanye West has stated that his own album, Yeezus, marked the death of CDs, and thus his subsequent release, The Life of Pablo was only released digitally. Hip hop music_sentence_517

The Life of Pablo was also nominated for 2017 Best Rap Album. Hip hop music_sentence_518

In 2017, Drake released a free streaming-only project titled More Life, which he called a "playlist", insisting that it was neither a mixtape nor an album. Hip hop music_sentence_519

The online audio distribution platform SoundCloud played a massive role in the creation of various artists' careers in the latter half of the 2010s. Hip hop music_sentence_520

Mainstream acts to start on SoundCloud include Post Malone, Lil Uzi Vert, Russ, Bryson Tiller, Lil Xan, Lil Pump, Lil Peep, Lil Skies, Smokepurpp, Ski Mask the Slump God, XXXTentacion, Trippie Redd, Playboi Carti, YBN Nahmir, Tay-K, ZillaKami, Ugly God, NAV among others. Hip hop music_sentence_521

These songs are usually closely related to trap, but have also been labeled separately as SoundCloud rap. Hip hop music_sentence_522

They have been characterized as usually having moody, sad undertones, and usually feature lo-fi rough production. Hip hop music_sentence_523

The genre has been met with much criticism for its low effort in lyrics and production, and the problematic nature of the artists to arise from it, such as Lil Peep's drug abuse that led to his death, the multiple assault charges to XXXTentacion, 6ix9ine pleading guilty to using a child in a sexual performance, and the murder charges on Tay-K. Hip hop music_sentence_524

World hip hop music Hip hop music_section_31

Hip-hop music has reached the cultural corridors of the globe and has been absorbed and reinvented around the world. Hip hop music_sentence_525

Hip hop music expanded beyond the US, often blending local styles with hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_526

Hip hop has globalized into many cultures worldwide, as evident through the emergence of numerous regional scenes. Hip hop music_sentence_527

It has emerged globally as a movement based upon the main tenets of hip hop culture. Hip hop music_sentence_528

The music and the art continue to embrace, even celebrate, its transnational dimensions while staying true to the local cultures to which it is rooted. Hip hop music_sentence_529

Hip-hop's impact differs depending on each culture. Hip hop music_sentence_530

Still, the one thing virtually all hip hop artists worldwide have in common is that they acknowledge their debt to those African-American people in New York who launched the global movement. Hip hop music_sentence_531

Latinos and people from the Caribbean played an integral role in the early development of hip hop in New York, and the style spread to almost every country in that region. Hip hop music_sentence_532

Hip hop first developed in the South Bronx, which had a high Latino, particularly Puerto Rican, population in the 1970s. Hip hop music_sentence_533

Some famous rappers from New York City of Puerto Rican origin are the late Big Pun, Fat Joe, and Angie Martinez. Hip hop music_sentence_534

With Latino rap groups like Cypress Hill on the American charts, Mexican rap rock groups, such as Control Machete, rose to prominence in their native land. Hip hop music_sentence_535

In many Latin American countries, as in the U.S., hip hop has been a tool with which marginalized people can articulate their struggle. Hip hop music_sentence_536

Hip hop grew steadily more popular in Cuba in the 1980s and 1990s through Cuba's Special Period that came with the fall of the Soviet Union. Hip hop music_sentence_537

During this period of economic crisis, which the country's poor and black populations especially hard, hip hop became a way for the country's Afro-descended population to embrace their blackness and articulate a demand for racial equality for black people in Cuba. Hip hop music_sentence_538

The idea of blackness and black liberation was not always compatible with the goals of the Cuban government, which was still operating under the idea that a raceless society was the correct realization of the Cuban Revolution. Hip hop music_sentence_539

When hip-hop emerged, the Cuban government opposed the vulgar image that rappers portrayed, but later accepted that it might be better to have hip-hop under the influence of the Ministry of Culture as an authentic expression of Cuban Culture. Hip hop music_sentence_540

Rappers who explicitly speak about race or racism in Cuba are still under scrutiny by the government. Hip hop music_sentence_541

An annual Cuban hip hop concert, beginning in 1995, held at Alamar in Havana helped popularize Cuban hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_542

Famous Cuban rap groups include Krudas Cubensi and Supercrónica Obsesión. Hip hop music_sentence_543

Black and indigenous people in Latin America and Caribbean islands have been using hip hop for decades to discuss race and class issues in their respective countries. Hip hop music_sentence_544

Brazilian hip hop is heavily associated with racial and economic issues in the country, where a lot of Afro-Brazilians live in economically disadvantaged communities, known in Brazil as favelas. Hip hop music_sentence_545

São Paulo is where hip hop began in the country, but it soon spread all over Brazil, and today, almost every big Brazilian city, including Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Recife and Brasilia, has a hip hop scene. Hip hop music_sentence_546

Some notable artists include Racionais MC's, Thaide, and Marcelo D2. Hip hop music_sentence_547

One of Brazil's most popular rappers, MV Bill, has spent his career advocating for black youth in Rio de Janeiro. Hip hop music_sentence_548

Reggaeton, a Puerto Rican style of music, has a lot of similarities with U.S.-based hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_549

Both were influenced by Jamaican music, and both incorporate rapping and call and response. Hip hop music_sentence_550

Dancehall music and hip from the United States are both popular music in Puerto Rico, and reggaeton is the cumulation of different musical traditions founded by Afro-descended people in the Caribbean and the United States. Hip hop music_sentence_551

Some of reggaeton's most popular artists include Don Omar, Tego Calderón, and Daddy Yankee. Hip hop music_sentence_552

In Venezuela, social unrest at the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s coincided with the rise of gangsta rap in the United States and led to the rise of that music in Venezuela as well. Hip hop music_sentence_553

Venezuelan rappers in the 1990s generally modeled their music after gangsta rap, embracing and attempting to redefine negative stereotypes about poor and black youth as dangerous and materialistic and incorporating socially conscious critique of Venezuela's criminalization of young, poor, Afro-descended people into their music. Hip hop music_sentence_554

In Haiti, hip hop developed in the early 1980s. Hip hop music_sentence_555

Master Dji and his songs "Vakans" and "Politik Pa m" are mostly credited with the rise of Haitian hip hop. Hip hop music_sentence_556

What later became known as "Rap Kreyòl" grew in popularity in the late 1990s with King Posse and Original Rap Stuff. Hip hop music_sentence_557

Due to cheaper recording technology and flows of equipment to Haiti, more Rap Kreyòl groups are recording songs, even after the January 12 earthquake. Hip hop music_sentence_558

Haitian hip hop has recently become a way for artists of Haitian backgrounds in the Haiti and abroad to express their national identity and political opinions about their country of origin. Hip hop music_sentence_559

Rappers have embraced the red and blue of the Flag of Haiti and rapping in Haitian Creole to display their national origin. Hip hop music_sentence_560

In the Dominican Republic, a recording by Santi Y Sus Duendes and Lisa M became the first single of merenrap, a fusion of hip hop and merengue. Hip hop music_sentence_561

In Europe, Africa, and Asia, hip hop began to move from the underground to mainstream audiences. Hip hop music_sentence_562

In Europe, hip hop was the domain of both ethnic nationals and immigrants. Hip hop music_sentence_563

British hip hop, for example, became a genre of its own and spawned artists such as Wiley, Dizzee Rascal, The Streets and many more. Hip hop music_sentence_564

Germany produced the well-known Die Fantastischen Vier as well as several Turkish performers like the controversial Cartel, Kool Savaş, and Azad. Hip hop music_sentence_565

Similarly, France has produced a number of native-born stars, such as IAM and Suprême NTM, MC Solaar, Rohff, Rim'K or Booba. Hip hop music_sentence_566

In the Netherlands, important nineties rappers include The Osdorp Posse, a crew from Amsterdam, Extince, from Oosterhout, and Postmen. Hip hop music_sentence_567

Italy found its own rappers, including Jovanotti and Articolo 31, grow nationally renowned, while the Polish scene began in earnest early in the decade with the rise of PM Cool Lee. Hip hop music_sentence_568

In Romania, B.U.G. Hip hop music_sentence_569 Mafia came out of Bucharest's Pantelimon neighborhood, and their brand of gangsta rap underlines the parallels between life in Romania's Communist-era apartment blocks and in the housing projects of America's ghettos. Hip hop music_sentence_570

One of the countries outside the US where hip-hop is most popular is the United Kingdom. Hip hop music_sentence_571

Grime, a genre of music derived from UK Garage and drum and bass and influenced by hip hop, emerged in the early 2000s with artists such as Dizzee Rascal becoming successful. Hip hop music_sentence_572

Although it is immensely popular, many British politicians criticize the music for what they see as promoting theft and murder, similar to gangsta rap in America. Hip hop music_sentence_573

These criticisms have been deemed racist by the mostly Black British grime industry. Hip hop music_sentence_574

Despite its controversial nature, grime has had a major effect on British fashion and pop music, with many young working-class youth emulating the clothing worn by grime stars like Dizzee Rascal and Wiley. Hip hop music_sentence_575

There are many subgenres of grime, including "Rhythm and Grime," a mix of R&B and grime, and grindie, a mix of indie rock and grime popularized by indie rock band Hadouken! Hip hop music_sentence_576

In Germany and France, gangsta rap has become popular among youths who like the violent and aggressive lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_577

Some German rappers openly or comically flirt with Nazism; for example, Bushido (born Anis Mohamed Youssef Ferchichi) raps "Salutiert, steht stramm, Ich bin der Leader wie A" (Salute, stand to attention, I am the leader like 'A') and Fler had a hit with the record Neue Deutsche Welle (New German Wave) complete with the title written in Third Reich style Gothic print and advertised with an Adolf Hitler quote. Hip hop music_sentence_578

These references also spawned great controversy in Germany. Hip hop music_sentence_579

Meanwhile, in France, artists like Kery James' Idéal J maintained a radical, anti-authoritarian attitude and released songs like Hardcore which attacked the growth of the French far right. Hip hop music_sentence_580

In the Netherlands, MC Brainpower went from being an underground battle rapper to mainstream recognition in the Benelux, thus influencing numerous rap artists in the region. Hip hop music_sentence_581

In Israel, rapper Subliminal reaches out to Israeli youth with political and religious-themed lyrics, usually with a Zionist message. Hip hop music_sentence_582

In Asia, mainstream stars rose to prominence in the Philippines, led by Francis Magalona, Rap Asia, MC Lara and Lady Diane. Hip hop music_sentence_583

In Japan, where underground rappers had previously found a limited audience, and popular teen idols brought a style called J-rap to the top of the charts in the middle of the 1990s. Hip hop music_sentence_584

Of particular importance is the influence on East Asian nations, where hip hop music has become fused with local popular music to form different styles such as K-pop, C-pop and J-pop. Hip hop music_sentence_585

Israel's hip hop grew greatly in popularity at the end of the decade, with several stars both Palestinian (Tamer Nafar) and Israeli (Subliminal). Hip hop music_sentence_586

In Portugal hip hop has his own kind of rapping, which is more political and underground scene, they are known for Valete, Dealema and Halloween. Hip hop music_sentence_587

Russian hip hop emerged during last years of Soviet Union and cemented later, with groups like Malchishnik and Bad Balance enjoying mainstream popularity in the 1990s, while Ligalize and Kasta were popular in the 2000s. Hip hop music_sentence_588

In former Yugoslavia hip hop first appeared during the 1980s mostly with Serbian hip hop with performers such as B-boy, The Master Scratch Band, Badvajzer, and others. Hip hop music_sentence_589

During the late 1990s hip hop had a boom, with Rambo Amadeus and later Beogradski sindikat becoming a major performer. Hip hop music_sentence_590

Bosnian and Herzegovinian hip hop is nowadays dominated by Edo Maajka. Hip hop music_sentence_591

In the region hip hop is often used as a political and social message in song themes such as war, profiteering, corruption, etc. Frenkie, another Bosnian rapper, is associated with Edo Maajka, and has collaborated beyond Bosnian borders. Hip hop music_sentence_592

In Tanzania in the early 2000s, local hip hop artists became popular by infusing local styles of Afrobeat and arabesque melodies, dancehall and hip-hop beats with Swahili lyrics. Hip hop music_sentence_593

See also Hip hop music_section_32

Hip hop music_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip hop music.