Historical reenactment

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Historical reenactment (or re-enactment) is an educational or entertainment activity in which mainly amateur hobbyists and history enthusiasts put on uniforms and follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. Historical reenactment_sentence_0

This may be as narrow as a specific moment from a battle, such as the reenactment of Pickett's Charge presented during the Great Reunion of 1913, or as broad as an entire period, such as Regency reenactment. Historical reenactment_sentence_1

While historical reenactors are generally amateurs, some participants are members of armed forces or historians. Historical reenactment_sentence_2

The participants, called reenactors, often do research on the equipment, uniform, and other gear they will carry or use. Historical reenactment_sentence_3

Reenactors buy the apparel or items they need from specialty stores or make items themselves. Historical reenactment_sentence_4

Historical reenactments cover a wide span of history, from the Roman empire to the major world wars and the Korean War of the 20th century. Historical reenactment_sentence_5

History Historical reenactment_section_0

Activities related to "reenactment" have a long history. Historical reenactment_sentence_6

The Romans staged recreations of famous battles within their amphitheaters as a form of public spectacle. Historical reenactment_sentence_7

In the Middle Ages, tournaments often reenacted historical themes from Ancient Rome or elsewhere. Historical reenactment_sentence_8

Military displays and mock battles and reenactments first became popular in 17th century England. Historical reenactment_sentence_9

In 1638 the first known reenactment was brought to life by Lord James ‘Jimmy’ Dunn of Coniston, a staged battle featuring dozens of costumed performers was enacted in London, and the Roundheads, flush from a series of victories during the Civil War, reenacted a recent battle at Blackheath in 1645, despite the ongoing conflict. Historical reenactment_sentence_10

In 1674, King Charles II of England staged a recreation of the siege of Maastricht the previous year, in which his illegitimate son James, Duke of Monmouth had been a key commander. Historical reenactment_sentence_11

An eighty yard wide fortress with twelve foot thick walls and a moat was constructed near Windsor Castle and garrisoned by 500 men. Historical reenactment_sentence_12

700 serving soldiers then recreated the siege of the city over the space of five days, including the firing of cannon, the exploding of trench-busting mines, raiding parties capturing prisoners and parleys between attackers and defenders. Historical reenactment_sentence_13

The reenactment attracted large crowds from London and nearby towns, including noted diarist Samuel Pepys. Historical reenactment_sentence_14

In the nineteenth century, historical reenactments became widespread, reflecting the then intense romantic interest in the Middle Ages. Historical reenactment_sentence_15

Medieval culture was widely admired as an antidote to the modern enlightenment and industrial age. Historical reenactment_sentence_16

Plays and theatrical works (such as Ivanhoe, which in 1820 was playing in six different productions in London alone) perpetuated the romanticism of knights, castles, feasts and tournaments. Historical reenactment_sentence_17

The Duke of Buckingham staged naval battles from the Napoleonic War on the large lake on his estate in 1821, and a reenactment of the Battle of Waterloo was put on for a public viewing at Astley's Amphitheatre in 1824. Historical reenactment_sentence_18

Historical reenactment came of age with the grand spectacle of the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, a reenactment of a medieval joust and revel held in Scotland, and organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton. Historical reenactment_sentence_19

The Tournament was a deliberate act of Romanticism, and drew 100,000 spectators. Historical reenactment_sentence_20

The ground chosen for the tournament was low, almost marshy, with grassy slopes rising on all sides. Historical reenactment_sentence_21

Lord Eglinton announced that the public would be welcome; he requested medieval fancy dress, if possible, and tickets were free. Historical reenactment_sentence_22

The pageant itself featured thirteen medieval knights on horseback. Historical reenactment_sentence_23

It was held on a meadow at a loop in the Lugton Water. Historical reenactment_sentence_24

The preparations, and the many works of art commissioned for or inspired by the Eglinton Tournament, had an effect on public feeling and the course of 19th-century Gothic revivalism. Historical reenactment_sentence_25

Its ambition carried over to events such as a similar lavish tournament in Brussels in 1905, and presaged the historical reenactments of the present. Historical reenactment_sentence_26

Features of the tournament were actually inspired by Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe: it was attempting "to be a living reenactment of the literary romances". Historical reenactment_sentence_27

In Eglinton’s own words "I am aware of the manifold deficiencies in its exhibition—more perhaps than those who were not so deeply interested in it; I am aware that it was a very humble imitation of the scenes which my imagination had portrayed, but I have, at least, done something towards the revival of chivalry". Historical reenactment_sentence_28

Reenactments of battles became more commonplace in the late 19th century, both in Britain, and also in America. Historical reenactment_sentence_29

Within a year of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, survivors of U.S. Historical reenactment_sentence_30 7th Cavalry Regiment reenacted the scene of their defeat for the camera as a series of still poses. Historical reenactment_sentence_31

In 1895, members of the Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers reenacted their famous last stand at Rorke's Drift, 18 years earlier. Historical reenactment_sentence_32

25 British soldiers beat back the attack of 75 Zulus at the Grand Military Fete at the Cheltenham Winter Gardens. Historical reenactment_sentence_33

Veterans of the American Civil War recreated battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades and to teach others what the war was all about. Historical reenactment_sentence_34

The Great Reunion of 1913, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, was attended by more than 50,000 Union and Confederate veterans, and included reenactments of elements of the battle, including Pickett's Charge. Historical reenactment_sentence_35

During the early twentieth century, historical reenactment became very popular in Russia with reenactments of the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) (1906), the Battle of Borodino (1812) in St Petersburg and the Taking of Azov (1696) in Voronezh in 1918. Historical reenactment_sentence_36

In 1920, there was a reenactment of the 1917 Storming of the Winter Palace on the third anniversary of the event. Historical reenactment_sentence_37

This reenactment inspired the scenes in Sergei Eisenstein's film October: Ten Days That Shook the World. Historical reenactment_sentence_38

Large scale reenactments began to be regularly held at the Royal Tournament, Aldershot Tattoo in the 1920s and 30s. Historical reenactment_sentence_39

A spectacular recreation of the Siege of Namur, an important military engagement of the Nine Years' War, was staged in 1934 as part of 6-day long show. Historical reenactment_sentence_40

In America, modern reenacting began during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial commemorations. Historical reenactment_sentence_41

After more than 6,000 reenactors participated in a 125th anniversary event near the original Manassas battlefield, reenacting grew in popularity during the late 1980s and 1990s, and there are today over a hundred Civil War reenactments held each year throughout the country. Historical reenactment_sentence_42

Reenactors Historical reenactment_section_1

Most participants are amateurs who pursue history as a hobby. Historical reenactment_sentence_43

Participants within this hobby are diverse, ranging in age from young children whose parents bring them along to events, to the elderly. Historical reenactment_sentence_44

In addition to hobbyists, members of the armed forces and professional historians sometimes participate. Historical reenactment_sentence_45

Categories of reenactors Historical reenactment_section_2

Reenactors are commonly divided (or self-divided) into several broadly defined categories, based on the level of concern for authenticity. Historical reenactment_sentence_46

(These definitions and categorisation is primarily that of the USA. Historical reenactment_sentence_47

Other countries have different terms of art, slang, and definitions.) Historical reenactment_sentence_48

Farbs Historical reenactment_section_3

Main article: Farb (reenactment) Historical reenactment_sentence_49

"Farbs" or "polyester soldiers", are reenactors who spend relatively little time and/or money achieving authenticity with regard to uniforms, accessories, or period behavior. Historical reenactment_sentence_50

Anachronistic clothing, fabrics, fasteners (such as velcro), snoods, footwear, vehicles, and modern cigarettes are common. Historical reenactment_sentence_51

The origin of the word "farb" (and the derivative adjective "farby") is unknown, though it appears to date to early American Civil War centennial reenactments in 1960 or 1961. Historical reenactment_sentence_52

Some think that the word derives from a truncated version of "Far be it from authentic". Historical reenactment_sentence_53

An alternative definition is "Far Be it for me to question/criticise", or "Fast And Researchless Buying". Historical reenactment_sentence_54

A humorous definition of "farb" is "F.A.R.B: Forget About Research, Baby". Historical reenactment_sentence_55

Some early reenactors assert the word derives from German Farbe, color, because inauthentic reenactors were over-colorful compared with the dull blues, greys or browns of the real Civil War uniforms that were the principal concern of American reenactors at the time the word was coined. Historical reenactment_sentence_56

According to Burton K. Kummerow, a member of "The Black Hats, CSA" reenactment group in the early 1960s, he first heard it used as a form of fake German to describe a fellow reenactor. Historical reenactment_sentence_57

The term was picked up by George Gorman of the 2nd North Carolina at the Centennial Manassas Reenactment in 1961, and has been used by reenactors since. Historical reenactment_sentence_58

Mainstream Historical reenactment_section_4

Mainstream reenactors make an effort to appear authentic, but may come out of character in the absence of an audience. Historical reenactment_sentence_59

Visible stitches are likely to be sewn in a period-correct manner, but hidden stitches and undergarments may not be period-appropriate. Historical reenactment_sentence_60

Food consumed before an audience is likely to be generally appropriate to the period, but it may not be seasonally and locally appropriate. Historical reenactment_sentence_61

Modern items are sometimes used "after hours" or in a hidden fashion. Historical reenactment_sentence_62

The common attitude is to put on a good show, but that accuracy need only go as far as others can see. Historical reenactment_sentence_63

Progressive Historical reenactment_section_5

At the other extreme from farbs are "hard-core authentics", or "progressives," as they sometimes prefer to be called. Historical reenactment_sentence_64

Sometimes derisively called "stitch counters", "stitch nazis", or "stitch witches." Historical reenactment_sentence_65

"(t)he hard-core movement is often misunderstood and sometimes maligned." Historical reenactment_sentence_66

Hard-core reenactors generally value thorough research, and sometimes deride mainstream reenactors for perpetuating inaccurate "reenactorisms". Historical reenactment_sentence_67

They generally seek an "immersive" reenacting experience, trying to live, as much as possible, as someone of the period might have done. Historical reenactment_sentence_68

This includes eating seasonally and regionally appropriate food, sewing inside seams and undergarments in a period-appropriate manner, and staying in character throughout an event. Historical reenactment_sentence_69

The desire for an immersive experience often leads hard-core reenactors to smaller events, or to setting up separate camps at larger events. Historical reenactment_sentence_70

Period Historical reenactment_section_6

The period of an event is the range of dates. Historical reenactment_sentence_71

See authenticity (reenactment) for a discussion of how the period affects the types of costume, weapons, and armour used. Historical reenactment_sentence_72

Popular periods to reenact include: Historical reenactment_sentence_73

Historical reenactment_unordered_list_0

Clothing and equipment Historical reenactment_section_7

Numerous cottage industries abound that provide not only the materials but even the finished product for use by reenactors. Historical reenactment_sentence_74

Uniforms and clothing made of hand woven, natural dyed materials are sewn by hand or machine using the sartorial techniques of the period portrayed. Historical reenactment_sentence_75

Detailed attention to authenticity in design and construction is given equally to headgear, footwear, eyewear, camp gear, accoutrements, military equipment, weapons and so on. Historical reenactment_sentence_76

These items (which are generally much more expensive than clothing and uniform in modern production) offer the wearer a lifelike experience in the use of materials, tailoring and manufacturing techniques that are as close to authentic as possible. Historical reenactment_sentence_77

Event spectators may derive more satisfaction from attending reenactments when a high level of authenticity is attained in both individual clothing and equipment, as well as equipment used in camp. Historical reenactment_sentence_78

Types Historical reenactment_section_8

See also: List of historical reenactment events Historical reenactment_sentence_79

Living history Historical reenactment_section_9

Main article: Living history Historical reenactment_sentence_80

The term 'living history' describes the performance of bringing history to life for the general public in a manner that in most cases is not following a planned script. Historical reenactment_sentence_81

Historical presentation includes a continuum from well researched attempts to recreate a known historical event for educational purposes, through representations with theatrical elements, to competitive events for purposes of entertainment. Historical reenactment_sentence_82

The line between amateur and professional presentations at living history museums can be blurred. Historical reenactment_sentence_83

While the latter routinely use museum professionals and trained interpreters to help convey the story of history to the public, some museums and historic sites employ living history groups with high standards of authenticity for the same role at special events. Historical reenactment_sentence_84

Living histories are usually meant for education of the public. Historical reenactment_sentence_85

Such events do not necessarily have a mock battle but instead are aimed at portraying the life, and more importantly the lifestyle, of people of the period. Historical reenactment_sentence_86

This often includes both military and civilian impressions. Historical reenactment_sentence_87

Occasionally, storytelling or acting sketches take place to involve or explain the everyday life or military activity to the viewing public. Historical reenactment_sentence_88

More common are craft and cooking demonstrations, song and leisure activities, and lectures. Historical reenactment_sentence_89

Combat training or duels can also be encountered even when larger combat demonstrations are not present. Historical reenactment_sentence_90

There are different styles of living history, each with its own fidelity to the past. Historical reenactment_sentence_91

'Third-person' interpreters take on the dress and work in a particular period style, but do not take on personas of past people; by taking this style, they emphasize to audiences the differences between past and present. Historical reenactment_sentence_92

'Second-person' interpreters take on historical personae to an extent, engaging audiences to participate in period activities, such as soap-making or churning butter, thus restaging historical episodes with their spectators. Historical reenactment_sentence_93

Finally, 'First-person' interpreters "feign previous folk ‘from outward appearances to innermost beliefs and attitudes,’ pretending not to know anything of events past their epoch, and engaging with audiences using antiquated dialects and mannerisms. Historical reenactment_sentence_94

In the United States, The National Park Service land; NPS policy "does not allow for battle reenactments (simulated combat with opposing lines and casualties) on NPS property. Historical reenactment_sentence_95

There are exceptions i.e. Sayde or the Schloss Kaltenberg knights tournament. Historical reenactment_sentence_96

The majority of combat reenactment groups are battlefield reenactment groups, some of which have become isolated to some degree because of a strong focus on authenticity. Historical reenactment_sentence_97

The specific German approach of authenticity is less about replaying a certain event, but to allow an immersion in a certain era, to catch, in the sense of Walter Benjamin the 'spiritual message expressed in every monument's and every site's own "trace" and "aura"', even in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Historical reenactment_sentence_98

Historic city festivals and events are quite important to build up local communities and contribute to the self-image of municipalities. Historical reenactment_sentence_99

Events in monuments or on historical sites are less about the events related to them but serve as staffage for the immersion experience. Historical reenactment_sentence_100

In Denmark several open air museums uses living history as a part of their concept. Historical reenactment_sentence_101

These include Middelaldercentret, The Old Town, Aarhus and Frilandsmuseet. Historical reenactment_sentence_102

Combat demonstration Historical reenactment_section_10

Combat demonstrations are mock battles put on by reenacting organizations and/or private parties primarily to show the public what combat in the period might have been like. Historical reenactment_sentence_103

Combat demonstrations are only loosely based on actual battles, if at all, and may simply consist of demonstrations of basic tactics and maneuvering techniques. Historical reenactment_sentence_104

Battle reenactment Historical reenactment_section_11

Scripted battles are reenactments in the strictest sense; the battles are planned out beforehand so that the companies and regiments make the same actions that were taken in the original battles. Historical reenactment_sentence_105

The mock battles are often "fought" at or near the original battle ground or at a place very similar to the original. Historical reenactment_sentence_106

These demonstrations vary widely in size from a few hundred fighters to several thousand, as do the arenas used (getting the right balance can often make or break the spectacle for the public). Historical reenactment_sentence_107

Tactical combat Historical reenactment_section_12

Main article: Tactical event Historical reenactment_sentence_108

Unlike battle reenactments, tactical battle events are generally not open to the public. Historical reenactment_sentence_109

Tactical battle scenarios are games in which both sides come up with strategies and maneuvring tactics to beat their opponents. Historical reenactment_sentence_110

With no script, a basic set of agreed-upon rules (physical boundaries, time limit, victory conditions, etc.), and on-site judges, tactical battles can be considered a form of Live action role-playing game. Historical reenactment_sentence_111

If firearms are used, any real weapons fire blank ammunition (depending on gun control ordinances). Historical reenactment_sentence_112

Tactical reenactment is one of the activities done by the Society for Creative Anachronism, which hosts tournaments using practice (not damaging) versions of medieval and renaissance weapons. Historical reenactment_sentence_113

Commercial reenactment Historical reenactment_section_13

See also: List of tourist attractions providing reenactment Historical reenactment_sentence_114

Many castles that offer tours, museums, and other historical tourist attractions employ actors or professional reenactors to add to authentic feel and experience. Historical reenactment_sentence_115

These reenactors usually recreate part of a specific town, village, or activity within a certain time frame. Historical reenactment_sentence_116

Commercial reenactment shows are usually choreographed and follow a script. Historical reenactment_sentence_117

Some locations have set up permanent authentic displays. Historical reenactment_sentence_118

By their nature, these are usually living history presentations, rather than tactical or battle reenactment, although some host larger temporary events. Historical reenactment_sentence_119

In 2008 Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve and North Carolina's Tryon Palace staff and buildings provided the period backdrop for early 1800s life depicted in the "Mystery Mardi Gras Shipwreck" documentary. Historical reenactment_sentence_120

Publications Historical reenactment_section_14

Many publications have covered historical reenactment and living history. Historical reenactment_sentence_121

Prominent among these are the Camp Chase Gazette, Smoke and Fire News, and two different magazines named Living History, and Skirmish Magazine. Historical reenactment_sentence_122

The Medieval Soldier by Gerry Embleton and John Howe (1995) is a popular book on the topic, which has been translated into French and German. Historical reenactment_sentence_123

It was followed by Medieval Military Costume in Colour Photographs. Historical reenactment_sentence_124

For the Napoleonic period, two books of interest cover life in the military at that time and living history: The Napoleonic Soldier by Stephen E. Maughan (1999) and Marching with Sharpe by B. J. Bluth (2001). Historical reenactment_sentence_125

Various Napoleonic reenactment groups cover the history of their associated regiments as well as try to describe and illustrate how they approach recreating the period. Historical reenactment_sentence_126

The goal to be as authentic as is possible has led many serious reenactment societies to set up their own research groups to verify their knowledge of the uniforms, drill and all aspects of the life that they strive to portray. Historical reenactment_sentence_127

In this way reenactment plays a vital role in bringing history to life, keeping history alive, and in expanding the knowledge and understanding of the period. Historical reenactment_sentence_128

In the UK a number of small publishing houses have been established that particularly publish books about the English Civil War and more recently, of earlier periods as well. Historical reenactment_sentence_129

The largest are Stuart Press (with around 250 volumes in print) and Partizan Press. Historical reenactment_sentence_130

Little has been published about reenactment in the mainstream market, except for press articles. Historical reenactment_sentence_131

One exception is the book I Believe in Yesterday: My Adventures in Living History by Tim Moore, which recounts his experiences trying out different periods of reenactment and the people he meets and things he learns whilst doing so. Historical reenactment_sentence_132

Media support Historical reenactment_section_15

Motion picture and television producers often turn to reenactment groups for support; films like Gettysburg, Glory, The Patriot, and Alatriste benefited greatly from the input of reenactors, who arrived on set fully equipped and steeped in knowledge of military procedures, camp life, and tactics. Historical reenactment_sentence_133

In a documentary about the making of the film Gettysburg, actor Sam Elliott, who portrayed Union General John Buford in the film, said of reenactors: Historical reenactment_sentence_134

Academic Reception Historical reenactment_section_16

Historians' perspectives on the genre of historical reenactment is mixed. Historical reenactment_sentence_135

On the one hand, some historians cite reenactment as a way for ordinary people to understand and engage with the narratives about the past in ways that academic history fails to do—namely, that it presents straightforward and entertaining narratives, and allows people to more fully 'embody' the past. Historical reenactment_sentence_136

Rather than confining the production of historical narratives to academia, some argue that this 'history from below' provides an important public service to educating the public about past events, serving to "enliven history for millions who turn a blind or bored eye on monuments and museums. Historical reenactment_sentence_137

Other historians critique the anachronisms present in reenactment and cite the impossibility of truly retrieving and reproducing the past from the vantage point of the present; "We are not past but present people, with experience, knowledge, feelings, and aims previously unknown," writes Lowenthal, and however impeccably we attempt to bring back the past, everything is filtered through our modern lens and senses. Historical reenactment_sentence_138

Further, others worry that the focus on historical accuracy in the details, such as dress, obscure the broader historical themes that are critical for audiences to understand; this worry is more acute for certain forms of reenactment, such as U.S. Civil War reenactment, that elicit strong feelings and have real impacts in the present-day world. Historical reenactment_sentence_139

By focusing on the accuracy of details, some worry, the discussion of the war's causes, such as the end of slavery, are confined to the margins. Historical reenactment_sentence_140

Further, under the guise of adhering to the past, some worry, the true, underlying purposes of some reenactments can be obscured; namely, that some reenactors defend not only their prescribed side, but also their side's beliefs: as one reenactor put it, "I do this because I believe in what they believed in ... Historical reenactment_sentence_141

The real pure hobby is not just looking right; it’s thinking right.’ In response to this, some historians call for a more 'authentic' approach to presenting the past, wherein the impacts of that representation on present-day society are honestly presented so as not to give an inaccurate picture of the past. Historical reenactment_sentence_142

"Historical authenticity resides not in fidelity to an alleged past’, cautions an anthropologist, but in being honest about how the present ‘re-presents that past." Historical reenactment_sentence_143

Criticism Historical reenactment_section_17

There are a number of criticisms made about reenactment. Historical reenactment_sentence_144

Many point out that the average age of reenactors is generally far higher than the average age of soldiers in most conflicts. Historical reenactment_sentence_145

Few reenactment units discriminate based on age and physical condition. Historical reenactment_sentence_146

In the United States, reenactors are overwhelmingly white and thus in Civil War reenactment African-American characters, both enslaved and free, are underrepresented. Historical reenactment_sentence_147

(Hundreds of thousands of black Union soldiers served in the Civil War.) Historical reenactment_sentence_148

In 2013, five black reenactors at the 150th anniversary event at Gettysburg constituted "the largest bloc of black civilians anyone had ever seen at an event whose historical basis was full of black civilians...Astonished spectators stopped them constantly, usually assuming they were portraying enslaved people." Historical reenactment_sentence_149

Jenny Thompson's book discusses the "fantasy farb", or tendency of reenactors to gravitate towards "elite" units such as commandos, paratroopers, or Waffen-SS units. Historical reenactment_sentence_150

This results in under-representation in the reenactment community of what were the most common types of military troops in the period being reenacted. Historical reenactment_sentence_151

The question has arisen among North American reenactors, but similar issues exist in Europe. Historical reenactment_sentence_152

For example, in Britain, a high proportion of Napoleonic War reenactors perform as members of the 95th Rifles (perhaps due to the popularity of the fictional character of Richard Sharpe) and medieval groups have an over-proportion of plate-armoured soldiers. Historical reenactment_sentence_153

Some veterans have criticised military reenactment as glorifying 'what is literally a human tragedy.' Historical reenactment_sentence_154

"‘If they knew what a war was like’, said one Second World War combat veteran, ‘they’d never play at it’. Historical reenactment_sentence_155

Further, some feminist critiques of certain kinds of reenactment, such as Civil War reenactment, "builds up a prosthetic symbolic male white body, embedded in an archaic racialized gender system: the clothing and the tools normally intensify male whiteness. Historical reenactment_sentence_156

Thus, even if the outer appearance of the uniformed female reenactor is flawless, her participation is deemed unacceptable by most male reenactors." Historical reenactment_sentence_157

Some reenactments more recently have allowed women to participate as combatants as long as their appearance can pass as male from a specified distance. Historical reenactment_sentence_158

A final concern is that reenactors may be accused of being, or actually be, aligned with the political beliefs that some of the reenacted armies fought for, such as Nazism or the Confederate South. Historical reenactment_sentence_159

For example, U.S. politician Rich Iott's participation in a World War II reenactment in which he was in the group that portrayed the German 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking side excited media criticism during his 2010 Congressional campaign. Historical reenactment_sentence_160

In 2017, in the weeks following a far-right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia at which a neo-Nazi killed a counterprotester, some reenactors complained about—as one reporter put it—"the co-opting of the [Civil] war by neo-Nazis." Historical reenactment_sentence_161

Similar accusations have been made against Igor Girkin, who actually commanded Putin-backed mutineers in the Russian invasion of Ukraine and is also a well-known reenactor. Historical reenactment_sentence_162

See also Historical reenactment_section_18

Historical reenactment_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical reenactment.