Hispanic and Latino Americans

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"Hispanic and Latino", "Latinas", and "Latinos" redirect here. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_0

For the terms themselves, see Hispanic and Latino (ethnic categories). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_1

For residents of Latin American countries, see Latin Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_2

For residents of Spanish-speaking countries in the Americas, see Hispanic America § Demographics. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_3

For other uses, see Hispanic (disambiguation), Latina (disambiguation), and Latino (disambiguation). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_4

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_infobox_0

Hispanic AmericansHispanic and Latino Americans_table_caption_0
Total populationHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_0_1_0
LanguagesHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_0_2_0
ReligionHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_0_3_0
Related ethnic groupsHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_0_4_0

Hispanic and Latino Americans (Spanish: estadounidenses hispanos y latinos, Portuguese: estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are Americans who are descendants of people from Spain or Latin America. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_5

More generally, these demographics include all Americans who identify as Hispanic or Latino (regardless of ancestry). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_6

As of 2018, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 60 million Hispanics living in the United States (about 18% of the overall population). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_7

"Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_8

People who identify as Spanish or Hispanic may be of any race. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_9

As one of the only two specifically designated categories of ethnicity in the United States (the other being "Not Hispanic or Latino"), Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_10

Most Hispanic Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, Guatemalan or Colombian origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_11

The predominant origin of regional Hispanic populations varies widely in different locations across the country. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_12

Hispanics are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after Asian Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_13

After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States, with many Hispanics being of partial Indigenous descent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_14

Spain colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest and West Coast, as well as Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_15

Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona and Texas, all of which were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain based in Mexico City. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_16

Later, this vast territory became part of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821 and until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_17

Conversely, Latino immigrants to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Spanish American countries. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_18

Terminology Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_0

Further information: Hispanic and Latino (ethnic categories) Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_19

The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_20

The U.S. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_21

Census Bureau defines being Hispanic as an ethnicity, rather than a race and thus people of this group may be of any race. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_22

In a 2015 national survey of self-identified Hispanics, 56% said that being Hispanic is part of both their racial and ethnic background, while smaller numbers considered it part of their ethnic background only (19%) or racial background only (11%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_23

Hispanics may be of any linguistic background; in a 2015 survey, 71% of American Hispanics agreed that it "is not necessary for a person to speak Spanish to be considered Hispanic/Latino." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_24

Hispanic people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history and heritage. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_25

According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_26

In the United States, many Hispanics are of both Spanish and Native American ancestry (mestizo). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_27

Others are wholly or predominantly of European or Middle Eastern ancestry or of Amerindian ancestry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_28

Many Hispanics from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_29

The difference between the terms Hispanic and Latino is confusing to some. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_30

The U.S. Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_31

After the Mexican–American War concluded in 1848, term Hispanic or Spanish American was primarily used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the American Southwest. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_32

The 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_33

This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_34

This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U.S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_35

Latino is a condensed form of the term "latinoamericano", the Spanish word for Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_36

The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_37

This definition, as "male Latin-American inhabitant of the United States", is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_38

Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_39

A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_40

Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics and Latinos in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_41

Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term Hispanic, whereas those in the West tend to prefer Latino. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_42

The US ethnic designation Latino is abstracted from the longer form latinoamericano. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_43

The element latino- is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in -o (i.e. an elemento compositivo) that is employed to coin compounded formations (similar as franco- in francocanadiense 'French-Canadian′, or ibero- in iberorrománico, etc.). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_44

The term Latinx (and similar neologism Xicanx) gained currency among some in the 2010s. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_45

The adoption of the X would be "[r]eflecting new consciousness inspired by more recent work by LGBTQI and feminist movements, some Spanish-speaking activists are increasingly using a yet more inclusive "x" to replace the "a" and "o," in a complete break with the gender binary." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_46

Among the advocates of the term LatinX, one of most frequently cited complaints of gender bias in the Spanish language is that a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as Latinos, whereas Latinas refers to a group of women only (but this is changed immediately to Latinos, if even a single man joins this female group). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_47

A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that about 3% of Latinos use the term (mostly women). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_48

Some have pointed out that the term “Latino” refers to a pan-ethnic identity, one that spans a range of races, national origins, and linguistic backgrounds. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_49

”Terms like Hispanic and Latino do not fully capture how we see ourselves,” says Geraldo Cadava, an associate professor of history and Latina and Latino studies at Northwestern University. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_50

According to 2017 American Community Survey data, a small minority of immigrants from Brazil (2%), Portugal (2%) and the Philippines (1%) self-identify as Hispanic. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_51

History Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_1

Main article: History of Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_52

See also: Hispanic Heritage Sites (U.S. National Park Service) Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_53

16th and 17th centuries Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_2

Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_54

The first confirmed European landing in the continental United States was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_55

In the next three decades, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_56

Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_57

From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three fellows (including an African named Estevanico), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida to the Gulf of California. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_58

In 1540, Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_59

That same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona–Mexico border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_60

Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_61

In 1565, the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_62

Augustine, Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_63

Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements in Santa Fe, New Mexico, El Paso, San Antonio, Tucson, Albuquerque, San Diego, Los Angeles and San Francisco, to name a few. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_64

18th and 19th centuries Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_3

As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War (a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_65

From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican–American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states—California, Texas and Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_66

20th and 21st centuries Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_4

During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic and Latino immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the immigration law in 1965. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_67

Hispanic and Latino contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_68

To recognize the current and historic contributions of Hispanic and Latino Americans, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_69

In 1988, President Ronald Reagan extended the observance to a month, designated National Hispanic Heritage Month. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_70

Hispanic Americans became the largest minority group in 2004. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_71

Demographics Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_5

Main article: Demographics of Hispanic and Latino Americans Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_72

See also: Demographics of the United States and List of U.S. states by Hispanic and Latino population Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_73

As of 2017, Hispanics accounted for 18% of the U.S. population, or almost 59 million people. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_74

The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_75

The growth rate from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2006, alone was 3.4%—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_76

Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_77

The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_78

Geographic distribution Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_6

See also: List of U.S. cities with large Hispanic populations Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_79

US Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 1 million Hispanics (2014) Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_80

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_general_1

RankHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_1_0_0 Metropolitan areaHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_1_0_1 Hispanic
populationHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_1_0_2
Percent HispanicHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_1_0_3
1Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_1_0 Los Angeles-Long Beach-Anaheim, CAHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_1_1 5,979,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_1_2 45.1%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_1_3
2Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_2_0 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PAHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_2_1 4,780,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_2_2 23.9%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_2_3
3Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_3_0 Miami-Fort Lauderdale-West Palm Beach, FLHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_3_1 2,554,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_3_2 43.3%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_3_3
4Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_4_0 Houston-The Woodlands-Sugar Land, TXHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_4_1 2,335,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_4_2 36.4%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_4_3
5Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_5_0 Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CAHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_5_1 2,197,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_5_2 49.4%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_5_3
6Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_6_0 Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WIHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_6_1 2,070,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_6_2 21.8%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_6_3
7Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_7_0 Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington, TXHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_7_1 1,943,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_7_2 28.4%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_7_3
8Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_8_0 Phoenix-Mesa-Scottsdale, AZHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_8_1 1,347,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_8_2 30.1%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_8_3
9Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_9_0 San Antonio-New Braunfels, TXHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_9_1 1,259,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_9_2 55.7%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_9_3
10Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_10_0 San Diego-Carlsbad, CAHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_10_1 1,084,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_10_2 33.3%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_10_3
11Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_11_0 San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CAHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_11_1 1,008,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_11_2 21.9%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_1_11_3

States and territories with the highest proportion of Hispanics (2010) Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_81

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_general_2

RankHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_2_0_0 State/territoryHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_2_0_1 Hispanic populationHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_2_0_2 Percent HispanicHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_2_0_3
1Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_1_0 Puerto RicoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_1_1 3,688,455Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_1_2 98%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_1_3
2Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_2_0 New MexicoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_2_1 953,403Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_2_2 46%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_2_3
3Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_3_0 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_3_1 14,013,719Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_3_2 37%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_3_3
4Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_4_0 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_4_1 9,460,921Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_4_2 37%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_4_3
5Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_5_0 ArizonaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_5_1 1,895,149Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_5_2 29%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_5_3
6Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_6_0 NevadaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_6_1 716,501Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_6_2 26%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_6_3
7Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_7_0 ColoradoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_7_1 1,269,520Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_7_2 22%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_7_3
8Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_8_0 FloridaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_8_1 4,223,806Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_8_2 22%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_8_3
9Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_9_0 New JerseyHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_9_1 1,555,144Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_9_2 17%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_9_3
10Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_10_0 New YorkHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_10_1 3,416,922Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_10_2 17%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_10_3
11Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_11_0 IllinoisHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_11_1 2,027,578Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_11_2 15%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_2_11_3

Of the nation's total Hispanic or Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) live in California or Texas. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_82

Over half of the Hispanic population is concentrated in the Southwest region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_83

California and Texas have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Hispanics in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_84

The Northeast region is dominated by Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans, having the highest concentrations of both in the country. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_85

In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the DC Metro Area, Salvadoran Americans are the largest of Hispanic groups. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_86

Florida is dominated by Cuban Americans and Puerto Ricans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_87

In both the Great Lakes States and the South Atlantic States, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans dominate. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_88

Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the Western United States, South Central United States and Great Plains states. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_89

National origin Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_7

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_general_3

Population by national origin (2018) (self-identified ethnicity, not by birthplace)Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_caption_3
ancestryHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_3_0_0
PopulationHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_3_0_1 %Hispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_3_0_2
MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_1_0 36,986,661Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_1_1 61.9Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_1_2
Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_2_0 5,791,453Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_2_1 9.6Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_2_2
CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_3_0 2,363,532Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_3_1 3.9Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_3_2
SalvadoranHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_4_0 2,306,774Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_4_1 3.8Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_4_2
DominicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_5_0 2,082,857Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_5_1 3.4Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_5_2
ColombianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_6_0 2,023,341Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_6_1 3.3Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_6_2
GuatemalanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_7_0 1,524,743Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_7_1 2.0Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_7_2
HonduranHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_8_0 963,930Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_8_1 1.6Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_8_2
SpaniardHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_9_0 819,527Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_9_1 1.3Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_9_2
EcuadorianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_10_0 717,995Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_10_1 1.2Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_10_2
PeruvianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_11_0 684,345Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_11_1 1.1Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_11_2
VenezuelanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_12_0 484,445Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_12_1 0.8Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_12_2
SpanishHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_13_0 435,322Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_13_1 0.8Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_13_2
NicaraguanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_14_0 434,000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_14_1 0.7Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_14_2
BrazilianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_15_0 371,529Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_15_1 0.6Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_15_2
ArgentineHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_16_0 286,346Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_16_1 0.4Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_16_2
PanamanianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_17_0 206,219Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_17_1 0.3Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_17_2
ChileanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_18_0 172,062Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_18_1 0.2Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_18_2
Costa RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_19_0 154,784Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_19_1 0.2Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_19_2
BolivianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_20_0 116,646Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_20_1 0.1Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_20_2
UruguayanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_21_0 60,013Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_21_1 0.1Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_21_2
ParaguayanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_22_0 25,022Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_22_1 0.0Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_22_2
All otherHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_23_0 1,428,770Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_23_1 2.4Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_23_2
TotalHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_24_0 59,763,631Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_24_1 100.0Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_3_24_2

As of 2018, approximately 62% of the nation's Hispanic population were of Mexican origin (see table). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_90

Another 9.6% were of Puerto Rican origin, with about 4% each of Cuban and Salvadoran and 3.4% Dominican origins. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_91

The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_92

Two thirds of all Hispanic and Latino Americans were born in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_93

There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Latin America rather than English-speaking countries. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_94

Because of this, most Hispanics who identify themselves as Spaniard or Spanish also identify with Latin American national origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_95

In the 2017 Census estimate approximately 1.3 million Americans reported some form of "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain or not. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_96

In northern New Mexico and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_97

People from this background often self-identify as "Hispanos", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_98

Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a Mestizo population. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_99

Likewise, southern Louisiana is home to communities of people of Canary Islands descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_100

Chicanos, Californios, Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are Americans of Spanish and/or Mexican descent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_101

Chicanos live in the Southwest, Nuevomexicanos in New Mexico and Tejanos in Texas. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_102

Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_103

The term "Chicano" became popular amongst Mexican Americans in the 1960s during the Chicano nationalism and Chicano Movement, and is today seen as an ethnic and cultural identity by some. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_104

Political activist César Chávez and novelist José Antonio Villarreal are famous Chicanos. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_105

Nuyoricans are Americans of Puerto Rican descent from the New York City area. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_106

There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_107

Famous Nuyoricans include Congresswomen Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, US Supreme Court Judge Sonia Sotomayor and singer Jennifer Lopez. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_108

Race Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_8

See also: Race and ethnicity in Latin America and Race and ethnicity in the United States Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_109

Latinos comes from multi-racial and multi-ethinic countries with diversity of origins; therefore, a Latino can be from any race or mix of it. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_110

The often most common ancestries are: indigenous from the Americas (Native-Americans), African, and European. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_111

Therefore, most Latinos have mixed ancestry of different combinations and ratios, although non-mixed Latinos of each race also exist in varied amounts on each country. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_112

Hispanic or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States Census Bureau. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_113

Depending on the regions within Latin America, a significant proportion of Latinos have high to moderate levels of colonial-era Sub-Saharan African input through the Tran-Atlantic slave trade. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_114

But also as a result from Europeans of Mixed race by way of the North African Moor Muslim occupation of Iberia intermixing their genes into the population. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_115

Similarly to Spaniards, Portuguese, English, German and many other European nations over the centuries, many Latin Americans also possess colonial era New Christian Sephardic Jewish ancestry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_116

To a lesser extent other Latin Americans possess at least partial ancestry of more recent post-colonial ancestry from Ashkenazi Jews, Levantine Arabs (Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian), as well as Chinese and Japanese among others. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_117

Thus, as a whole, Latin Americans are a multiracial population, with degrees of admixture levels that vary from person to person, from varying global genetic sources. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_118

According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 65% of Hispanic and Latinos identified as White. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_119

The largest numbers of those who consider themselves White Hispanics come from within the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Colombian and Spanish communities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_120

Over a quarter of Hispanic/Latino Americans identify as "some other race." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_121

These "some other race" Hispanics are usually assumed to be mestizos or mulattos. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_122

A significant percentage of the Hispanic and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_123

Mestizo is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who is conscious of their Native American and European ancestry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_124

Of all Americans who checked the box "Some Other Race", 97 percent were Hispanic. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_125

Almost one-third of the multi-race respondents were Hispanics. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_126

Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of European and Native American ancestry (Mestizo), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of mixed descent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_127

The largest numbers of Black Hispanics are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, Dominican, Panamanian and Puerto Rican communities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_128

The few hundred thousand Asian Hispanics are of various backgrounds, among which include Filipino mestizos with Spanish background, Asians of Latin American background (examples including Chinese Cubans and Japanese Peruvians) and those of recent mixed Asian and Hispanic background. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_129

Note that Filipinos are generally not counted as Hispanic, despite the fact that the Spanish colonized the Philippines and many Filipinos have Spanish names. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_130

Hispanic and Latinos are often racially of Native American ancestry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_131

For example, of Latinos deriving from northern Mexico, consider themselves White or acknowledge Native American ancestry with some European mixtures, while of those deriving from southern Mexican ancestry, the majority are Native American or of Native American and European Ancestry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_132

In Guatemala, Mayans are majority, while in El Salvador, people of Native American descent are the majority. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_133

In the Dominican Republic, the population are largely made up of people with inter-mixed ancestries, in which there are even levels of European ancestry, with smaller numbers of Whites and Blacks as well. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_134

In Puerto Rico, people with multi-racial ancestry are the majority. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_135

There are also populations of predominantly of African descent as well as populations of American Indian descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_136

Cubans are mostly of White Latin American ancestry, however there are also populations of Blacks and multi-racials as well. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_137

The race and culture of each Hispanic/Latino country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_138

Persons of Mexican heritage represent the bulk of the US Hispanic/Latino population. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_139

Most Mexican Americans already with a multi-generational presence in the USA predating the 1970s are of predominantly European origin, while most recent Mexican Americans that have migrated or descend from migrants to the United States post-1980s are of predominantly Native American descent with varying levels of European admixture. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_140

Official sources report that the racial makeup of Hispanic/Latino subgroups from the countries Brazil, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, Cuba and Chile, have the highest proportion, for their respective countries, of Latinos in the US self-identifying as white - though in raw numbers the highest number of White Latinos in the US are Mexican Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_141

As a result of their racial diversity, Hispanics form an ethnicity sharing a language (Spanish) and cultural heritage, rather than a race. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_142

The phenomenon of biracial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Hispanics or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most White Americans with less than 28 percent African-American ancestry say they are White; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_143

Age Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_9

As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Hispanic population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million, were Millennials. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_144

This makes them more than half of the Hispanic population within the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_145

Education Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_10

See also: Hispanic-serving institution Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_146

Hispanic or Latino K-12 education Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_11

With the increasing Hispanic population in the United States, Latinos have had a considerable impact on the K-12 system. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_147

In 2011–12, Latinos comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California and Texas, respectively. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_148

Further research shows the Latino population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Latinos will populate U.S schools. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_149

The state of Latino education shows some promise. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_150

First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_151

Second, Latinos in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_152

Third, Hispanics' average NAEP math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_153

Finally, Latinos were more likely than other groups, including whites, to go to college. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_154

However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_155

For instance, their average math and reading NAEP scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_156

To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Latino "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_157

To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Latinos not performing well academically. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_158

English language learners Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_12

Currently, Hispanic students make up 80% of English language learners in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_159

In 2008–9, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_160

This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_161

In order to provide English instruction for Latino students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_162

However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students' culture and knowledge of their primary language. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_163

As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_164

Immigration status Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_13

Undocumented immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_165

However, due to the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in 1982, immigrants are allowed access to K-12 education. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_166

This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Latinos. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_167

However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_168

Moreover, Latinos' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_169

For instance, first- and second- generation Latinos outperform their later generational counterparts. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_170

Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_171

This has major implications on their postsecondary futures. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_172

Hispanic higher education Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_14

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_173

Amongst the largest Hispanic groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cuban Americans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexican Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_174

Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans (13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_175

Hispanics make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_176

Hispanic and Latino enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_177

Today, Hispanics make up between 8% of students at Yale University to 15% at Columbia University. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_178

For example, 18% of students in the Harvard University Class of 2018 are Hispanic. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_179

Hispanics have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as University of Texas at El Paso (70% of students), Florida International University (63%), University of Miami (27%), and MIT, UCLA and UC-Berkeley at 15% each. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_180

At Stanford University, Hispanics are the third largest ethnic group behind non-Hispanic Whites and Asians, at 18% of the student population. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_181

Hispanic university enrollments Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_15

While Hispanics study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated Hispanic-serving institutions, institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent (FTE) student enrollment. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_182

There are over 270 institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_183

Health Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_16

Longevity Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_17

As of 2016, life expectancy for Hispanic and Latino Americans is 81.8 years, which is higher than the life expectancy for non-Hispanic whites (78.6 years). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_184

Research on the "Hispanic paradox"—the well-established apparent mortality advantage of Hispanic Americans compared to non-Hispanic whites, despite the latter's more advantaged socioeconomic status—has been principally explained by "(1) health-related migration to and from the US; and (2) social and cultural protection mechanisms, such as maintenance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors adopted in the countries of origin, and availability of extensive social networks in the US." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_185

The "salmon bias" hypothesis, which suggests that the Hispanic health advantage is attributable to higher rates of return migration among less-healthy migrants, has received some support in the scholarly literature. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_186

A 2019 study, examining the comparatively better health of foreign-born American Hispanics, challenged the hypothesis that a stronger orientation toward the family (familism) contributed to this advantage. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_187

Some scholars have suggested that the Latino mortality advantage is likely to disappear due to the higher rates of obesity and diabetes among Latinos relative to non-Hispanic whites, although lower rates of smoking (and thus smoking-attributable mortality) among Latinos may counteract this to some extent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_188

Healthcare Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_18

As of 2017, about 19% of Hispanic and Latino Americans lack health insurance coverage, which is the highest of all ethnic groups except for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_189

In terms of extending health coverage, Hispanics benefited the most among U.S. ethnic groups from the Affordable Care Act (ACA); among non-elderly Hispanics, the uninsured rate declined from 26.7% in 2013 to 14.2% in 2017. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_190

Among the population of non-elderly uninsured Hispanic population in 2017, about 53% were non-citizens, about 39% were U.S.-born citizens, and about 9% were naturalized citizens. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_191

(The ACA does not help undocumented immigrants or legal immigrants with less than five years' residence in the United States gain coverage). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_192

According to a 2013 study, Mexican women who have the highest uninsured rate (54.6%) as compared to other immigrants (26.2%), blacks (22.5%) and non-Hispanic white (13.9%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_193

According to the study, Mexican women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States and are also the most at risk for developing preventable health conditions. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_194

Multiple factors such as limited access to health care, legal status and income increase the risk of developing preventable health conditions because many undocumented immigrants postpone routine visits to the doctor until they become seriously ill. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_195

Mental health Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_19

Family separation Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_20

During the process of migrating to the United States, there are instances in their journey where families experience separation. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_196

Before the migration begins, those who are making the journey to the U.S. have to leave behind their families along with their homeland. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_197

Additionally, families who are in the process of illegally crossing borders can suffer being caught and separated by border patrol agents. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_198

Migrants are also in danger of separation if they do not bring sufficient resources such as water for all members to continue crossing. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_199

Once illegal migrants have arrived to the new country they fear workplace raids where immigrant parents are detained and deported. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_200

Family separation puts U.S born children, undocumented children and their illegal alien parents at risk for depression and family maladaptive syndrome. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_201

The effects are often long-term and the impact extends to the community level. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_202

Children will experience emotional traumas and long-term changes in behaviors. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_203

Additionally, when parents are forcefully removed, children develop feelings of abandonment and they might blame themselves for what has happened to their family. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_204

Some children that are victims to illegal border crossings that result in family separation believe in the possibility of never seeing their parents again. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_205

These effects can cause negative parent-child attachment. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_206

Reunification may be difficult because of harsh immigration laws and re-entry restrictions which further affect the mental health of children and parents. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_207

Parents who leave behind everything in their home country also experience negative mental health experiences. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_208

According to a study published in 2013, 46% of Mexican migrant men who participated in the study reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_209

In recent years, the length of stay for migrants has increased, from 3 years to nearly a decade. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_210

Migrants who were separated from their families, either married or single, experienced greater depression than married men accompanied by their spouses. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_211

Furthermore, the study also revealed that men who are separated from their families are more prone to harsher living conditions such as overcrowded housing and are under a greater deal of pressure to send remittance to support their families. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_212

These conditions put additional stress on the migrants and often worsens their depression. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_213

Families who migrated together experience better living conditions, receive emotional encouragement and motivation from each other, and share a sense of solidarity. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_214

They are also more likely to successfully navigate the employment and health care systems in the new country, and are not pressured to send remittances back home. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_215

Discrimination Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_21

Main article: Hispanophobia Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_216

It is reported that 31% of Latinos have reported personal experiences with discrimination whilst 82% of Latinos believe that discrimination plays a crucial role in whether or not they will find success while they are living in the U.S. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_217

The current legislation on immigration policies also plays a crucial role in creating a hostile and discriminatory environment for immigrants. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_218

In order to measure the discrimination which immigrants are being subjected to, researchers must take into account the immigrants' perception that they are being targeted for discrimination and they must also be aware that instances of discrimination can also vary based on: personal experiences, social attitudes and ethnic group barriers. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_219

The immigrant experience is associated with lower-self esteem, internalized symptoms and behavioral problems amongst Mexican youth. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_220

It is also known that more time which is spent living in the U.S. is associated with increased feelings of distress, depression and anxiety. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_221

Like many other Hispanic and Latin American groups that migrate to the United States, these groups are often stigmatized. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_222

An example of this stigmatization occurred after 9/11, when people who were considered threats to national security were frequently described with terms like migrant and the "Latino Other" along with other terms like refugee and asylum seeker. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_223

Vulnerabilities Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_22

The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 significantly changed how the United States dealt with immigration. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_224

Under this new law, immigrants who overstayed their visas or were found to be in the U.S illegally were subject to be detained and/or deported without legal representation. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_225

Immigrants found themselves vulnerable and living in constant fear and mistrust because they may not be allowed back into the country indefinitely. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_226

Similarly, this law made it more difficult for other immigrants who want to enter the U.S or gain legal status. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_227

These laws also expanded the types of offenses that can be considered worthy of deportation for documented immigrants. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_228

Policies enacted by future presidents further limit the number of immigrants entering the country and their expedited removal. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_229

Many immigrant families cannot enjoy doing everyday activities without exercising caution because they fear encountering immigration officers which limits their involvement in community events. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_230

Immigrant families also do not trust government institutions and services. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_231

Because of their fear of encountering immigration officers, immigrants often feel ostracized and isolated which can lead to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_232

The harmful effects of being ostracized from the rest of society are not limited to just that of undocumented immigrants but it affects the entire family even if some of the members are of legal status. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_233

Children often reported having been victims of bullying in school by classmates because their parents are undocumented. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_234

This can cause them to feel isolated and develop a sense of inferiority which can negatively impact their academic performance. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_235

Stress Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_23

Despite the struggles Latinos families encounter, they have found ways to keep motivated. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_236

Many immigrants use religion as a source of motivation. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_237

Mexican immigrants believed that the difficulties they face are a part of God's bigger plan and believe their life will get better in the end. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_238

They kept their faith strong and pray everyday, hoping that God will keep their families safe. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_239

Immigrants participate in church services and bond with other immigrants that share the same experiences. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_240

Undocumented Latinos also find support from friends, family and the community that serve as coping mechanisms. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_241

Some Latinos state that their children are the reason they have the strength to keep on going. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_242

They want their children to have a future and give them things they aren't able to have themselves. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_243

The community is able to provide certain resources that immigrant families need such as tutoring for their children, financial assistance and counseling services. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_244

Some identified that maintaining a positive mental attitude helped them cope with the stresses they experience. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_245

Many immigrants refuse to live their life in constant fear which leads to depression in order to enjoy life in the U.S. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_246

Since many immigrants have unstable sources of income, many plan ahead in order to prevent future financial stress. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_247

They put money aside and find ways to save money instead of spend it such as learning to fix appliances themselves. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_248

Poverty Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_24

Many Latino families migrate to find better economic opportunities in order to send remittances back home. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_249

Being undocumented limits the possibilities of jobs that immigrants undertake and many struggle to find a stable job. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_250

Many Latinos report that companies turned them down because they do not have a Social Security number. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_251

If they are able to obtain a job, immigrants risk losing it if their employer finds out they are unable to provide proof of residency or citizenship. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_252

Many look towards agencies that do not ask for identification, but those jobs are often unreliable. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_253

In order to prevent themselves from being detained and deported, many have to work under exploitation. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_254

In a study, a participant reported "If someone knows that you don't have the papers. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_255

. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_256

.that person is a danger. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_257

Many people will con them. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_258

. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_259

. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_260

if they know you don't have the papers, with everything they say 'hey I'm going to call immigration on you.'". Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_261

These conditions lower the income that Latino families bring to their household and some find living each day very difficult. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_262

When an undocumented parent is deported or detained, income will be lowered significantly if the other parent also supports the family financially. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_263

The parent who is left has to look after the family and might find working difficult to manage along with other responsibilities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_264

Even if families aren't separated, Latinos are constantly living in fear that they will lose their economic footing. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_265

Living in poverty has been linked to depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, crime activities and frequent drug use among youth. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_266

Families with low incomes are unable to afford adequate housing and some of them are evicted. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_267

The environment in which the children of undocumented immigrants grow up in are often composed of poor air quality, noise, and toxins which prevent healthy development. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_268

Furthermore, these neighborhoods are prone to violence and gang activities, forcing the families to live in constant fear which can contribute to the development of PTSD, aggression and depression. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_269

Economic outlook Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_25

Median income Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_26

In 2017, the US Census reported the median household incomes of Hispanic and Latino Americans to be $50,486. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_270

This is the third consecutive annual increase in median household income for Hispanic-origin households. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_271

Poverty Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_27

According to the U.S. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_272

Census, the poverty rate Hispanics was 18.3 percent in 2017, down from 19.4 percent in 2016. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_273

Hispanics accounted for 10.8 million individuals in poverty. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_274

In comparison, the average poverty rates in 2017 for non-Hispanic White Americans was 8.7 percent with 17 million individuals in poverty, Asian Americans was 10.0 percent with 2 million individuals in poverty, and African Americans was 21.2 percent with 9 million individuals in poverty. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_275

Among the largest Hispanic groups during 2015 was: Honduran Americans & Dominican Americans (27%), Guatemalan Americans (26%), Puerto Ricans (24%), Mexican Americans (23%), Salvadoran Americans (20%), Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (17%), Ecuadorian Americans (15%), Nicaraguan Americans (14%), Colombian Americans (13%), Spanish Americans & Argentinian Americans (11%) and Peruvian Americans (10%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_276

Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_277

This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_278

In the case of Latinos, the poverty rate for Hispanic children in 2004 was 28.6 percent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_279

Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_280

In order to assuage poverty, many Hispanic families can turn to social and community services as resources. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_281

Cultural matters Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_28

Main articles: American culture and Hispanic culture Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_282

See also: National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_283

The geographic, political, social, economic and racial diversity of Hispanic and Latino Americans makes all Hispanics very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_284

Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics from these diverse backgrounds. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_285

Language Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_29

See also: Spanish language in the United States and Languages of the United States Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_286

Spanish Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_30

As one of the most important uniting factors of Hispanic Americans, Spanish is an important part of Hispanic culture. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_287

Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Hispanic families. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_288

Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_289

A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Hispanic adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_290

Given the United States' proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_291

Amongst second-generation Hispanics, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Hispanics, 40% speak fluent Spanish. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_292

Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_293

Hispanics have revived the Spanish language in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_294

First brought to North America by the Spanish during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century, Spanish was the first European language spoken in the Americas. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_295

Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_296

Today, 90% of all Hispanics and Latinos speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_297

Additionally, 2.8 million non-Hispanic Americans also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_298

With 40% of Hispanic and Latino Americans being immigrants, and with many of the 60% who are U.S.-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_299

At home, at least 69% of all Hispanics over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_300

Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_301

American Spanish dialects Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_31

See also: Isleño and New Mexican Spanish Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_302

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_general_4

Spanish speakers in the United StatesHispanic and Latino Americans_table_caption_4
YearHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_4_0_0 Number of
speakersHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_4_0_1
Percent of

populationHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_4_0_2

1980Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_1_0 11.0 millionHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_1_1 5%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_1_2
1990Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_2_0 17.3 millionHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_2_1 7%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_2_2
2000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_3_0 28.1 millionHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_3_1 10%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_3_2
2010Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_4_0 37.0 millionHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_4_1 13%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_4_2
2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_5_0 38.3 millionHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_5_1 13%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_5_2
2020*Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_6_0 40.0 millionHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_6_1 14%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_6_2
*-Projected; sources:Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_4_7_0

The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_303

However, generally, Spanish spoken in the Southwest is Mexican Spanish (or Chicano Spanish). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_304

An old, colonial variety of Spanish is spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in New Mexico and Colorado, which is New Mexican Spanish. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_305

One of the major distinctions of New Mexican Spanish is its heavy use of colonial vocabulary and verb tenses that make New Mexican Spanish uniquely American amongst Spanish dialects. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_306

The Spanish spoken in the East Coast is Caribbean Spanish and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_307

Canarian Spanish is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in Louisiana. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_308

Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_309

Most generations of descendants of immigrants after the first generation of Spanish speakers tend to speak the Spanish language with accents of American English of the region in which they grew up. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_310

Spanglish and English dialects Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_32

Main articles: Chicano English, Spanglish, Miami § Dialect, and New York Latino English Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_311

See also: List of English words of Spanish origin Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_312

Hispanics have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_313

Amongst younger generations of Hispanics, Spanglish, or a mix of Spanish and English, may be a common way of speaking. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_314

Although they are fluent in both languages, speakers will switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_315

Spanglish is particularly common in Hispanic-majority cities and communities such as Miami, Hialeah, San Antonio, Los Angeles and New York City. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_316

Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_317

In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_318

This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans in Miami. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_319

Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_320

Gloria Estefan and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_321

Another major English dialect, is spoken by Chicanos and Tejanos in the Southwestern United States, called Chicano English. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_322

George Lopez and Selena are examples of speakers of Chicano English. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_323

An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic groups is called New York Latino English. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_324

Religion Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_33

A Pew Center study in 2019, found that the majority of Hispanic Americans are Christians (72%), Among American Hispanics, as of 2018–19, 47% are Catholic, 24% are Protestant, 1% are Mormon, fewer than 1% are Orthodox Christian, 3% are members of non-Christian faiths, and 23% are unaffiliated. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_325

The proportion of Hispanics who are Catholic has dropped from 2009 (when it was 57%), while the proportion of unaffiliated Hispanics has increased since 2009 (when it was 15%). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_326

Among Hispanic Protestant community, most are evangelical, but some belong to mainline denominations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_327

Compared to Catholic, unaffiliated, and mainline Protestant Hispanics, Evangelical Protestant Hispanics are substantially more likely to attend services weekly, pray daily, and adhere to biblical liberalism. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_328

As of 2014, about 67% of Hispanic Protestants and about 52% of Hispanic Catholics were renewalist, meaning that they described themselves as Pentecostal or charismatic Christians (in the Catholic tradition, called Catholic Charismatic Renewal). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_329

Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation than it is among second- or third-generation Hispanic or Latino immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of conversion to Protestantism or to the unaffiliated camp. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_330

According to Andrew Greeley, as many as 600,000 American Latinos leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year, and this figure is much higher in Texas and Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_331

Hispanic or Latino Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_332

Hispanics make up a substantial proportion (almost 40%) of the Catholics in the United States, although the number of American Hispanic priests is low relative to Hispanic membership in the church. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_333

In 2019, José Horacio Gómez, Archbishop of Los Angeles and a naturalized American citizen born in Mexico, was elected as president of the U.S. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_334

Conference of Catholic Bishops. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_335

Media Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_34

The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_336

There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic consumers. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_337

Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_338

Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_339

The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_340

The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Latinos by reinforcing roots in Latin America and the commonalities among Latinos of varying national origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_341

The first Latino-American owned major film studio in the U.S. is based in Atlanta, Georgia. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_342

In 2017, Ozzie and Will Areu purchased Tyler Perry's former studio to establish Areu Bros. Studios. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_343

Radio Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_35

Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_344

While other foreign language broadcasting declined steadily, Spanish broadcasting grew steadily from the 1920s to the 1970s. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_345

The 1930s were boom years. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_346

The early success depended on the concentrated geographical audience in Texas and the Southwest. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_347

American stations were close to Mexico which enabled a steady circular flow of entertainers, executives and technicians, and stimulated the creative initiatives of Hispanic radio executives, brokers, and advertisers. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_348

Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_349

The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication Sponsor from the late 1940s to 1968. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_350

Spanish-language radio has influenced American and Latino discourse on key current affairs issues such as citizenship and immigration. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_351

Networks Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_36

Notable Hispanic/Latino-oriented media outlets include: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_352

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_0

  • 3ABN Latino, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in West Frankfort, Illinois;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_0
  • Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_1
  • CNN en Español, a Spanish-language news network based in Atlanta, Georgia;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_2
  • El Rey Network, an English television channel targeting Hispanic and Latino audiences with Grindhouse-style content. Its headquarters are in Austin, TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_3
  • ESPN Deportes and Fox Deportes, two Spanish-language sports television networks.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_4
  • Fuse, a former music channel that merged with the Latino-oriented NuvoTV in 2015.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_5
    • FM, a music-centric channel that replaced NuvoTV following the latter's merger with Fuse in 2015.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_6
  • TBN Enlace USA, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in Tustin, California;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_7
  • Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_8
    • Universo, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Hispanic and Latino audiences;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_9
  • Univisión, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_10
    • Fusion TV, an English television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with news and satire programming;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_11
  • V-me, a Spanish-language television network;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_12
    • Primo TV, an English-language cable channel aimed at Hispanic youth.;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_0_13

Print Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_37

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_1

  • La Opinión, a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the six counties of Southern California. It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_1_14
  • El Nuevo Herald and Diario Las Américas, Spanish-language daily newspapers serving the greater Miami, Florida market;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_1_15
  • El Tiempo Latino a Spanish-language free-circulation weekly newspaper published in Washington, D.C..Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_1_16
  • Latina, a magazine for bilingual, bicultural Hispanic womenHispanic and Latino Americans_item_1_17
  • People en Español, a Spanish-language magazine counterpart of People;Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_1_18
  • Vida Latina, a Spanish-language entertainment magazine distributed throughout the Southern United States.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_1_19

Cuisine Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_38

Latino food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced American cuisine and eating habits. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_353

Mexican cuisine has become so mainstream in American culture that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_354

Across the United States, tortillas and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and ketchup. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_355

Tortilla chips have surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean cuisines have continued to increase sales. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_356

Tropical fruit, such as mango, guava and passion fruit (maracuyá), have become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies and food dishes in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_357

Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico, Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_358

Cubans brought Cuban cuisine to Miami and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba and empanadas are common mid-day snacks in the city. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_359

Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had, often with a pastelito (pastry), at one of the city's numerous coffee shops. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_360

The Cuban sandwich developed in Miami, and is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_361

Familial situations Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_39

Family life and values Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_40

Hispanic and Latino culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic children as one of the most important values in life. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_362

Statistically, Hispanic families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_363

Hispanic families tend to prefer to live near other family members. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_364

This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_365

The role of grandparents is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_366

Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_367

The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_368

Traditional rites of passages, particularly Roman Catholic sacraments: such as baptisms, birthdays, First Holy Communions, quinceañeras, Confirmations, graduations and weddings are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Hispanic families. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_369

Education is another important priority for Hispanic families. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_370

Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the United States among Hispanic families. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_371

A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_372

Hispanics expect their children to graduate university. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_373

Latin American youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_374

This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_375

Intermarriage Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_41

Hispanic Americans, like immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_376

Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Hispanic marriages in 2008. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_377

The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Hispanics married a non-Hispanic (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, and 27.7% of Asians). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_378

The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with 36.2% of native-born Hispanics (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Hispanics. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_379

The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_380

In 2008, 81% of Hispanics who married out married non-Hispanic Whites, 9% married non-Hispanic Blacks, 5% non-Hispanic Asians, and the remainder married non-Hispanic, multi-racial partners. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_381

Of approximately 275,500 new interracial or interethnic marriages in 2010, 43.3% were White-Hispanic (compared to White-Asian at 14.4%, White-Black at 11.9%, and other combinations at 30.4%; "other combinations" consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_382

Unlike those for marriage to Blacks and Asians, intermarriage rates of Hispanics to Whites do not vary by gender. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_383

The combined median earnings of White/Hispanic couples are lower than those of White/White couples but higher than those of Hispanic/Hispanic couples. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_384

23% of Hispanic men who married White women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Hispanic men who married a Hispanic woman. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_385

33% of Hispanic women who married a White husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Hispanic women who married a Hispanic man. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_386

Attitudes among non-Hispanics toward intermarriage with Hispanics are mostly favorable, with 81% of Whites, 76% of Asians and 73% of Blacks "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Hispanic and an additional 13% of Whites, 19% of Asians and 16% of Blacks "being bothered but accepting of the marriage." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_387

Only 2% of Whites, 4% of Asians, and 5% of Blacks would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Hispanic. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_388

Hispanic attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Hispanics are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to Whites and 73% "being fine" with marriages to Blacks. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_389

A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a White and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a Black. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_390

Only 5% of Hispanics objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Hispanic Black and 2% to a non-Hispanic White. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_391

Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Hispanic Blacks varies by nationality of origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_392

Puerto Ricans and Dominicans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with blacks, of all major Hispanic national groups. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_393

Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Hispanic Whites, of all major Hispanic national groups, and are the most assimilated into White American culture. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_394

Mexican Americans, who are the majority of the US Hispanic population, are most likely to intermarry with Whites and Asians when marrying out. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_395

Cultural adjustment Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_42

As Latino migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_396

Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_397

Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_398

The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Latino in the global sphere. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_399

Transnationalism Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_43

Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called latinidad. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_400

This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_401

Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of latinidad" which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Latinos perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_402

This unites Latinos as one, creating cultural kin with other Latino ethnicities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_403

Gender roles Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_44

Migration to the United States can change identity for Latino youth in various way, including how they carry their gendered identities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_404

In traditional Latino households, women and young girls are homebodies or muchachas de la casa ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... [of] respectability, chastity, and family honor [as] valued by the [Latino] community." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_405

However, when Latina women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country, and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_406

The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being de la calle ("of [or from] the street"), transgressive and sexually promiscuous. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_407

Some Latino families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... [the sending country] with family members, regardless of whether or not ... [the young women] are sexually active." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_408

Along with the increase in independence amongst these young women, there is a diminution in the power of vergüenza ("shame") in many of the relations between the two sexes. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_409

To have vergüenza is to assert male dominance in all spheres, especially in a man's relationship with his female partner; the concept is enforced through shaming males into comporting themselves with a macho (literally, "male" or "masculine") archetype in order to establish respect, dominance, and manliness in their social ambits. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_410

Although many Latina women in the homeland as well as older Latina women in the United States reinforce this dynamic by not wanting a man who is a sinvergüenza ("shameless one"), some Latinx youth accept the label of sinvergüenza and now wear it proudly. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_411

Feeling caught between two distinct societies causes youth to "meditate between the two cultures and [instills] ambivalence toward feeling a lack of vergüenza", resulting in a group of youth who celebrate being sinvergüenza while still acknowledging the concept of vergüenza within a part of their increasingly composite culture. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_412

Sexuality Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_45

With the Catholic Church remaining a large influence on the Latino culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_413

It is taught in many Latino cultures that best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_414

All are to be straight and women are to be virgins. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_415

A woman must carry herself like Mary in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_416

However, despite being told that they should essentially suppress any natural feeling of sexual curiosity, through the globalization of encouraging sexual liberation, many young Latina women take their sexuality into their own hands and do not listen to an Mary's ideal. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_417

Despite this oppressive nature, "women are neither passive nor one-dimensional individuals who automatically adapt to these culturally and socially defined moral prescriptions shaping their sex lives in some way" but instead "sophisticated, multidimensional, and active social agents who react to these prescriptions in multiform and complicated ways". Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_418

Relations towards other minority groups Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_46

As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, there has been some tension with other minority populations, especially the African American population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively Black areas. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_419

There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_420

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_2

  • A 2007 UCLA study reported that 51% of Blacks felt that Hispanics were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Hispanics said they feared African-Americans, identifying them (African Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Hispanics credited American blacks and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the US.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_2_20
  • A Pew Research Center poll from 2006 showed that Blacks overwhelmingly felt that Hispanic immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%); 34% believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans, 22% of Blacks believed that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant, and 34% of Blacks wanted immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: Chicago (with its well-established Latino community); Washington, D.C. (with a less-established but quickly growing Hispanic community); and Raleigh-Durham (with a very new but rapidly growing Hispanic community). The results showed that a significant proportion of Blacks in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington, DC (48%).Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_2_21
  • Per a 2008 University of California, Berkeley Law School research brief, a recurring theme to Black / Hispanic tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor," which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by Blacks). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Latino immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_2_22
  • A 2008 Gallup poll indicated that 60% of Hispanics and 67% of blacks believe that good relations exist between US blacks and Hispanics while only 29% of blacks, 36% of Hispanics and 43% of whites, say Black–Hispanic relations are bad.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_2_23
  • In 2009, in Los Angeles County, Latinos committed 77% of the hate crimes against black victims and blacks committed half of the hate crimes against Latinos.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_2_24

Politics Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_47

Main article: Hispanic and Latino American politics Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_421

See also: List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_422

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_general_5

Current Hispanics and Latinos in United States governmentHispanic and Latino Americans_table_caption_5
NameHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_0_0 Political partyHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_0_1 StateHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_0_2 First electedHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_0_3 AncestryHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_0_4
Supreme CourtHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_1_0
Sonia SotomayorHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_2_0 N/AHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_2_1 2009Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_2_3 Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_2_4
State GovernorsHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_3_0
Chris SununuHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_4_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_4_1 New HampshireHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_4_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_4_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_4_4
Michelle Lujan GrishamHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_5_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_5_1 New MexicoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_5_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_5_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_5_4
US SenateHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_6_0
Bob MenéndezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_7_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_7_1 New JerseyHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_7_2 2006Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_7_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_7_4
Marco RubioHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_8_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_8_1 FloridaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_8_2 2010Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_8_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_8_4
Ted CruzHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_9_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_9_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_9_2 2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_9_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_9_4
Catherine Cortez MastoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_10_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_10_1 NevadaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_10_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_10_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_10_4
US House of RepresentativesHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_5_11_0
José E. SerranoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_12_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_12_1 New YorkHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_12_2 1990Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_12_3 Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_12_4
Lucille Roybal-AllardHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_13_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_13_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_13_2 1992Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_13_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_13_4
Nydia VelázquezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_14_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_14_1 New YorkHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_14_2 1992Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_14_3 Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_14_4
Grace NapolitanoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_15_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_15_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_15_2 1998Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_15_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_15_4
Mario Díaz-BalartHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_16_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_16_1 FloridaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_16_2 2002Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_16_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_16_4
Raúl GrijalvaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_17_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_17_1 ArizonaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_17_2 2002Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_17_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_17_4
Linda SánchezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_18_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_18_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_18_2 2002Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_18_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_18_4
Henry Roberto CuellarHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_19_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_19_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_19_2 2004Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_19_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_19_4
Albio SiresHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_20_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_20_1 New JerseyHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_20_2 2006Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_20_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_20_4
Ben Ray LujánHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_21_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_21_1 New MexicoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_21_2 2008Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_21_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_21_4
John GaramendiHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_22_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_22_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_22_2 2009Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_22_3 SpanishHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_22_4
Bill FloresHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_23_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_23_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_23_2 2010Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_23_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_23_4
Jaime HerreraHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_24_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_24_1 WashingtonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_24_2 2010Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_24_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_24_4
Tony CárdenasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_25_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_25_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_25_2 2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_25_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_25_4
Joaquin CastroHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_26_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_26_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_26_2 2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_26_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_26_4
Raúl RuizHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_27_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_27_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_27_2 2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_27_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_27_4
Juan VargasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_28_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_28_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_28_2 2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_28_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_28_4
Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_29_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_29_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_29_2 2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_29_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_29_4
Pete AguilarHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_30_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_30_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_30_2 2014Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_30_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_30_4
Ruben GallegoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_31_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_31_1 ArizonaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_31_2 2014Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_31_3 ColombianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_31_4
Alex MooneyHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_32_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_32_1 West VirginiaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_32_2 2014Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_32_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_32_4
Norma TorresHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_33_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_33_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_33_2 2014Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_33_3 GuatemalanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_33_4
Nanette BarragánHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_34_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_34_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_34_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_34_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_34_4
Salud CarbajalHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_35_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_35_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_35_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_35_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_35_4
Lou CorreaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_36_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_36_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_36_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_36_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_36_4
Adriano EspaillatHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_37_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_37_1 New YorkHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_37_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_37_3 DominicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_37_4
Vicente GonzálezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_38_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_38_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_38_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_38_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_38_4
Brian MastHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_39_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_39_1 FloridaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_39_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_39_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_39_4
Darren SotoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_40_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_40_1 FloridaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_40_2 2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_40_3 Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_40_4
Jimmy GomezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_41_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_41_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_41_2 2017Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_41_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_41_4
Gil CisnerosHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_42_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_42_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_42_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_42_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_42_4
Antonio DelgadoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_43_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_43_1 New YorkHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_43_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_43_3 Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_43_4
Veronica EscobarHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_44_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_44_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_44_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_44_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_44_4
Chuy GarcíaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_45_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_45_1 IllinoisHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_45_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_45_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_45_4
Sylvia GarciaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_46_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_46_1 TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_46_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_46_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_46_4
Anthony GonzalezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_47_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_47_1 OhioHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_47_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_47_3 CubanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_47_4
Mike LevinHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_48_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_48_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_48_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_48_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_48_4
Debbie Mucarsel-PowellHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_49_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_49_1 FloridaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_49_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_49_3 EcuadorianHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_49_4
Alexandria Ocasio-CortezHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_50_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_50_1 New YorkHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_50_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_50_3 Puerto RicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_50_4
Xochitl Torres SmallHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_51_0 DemocratHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_51_1 New MexicoHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_51_2 2018Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_51_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_51_4
Mike GarciaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_52_0 RepublicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_52_1 CaliforniaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_52_2 2020Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_52_3 MexicanHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_5_52_4

Political affiliations Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_48

Main page: :Category:Hispanic and Latino American members of the Cabinet of the United States Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_423

Hispanics and Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_424

The majority (57%) either identify as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify as Republicans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_425

This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_426

Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Chilean Americans, and Venezuelan Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_427

Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Dominican Americans tend to favor progressive political ideologies and support the Democrats. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_428

However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_429

Some political organizations associated with Hispanic and Latino Americans are League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation and the National Institute for Latino Policy. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_430

Political impact Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_49

Main article: List of minority governors and lieutenant governors in the United States Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_431

The United States has a population of 50 million of Hispanic and Latino Americans, of whom 27 million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters); therefore, Hispanics have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_432

Elections of 1996-2006 Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_50

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics and Latinos backed President Bill Clinton. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_433

In 2000, the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry winning Hispanics 58–40 against Bush. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_434

Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_435

California Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_436

Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate and Florida Latinos (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_437

In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq War, the heated debate concerning illegal Hispanic immigration and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics and Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_438

Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Latinos for the first time split evenly. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_439

The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_440

Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters; majority-Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_441

Elections 2008-2012 Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_51

In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary Hispanics and Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_442

Pundits discussed whether Hispanics and Latinos would not vote for Barack Obama because he was African American. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_443

Hispanics/Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_444

In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_445

Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) whites. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_446

Obama defeated Clinton. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_447

In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain, Hispanics and Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the June 30 Gallup tracking poll. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_448

This was higher than expected, since McCain a had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort (John McCain was born in Panama to parents who were serving in the U.S. Navy, but raised in the United States). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_449

However, McCain had retreated from reform during the Republican primary, damaging his standing among Hispanics and Latinos. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_450

Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish highlighting McCain's reversal. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_451

In the general election, 67% of Hispanics and Latinos voted for Obama. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_452

with a relatively strong turnout in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and Virginia, helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_453

Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans who have a strong presence in Florida. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_454

The relative growth of non-Cuban vs Cuban Hispanics also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_455

While employment and the economy were top concerns for Hispanics and Latinos, almost 90% of Latino voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_456

Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 had damaged the party's appeal to Hispanics and Latinos, especially in swing states such as Florida, Nevada and New Mexico. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_457

In a Gallup poll of Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_458

Hispanic and Latinos voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger Mitt Romney receiving about 27% of the vote. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_459

Some Latino leaders were offended by remarks Romney made during a fundraiser, when he suggested that cultural differences and "the hand of providence" help explain why Israelis are more economically successful than Palestinians, and why similar economic disparities exist between other neighbors, such as the United States and Mexico, or Chile and Ecuador. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_460

A senior aide to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the remarks racist, as did American political scientis Angelo Falcón, president of the National Institute of Latino Policy. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_461

Mitt Romney father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_462

Elections 2014–present Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_52

"More convincing data" from the 2016 United States presidential election from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_463

Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_464

Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_465

On June 26, 2018, Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, a millennial, won the Democratic primary in New York's 14th congressional district covering parts of The Bronx and Queens in New York City, defeating the incumbent, Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, in what has been described as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election season and at the age of 29 years, became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_466

She is a member of the Democratic Socialists of America and has been endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and individuals. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_467

According to a Pew Research Center report, the 2020 election will be the first one when Latinos are the largest racial or ethnic minority group in the electorate. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_468

A record 32 million Latinos were projected to be eligible to vote in the presidential election, many of them first-time voters. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_469

In 2020 nonetheless, the democratic party paraded speakers such as Republican former Ohio Gov. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_470

John Kasich, Cindy McCain and Republican former Secretary of State Colin Powell for its Democratic audience, giving members of the opposing party more time on-screen during the first two nights than Latino speakers had the entire convention. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_471

The fact of the matter is that an important part of America has been relegated to a tertiary position, first by Donald Trump and now seemingly by Democrats. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_472

What it said to Latinos is that they must wait their turn, quietly, to have more than a token presence at any of the party's conventions but vote for them unconditionally in the meantime. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_473

On September 15, 2020 President Donald J. Trump announces his intent to nominate and appoint Eduardo Verastegui, to be a member of the President's Advisory Commission on Hispanic Prosperity if re-elected after days of the Democratic convention. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_474

Over the years, the Democratic Party has not always prioritized Latino men, which has left some disillusioned about politics altogether, Democrats said. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_475

Some Hispanic men with roots in Latin American countries that have a long history of strongmen leaders were projected to be drawn to Donald Trump's braggadocio, particularly in Florida, Democrats told POLITICO. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_476

And some young Black and Latino men could protest by voting third party —or simply sit out the election. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_477

A few holdouts among that population in battleground states like Arizona and Michigan could had determine the election. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_478

Black women and Latinas were two of Joe Biden’s most reliable constituencies, and expected to still win big majorities of both Black and Latino men, too. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_479

But as Biden aims to replicate Obama-era levels of support among voters of color, POLITICO interviews with more than 20 Democratic strategists, lawmakers, pollsters and activists reveal ambivalence on the part of Black and Latino men. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_480

Hispanic and Latino Americans_table_general_6

YearHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_6_0_0 Candidate of

the pluralityHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_6_0_1

partyHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_6_0_2
% of

Hispanic voteHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_6_0_3

ResultHispanic and Latino Americans_header_cell_6_0_4
1980Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_1_0 Jimmy CarterHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_1_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_1_2 56%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_1_3 LostHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_1_4
1984Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_2_0 Walter MondaleHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_2_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_2_2 61%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_2_3 LostHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_2_4
1988Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_3_0 Michael DukakisHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_3_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_3_2 69%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_3_3 LostHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_3_4
1992Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_4_0 Bill ClintonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_4_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_4_2 61%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_4_3 WonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_4_4
1996Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_5_0 Bill ClintonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_5_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_5_2 72%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_5_3 WonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_5_4
2000Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_6_0 Al GoreHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_6_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_6_2 62%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_6_3 LostHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_6_4
2004Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_7_0 John KerryHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_7_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_7_2 58%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_7_3 LostHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_7_4
2008Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_8_0 Barack ObamaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_8_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_8_2 67%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_8_3 WonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_8_4
2012Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_9_0 Barack ObamaHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_9_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_9_2 71%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_9_3 WonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_9_4
2016Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_10_0 Hillary ClintonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_10_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_10_2 65%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_10_3 LostHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_10_4
2020Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_11_0 Joe BidenHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_11_1 DemocraticHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_11_2 63%Hispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_11_3 WonHispanic and Latino Americans_cell_6_11_4

Latino communities across the U.S. were long held as a single voting bloc, but economic, geographic and cultural differences show stark divides in how Latino Americans have cast their ballots in 2020. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_481

The Biden campaign did not court Latinos since the beginning and the Republicans were very active in Florida giving them an extra ten points. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_482

Latinos helped deliver Florida to Donald Trump in part because of Cuban Americans and Venezuelan American (along with smaller populations such as Nicaraguan Americans and Chilean Americans); President Trump's reelection campaign ran pushing a strong anti-socialism message as a strategy in Florida, to their success. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_483

However the perceived anti-immigrant rhetoric resonated with Arizona and the COVID-19 pandemic (Arizona being one of the states hardest hit by the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_484

The takeaway may be this may be the last election cycle that the "Latino vote" is talk about as the Latino vote instead of particular communities within it, Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans and so on. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_485

Some were stunned by Trump's gains among Latino voters in the battleground states of Texas and Florida, both of which he won. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_486

In Texas like in Arizona the Latino community mainly being Mexican American; one in three Texan voters is now Latino. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_487

Biden did win the Latino vote in those states. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_488

But in Texas, 41 percent to 47 percent of Hispanic voters backed Trump in several heavily Latino border counties in the Rio Grande Valley region, a Democratic stronghold. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_489

In Florida, Trump won 45 percent of the Latino vote, an 11-point improvement from his 2016 performance reported NBC News. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_490

Recognizing Latinos as a population that can not only make a differences in swing states like Arizona and Texas or Florida, but also really across the country, even in places like Wisconsin, Michigan and Pennsylvania, the number of Latino eligible voters may be the reason for the thin margins being seeing given Latinos are not a monolith and are scoter trout; they care as much about the economy as they care about immigration and Generation gaps matter. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_491

Small shifts in a population can have huge repercussions in an almost evenly divided country. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_492

Many people were surprised, but they should not have been; In 1984, 37 percent of Latinos voted for Ronald Reagan and 40 percent voted for George W. Bush in 2004. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_493

Even in Nevada, which Biden won, he failed to do as well among Hispanics as Bernie Sanders had done in the February caucus, largely because Sanders asked for their vote, but Biden did not; however, without Latino support Biden would have failed to carry the state. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_494

In Florida, even though Trump won Florida and gained Latino voters, Biden kept 53% of the Latino vote and Trump 45%. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_495

According to NBC News exit polls, 55% of Cuban Americans, 30% of Puerto Ricans and 48% of other Latinos voted for Trump. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_496

Subsections of Latino voters have a range of historical influences vying to affect their votes. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_497

Cuban American voters, mostly concentrated in south Florida, tend to vote Republican in part because of their anathema for anything perceived as socialism, the party of Fidel Castro’s government that many of their families fled, and a term that the Democrats have somewhat embraced in recent years (though their interpretation of it is different). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_498

Mexican Americans, however, have no such historical relationship with either party. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_499

Though Trump has repeatedly insulted Mexicans, many of these voters have more ideologically in common in Republicans than they do Democrats—as one Texan voter explained, Mexican Americans vote for Trump because of “God (life), guns (principles), and gas (country),” (referring to petroleum in Texas, home to about a quarter of the US's Mexican American population, and an industry Biden has threatened to undermine in a push away from fossil fuels). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_500

Puerto Rican voters who have left the island might be influenced by influenced the territory's move towards statehood, as a referendum for Trump's failed relief effort after Hurricane Maria, or regarding how it is taxed. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_501

Latinos may have also remember when president Obama was a candidate he promising he was going to give introduction to immigration reform, he would legalize some immigrants in the first year. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_502

Democrats control both chambers of congress in January of 2009 and reform did not happen and not only did it not happen, Obama deported more than 3 million undocumented immigrants during his presidency, more then any presidency so given Joe Biden was part of that administration as vice president Latinos saw him as partly responsible and doubted. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_503

It's clear that Latinos are highly diverse regionally and racially, and for that reason, have different political needs. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_504

Yet there are things that unify them, like bilingual/biculturalism, consumption of Spanish-language or Latino-oriented media, and a shared historical narrative that is not only imposed from above by government and marketers, but often chosen by Latinos themselves for political and cultural reasons. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_505

Whatever the Latino vote is, it's growing, and for the most part, aligned with the Democratic Party. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_506

The large Biden advantages in these areas are fueled by younger, progressive voters who represent the future of the Latino vote -- 22% of Generation Z voters are Latino, as are 17% of millennial voters. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_507

Notable contributions Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_53

Hispanic and Latino Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, film, literature, sports, business and finance, and science. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_508

Arts and entertainment Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_54

In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award was created. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_509

It is a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_510

Music Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_55

Main article: Latin music in the United States Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_511

There are many Hispanic American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Christopher Rios better known by his stage name Big Pun, Jennifer Lopez, Joan Baez, Selena Gomez, Demi Lovato, Fergie, Pitbull, Victoria Justice, Linda Ronstadt, Zack de la Rocha, Gloria Estefan, Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Carlos Santana, Christina Aguilera, Bruno Mars, Mariah Carey, Jerry García, Dave Navarro, Santaye, Elvis Crespo, Romeo Santos, Tom Araya, Becky G, Juan Luis Guerra, Cardi B, Giselle Bellas, Bad Bunny, all of the members of all-female band Go Betty Go and two members of girl group Fifth Harmony: Lauren Jauregui and Ally Brooke. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_512

Latin American music imported from Cuba (chachachá, mambo and rhumba) and Mexico (ranchera and mariachi) had brief periods of popularity during the 1950s. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_513

Examples of artists include Celia Cruz, who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three gold albums during her career. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_514

Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_515

Among the Hispanic American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens, who scored several hits, most notably "La Bamba" and Herman Santiago, who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_516

Songs that became popular in the United States and are heard during the holiday/Christmas season include "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus? Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_517

", a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old Augie Ríos which was a hit record in 1959 and featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra; and "Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_518

Miguel del Aguila wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy nominations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_519

In 1986, Billboard magazine introduced the Hot Latin Songs chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_520

Seven years later, Billboard initiated the Top Latin Albums which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_521

Similarly, the Recording Industry Association of America incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_522

In 1989, Univision established the Lo Nuestro Awards which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic Grammys". Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_523

In 2000, the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS) established the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_524

Unlike The Recording Academy, LARAS extends its membership internationally to Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking communities worldwide beyond the Americas, particularly into Europe (Iberia). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_525

Becky G won favorite female Latin artist, a brand new category at the AMAs in 2020. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_526

For the 63rd Annual Grammy Awards, the academy announced several changes for different categories and rules: The category Best Latin Pop Album has been renamed Best Latin Pop Or Urban Album, and Latin Rock, Urban Or Alternative Album has been renamed Best Latin Rock Or Alternative Album. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_527

Film, radio, television and theatre Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_56

Main article: List of Latinos in film Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_528

American cinema has often reflected and propagated negative stereotypes towards foreign nationals and ethnic minorities. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_529

For example, Latin Americans are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Latino macho or the Latina vixen, gang members, (illegal) immigrants, or entertainers. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_530

However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_531

According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate Chicano oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_532

Filmmakers like Edward James Olmos and Robert Rodriguez were able to represent the Hispanic and Latino Americans experience like none had on screen before, and actors like Hilary Swank, Michael Peña, Jordana Brewster, Ana de Armas, Jessica Alba, and Paz Vega have became successful. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_533

In the last decade, minority filmmakers like Chris Weitz, Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and Patricia Riggen have been given applier narratives. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_534

Portrayal in films of them include La Bamba (1987), Selena (1997), The Mask of Zorro (1998), Goal II (2007), The 33 (2015), Ferdinand (2017), Dora and the Lost City of Gold (2019) and Josefina López's Real Women Have Curves, originally a play which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_535

Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the film industry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_536

Of Puerto Rican origin: José Ferrer (the first Hispanic actor to win an acting Academy Award for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac), Auliʻi Cravalho, Rita Moreno, Chita Rivera, Raul Julia, Rosie Perez, Rosario Dawson, Esai Morales, Aubrey Plaza, Jennifer Lopez, Joaquin Phoenix and Benicio del Toro. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_537

Of Mexican origin: Emile Kuri (the first Hispanic to win an Academy Award – for Best Production Design – in 1949), Ramon Novarro, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez, Anthony Quinn, Ricardo Montalbán, Katy Jurado, Adrian Grenier, Jay Hernandez, Salma Hayek, Danny Trejo, Jessica Alba, Tessa Thompson, and Kate del Castillo. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_538

Of Cuban origin: Cesar Romero, Mel Ferrer, Andy García, Cameron Diaz, María Conchita Alonso, William Levy, and Eva Mendes. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_539

Of Dominican origin: Maria Montez and Zoe Saldana. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_540

Of Brazilian origin: Carmen Miranda, Sonia Braga, Rodrigo Santoro, Camila Mendes, Camilla Belle and Jordana Brewster. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_541

Of Spanish origin: Rita Hayworth, Martin Sheen, Paz Vega and Antonio Banderas. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_542

Other outstanding figures are: Anita Page (of Salvadoran origin), Fernando Lamas (of Argentine origin), Raquel Welch (of Bolivian origin, John Leguizamo (of Colombian origin) and Oscar Isaac (of Guatemalan origin). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_543

In stand-up comedy, Cristela Alonzo, Anjelah Johnson, Paul Rodríguez, Greg Giraldo, Cheech Marin, George Lopez, Freddie Prinze, Jade Esteban Estrada, Carlos Mencia, John Mendoza, Gabriel Iglesias and others are prominent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_544

Some of the Hispanic or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Charo, Jencarlos Canela, Christian Serratos, Carlos Pena Jr., Eva Longoria, Sofía Vergara, Ricardo Antonio Chavira, Jacob Vargas, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, Mario Lopez, America Ferrera, Karla Souza, Diego Boneta, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, Isabella Gomez, Justina Machado, Tony Plana Stacey Dash, and Charlie Sheen. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_545

Kenny Ortega is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards and Michael Jackson's memorial service. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_546

Hispanics and Latinos are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_547

This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_548

Together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Latinos on any of their new prime time series that year. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_549

This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_550

Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_551

These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_552

The 72nd Primetime Emmy Awards critici's by Latinos, the Emmys had no major nominations for Latin performers despite the Emmys publicizing their improved diversity in 2020. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_553

While there was a record number of Black nominees, there was only one individual Latin nomination. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_554

Hispanic and Latino representation groups said the greater diversity referred only to more African American nominees. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_555

When the LA Times reported the criticism using the term "Black", it was itself criticized for erasing Afro-Latinos, a discussion that then prompted more investigation into this under-represented minority ethnic group in Hollywood. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_556

John Leguizamo boycotted the Emmys because of its lack of Latin nominees. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_557

Fashion Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_57

In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic and Latino designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, Narciso Rodriguez, Manuel Cuevas, among others. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_558

Christy Turlington, Gisele Bündchen and Lea T achieved international fame as models. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_559

Artists Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_58

Notable Hispanic and Latino artists include Jean-Michel Basquiat, Carmen Herrera, Gronk, Luis Jiménez, Félix González-Torres, Ana Mendieta, Joe Shannon, Richard Serra, Abelardo Morell, Bill Melendez, María Magdalena Campos Pons, Sandra Ramos, Myrna Báez and Soraida Martinez. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_560

Business and finance Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_59

See also: Hispanic 500 Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_561

The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_562

Hispanic and Latino business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_563

Advertising Mexican-American magnate Arte Moreno became the first Hispanic to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_564

Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc. and co-owner of the Colorado Rockies baseball team. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_565

There are several Hispanics on the Forbes 400 list of richest Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_566

Alejandro Santo Domingo and his brother Andres Santo Domingo inherited their fathers stake in SABMiller, now merged with Anheuser-Busch InBev. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_567

The brothers are ranked #132 and are each worth $4.8bn. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_568

Jorge Perez founded and runs The Related Group. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_569

He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_570

He is ranked #264 and is worth $3bn. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_571

The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States is Goya Foods, because of World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_572

Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_573

Samuel A. Ramirez Sr. made Wall Street history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co. Nina Tassler is president of CBS Entertainment since September 2004. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_574

She is the highest-profile Latina in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_575

Government and politics Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_60

See also: List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_576

As of 2007, there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Latino origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_577

In the House of Representatives, Hispanic and Latino representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco and Manuel Lujan Jr., out of almost two dozen former Representatives. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_578

Current Representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jose E. Serrano, Luis Gutiérrez, Nydia Velázquez, Xavier Becerra, Lucille Roybal-Allard, Loretta Sanchez, Rubén Hinojosa, Mario Díaz-Balart, Raul Grijalva, Ben R. Lujan, Jaime Herrera Beutler, Raul Labrador and Alex Mooney—in all, they number thirty. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_579

Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya and Ken Salazar. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_580

As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Hispanic members Bob Menendez, a Democrat and Republicans Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, all Cuban Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_581

Numerous Hispanics and Latinos hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_582

Current Hispanic Governors include Republican Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval and Republican New Mexico Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Latina governor in the history of the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_583

Former Hispanic governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and Bill Richardson, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Romualdo Pacheco and Bob Martinez. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_584

Since 1988, when Ronald Reagan appointed Lauro Cavazos the Secretary of Education, the first Hispanic United States Cabinet member, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_585

Hispanics serving in subsequent cabinets include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_586

Rosa Rios is the current US Treasurer, including the latest three, were Hispanic women. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_587

In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic or Latino origin. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_588

The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_589

They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_590

Groups like the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) work to achieve the promises and principles of the United States by "promoting education, research, and leadership development, and empowering Latinos and similarly disenfranchised groups by maximizing their civic awareness, engagement, and participation." Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_591

Literature and journalism Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_61

Further information: American literature in Spanish Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_592

See also: :Category:Hispanic and Latino American writers and National Association of Hispanic Journalists Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_593

Writers and their works Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_62

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_3

Journalists Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_63

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_4

Political strategists Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_594

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_5

Military Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_64

See also: Spain in the American Revolutionary War, Hispanics in the American Civil War, Hispanics in the United States Marine Corps, and Hispanic Americans in World War II Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_595

Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_596

11% to 13% military personnel now are Latinos and they have been deployed in the Iraq War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_597

Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_598

Up to now, 43 Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_599

The following is a list of some notable Hispanics/Latinos in the military: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_600

American Revolution Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_65

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_6

  • Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786) – Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War; since 2014, a posthumous honorary citizen of the United StatesHispanic and Latino Americans_item_6_61
  • Lieutenant Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755–1817) – participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina NavyHispanic and Latino Americans_item_6_62

American Civil War Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_66

Main article: Hispanics in the American Civil War Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_601

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_7

  • Admiral David Farragut – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_63
  • Rear Admiral Cipriano Andrade – Mexican Navy Rear Admiral who fought for the Union. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_64
  • Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – Cuban officer active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_65
  • Brigadier General Diego Archuleta (1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Hispanic to reach the military rank of Brigadier General. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_66
  • Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. commanding general of the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish national who fought at Gettysburg for the Union Army in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_67
  • Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at GettysburgHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_68
  • Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate ArmyHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_69
  • Colonel Santos Benavides – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate ArmyHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_70
  • Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the WestHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_71
  • Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. HumphreysHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_72
  • Captain Rafael Chacón – Mexican American leader of the Union New Mexico Volunteers.Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_73
  • Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers; spy for the Union Army in TexasHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_74
  • Lieutenant Augusto RodriguezPuerto Rican native; officer in the 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C. and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse ForkHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_75
  • Lola Sánchez – Cuban born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union Forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing"Hispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_76
  • Loreta Janeta Velázquez, also known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil WarHispanic and Latino Americans_item_7_77

World War I Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_67

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_8

World War II Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_68

See also: Hispanic Americans in World War II Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_602

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_9

Korean War Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_69

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_10

Cuban Missile Crisis Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_70

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_11

Vietnam War Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_71

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_12

After Vietnam Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_72

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_13

Medal of Honor Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_73

Main article: List of Hispanic Medal of Honor recipients Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_603

The following 43 Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor: Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_604 De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace and Maximo Yabes. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_605

National intelligence Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_74

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_14

Science and technology Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_75

See also: Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_606

Among Hispanic Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_607

They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_608

Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_609

Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_610

F. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_611 J. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_612

Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa is the Director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the Director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_613

Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_614

His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_615

Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_616

Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_617

Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the companies reCAPTCHA and Duolingo. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_618

Colombian-American Ana Maria Rey received a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in atomic physics in 2013. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_619

Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_620

Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_621

Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_622

Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_623

Dr. Sarah Stewart, a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_624

Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow, whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_625

Dr. Helen Rodríguez Trías, an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_626

She was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Latina president of the American Public Health Association. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_627

Some Hispanics and Latinos have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA astronauts: Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Latin American NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and Director of Mars Exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_628

Olga D. González-Sanabria won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the International Space Station power system. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_629

Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_630

Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_631

Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, José M. Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John Olivas and George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_632

Sports Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_76

See also: Latino athletes in American sports Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_633

Football Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_77

There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_634

Anthony Múñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked #17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_635

Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_636

Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Ted Hendricks, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Hispanics and Latinos in the National Football League (NFL). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_637

Baseball Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_78

Latinos have played in the Major Leagues since the very beginning of organized baseball, with Cuban player Esteban Bellán being the first (1873). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_638

The large number of Hispanic and Latino American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Sammy Sosa, Alex Rodriguez, Alex Rios, Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Adolfo Luque, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrián González, Jose Fernandez, David Ortiz, Juan Marichal, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Miguel Angel Gonzalez (the first Latino Major League manager), Al López, Ozzie Guillén and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_639

Latinos in the MLB Hall of Fame include Roberto Alomar, Luis Aparicio, Rod Carew, Orlando Cepeda, Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, Tony Pérez, Iván Rodríguez, Ted Williams, Reggie Jackson, Mariano Rivera, Edgar Martinez and Roberto Clemente. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_640

Afro-Latino players Martin Dihigo, Jose Mendez and Cristóbal Torriente are Latino Hall of Famers who played in the Negro Leagues. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_641

Basketball Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_79

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginóbili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_642

Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Hispanic heritage to coach an NBA team. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_643

Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_644

Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title and as well an Olympic gold medal. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_645

Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_646

Tennis Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_80

Tennis players includes legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández and Gigi Fernández and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_647

Soccer Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_81

Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_648

Soccer is the most popular sport across Latin America and Spain and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_649

Major League Soccer teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_650

Association football players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) includes several like Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Omar Gonzalez, Marcelo Balboa and Carlos Bocanegra. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_651

Swimming Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_82

Swimmers Ryan Lochte (the second-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history measured by total number of medals) and Dara Torres (one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals), both of Cuban ancestry, have won multiple medals at various Olympic Games over the years. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_652

Torres is also the first American swimmer to appear in five Olympic Games. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_653

Maya DiRado, of Argentine ancestry, won four medals at the 2016 games, including two gold medals. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_654

Other sports Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_83

Boxing's first Hispanic American world champion was Solly Smith. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_655

Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Brandon Ríos, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, Andy Ruiz Jr. and Mikey Garcia. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_656

Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nate Diaz, Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Kelvin Gastelum, Henry Cejudo and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) of mixed martial arts. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_657

In 1991, Bill Guerin whose mother is Nicaraguan became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League (NHL). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_658

He was also selected to four NHL All-Star Games. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_659

In 1999, Scott Gomez won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_660

Figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic or Latino Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_661

In gymnastics, Laurie Hernandez, who is of Puerto Rican ancestry, was a gold medalist at the 2016 Games. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_662

In sports entertainment we find the professional wrestlers Hulk Hogan, Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Tyler Black and Melina Pérez and executive Vickie Guerrero. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_663

Hispanophobia Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_84

Main articles: Hispanophobia and Anti-Mexican sentiment Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_664

In countries where the majority of the population is of immigrant descent, such as the United States, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the form of nativism. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_665

Throughout U.S. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_666 history, Hispanophobia has existed to varying degrees, and it was largely based on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism, economic and social conditions in Latin America, and use of the Spanish language. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_667

In 2006, Time Magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_668

According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) statistics, the number of anti-Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_669

In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_670

In 2009, the FBI reported that 483 of the 6,604 hate crimes which were recorded in the United States were anti-Hispanic, comprising 7.3% of all recorded hate crimes, the lowest percentage of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_671

This percentage is contrasted by the fact that 34.6% of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009 were anti-Black, 17.9% of them were anti-homosexual, 14.1% of them were anti-Jewish, and 8.3% of them were anti-White. Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_672

See also Hispanic and Latino Americans_section_85

Places of settlement in United States: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_673

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_15

Diaspora: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_674

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_16

Individuals: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_675

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_17

Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_676

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_18

General: Hispanic and Latino Americans_sentence_677

Hispanic and Latino Americans_unordered_list_19

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hispanic and Latino Americans.