The Holocaust

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"Holocaust" and "Shoah" redirect here. The Holocaust_sentence_0

For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). The Holocaust_sentence_1

The Holocaust_table_infobox_0

The HolocaustThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_0_0
LocationThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_1_0 Nazi Germany and German-occupied EuropeThe Holocaust_cell_0_1_1
DescriptionThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_2_0 Genocide of the European JewsThe Holocaust_cell_0_2_1
DateThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_3_0 1941–1945The Holocaust_cell_0_3_1
Attack typeThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_4_0 Genocide, ethnic cleansingThe Holocaust_cell_0_4_1
DeathsThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_5_0 The Holocaust_cell_0_5_1
PerpetratorsThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_6_0 Nazi Germany and its collaborators

List of major perpetrators of the HolocaustThe Holocaust_cell_0_6_1

MotiveThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_7_0 Antisemitism, racismThe Holocaust_cell_0_7_1
TrialsThe Holocaust_header_cell_0_8_0 Nuremberg trials, Subsequent Nuremberg trials, Trial of Adolf Eichmann, and othersThe Holocaust_cell_0_8_1

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the World War II genocide of the European Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_2

Between 1941 and 1945, across German-occupied Europe, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews, around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population. The Holocaust_sentence_3

The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_4

Germany implemented the persecution in stages. The Holocaust_sentence_5

Following Adolf Hitler's appointment as Chancellor on 30 January 1933, the regime built a network of concentration camps in Germany for political opponents and those deemed "undesirable", starting with Dachau on 22 March 1933. The Holocaust_sentence_6

After the passing of the Enabling Act on 24 March, which gave Hitler plenary powers, the government began isolating Jews from civil society; this included boycotting Jewish businesses in April 1933 and enacting the Nuremberg Laws in September 1935. The Holocaust_sentence_7

On 9–10 November 1938, eight months after Germany annexed Austria, Jewish businesses and other buildings were ransacked or set on fire throughout Germany and Austria during what became known as Kristallnacht (the "Night of Broken Glass"). The Holocaust_sentence_8

After Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, the regime set up ghettos to segregate Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_9

Eventually thousands of camps and other detention sites were established across German-occupied Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_10

The segregation of Jews in ghettos culminated in the policy of extermination the Nazis called the Final Solution to the Jewish Question, discussed by senior Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in Berlin in January 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_11

As German forces captured territories in the East, all anti-Jewish measures were radicalized. The Holocaust_sentence_12

Under the coordination of the SS, with directions from the highest leadership of the Nazi Party, killings were committed within Germany itself, throughout occupied Europe, and within territories controlled by Germany's allies. The Holocaust_sentence_13

Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms between 1941 and 1945. The Holocaust_sentence_14

By mid-1942, victims were being deported from ghettos across Europe in sealed freight trains to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, they were gassed, worked or beaten to death, or killed by disease or during death marches. The Holocaust_sentence_15

The killing continued until the end of World War II in Europe in May 1945. The Holocaust_sentence_16

The European Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event during the Holocaust era (1933–1945), in which Germany and its collaborators persecuted and murdered other groups, including ethnic Poles, Soviet civilians and prisoners of war, the Roma, the handicapped, political and religious dissidents, and gay men. The Holocaust_sentence_17

The death toll of these other groups is thought to be over 11 million. The Holocaust_sentence_18

Terminology and scope The Holocaust_section_0

Terminology The Holocaust_section_1

Main article: Names of the Holocaust The Holocaust_sentence_19

The term holocaust, first used in 1895 by the New York Times to describe the massacre of Armenian Christians by Ottoman Muslims, comes from the Greek: ὁλόκαυστος, romanized: holókaustos; ὅλος hólos, "whole" + καυστός kaustós, "burnt offering". The Holocaust_sentence_20

The biblical term shoah (Hebrew: שׁוֹאָה‎), meaning "destruction", became the standard Hebrew term for the murder of the European Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_21

According to Haaretz, the writer Yehuda Erez may have been the first to describe events in Germany as the shoah. The Holocaust_sentence_22

Davar and later Haaretz both used the term in September 1939. The Holocaust_sentence_23

Yom HaShoah became Israel's Holocaust Remembrance Day in 1951. The Holocaust_sentence_24

On 3 October 1941 the American Hebrew used the phrase "before the Holocaust", apparently to refer to the situation in France, and in May 1943 the New York Times, discussing the Bermuda Conference, referred to the "hundreds of thousands of European Jews still surviving the Nazi Holocaust". The Holocaust_sentence_25

In 1968 the Library of Congress created a new category, "Holocaust, Jewish (1939–1945)". The Holocaust_sentence_26

The term was popularised in the United States by the NBC mini-series Holocaust (1978), about a fictional family of German Jews, and in November that year the President's Commission on the Holocaust was established. The Holocaust_sentence_27

As non-Jewish groups began to include themselves as Holocaust victims, many Jews chose to use the Hebrew terms Shoah or Churban. The Holocaust_sentence_28

The Nazis used the phrase "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" (German: die Endlösung der Judenfrage). The Holocaust_sentence_29

Definition The Holocaust_section_2

Most Holocaust historians define the Holocaust as the genocide of the European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945. The Holocaust_sentence_30

Michael Gray, a specialist in Holocaust education, offers three definitions: (a) "the persecution and murder of Jews by the Nazis and their collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which views Kristallnacht in 1938 as an early phase of the Holocaust; (b) "the systematic mass murder of the Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1941 and 1945", which recognises the policy shift in 1941 toward extermination; and (c) "the persecution and murder of various groups by the Nazi regime and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945", which includes all the Nazis' victims, a definition that fails, Gray writes, to acknowledge that only the Jews were singled out for annihilation. The Holocaust_sentence_31

Donald Niewyk and Francis Nicosia, in The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust (2000), favor a definition that focuses on the Jews, Roma and handicapped: "the systematic, state-sponsored murder of entire groups determined by heredity". The Holocaust_sentence_32

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum distinguishes between the Holocaust (the murder of six million Jews) and "the era of the Holocaust", which began when Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. The Holocaust_sentence_33

Victims of the era of the Holocaust include those the Nazis viewed as inherently inferior (chiefly Slavs, the Roma and the handicapped), and those targeted because of their beliefs or behavior (such as Jehovah's Witnesses, communists and homosexuals). The Holocaust_sentence_34

Peter Hayes writes that the persecution of these groups was less consistent than that of the Jews; the Nazis' treatment of the Slavs, for example, consisted of "enslavement and gradual attrition", while some Slavs (Hayes lists Bulgarians, Croats, Slovaks and some Ukrainians) were favored. The Holocaust_sentence_35

Against this, Hitler regarded the Jews as what Dan Stone calls "a Gegenrasse: a 'counter-race' ... not really human at all". The Holocaust_sentence_36

Distinctive features The Holocaust_section_3

Genocidal state The Holocaust_section_4

Further information: List of Nazi concentration camps The Holocaust_sentence_37

The logistics of the mass murder turned Germany into what Michael Berenbaum called a "genocidal state". The Holocaust_sentence_38

Eberhard Jäckel wrote in 1986 during the German Historikerstreit—a dispute among historians about the uniqueness of the Holocaust and its relationship with the crimes of the Soviet Union—that it was the first time a state had thrown its power behind the idea that an entire people should be wiped out. The Holocaust_sentence_39

Anyone with three or four Jewish grandparents was to be exterminated, and complex rules were devised to deal with Mischlinge ("mixed breeds"). The Holocaust_sentence_40

Bureaucrats identified who was a Jew, confiscated property, and scheduled trains to deport them. The Holocaust_sentence_41

Companies fired Jews and later used them as slave labor. The Holocaust_sentence_42

Universities dismissed Jewish faculty and students. The Holocaust_sentence_43

German pharmaceutical companies tested drugs on camp prisoners; other companies built the crematoria. The Holocaust_sentence_44

As prisoners entered the death camps, they surrendered all personal property, which was cataloged and tagged before being sent to Germany for reuse or recycling. The Holocaust_sentence_45

Through a concealed account, the German National Bank helped launder valuables stolen from the victims. The Holocaust_sentence_46

Collaboration The Holocaust_section_5

Main articles: Responsibility for the Holocaust, Collaboration with the Axis Powers, and German-occupied Europe The Holocaust_sentence_47

Dan Stone writes that since the opening of archives following the fall of former communist states in Eastern Europe, it has become increasingly clear that the Holocaust was a pan-European phenomenon, a series of "Holocausts" impossible to conduct without the help of local collaborators. The Holocaust_sentence_48

Without collaborators, the Germans could not have extended the killing across most of the continent. The Holocaust_sentence_49

According to Donald Bloxham, in many parts of Europe "extreme collective violence was becoming an accepted measure of resolving identity crises". The Holocaust_sentence_50

Christian Gerlach writes that non-Germans "not under German command" killed 5–6 percent of the six million, but that their involvement was crucial in other ways. The Holocaust_sentence_51

The industrialization and scale of the murder was unprecedented. The Holocaust_sentence_52

Killings were systematically conducted in virtually all areas of occupied Europe—more than 20 occupied countries. The Holocaust_sentence_53

Nearly three million Jews in occupied Poland and between 700,000 and 2.5 million Jews in the Soviet Union were killed. The Holocaust_sentence_54

Hundreds of thousands more died in the rest of Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_55

Some Christian churches defended converted Jews, but otherwise, Saul Friedländer wrote in 2007: "Not one social group, not one religious community, not one scholarly institution or professional association in Germany and throughout Europe declared its solidarity with the Jews ..." The Holocaust_sentence_56

Medical experiments The Holocaust_section_6

Main articles: Nazi human experimentation and Doctors' trial The Holocaust_sentence_57

Medical experiments conducted on camp inmates by the SS were another distinctive feature. The Holocaust_sentence_58

At least 7,000 prisoners were subjected to experiments; most died as a result, during the experiments or later. The Holocaust_sentence_59

Twenty-three senior physicians and other medical personnel were charged at Nuremberg, after the war, with crimes against humanity. The Holocaust_sentence_60

They included the head of the German Red Cross, tenured professors, clinic directors, and biomedical researchers. The Holocaust_sentence_61

Experiments took place at Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, Natzweiler-Struthof, Neuengamme, Ravensbrück, Sachsenhausen, and elsewhere. The Holocaust_sentence_62

Some dealt with sterilization of men and women, the treatment of war wounds, ways to counteract chemical weapons, research into new vaccines and drugs, and the survival of harsh conditions. The Holocaust_sentence_63

The most notorious physician was Josef Mengele, an SS officer who became the Auschwitz camp doctor on 30 May 1943. The Holocaust_sentence_64

Interested in genetics and keen to experiment on twins, he would pick out subjects from the new arrivals during "selection" on the ramp, shouting "Zwillinge heraus!" The Holocaust_sentence_65

(twins step forward!). The Holocaust_sentence_66

They would be measured, killed, and dissected. The Holocaust_sentence_67

One of Mengele's assistants said in 1946 that he was told to send organs of interest to the directors of the "Anthropological Institute in Berlin-Dahlem". The Holocaust_sentence_68

This is thought to refer to Mengele's academic supervisor, Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, director from October 1942 of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem. The Holocaust_sentence_69

Jews in Europe The Holocaust_section_7

The Holocaust_table_general_1

CountryThe Holocaust_header_cell_1_0_0 Number of Jews

(pre-war)The Holocaust_header_cell_1_0_1

SourceThe Holocaust_header_cell_1_0_2
AustriaThe Holocaust_cell_1_1_0 185,000–192,000The Holocaust_cell_1_1_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_1_2
BelgiumThe Holocaust_cell_1_2_0 55,000–70,000The Holocaust_cell_1_2_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_2_2
BulgariaThe Holocaust_cell_1_3_0 50,000The Holocaust_cell_1_3_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_3_2
CzechoslovakiaThe Holocaust_cell_1_4_0 357,000The Holocaust_cell_1_4_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_4_2
Denmark (1933)The Holocaust_cell_1_5_0 5,700The Holocaust_cell_1_5_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_5_2
EstoniaThe Holocaust_cell_1_6_0 4,500The Holocaust_cell_1_6_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_6_2
FinlandThe Holocaust_cell_1_7_0 2,000The Holocaust_cell_1_7_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_7_2
FranceThe Holocaust_cell_1_8_0 330,000–350,000The Holocaust_cell_1_8_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_8_2
Germany (1933)The Holocaust_cell_1_9_0 523,000–525,000The Holocaust_cell_1_9_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_9_2
GreeceThe Holocaust_cell_1_10_0 77,380The Holocaust_cell_1_10_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_10_2
HungaryThe Holocaust_cell_1_11_0 725,000–825,000The Holocaust_cell_1_11_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_11_2
ItalyThe Holocaust_cell_1_12_0 42,500–44,500The Holocaust_cell_1_12_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_12_2
LatviaThe Holocaust_cell_1_13_0 91,500–95,000The Holocaust_cell_1_13_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_13_2
LithuaniaThe Holocaust_cell_1_14_0 168,000The Holocaust_cell_1_14_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_14_2
NetherlandsThe Holocaust_cell_1_15_0 140,000The Holocaust_cell_1_15_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_15_2
PolandThe Holocaust_cell_1_16_0 3,300,000–3,500,000The Holocaust_cell_1_16_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_16_2
Romania (1930)The Holocaust_cell_1_17_0 756,000The Holocaust_cell_1_17_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_17_2
Soviet UnionThe Holocaust_cell_1_18_0 3,020,000The Holocaust_cell_1_18_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_18_2
Sweden (1933)The Holocaust_cell_1_19_0 6,700The Holocaust_cell_1_19_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_19_2
United KingdomThe Holocaust_cell_1_20_0 300,000The Holocaust_cell_1_20_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_20_2
YugoslaviaThe Holocaust_cell_1_21_0 78,000–82,242The Holocaust_cell_1_21_1 The Holocaust_cell_1_21_2

Main article: History of the Jews in Europe The Holocaust_sentence_70

There were around 9.5 million Jews in Europe in 1933. The Holocaust_sentence_71

Most heavily concentrated in the east, the pre-war population was 3.5 million in Poland; 3 million in the Soviet Union; nearly 800,000 in Romania, and 700,000 in Hungary. The Holocaust_sentence_72

Germany had over 500,000. The Holocaust_sentence_73

Origins The Holocaust_section_8

Antisemitism and the völkisch movement The Holocaust_section_9

See also: History of the Jews in Germany, Christianity and antisemitism, Martin Luther and antisemitism, Religious antisemitism, and Racial antisemitism The Holocaust_sentence_74

Throughout the Middle Ages in Europe, Jews were subjected to antisemitism based on Christian theology, which blamed them for killing Jesus. The Holocaust_sentence_75

Even after the Reformation, Catholicism and Lutheranism continued to persecute Jews, accusing them of blood libels and subjecting them to pogroms and expulsions. The Holocaust_sentence_76

The second half of the 19th century saw the emergence in the German empire and Austria-Hungary of the völkisch movement, developed by such thinkers as Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Paul de Lagarde. The Holocaust_sentence_77

The movement embraced a pseudo-scientific racism that viewed Jews as a race whose members were locked in mortal combat with the Aryan race for world domination. The Holocaust_sentence_78

These ideas became commonplace throughout Germany; the professional classes adopted an ideology that did not see humans as racial equals with equal hereditary value. The Holocaust_sentence_79

The Nazi Party (the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or National Socialist German Workers' Party) originated as an offshoot of the völkisch movement, and it adopted that movement's antisemitism. The Holocaust_sentence_80

Germany after World War I and Hitler's world view The Holocaust_section_10

Further information: Aftermath of World War I; Treaty of Versailles; Adolf Hitler, antisemitism and the Holocaust; Mein Kampf; and Historiography of Adolf Hitler The Holocaust_sentence_81

After World War I (1914–1918), many Germans did not accept that their country had been defeated, which gave birth to the stab-in-the-back myth. The Holocaust_sentence_82

This insinuated that it was disloyal politicians, chiefly Jews and communists, who had orchestrated Germany's surrender. The Holocaust_sentence_83

Inflaming the anti-Jewish sentiment was the apparent over-representation of Jews in the leadership of communist revolutionary governments in Europe, such as Ernst Toller, head of a short-lived revolutionary government in Bavaria. The Holocaust_sentence_84

This perception contributed to the canard of Jewish Bolshevism. The Holocaust_sentence_85

Early antisemites in the Nazi Party included Dietrich Eckart, publisher of the Völkischer Beobachter, the party's newspaper, and Alfred Rosenberg, who wrote antisemitic articles for it in the 1920s. The Holocaust_sentence_86

Rosenberg's vision of a secretive Jewish conspiracy ruling the world would influence Hitler's views of Jews by making them the driving force behind communism. The Holocaust_sentence_87

Central to Hitler's world view was the idea of expansion and Lebensraum (living space) in Eastern Europe for German Aryans, a policy of what Doris Bergen called "race and space". The Holocaust_sentence_88

Open about his hatred of Jews, he subscribed to common antisemitic stereotypes. The Holocaust_sentence_89

From the early 1920s onwards, he compared the Jews to germs and said they should be dealt with in the same way. The Holocaust_sentence_90

He viewed Marxism as a Jewish doctrine, said he was fighting against "Jewish Marxism", and believed that Jews had created communism as part of a conspiracy to destroy Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_91

Rise of Nazi Germany The Holocaust_section_11

Dictatorship and repression (1933–1939) The Holocaust_section_12

Further information: Anti-Jewish legislation in prewar Nazi Germany, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, and Anti-Nazi boycott of 1933 The Holocaust_sentence_92

With the appointment in January 1933 of Adolf Hitler as Chancellor of Germany and the Nazi's seizure of power, German leaders proclaimed the rebirth of the Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community"). The Holocaust_sentence_93

Nazi policies divided the population into two groups: the Volksgenossen ("national comrades") who belonged to the Volksgemeinschaft, and the Gemeinschaftsfremde ("community aliens") who did not. The Holocaust_sentence_94

Enemies were divided into three groups: the "racial" or "blood" enemies, such as the Jews and Roma; political opponents of Nazism, such as Marxists, liberals, Christians, and the "reactionaries" viewed as wayward "national comrades"; and moral opponents, such as gay men, the work-shy, and habitual criminals. The Holocaust_sentence_95

The latter two groups were to be sent to concentration camps for "re-education", with the aim of eventual absorption into the Volksgemeinschaft. The Holocaust_sentence_96

"Racial" enemies could never belong to the Volksgemeinschaft; they were to be removed from society. The Holocaust_sentence_97

Before and after the March 1933 Reichstag elections, the Nazis intensified their campaign of violence against opponents, setting up concentration camps for extrajudicial imprisonment. The Holocaust_sentence_98

One of the first, at Dachau, opened on 22 March 1933. The Holocaust_sentence_99

Initially the camp contained mostly Communists and Social Democrats. The Holocaust_sentence_100

Other early prisons were consolidated by mid-1934 into purpose-built camps outside the cities, run exclusively by the SS. The Holocaust_sentence_101

The camps served as a deterrent by terrorizing Germans who did not support the regime. The Holocaust_sentence_102

Throughout the 1930s, the legal, economic, and social rights of Jews were steadily restricted.On 1 April 1933, there was a boycott of Jewish businesses. The Holocaust_sentence_103

On 7 April 1933, the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service was passed, which excluded Jews and other "non-Aryans" from the civil service. The Holocaust_sentence_104

Jews were disbarred from practicing law, being editors or proprietors of newspapers, joining the Journalists' Association, or owning farms. The Holocaust_sentence_105

In Silesia, in March 1933, a group of men entered the courthouse and beat up Jewish lawyers; Friedländer writes that, in Dresden, Jewish lawyers and judges were dragged out of courtrooms during trials. The Holocaust_sentence_106

Jewish students were restricted by quotas from attending schools and universities. The Holocaust_sentence_107

Jewish businesses were targeted for closure or "Aryanization", the forcible sale to Germans; of the approximately 50,000 Jewish-owned businesses in Germany in 1933, about 7,000 were still Jewish-owned in April 1939. The Holocaust_sentence_108

Works by Jewish composers, authors, and artists were excluded from publications, performances, and exhibitions. The Holocaust_sentence_109

Jewish doctors were dismissed or urged to resign. The Holocaust_sentence_110

The Deutsches Ärzteblatt (a medical journal) reported on 6 April 1933: "Germans are to be treated by Germans only." The Holocaust_sentence_111

Sterilization Law (Aktion T4) The Holocaust_section_13

Main article: Aktion T4 The Holocaust_sentence_112

Further information: Nazi eugenics and Erbkrank The Holocaust_sentence_113

The economic strain of the Great Depression led Protestant charities and some members of the German medical establishment to advocate compulsory sterilization of the "incurable" mentally and physically handicapped, people the Nazis called Lebensunwertes Leben (life unworthy of life). The Holocaust_sentence_114

On 14 July 1933, the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses), the Sterilization Law, was passed. The Holocaust_sentence_115

The New York Times reported on 21 December that year: "400,000 Germans to be sterilized". The Holocaust_sentence_116

There were 84,525 applications from doctors in the first year. The Holocaust_sentence_117

The courts reached a decision in 64,499 of those cases; 56,244 were in favor of sterilization. The Holocaust_sentence_118

Estimates for the number of involuntary sterilizations during the whole of the Third Reich range from 300,000 to 400,000. The Holocaust_sentence_119

In October 1939 Hitler signed a "euthanasia decree" backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler, the chief of Hitler's Chancellery, and Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal physician, to carry out a program of involuntary euthanasia. The Holocaust_sentence_120

After the war this program came to be known as Aktion T4, named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of a villa in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, where the various organizations involved were headquartered. The Holocaust_sentence_121

T4 was mainly directed at adults, but the euthanasia of children was also carried out. The Holocaust_sentence_122

Between 1939 and 1941, 80,000 to 100,000 mentally ill adults in institutions were killed, as were 5,000 children and 1,000 Jews, also in institutions. The Holocaust_sentence_123

There were also dedicated killing centers, where the deaths were estimated at 20,000, according to Georg Renno, deputy director of Schloss Hartheim, one of the euthanasia centers, or 400,000, according to Frank Zeireis, commandant of the Mauthausen concentration camp. The Holocaust_sentence_124

Overall, the number of mentally and physically handicapped murdered was about 150,000. The Holocaust_sentence_125

Although not ordered to take part, psychiatrists and many psychiatric institutions were involved in the planning and carrying out of Aktion T4. The Holocaust_sentence_126

In August 1941, after protests from Germany's Catholic and Protestant churches, Hitler canceled the T4 program, although the handicapped continued to be killed until the end of the war. The Holocaust_sentence_127

The medical community regularly received bodies for research; for example, the University of Tübingen received 1,077 bodies from executions between 1933 and 1945. The Holocaust_sentence_128

The German neuroscientist Julius Hallervorden received 697 brains from one hospital between 1940 and 1944: "I accepted these brains of course. The Holocaust_sentence_129

Where they came from and how they came to me was really none of my business." The Holocaust_sentence_130

Nuremberg Laws and Jewish emigration The Holocaust_section_14

Main article: Nuremberg Laws The Holocaust_sentence_131

See also: Jews escaping from German-occupied Europe to the United Kingdom The Holocaust_sentence_132

On 15 September 1935, the Reichstag passed the Reich Citizenship Law and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, known as the Nuremberg Laws. The Holocaust_sentence_133

The former said that only those of "German or kindred blood" could be citizens. The Holocaust_sentence_134

Anyone with three or more Jewish grandparents was classified as a Jew. The Holocaust_sentence_135

The second law said: "Marriages between Jews and subjects of the state of German or related blood are forbidden." The Holocaust_sentence_136

Sexual relationships between them were also criminalized; Jews were not allowed to employ German women under the age of 45 in their homes. The Holocaust_sentence_137

The laws referred to Jews but applied equally to the Roma and black Germans. The Holocaust_sentence_138

Although other European countries—Bulgaria, Independent State of Croatia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Slovakia, and Vichy France—passed similar legislation, Gerlach notes that "Nazi Germany adopted more nationwide anti-Jewish laws and regulations (about 1,500) than any other state." The Holocaust_sentence_139

By the end of 1934, 50,000 German Jews had left Germany, and by the end of 1938, approximately half the German Jewish population had left, among them the conductor Bruno Walter, who fled after being told that the hall of the Berlin Philharmonic would be burned down if he conducted a concert there. The Holocaust_sentence_140

Albert Einstein, who was in the United States when Hitler came to power, never returned to Germany; his citizenship was revoked and he was expelled from the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and Prussian Academy of Sciences. The Holocaust_sentence_141

Other Jewish scientists, including Gustav Hertz, lost their teaching positions and left the country. The Holocaust_sentence_142

Anschluss The Holocaust_section_15

Main article: Anschluss The Holocaust_sentence_143

On 12 March 1938, Germany annexed Austria. The Holocaust_sentence_144

Austrian Nazis broke into Jewish shops, stole from Jewish homes and businesses, and forced Jews to perform humiliating acts such as scrubbing the streets or cleaning toilets. The Holocaust_sentence_145

Jewish businesses were "Aryanized", and all the legal restrictions on Jews in Germany were imposed. The Holocaust_sentence_146

In August that year, Adolf Eichmann was put in charge of the Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna (Zentralstelle für jüdische Auswanderung in Wien). The Holocaust_sentence_147

About 100,000 Austrian Jews had left the country by May 1939, including Sigmund Freud and his family, who moved to London. The Holocaust_sentence_148

The Évian Conference was held in France in July 1938 by 32 countries, as an attempt to help the increased refugees from Germany, but aside from establishing the largely ineffectual Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees, little was accomplished and most countries participating did not increase the number of refugees they would accept. The Holocaust_sentence_149

Kristallnacht The Holocaust_section_16

Main article: Kristallnacht The Holocaust_sentence_150

On 7 November 1938, Herschel Grynszpan, a Polish Jew, shot the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in the German Embassy in Paris, in retaliation for the expulsion of his parents and siblings from Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_151

When vom Rath died on 9 November, the government used his death as a pretext to instigate a pogrom against the Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_152

The government claimed it was spontaneous, but in fact it had been ordered and planned by Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels, although with no clear goals, according to David Cesarani. The Holocaust_sentence_153

The result, he writes, was "murder, rape, looting, destruction of property, and terror on an unprecedented scale". The Holocaust_sentence_154

Known as Kristallnacht (or "Night of Broken Glass"), the attacks on 9–10 November 1938 were partly carried out by the SS and SA, but ordinary Germans joined in; in some areas, the violence began before the SS or SA arrived. The Holocaust_sentence_155

Over 7,500 Jewish shops (out of 9,000) were looted and attacked, and over 1,000 synagogs damaged or destroyed. The Holocaust_sentence_156

Groups of Jews were forced by the crowd to watch their synagogs burn; in Bensheim they were made to dance around it, and in Laupheim to kneel before it. The Holocaust_sentence_157

At least 90 Jews died. The Holocaust_sentence_158

The damage was estimated at 39 million Reichmarks. The Holocaust_sentence_159

Cesarani writes that "[t]he extent of the desolation stunned the population and rocked the regime." The Holocaust_sentence_160

It also shocked the rest of the world. The Holocaust_sentence_161

The Times of London wrote on 11 November 1938: "No foreign propagandist bent upon blackening Germany before the world could outdo the tale of burnings and beatings, of blackguardly assaults upon defenseless and innocent people, which disgraced that country yesterday. The Holocaust_sentence_162

Either the German authorities were a party to this outbreak or their powers over public order and a hooligan minority are not what they are proudly claimed to be." The Holocaust_sentence_163

Between 9 and 16 November, 30,000 Jews were sent to the Buchenwald, Dachau, and Sachsenhausen concentration camps. The Holocaust_sentence_164

Many were released within weeks; by early 1939, 2,000 remained in the camps. The Holocaust_sentence_165

German Jewry was held collectively responsible for restitution of the damage; they also had to pay an "atonement tax" of over a billion Reichmarks. The Holocaust_sentence_166

Insurance payments for damage to their property were confiscated by the government. The Holocaust_sentence_167

A decree on 12 November 1938 barred Jews from most remaining occupations. The Holocaust_sentence_168

Kristallnacht marked the end of any sort of public Jewish activity and culture, and Jews stepped up their efforts to leave the country. The Holocaust_sentence_169

Resettlement The Holocaust_section_17

Further information: Haavara Agreement The Holocaust_sentence_170

Before World War II, Germany considered mass deportation from Europe of German, and later European, Jewry. The Holocaust_sentence_171

Among the areas considered for possible resettlement were British Palestine and, after the war began, French Madagascar, Siberia, and two reservations in Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_172

Palestine was the only location to which any German resettlement plan produced results, via the Haavara Agreement between the Zionist Federation of Germany and the German government. The Holocaust_sentence_173

Between November 1933 and December 1939, the agreement resulted in the emigration of about 53,000 German Jews, who were allowed to transfer RM 100 million of their assets to Palestine by buying German goods, in violation of the Jewish-led anti-Nazi boycott of 1933. The Holocaust_sentence_174

Beginning of World War II The Holocaust_section_18

Invasion of Poland The Holocaust_section_19

Einsatzgruppen and pogroms The Holocaust_section_20

Main articles: Invasion of Poland, Holocaust in Poland, ghettos, and camps The Holocaust_sentence_175

Further information: Occupation of Poland, German-occupied Poland, Jews in Poland, Collaboration in Poland, Jedwabne pogrom, Lviv pogroms, Szczuczyn pogrom, and Wąsosz pogrom The Holocaust_sentence_176

When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, triggering a declaration of war from France and the UK, it gained control of an additional two million Jews, reduced to around 1.7 – 1.8 million in the German zone when the Soviet Union invaded from the east on 17 September. The Holocaust_sentence_177

The German army, the Wehrmacht, was accompanied by seven SS Einsatzgruppen ("special task forces") and an Einsatzkommando, numbering altogether 3,000 men, whose role was to deal with "all anti-German elements in hostile country behind the troops in combat". The Holocaust_sentence_178

Most of the Einsatzgruppen commanders were professionals; 15 of the 25 leaders had PhDs. The Holocaust_sentence_179

By 29 August, two days before the invasion, they had already drawn up a list of 30,000 people to send to concentration camps. The Holocaust_sentence_180

By the first week of the invasion, 200 people were being executed every day. The Holocaust_sentence_181

The Germans began sending Jews from territories they had recently annexed (Austria, Czechoslovakia, and western Poland) to the central section of Poland, which they called the General Government. The Holocaust_sentence_182

To make it easier to control and deport them, the Jews were concentrated in ghettos in major cities. The Holocaust_sentence_183

The Germans planned to set up a Jewish reservation in southeast Poland around the transit camp in Nisko, but the "Nisko plan" failed, in part because it was opposed by Hans Frank, the new Governor-General of the General Government. The Holocaust_sentence_184

In mid-October 1940 the idea was revived, this time to be located in Lublin. The Holocaust_sentence_185

Resettlement continued until January 1941 under SS officer Odilo Globocnik, but further plans for the Lublin reservation failed for logistical and political reasons. The Holocaust_sentence_186

There had been anti-Jewish pogroms in Poland before the war, including in around 100 towns between 1935 and 1937, and again in 1938. The Holocaust_sentence_187

In June and July 1941, during the Lviv pogroms in Lwów (now Lviv, Ukraine), around 6,000 Polish Jews were murdered in the streets by the Ukrainian People's Militia and local people. The Holocaust_sentence_188

Another 2,500–3,500 Jews died in mass shootings by Einsatzgruppe C. During the Jedwabne pogrom on 10 July 1941, a group of Poles in Jedwabne killed the town's Jewish community, many of whom were burned alive in a barn. The Holocaust_sentence_189

The attack may have been engineered by the German Security Police. The Holocaust_sentence_190

Ghettos and Jewish councils The Holocaust_section_21

Main articles: Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe, Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland, and List of Nazi-era ghettos The Holocaust_sentence_191

The Holocaust_description_list_0

The Germans established ghettos in Poland, in the incorporated territories and General Government area, to confine Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_192

These were closed off from the outside world at different times and for different reasons. The Holocaust_sentence_193

In early 1941, the Warsaw ghetto contained 445,000 people, including 130,000 from elsewhere, while the second largest, the Łódź ghetto, held 160,000. The Holocaust_sentence_194

Although the Warsaw ghetto contained 30 percent of the city's population, it occupied only 2.5 percent of its area, averaging over nine people per room. The Holocaust_sentence_195

The massive overcrowding, poor hygiene facilities and lack of food killed thousands. The Holocaust_sentence_196

Over 43,000 residents died in 1941. The Holocaust_sentence_197

According to a letter dated 21 September 1939 from SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA or Reich Security Head Office), to the Einsatzgruppen, each ghetto had to be run by a Judenrat, or "Jewish Council of Elders", to consist of 24 male Jews with local influence. The Holocaust_sentence_198

Judenräte were responsible for the ghetto's day-to-day operations, including distributing food, water, heat, medical care, and shelter. The Holocaust_sentence_199

The Germans also required them to confiscate property, organize forced labor, and, finally, facilitate deportations to extermination camps. The Holocaust_sentence_200

The Jewish councils' basic strategy was one of trying to minimize losses by cooperating with German authorities, bribing officials, and petitioning for better conditions. The Holocaust_sentence_201

Invasion of Norway and Denmark The Holocaust_section_22

Main articles: German occupation of Norway, Holocaust in Norway, German invasion of Denmark, and Rescue of the Danish Jews The Holocaust_sentence_202

Germany invaded Norway and Denmark on 9 April 1940, during Operation Weserübung. The Holocaust_sentence_203

Denmark was overrun so quickly that there was no time for a resistance to form. The Holocaust_sentence_204

Consequently, the Danish government stayed in power and the Germans found it easier to work through it. The Holocaust_sentence_205

Because of this, few measures were taken against the Danish Jews before 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_206

By June 1940 Norway was completely occupied. The Holocaust_sentence_207

In late 1940, the country's 1,800 Jews were banned from certain occupations, and in 1941 all Jews had to register their property with the government. The Holocaust_sentence_208

On 26 November 1942, 532 Jews were taken by police officers, at four o'clock in the morning, to Oslo harbor, where they boarded a German ship. The Holocaust_sentence_209

From Germany they were sent by freight train to Auschwitz. The Holocaust_sentence_210

According to Dan Stone, only nine survived the war. The Holocaust_sentence_211

Invasion of France and the Low Countries The Holocaust_section_23

Main articles: The Holocaust in Belgium, in Luxembourg, in the Netherlands, in France, The Holocaust in Belgium, The Holocaust in Luxembourg, The Holocaust in the Netherlands, and The Holocaust in France The Holocaust_sentence_212

Further information: The Diary of Anne Frank, Timeline of deportations of French Jews to death camps, and Vel' d'Hiv Roundup The Holocaust_sentence_213

In May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, and France. The Holocaust_sentence_214

After Belgium's surrender, the country was ruled by a German military governor, Alexander von Falkenhausen, who enacted anti-Jewish measures against its 90,000 Jews, many of them refugees from Germany or Eastern Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_215

In the Netherlands, the Germans installed Arthur Seyss-Inquart as Reichskommissar, who began to persecute the country's 140,000 Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_216

Jews were forced out of their jobs and had to register with the government. The Holocaust_sentence_217

In February 1941, non-Jewish Dutch citizens staged a strike in protest that was quickly crushed. The Holocaust_sentence_218

From July 1942, over 107,000 Dutch Jews were deported; only 5,000 survived the war. The Holocaust_sentence_219

Most were sent to Auschwitz; the first transport of 1,135 Jews left Holland for Auschwitz on 15 July 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_220

Between 2 March and 20 July 1943, 34,313 Jews were sent in 19 transports to the Sobibór extermination camp, where all but 18 are thought to have been gassed on arrival. The Holocaust_sentence_221

France had approximately 300,000 Jews, divided between the German-occupied north and the unoccupied collaborationist southern areas in Vichy France (named after the town Vichy). The Holocaust_sentence_222

The occupied regions were under the control of a military governor, and there, anti-Jewish measures were not enacted as quickly as they were in the Vichy-controlled areas. The Holocaust_sentence_223

In July 1940, the Jews in the parts of Alsace-Lorraine that had been annexed to Germany were expelled into Vichy France. The Holocaust_sentence_224

Vichy France's government implemented anti-Jewish measures in French Algeria and the two French Protectorates of Tunisia and Morocco. The Holocaust_sentence_225

Tunisia had 85,000 Jews when the Germans and Italians arrived in November 1942; an estimated 5,000 Jews were subjected to forced labor. The Holocaust_sentence_226

The fall of France gave rise to the Madagascar Plan in the summer of 1940, when French Madagascar in Southeast Africa became the focus of discussions about deporting all European Jews there; it was thought that the area's harsh living conditions would hasten deaths. The Holocaust_sentence_227

Several Polish, French and British leaders had discussed the idea in the 1930s, as did German leaders from 1938. The Holocaust_sentence_228

Adolf Eichmann's office was ordered to investigate the option, but no evidence of planning exists until after the defeat of France in June 1940. The Holocaust_sentence_229

Germany's inability to defeat Britain, something that was obvious to the Germans by September 1940, prevented the movement of Jews across the seas, and the Foreign Ministry abandoned the plan in February 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_230

Invasion of Yugoslavia and Greece The Holocaust_section_24

Main articles: The Holocaust in Greece, in Serbia, and in Croatia The Holocaust_sentence_231

Yugoslavia and Greece were invaded in April 1941 and surrendered before the end of the month. The Holocaust_sentence_232

Germany and Italy divided Greece into occupation zones but did not eliminate it as a country. The Holocaust_sentence_233

The key areas of Central Macedonia, Athens and Thessaloniki were occupied by Germany while others by Italians and parts by Bulgarian forces. The Holocaust_sentence_234

Yugoslavia, home to around 80,000 Jews, was dismembered; regions in the north were annexed by Germany and regions along the coast made part of Italy. The Holocaust_sentence_235

The rest of the country was divided into occupation zones. The Holocaust_sentence_236

The Independent State of Croatia (NDH), a puppet state installed by Germany and Italy, led by Ante Pavelić and German-Occupied Serbia, where a Serbian puppet government, the Government of National Salvation of which Milan Nedić was prime minister, was installed by Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_237

Responses to the occupation and persecution of Jews in Greece varied by locale, though for the most part violence directed towards Jews was incited and directed by German authorities. The Holocaust_sentence_238

The pre-war Greek Jewish population is estimated to have been between 72,000-77,000. The Holocaust_sentence_239

By the end of the war, some 10,000 remained, representing the lowest survival rate in the Balkans. The Holocaust_sentence_240

The Serbian regime was mainly under the authority of the German military and police administrators. The Holocaust_sentence_241

Jews were the primary target but Romani were also targeted for extermination. The Holocaust_sentence_242

The perpetrator of the Holocaust in German-Ocupied Serbia was the Nazi German Wehrmacht stationed in the territory. The Holocaust_sentence_243

They carried out the operations with the assistance of Nedić's puppet government and Dimitrije Ljotić's fascist organization Yugoslav National Movement (Zbor), but the main engine of extermination was the regular German army. The Holocaust_sentence_244

Serbia was declared free of Jews (Judenfrei) in August 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_245

The Independent State of Croatia's ruling party, the Ustashe, killed the majority of the country's Jews and exterminated, expelled or forcibly converted to Catholicism the area's local Orthodox Christian Serb population. The Holocaust_sentence_246

The majority of the NDH's Jews were sent to concentration camps. The Holocaust_sentence_247

The largest concentration camp in occupied Yugoslavia was the NDH's Jasenovac, where an estimated 13,000 Jews were killed. The Holocaust_sentence_248

There were cases in which Jews and Serbs were also "hacked to death and burned in barns", writes historian Jeremy Black. The Holocaust_sentence_249

One difference between the Germans and Croatians was that the Ustashe allowed its Jewish and Serbian victims to convert to Catholicism so they could escape death. The Holocaust_sentence_250

On 18 April 1944 Croatia was declared as Judenfrei. The Holocaust_sentence_251

According to Jozo Tomasevich of the 115 Jewish religious communities from Yugoslavia which existed in 1939 and 1940, only the Jewish communities from Zagreb managed to survive the war. The Holocaust_sentence_252

Approximately 55,000-60,000 Yugoslav Jews were killed in the Holocaust, representing nearly 80% of its pre-war population. The Holocaust_sentence_253

Invasion of the Soviet Union The Holocaust_section_25

Reasons The Holocaust_section_26

Main article: Invasion of the Soviet Union The Holocaust_sentence_254

Further information: Winter campaign of 1941–42 The Holocaust_sentence_255

Germany invaded the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941, a day Timothy Snyder called "one of the most significant days in the history of Europe ... the beginning of a calamity that defies description". The Holocaust_sentence_256

Jürgen Matthäus described it as "a quantum leap toward the Holocaust". The Holocaust_sentence_257

German propaganda portrayed the conflict as an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and as a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish, Romani, and Slavic Untermenschen ("sub-humans"). The Holocaust_sentence_258

David Cesarani writes that the war was driven primarily by the need for resources: agricultural land to feed Germany, natural resources for German industry, and control over Europe's largest oil fields. The Holocaust_sentence_259

But precisely because of the Soviet Union's vast resources, "[v]ictory would have to be swift". The Holocaust_sentence_260

Between early fall 1941 and late spring 1942, according to Matthäus, 2 million of the 3.5 million Soviet soldiers captured by the Wehrmacht (Germany's armed forces) had been executed or had died of neglect and abuse. The Holocaust_sentence_261

By 1944 the Soviet death toll was at least 20 million. The Holocaust_sentence_262

Mass shootings The Holocaust_section_27

Further information: The Holocaust in Russia, in Belarus, in Ukraine, in Latvia, in Lithuania, and in Estonia The Holocaust_sentence_263

Further information: Collaboration in German-occupied Soviet Union, Einsatzgruppen trial, Kaunas pogrom, and War crimes of the Wehrmacht The Holocaust_sentence_264

As German troops advanced, the mass shooting of "anti-German elements" was assigned, as in Poland, to the Einsatzgruppen, this time under the command of Reinhard Heydrich. The Holocaust_sentence_265

The point of the attacks was to destroy the local Communist Party leadership and therefore the state, including "Jews in the Party and State employment", and any "radical elements". The Holocaust_sentence_266

Cesarani writes that the killing of Jews was at this point a "subset" of these activities. The Holocaust_sentence_267

Einsatzgruppe A arrived in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) with Army Group North; Einsatzgruppe B in Belarus with Army Group Center; Einsatzgruppe C in the Ukraine with Army Group South; and Einsatzgruppe D went further south into Ukraine with the 11th Army. The Holocaust_sentence_268

Each Einsatzgruppe numbered around 600–1,000 men, with a few women in administrative roles. The Holocaust_sentence_269

Traveling with nine German Order Police battalions and three units of the Waffen-SS, the Einsatzgruppen and their local collaborators had murdered almost 500,000 people by the winter of 1941–1942. The Holocaust_sentence_270

By the end of the war, they had killed around two million, including about 1.3 million Jews and up to a quarter of a million Roma. The Holocaust_sentence_271

According to Wolfram Wette, the Germany army took part in these shootings as bystanders, photographers and active shooters; to justify their troops' involvement, army commanders would describe the victims as "hostages", "bandits" and "partisans". The Holocaust_sentence_272

Local populations helped by identifying and rounding up Jews, and by actively participating in the killing. The Holocaust_sentence_273

In Lithuania, Latvia and western Ukraine, locals were deeply involved; Latvian and Lithuanian units participated in the murder of Jews in Belarus, and in the south, Ukrainians killed about 24,000 Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_274

Some Ukrainians went to Poland to serve as guards in the camps. The Holocaust_sentence_275

Toward the Holocaust The Holocaust_section_28

Further information: Babi Yar, Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre, Ponary massacre, and Rumbula massacre The Holocaust_sentence_276

Typically, victims would undress and give up their valuables before lining up beside a ditch to be shot, or they would be forced to climb into the ditch, lie on a lower layer of corpses, and wait to be killed. The Holocaust_sentence_277

The latter was known as Sardinenpackung ("packing sardines"), a method reportedly started by SS officer Friedrich Jeckeln. The Holocaust_sentence_278

At first the Einsatzgruppen targeted the male Jewish intelligentsia, defined as male Jews aged 15–60 who had worked for the state and in certain professions (the commandos would describe them as "Bolshevist functionaries" and similar), but from August 1941 they began to murder women and children too. The Holocaust_sentence_279

Christopher Browning reports that on 1 August, the SS Cavalry Brigade passed an order to its units: "Explicit order by RF-SS [Heinrich Himmler, Reichsführer-SS]. The Holocaust_sentence_280

All Jews must be shot. The Holocaust_sentence_281

Drive the female Jews into the swamps." The Holocaust_sentence_282

In a speech on 6 October 1943 to party leaders, Heinrich Himmler said he had ordered that women and children be shot, but Peter Longerich and Christian Gerlach write that the murder of women and children began at different times in different areas, suggesting local influence. The Holocaust_sentence_283

Notable massacres include the July 1941 Ponary massacre near Vilnius (Soviet Lithuania), in which Einsatgruppe B and Lithuanian collaborators shot 72,000 Jews and 8,000 non-Jewish Lithuanians and Poles. The Holocaust_sentence_284

In the Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre (Soviet Ukraine), nearly 24,000 Jews were killed between 27 and 30 August 1941. The Holocaust_sentence_285

The largest massacre was at a ravine called Babi Yar outside Kiev (also Soviet Ukraine), where 33,771 Jews were killed on 29–30 September 1941. The Holocaust_sentence_286

Einsatzgruppe C and the Order Police, assisted by Ukrainian militia, carried out the killings, while the German 6th Army helped round up and transport the victims to be shot. The Holocaust_sentence_287

The Germans continued to use the ravine for mass killings throughout the war; the total killed there could be as high as 100,000. The Holocaust_sentence_288

Historians agree that there was a "gradual radicalization" between the spring and autumn of 1941 of what Longerich calls Germany's Judenpolitik, but they disagree about whether a decision—Führerentscheidung (Führer's decision)—to murder the European Jews was made at this point. The Holocaust_sentence_289

According to Christopher Browning, writing in 2004, most historians maintain that there was no order before the invasion to kill all the Soviet Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_290

Longerich wrote in 2010 that the gradual increase in brutality and numbers killed between July and September 1941 suggests there was "no particular order"; instead it was a question of "a process of increasingly radical interpretations of orders". The Holocaust_sentence_291

Germany's allies The Holocaust_section_29

Romania The Holocaust_section_30

Main articles: The Holocaust in Romania, Bucharest pogrom, Iași pogrom, 1941 Odessa massacre, and Dorohoi Pogrom The Holocaust_sentence_292

Further information: Axis powers The Holocaust_sentence_293

According to Dan Stone, the murder of Jews in Romania was "essentially an independent undertaking". The Holocaust_sentence_294

Romania implemented anti-Jewish measures in May and June 1940 as part of its efforts towards an alliance with Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_295

Jews were forced from government service, pogroms were carried out, and by March 1941 all Jews had lost their jobs and had their property confiscated. The Holocaust_sentence_296

In June 1941 Romania joined Germany in its invasion of the Soviet Union. The Holocaust_sentence_297

Thousands of Jews were killed in January and June 1941 in the Bucharest pogrom and Iași pogrom. The Holocaust_sentence_298

According to a 2004 report by Tuvia Friling and others, up to 14,850 Jews died during the Iași pogrom. The Holocaust_sentence_299

The Romanian military killed up to 25,000 Jews during the Odessa massacre between 18 October 1941 and March 1942, assisted by gendarmes and the police. The Holocaust_sentence_300

Mihai Antonescu, Romania's deputy prime minister, was reported to have said it was "the most favorable moment in our history" to solve the "Jewish problem". The Holocaust_sentence_301

In July 1941 he said it was time for "total ethnic purification, for a revision of national life, and for purging our race of all those elements which are foreign to its soul, which have grown like mistletoes and darken our future". The Holocaust_sentence_302

Romania set up concentration camps under its control in Transnistria, reportedly extremely brutal, where 154,000–170,000 Jews were deported from 1941 to 1943. The Holocaust_sentence_303

Bulgaria, Slovakia and Hungary The Holocaust_section_31

Further information: The Holocaust in Bulgaria, in Slovakia, and in Hungary The Holocaust_sentence_304

Bulgaria introduced anti-Jewish measures between 1940 and 1943, which included a curfew, the requirement to wear a yellow star, restrictions on owning telephones or radios, the banning of mixed marriages (except for Jews who had converted to Christianity), and the registration of property. The Holocaust_sentence_305

It annexed Thrace and Macedonia, and in February 1943 agreed to a demand from Germany that it deport 20,000 Jews to the Treblinka extermination camp. The Holocaust_sentence_306

All 11,000 Jews from the annexed territories were sent to their deaths, and plans were made to deport an additional 6,000–8,000 Bulgarian Jews from Sofia to meet the quota. The Holocaust_sentence_307

When the plans became public, the Orthodox Church and many Bulgarians protested, and King Boris III canceled the deportation of Jews native to Bulgaria. The Holocaust_sentence_308

Instead, they were expelled to provincial areas of the country. The Holocaust_sentence_309

Stone writes that Slovakia, led by Roman Catholic priest Jozef Tiso (president of the Slovak State, 1939–1945), was "one of the most loyal of the collaborationist regimes". The Holocaust_sentence_310

It deported 7,500 Jews in 1938 on its own initiative; introduced anti-Jewish measures in 1940; and by the autumn of 1942 had deported around 60,000 Jews to ghettos and concentration camps in Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_311

Another 2,396 were deported and 2,257 killed that autumn during an uprising, and 13,500 were deported between October 1944 and March 1945. The Holocaust_sentence_312

According to Stone, "the Holocaust in Slovakia was far more than a German project, even if it was carried out in the context of a 'puppet' state." The Holocaust_sentence_313

Although Hungary expelled Jews who were not citizens from its newly annexed lands in 1941, it did not deport most of its Jews until the German invasion of Hungary in March 1944. The Holocaust_sentence_314

Between 15 May and early July 1944, 437,000 Jews were deported from Hungary, mostly to Auschwitz, where most of them were gassed; there were four transports a day, each carrying 3,000 people. The Holocaust_sentence_315

In Budapest in October and November 1944, the Hungarian Arrow Cross forced 50,000 Jews to march to the Austrian border as part of a deal with Germany to supply forced labor. The Holocaust_sentence_316

So many died that the marches were stopped. The Holocaust_sentence_317

Italy, Finland and Japan The Holocaust_section_32

Further information: The Holocaust in Italy, in Italian Libya, and in Finland The Holocaust_sentence_318

See also: Jewish settlement in Japan The Holocaust_sentence_319

Italy introduced some antisemitic measures, but there was less antisemitism there than in Germany, and Italian-occupied countries were generally safer for Jews than those occupied by Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_320

There were no deportations of Italian Jews to Germany while Italy remained an ally. The Holocaust_sentence_321

In some areas, the Italian authorities even tried to protect Jews, such as in the Croatian areas of the Balkans. The Holocaust_sentence_322

But while Italian forces in Russia were not as vicious towards Jews as the Germans, they did not try to stop German atrocities either. The Holocaust_sentence_323

Several forced labor camps for Jews were established in Italian-controlled Libya; almost 2,600 Libyan Jews were sent to camps, where 562 died. The Holocaust_sentence_324

In Finland, the government was pressured in 1942 to hand over its 150–200 non-Finnish Jews to Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_325

After opposition from both the government and public, eight non-Finnish Jews were deported in late 1942; only one survived the war. The Holocaust_sentence_326

Japan had little antisemitism in its society and did not persecute Jews in most of the territories it controlled. The Holocaust_sentence_327

Jews in Shanghai were confined, but despite German pressure they were not killed. The Holocaust_sentence_328

Concentration and labor camps The Holocaust_section_33

Further information: Nazi concentration camps, List of Nazi concentration camps, Extermination through labor, and Holocaust trains The Holocaust_sentence_329

Germany first used concentration camps as places of terror and unlawful incarceration of political opponents. The Holocaust_sentence_330

Large numbers of Jews were not sent there until after Kristallnacht in November 1938. The Holocaust_sentence_331

After war broke out in 1939, new camps were established, many outside Germany in occupied Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_332

Most wartime prisoners of the camps were not Germans but belonged to countries under German occupation. The Holocaust_sentence_333

After 1942, the economic function of the camps, previously secondary to their penal and terror functions, came to the fore. The Holocaust_sentence_334

Forced labor of camp prisoners became commonplace. The Holocaust_sentence_335

The guards became much more brutal, and the death rate increased as the guards not only beat and starved prisoners, but killed them more frequently. The Holocaust_sentence_336

Vernichtung durch Arbeit ("extermination through labor") was a policy; camp inmates would literally be worked to death, or to physical exhaustion, at which point they would be gassed or shot. The Holocaust_sentence_337

The Germans estimated the average prisoner's lifespan in a concentration camp at three months, as a result of lack of food and clothing, constant epidemics, and frequent punishments for the most minor transgressions. The Holocaust_sentence_338

The shifts were long and often involved exposure to dangerous materials. The Holocaust_sentence_339

Transportation to and between camps was often carried out in closed freight cars with little air or water, long delays and prisoners packed tightly. The Holocaust_sentence_340

In mid-1942 work camps began requiring newly arrived prisoners to be placed in quarantine for four weeks. The Holocaust_sentence_341

Prisoners wore colored triangles on their uniforms, the color denoting the reason for their incarceration. The Holocaust_sentence_342

Red signified a political prisoner, Jehovah's Witnesses had purple triangles, "asocials" and criminals wore black and green, and gay men wore pink. The Holocaust_sentence_343

Jews wore two yellow triangles, one over another to form a six-pointed star. The Holocaust_sentence_344

Prisoners in Auschwitz were tattooed on arrival with an identification number. The Holocaust_sentence_345

Final Solution The Holocaust_section_34

Pearl Harbor and United States entry The Holocaust_section_35

Further information: Reich Chancellery meeting of 12 December 1941 The Holocaust_sentence_346

On 7 December 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked Pearl Harbor, an American naval base in Honolulu, Hawaii, killing 2,403 Americans. The Holocaust_sentence_347

The following day, the United States declared war on Japan, and on 11 December, Germany declared war on the United States. The Holocaust_sentence_348

According to Deborah Dwork and Robert Jan van Pelt, Hitler had trusted American Jews, whom he assumed were all powerful, to keep the United States out of the war in the interests of German Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_349

When America declared war, he blamed the Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_350

Nearly three years earlier, on 30 January 1939, Hitler had told the Reichstag: "if the international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war, then the result will be not the Bolshevising of the earth, and thus a victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!" The Holocaust_sentence_351

In the view of Christian Gerlach, Hitler "announced his decision in principle" to annihilate the Jews on or around 12 December 1941, one day after his declaration of war. The Holocaust_sentence_352

On that day, Hitler gave a speech in his private apartment at the Reich Chancellery to senior Nazi Party leaders: the Reichsleiter, the most senior, and the Gauleiter, the regional leaders. The Holocaust_sentence_353

The following day, Joseph Goebbels, the Reich Minister of Propaganda, noted in his diary: The Holocaust_sentence_354

Christopher Browning argues that Hitler gave no order during the Reich Chancellery meeting but did make clear that he had intended his 1939 warning to the Jews to be taken literally, and he signaled to party leaders that they could give appropriate orders to others. The Holocaust_sentence_355

Peter Longerich interprets Hitler's speech to the party leaders as an appeal to radicalize a policy that was already being executed. The Holocaust_sentence_356

According to Gerlach, an unidentified former German Sicherheitsdienst officer wrote in a report in 1944, after defecting to Switzerland: "After America entered the war, the annihilation (Ausrottung) of all European Jews was initiated on the Führer's order." The Holocaust_sentence_357

Four days after Hitler's meeting with party leaders, Hans Frank, Governor-General of the General Government area of occupied Poland, who was at the meeting, spoke to district governors: "We must put an end to the Jews ... The Holocaust_sentence_358

I will in principle proceed only on the assumption that they will disappear. The Holocaust_sentence_359

They must go." The Holocaust_sentence_360

On 18 December Hitler and Himmler held a meeting to which Himmler referred in his appointment book as "Juden frage | als Partisanen auszurotten" ("Jewish question / to be exterminated as partisans"). The Holocaust_sentence_361

Browning interprets this as a meeting to discuss how to justify and speak about the killing. The Holocaust_sentence_362

Wannsee Conference The Holocaust_section_36

Further information: Wannsee Conference and Final Solution to the Jewish Question The Holocaust_sentence_363

SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reich Security Head Office (RSHA), convened what became known as the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942 at Am Großen Wannsee 56–58, a villa in Berlin's Wannsee suburb. The Holocaust_sentence_364

The meeting had been scheduled for 9 December 1941, and invitations had been sent on 29 November, but it had been postponed indefinitely. The Holocaust_sentence_365

A month later, invitations were sent out again, this time for 20 January. The Holocaust_sentence_366

The 15 men present at Wannsee included Adolf Eichmann (head of Jewish affairs for the RSHA), Heinrich Müller (head of the Gestapo), and other SS and party leaders and department heads. The Holocaust_sentence_367

Browning writes that eight of the 15 had doctorates: "Thus it was not a dimwitted crowd unable to grasp what was going to be said to them." The Holocaust_sentence_368

Thirty copies of the minutes, known as the Wannsee Protocol, were made. The Holocaust_sentence_369

Copy no. The Holocaust_sentence_370

16 was found by American prosecutors in March 1947 in a German Foreign Office folder. The Holocaust_sentence_371

Written by Eichmann and stamped "Top Secret", the minutes were written in "euphemistic language" on Heydrich's instructions, according to Eichmann's later testimony. The Holocaust_sentence_372

Discussing plans for a "final solution to the Jewish question" ("Endlösung der Judenfrage"), and a "final solution to the Jewish question in Europe" ("Endlösung der europäischen Judenfrage"), the conference was held to share information and responsibility, coordinate efforts and policies ("Parallelisierung der Linienführung"), and ensure that authority rested with Heydrich. The Holocaust_sentence_373

There was also discussion about whether to include the German Mischlinge (half-Jews). The Holocaust_sentence_374

Heydrich told the meeting: "Another possible solution of the problem has now taken the place of emigration, i.e. the evacuation of the Jews to the East, provided that the Fuehrer gives the appropriate approval in advance." The Holocaust_sentence_375

He continued: The Holocaust_sentence_376

These evacuations were regarded as provisional or "temporary solutions" ("Ausweichmöglichkeiten"). The Holocaust_sentence_377

The final solution would encompass the 11 million Jews living not only in territories controlled by Germany, but elsewhere in Europe and adjacent territories, such as Britain, Ireland, Switzerland, Turkey, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, and Hungary, "dependent on military developments". The Holocaust_sentence_378

There was little doubt what the final solution was, writes Longerich: "the Jews were to be annihilated by a combination of forced labour and mass murder." The Holocaust_sentence_379

Extermination camps The Holocaust_section_37

Main article: Extermination camp The Holocaust_sentence_380

At the end of 1941 in occupied Poland, the Germans began building additional camps or expanding existing ones. The Holocaust_sentence_381

Auschwitz, for example, was expanded in October 1941 by building Auschwitz II-Birkenau a few kilometers away. The Holocaust_sentence_382

By the spring or summer of 1942, gas chambers had been installed in these new facilities, except for Chełmno, which used gas vans. The Holocaust_sentence_383

Other camps sometimes described as extermination camps include Maly Trostinets near Minsk in the occupied Soviet Union, where 65,000 are thought to have died, mostly by shooting but also in gas vans; Mauthausen in Austria; Stutthof, near Gdańsk, Poland; and Sachsenhausen and Ravensbrück in Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_384

The camps in Austria, Germany and Poland all had gas chambers to kill inmates deemed unable to work. The Holocaust_sentence_385

Gas vans The Holocaust_section_38

Main article: Gas van The Holocaust_sentence_386

Chełmno, with gas vans only, had its roots in the Aktion T4 euthanasia program. The Holocaust_sentence_387

In December 1939 and January 1940, gas vans equipped with gas cylinders and a sealed compartment had been used to kill the handicapped in occupied Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_388

As the mass shootings continued in Russia, Himmler and his subordinates in the field feared that the murders were causing psychological problems for the SS, and began searching for more efficient methods. The Holocaust_sentence_389

In December 1941, similar vans, using exhaust fumes rather than bottled gas, were introduced into the camp at Chełmno, Victims were asphyxiated while being driven to prepared burial pits in the nearby forests. The Holocaust_sentence_390

The vans were also used in the occupied Soviet Union, for example in smaller clearing actions in the Minsk ghetto, and in Yugoslavia. The Holocaust_sentence_391

Apparently, as with the mass shootings, the vans caused emotional problems for the operators, and the small number of victims the vans could handle made them ineffective. The Holocaust_sentence_392

Gas chambers The Holocaust_section_39

Main article: Gas chamber The Holocaust_sentence_393

Further information: Sonderaktion 1005 The Holocaust_sentence_394

Christian Gerlach writes that over three million Jews were murdered in 1942, the year that "marked the peak" of the mass murder. The Holocaust_sentence_395

At least 1.4 million of these were in the General Government area of Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_396

Victims usually arrived at the extermination camps by freight train. The Holocaust_sentence_397

Almost all arrivals at Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka were sent directly to the gas chambers, with individuals occasionally selected to replace dead workers. The Holocaust_sentence_398

At Auschwitz, about 20 percent of Jews were selected to work. The Holocaust_sentence_399

Those selected for death at all camps were told to undress and hand their valuables to camp workers. The Holocaust_sentence_400

They were then herded naked into the gas chambers. The Holocaust_sentence_401

To prevent panic, they were told the gas chambers were showers or delousing chambers. The Holocaust_sentence_402

At Auschwitz, after the chambers were filled, the doors were shut and pellets of Zyklon-B were dropped into the chambers through vents, releasing toxic prussic acid. The Holocaust_sentence_403

Those inside died within 20 minutes; the speed of death depended on how close the inmate was standing to a gas vent, according to the commandant Rudolf Höss, who estimated that about one-third of the victims died immediately. The Holocaust_sentence_404

Johann Kremer, an SS doctor who oversaw the gassings, testified that: "Shouting and screaming of the victims could be heard through the opening and it was clear that they fought for their lives." The Holocaust_sentence_405

The gas was then pumped out, and the Sonderkommando—work groups of mostly Jewish prisoners—carried out the bodies, extracted gold fillings, cut off women's hair, and removed jewelry, artificial limbs and glasses. The Holocaust_sentence_406

At Auschwitz, the bodies were at first buried in deep pits and covered with lime, but between September and November 1942, on the orders of Himmler, 100,000 bodies were dug up and burned. The Holocaust_sentence_407

In early 1943, new gas chambers and crematoria were built to accommodate the numbers. The Holocaust_sentence_408

Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka became known as the Operation Reinhard camps, named after the German plan to murder the Jews in the General Government area of occupied Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_409

Between March 1942 and November 1943, around 1,526,500 Jews were gassed in these three camps in gas chambers using carbon monoxide from the exhaust fumes of stationary diesel engines. The Holocaust_sentence_410

Gold fillings were pulled from the corpses before burial, but unlike in Auschwitz the women's hair was cut before death. The Holocaust_sentence_411

At Treblinka, to calm the victims, the arrival platform was made to look like a train station, complete with fake clock. The Holocaust_sentence_412

Most of the victims at these three camps were buried in pits at first. The Holocaust_sentence_413

From mid-1942, as part of Sonderaktion 1005, prisoners at Auschwitz, Chelmno, Bełżec, Sobibór, and Treblinka were forced to exhume and burn bodies that had been buried, in part to hide the evidence, and in part because of the terrible smell pervading the camps and a fear that the drinking water would become polluted. The Holocaust_sentence_414

The corpses—700,000 in Treblinka—were burned on wood in open fire pits and the remaining bones crushed into powder. The Holocaust_sentence_415

Jewish resistance The Holocaust_section_40

Main articles: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe, Jewish Combat Organization, Miła 18, Jewish Military Union, and Fareynikte Partizaner Organizatsye The Holocaust_sentence_416

There was almost no resistance in the ghettos in Poland until the end of 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_417

Raul Hilberg accounted for this by evoking the history of Jewish persecution: compliance might avoid inflaming the situation until the onslaught abated. The Holocaust_sentence_418

Timothy Snyder noted that it was only during the three months after the deportations of July–September 1942 that agreement on the need for armed resistance was reached. The Holocaust_sentence_419

Several resistance groups were formed, such as the Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB) and Jewish Military Union (ŻZW) in the Warsaw Ghetto and the United Partisan Organization in Vilna. The Holocaust_sentence_420

Over 100 revolts and uprisings occurred in at least 19 ghettos and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_421

The best known is the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in April 1943, when the Germans arrived to send the remaining inhabitants to extermination camps. The Holocaust_sentence_422

Forced to retreat on 19 April from the ŻOB and ŻZW fighters, they returned later that day under the command of SS General Jürgen Stroop (author of the Stroop Report about the uprising). The Holocaust_sentence_423

Around 1,000 poorly armed fighters held the SS at bay for four weeks. The Holocaust_sentence_424

Polish and Jewish accounts stated that hundreds or thousands of Germans had been killed, while the Germans reported 16 dead. The Holocaust_sentence_425

The Germans said that 14,000 Jews had been killed—7000 during the fighting and 7000 sent to Treblinka—and between 53,000 and 56,000 deported. The Holocaust_sentence_426

According to Gwardia Ludowa, a Polish resistance newspaper, in May 1943: The Holocaust_sentence_427

During a revolt in Treblinka on 2 August 1943, inmates killed five or six guards and set fire to camp buildings; several managed to escape. The Holocaust_sentence_428

In the Białystok Ghetto on 16 August, Jewish insurgents fought for five days when the Germans announced mass deportations. The Holocaust_sentence_429

On 14 October, Jewish prisoners in Sobibór attempted an escape, killing 11 SS officers, as well as two or three Ukrainian and Volksdeutsche guards. The Holocaust_sentence_430

According to Yitzhak Arad, this was the highest number of SS officers killed in a single revolt. The Holocaust_sentence_431

Around 300 inmates escaped (out of 600 in the main camp), but 100 were recaptured and shot. The Holocaust_sentence_432

On 7 October 1944, 300 Jewish members, mostly Greek or Hungarian, of the Sonderkommando at Auschwitz learned they were about to be killed, and staged an uprising, blowing up crematorium IV. The Holocaust_sentence_433

Three SS officers were killed. The Holocaust_sentence_434

The Sonderkommando at crematorium II threw their Oberkapo into an oven when they heard the commotion, believing that a camp uprising had begun. The Holocaust_sentence_435

By the time the SS had regained control, 451 members of the Sonderkommando were dead; 212 survived. The Holocaust_sentence_436

Estimates of Jewish participation in partisan units throughout Europe range from 20,000 to 100,000. The Holocaust_sentence_437

In the occupied Polish and Soviet territories, thousands of Jews fled into the swamps or forests and joined the partisans, although the partisan movements did not always welcome them. The Holocaust_sentence_438

An estimated 20,000 to 30,000 joined the Soviet partisan movement. The Holocaust_sentence_439

One of the famous Jewish groups was the Bielski partisans in Belarus, led by the Bielski brothers. The Holocaust_sentence_440

Jews also joined Polish forces, including the Home Army. The Holocaust_sentence_441

According to Timothy Snyder, "more Jews fought in the Warsaw Uprising of August 1944 than in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of April 1943." The Holocaust_sentence_442

Polish resistance and flow of information about the mass murder The Holocaust_section_41

Further information: Polish resistance movement in World War II and Home Army The Holocaust_sentence_443

See also: The Black Book of Polish Jewry, The Black Book of Poland, Raczyński's Note, Pilecki's Report, Auschwitz Protocols, The New York Times § World War II, and Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust The Holocaust_sentence_444

The Polish government-in-exile in London learned about Auschwitz from the Polish leadership in Warsaw, who from late 1940 "received a continual flow of information" about the camp, according to historian Michael Fleming. The Holocaust_sentence_445

This was in large measure thanks to Captain Witold Pilecki of the Polish Home Army, who allowed himself to be arrested in September 1940 and sent there. The Holocaust_sentence_446

An inmate until he escaped in April 1943, his mission was to set up a resistance movement (ZOW), prepare to take over the camp, and smuggle out information about it. The Holocaust_sentence_447

On 6 January 1942, the Soviet Minister of Foreign Affairs, Vyacheslav Molotov, sent out diplomatic notes about German atrocities. The Holocaust_sentence_448

The notes were based on reports about mass graves and bodies surfacing from pits and quarries in areas the Red Army had liberated, as well as witness reports from German-occupied areas. The Holocaust_sentence_449

The following month, Szlama Ber Winer escaped from the Chełmno concentration camp in Poland and passed information about it to the Oneg Shabbat group in the Warsaw Ghetto. The Holocaust_sentence_450

His report, known by his pseudonym as the Grojanowski Report, had reached London by June 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_451

Also in 1942, Jan Karski sent information to the Allies after being smuggled into the Warsaw Ghetto twice. The Holocaust_sentence_452

By late July or early August 1942, Polish leaders in Warsaw had learned about the mass killing of Jews in Auschwitz, according to Fleming. The Holocaust_sentence_453

The Polish Interior Ministry prepared a report, Sprawozdanie 6/42, which said at the end: The Holocaust_sentence_454

Sprawozdanie 6/42 was sent to Polish officials in London by courier and had reached them by 12 November 1942, where it was translated into English and added to another, "Report on Conditions in Poland", dated 27 November. The Holocaust_sentence_455

Fleming writes that the latter was sent to the Polish Embassy in the United States. The Holocaust_sentence_456

On 10 December 1942, the Polish Foreign Affairs Minister, Edward Raczyński, addressed the fledgling United Nations on the killings; the address was distributed with the title The Mass Extermination of Jews in German Occupied Poland. The Holocaust_sentence_457

He told them about the use of poison gas; about Treblinka, Bełżec and Sobibór; that the Polish underground had referred to them as extermination camps; and that tens of thousands of Jews had been killed in Bełżec in March and April 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_458

One in three Jews in Poland were already dead, he estimated, from a population of 3,130,000. The Holocaust_sentence_459

Raczyński's address was covered by the New York Times and The Times of London. The Holocaust_sentence_460

Winston Churchill received it, and Anthony Eden presented it to the British cabinet. The Holocaust_sentence_461

On 17 December 1942, 11 Allies issued the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations condemning the "bestial policy of cold-blooded extermination". The Holocaust_sentence_462

The British and American governments were reluctant to publicize the intelligence they had received. The Holocaust_sentence_463

A BBC Hungarian Service memo, written by Carlile Macartney, a BBC broadcaster and senior Foreign Office adviser on Hungary, stated in 1942: "We shouldn't mention the Jews at all." The Holocaust_sentence_464

The British government's view was that the Hungarian people's antisemitism would make them distrust the Allies if their broadcasts focused on the Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_465

The US government similarly feared turning the war into one about the Jews; antisemitism and isolationism were common in the US before its entry into the war. The Holocaust_sentence_466

Although governments and the German public appear to have understood what was happening, it seems the Jews themselves did not. The Holocaust_sentence_467

According to Saul Friedländer, "[t]estimonies left by Jews from all over occupied Europe indicate that, in contradistinction to vast segments of surrounding society, the victims did not understand what was ultimately in store for them." The Holocaust_sentence_468

In Western Europe, he writes, Jewish communities seem to have failed to piece the information together, while in Eastern Europe, they could not accept that the stories they had heard from elsewhere would end up applying to them too. The Holocaust_sentence_469

Climax of the Holocaust in Hungary The Holocaust_section_42

Further information: The Holocaust in Hungary, Hungary in World War II, and Operation Margarethe The Holocaust_sentence_470

The SS liquidated most of the Jewish ghettos of the General Government area of Poland in 1942–1943 and shipped their populations to the camps for extermination. The Holocaust_sentence_471

The only exception was the Lodz Ghetto, which was not liquidated until mid-1944. The Holocaust_sentence_472

About 42,000 Jews in the General Government were shot during Operation Harvest Festival (Aktion Erntefest) on 3–4 November 1943. The Holocaust_sentence_473

At the same time, rail shipments were arriving regularly from western and southern Europe at the extermination camps. The Holocaust_sentence_474

Shipments of Jews to the camps had priority on the German railways over anything but the army's needs, and continued even in the face of the increasingly dire military situation at the end of 1942. The Holocaust_sentence_475

Army leaders and economic managers complained about this diversion of resources and the killing of skilled Jewish workers, but Nazi leaders rated ideological imperatives above economic considerations. The Holocaust_sentence_476

By 1943 it was evident to the armed forces leadership that Germany was losing the war. The Holocaust_sentence_477

The mass murder continued nevertheless, reaching a "frenetic" pace in 1944 when Auschwitz gassed nearly 500,000 people. The Holocaust_sentence_478

On 19 March 1944, Hitler ordered the military occupation of Hungary and dispatched Adolf Eichmann to Budapest to supervise the deportation of the country's Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_479

From 22 March Jews were required to wear the yellow star; were forbidden from owning cars, bicycles, radios or telephones; and were later forced into ghettos. The Holocaust_sentence_480

Between 15 May and 9 July, 437,000 Jews were deported from Hungary to Auschwitz II-Birkenau, almost all sent directly to the gas chambers. The Holocaust_sentence_481

A month before the deportations began, Eichmann offered through an intermediary, Joel Brand, to exchange one million Jews for 10,000 trucks from the Allies, which the Germans would undertake not to use on the Western front. The Holocaust_sentence_482

The British leaked the proposal to the press; The Times called it "a new level of fantasy and self-deception". The Holocaust_sentence_483

By mid-1944 Jewish communities within easy reach of the Nazi regime had largely been exterminated. The Holocaust_sentence_484

Death marches The Holocaust_section_43

Main article: Death marches (Holocaust) The Holocaust_sentence_485

As the Soviet armed forces advanced, the SS closed down the camps in eastern Poland and made efforts to conceal what had happened. The Holocaust_sentence_486

The gas chambers were dismantled, the crematoria dynamited, and the mass graves dug up and corpses cremated. The Holocaust_sentence_487

From January to April 1945, the SS sent inmates westward on "death marches" to camps in Germany and Austria. The Holocaust_sentence_488

In January 1945, the Germans held records of 714,000 inmates in concentration camps; by May, 250,000 (35 percent) had died during death marches. The Holocaust_sentence_489

Already sick after months or years of violence and starvation, they were marched to train stations and transported for days at a time without food or shelter in open freight cars, then forced to march again at the other end to the new camp. The Holocaust_sentence_490

Some went by truck or wagons; others were marched the entire distance to the new camp. The Holocaust_sentence_491

Those who lagged behind or fell were shot. The Holocaust_sentence_492

Liberation The Holocaust_section_44

Main articles: Death of Adolf Hitler, German Instrument of Surrender, Victory in Europe Day, and End of World War II in Europe The Holocaust_sentence_493

The first major camp to be encountered by Allied troops, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets, along with its gas chambers, on 25 July 1944. The Holocaust_sentence_494

Treblinka, Sobibór, and Bełżec were never liberated, but were destroyed by the Germans in 1943. The Holocaust_sentence_495

On 17 January 1945, 58,000 Auschwitz inmates were sent on a death march westwards; when the camp was liberated by the Soviets on 27 January, they found just 7,000 inmates in the three main camps and 500 in subcamps. The Holocaust_sentence_496

Buchenwald was liberated by the Americans on 11 April; Bergen-Belsen by the British on 15 April; Dachau by the Americans on 29 April; Ravensbrück by the Soviets on 30 April; and Mauthausen by the Americans on 5 May. The Holocaust_sentence_497

The Red Cross took control of Theresienstadt on 3 May, days before the Soviets arrived. The Holocaust_sentence_498

The British 11th Armoured Division found around 60,000 prisoners (90 percent Jews) when they liberated Bergen-Belsen, as well as 13,000 unburied corpses; another 10,000 people died from typhus or malnutrition over the following weeks. The Holocaust_sentence_499

The BBC's war correspondent Richard Dimbleby described the scenes that greeted him and the British Army at Belsen, in a report so graphic the BBC declined to broadcast it for four days, and did so, on 19 April, only after Dimbleby threatened to resign. The Holocaust_sentence_500

He said he had "never seen British soldiers so moved to cold fury": The Holocaust_sentence_501

Death toll The Holocaust_section_45

See also: Jewish population by country The Holocaust_sentence_502

The Holocaust_table_general_2

CountryThe Holocaust_header_cell_2_0_0 Death toll of JewsThe Holocaust_header_cell_2_0_1
AlbaniaThe Holocaust_cell_2_1_0 591The Holocaust_cell_2_1_1
AustriaThe Holocaust_cell_2_2_0 65,459The Holocaust_cell_2_2_1
Baltic statesThe Holocaust_cell_2_3_0 272,000The Holocaust_cell_2_3_1
BelgiumThe Holocaust_cell_2_4_0 28,518The Holocaust_cell_2_4_1
BulgariaThe Holocaust_cell_2_5_0 11,393The Holocaust_cell_2_5_1
Independent State of CroatiaThe Holocaust_cell_2_6_0 32,000The Holocaust_cell_2_6_1
CzechoslovakiaThe Holocaust_cell_2_7_0 143,000The Holocaust_cell_2_7_1
DenmarkThe Holocaust_cell_2_8_0 116The Holocaust_cell_2_8_1
FranceThe Holocaust_cell_2_9_0 76,134The Holocaust_cell_2_9_1
GermanyThe Holocaust_cell_2_10_0 165,000The Holocaust_cell_2_10_1
GreeceThe Holocaust_cell_2_11_0 59,195The Holocaust_cell_2_11_1
HungaryThe Holocaust_cell_2_12_0 502,000The Holocaust_cell_2_12_1
ItalyThe Holocaust_cell_2_13_0 6,513The Holocaust_cell_2_13_1
LuxembourgThe Holocaust_cell_2_14_0 1,200The Holocaust_cell_2_14_1
NetherlandsThe Holocaust_cell_2_15_0 102,000The Holocaust_cell_2_15_1
NorwayThe Holocaust_cell_2_16_0 758The Holocaust_cell_2_16_1
PolandThe Holocaust_cell_2_17_0 2,100,000The Holocaust_cell_2_17_1
RomaniaThe Holocaust_cell_2_18_0 220,000The Holocaust_cell_2_18_1
SerbiaThe Holocaust_cell_2_19_0 10,700The Holocaust_cell_2_19_1
Soviet UnionThe Holocaust_cell_2_20_0 2,100,000The Holocaust_cell_2_20_1
TotalThe Holocaust_cell_2_21_0 5,896,577The Holocaust_cell_2_21_1

The Jews killed represented around one third of world Jewry and about two-thirds of European Jewry, based on a pre-war estimate of 9.7 million Jews in Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_503

According to the Yad Vashem Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, "[a]ll the serious research" confirms that between five and six million Jews died. The Holocaust_sentence_504

Early postwar calculations were 4.2–4.5 million from Gerald Reitlinger; 5.1 million from Raul Hilberg; and 5.95 million from Jacob Lestschinsky. The Holocaust_sentence_505

In 1990 Yehuda Bauer and Robert Rozett estimated 5.59–5.86 million, and in 1991 Wolfgang Benz suggested 5.29 to just over 6 million. The Holocaust_sentence_506

The figures include over one million children. The Holocaust_sentence_507

Much of the uncertainty stems from the lack of a reliable figure for the number of Jews in Europe in 1939, border changes that make double-counting of victims difficult to avoid, lack of accurate records from the perpetrators, and uncertainty about whether to include post-liberation deaths caused by the persecution. The Holocaust_sentence_508

The death camps in occupied Poland accounted for half the Jews killed. The Holocaust_sentence_509

At Auschwitz the Jewish death toll was 960,000; Treblinka 870,000; Bełżec 600,000; Chełmno 320,000; Sobibór 250,000; and Majdanek 79,000. The Holocaust_sentence_510

Death rates were heavily dependent on the survival of European states willing to protect their Jewish citizens. The Holocaust_sentence_511

In countries allied to Germany, the control over Jewish citizens was sometimes seen as a matter of sovereignty; the continuous presence of state institutions prevented the Jewish communities' complete destruction. The Holocaust_sentence_512

In occupied countries, the survival of the state was likewise correlated with lower Jewish death rates: 75 percent of Jews died in the Netherlands, as did 99 percent of Jews who were in Estonia when the Germans arrived—the Nazis declared Estonia Judenfrei ("free of Jews") in January 1942 at the Wannsee Conference—while 75 percent survived in France and 99 percent in Denmark. The Holocaust_sentence_513

The survival of Jews in countries where states survived demonstrates, writes Christian Gerlach, "that there were limits to German power" and that the influence of non-Germans—governments and others—was "crucial". The Holocaust_sentence_514

Jews who lived where pre-war statehood was destroyed (Poland and the Baltic states) or displaced (western USSR) were at the mercy of both German power and sometimes hostile local populations. The Holocaust_sentence_515

Almost all Jews living in German-occupied Poland, Baltic states and the USSR were killed, with a 5 percent chance of survival on average. The Holocaust_sentence_516

Of Poland's 3.3 million Jews, about 90 percent were killed. The Holocaust_sentence_517

Other victims of Nazi persecution during the Holocaust era The Holocaust_section_46

The Holocaust_table_general_3

GroupThe Holocaust_header_cell_3_0_0 Estimate killed

during the Holocaust era (1933–1945)The Holocaust_header_cell_3_0_1

SourceThe Holocaust_header_cell_3_0_2
Soviet civilians (excl. 1.3 million Jews)The Holocaust_cell_3_1_0 5.7 millionThe Holocaust_cell_3_1_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_1_2
Soviet POWs (incl. c. 50,000 Jewish soldiers)The Holocaust_cell_3_2_0 3 millionThe Holocaust_cell_3_2_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_2_2
Non-Jewish PolesThe Holocaust_cell_3_3_0 c. 1.8 millionThe Holocaust_cell_3_3_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_3_2
Serb civiliansThe Holocaust_cell_3_4_0 312,000The Holocaust_cell_3_4_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_4_2
HandicappedThe Holocaust_cell_3_5_0 Up to 250,000The Holocaust_cell_3_5_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_5_2
RomaThe Holocaust_cell_3_6_0 196,000–220,000The Holocaust_cell_3_6_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_6_2
Jehovah's WitnessesThe Holocaust_cell_3_7_0 c. 1,900The Holocaust_cell_3_7_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_7_2
Criminals and "asocials"The Holocaust_cell_3_8_0 at least 70,000The Holocaust_cell_3_8_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_8_2
Gay menThe Holocaust_cell_3_9_0 Hundreds; unknownThe Holocaust_cell_3_9_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_9_2
Political opponents, resistanceThe Holocaust_cell_3_10_0 UnknownThe Holocaust_cell_3_10_1 The Holocaust_cell_3_10_2

Soviet civilians and POWs The Holocaust_section_47

Main articles: German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war, German occupation of Byelorussia during World War II, Hunger Plan, and Generalplan Ost The Holocaust_sentence_518

The Nazis regarded the Slavs as Untermenschen (subhuman). The Holocaust_sentence_519

German troops destroyed villages throughout the Soviet Union, rounded up civilians for forced labor in Germany, and caused famine by taking foodstuffs. The Holocaust_sentence_520

In Belarus, Germany imposed a regime that deported 380,000 people for slave labor and killed hundreds of thousands. The Holocaust_sentence_521

Over 600 villages had their populations killed and at least 5,295 Belarusian settlements were destroyed. The Holocaust_sentence_522

According to Timothy Snyder, of nine million people in Soviet Belarus in 1941, around 1.6 million were killed by Germans away from the battlefield. The Holocaust_sentence_523

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates that 3.3 million of 5.7 million Soviet POWs died in German custody. The Holocaust_sentence_524

The death rates decreased as the POWs were needed to help the German war effort; by 1943, half a million had been deployed as slave labor. The Holocaust_sentence_525

Non-Jewish Poles The Holocaust_section_48

Main article: Nazi crimes against the Polish nation The Holocaust_sentence_526

Hitler made clear that Polish workers were to be kept in what Robert Gellately called a "permanent condition of inferiority". The Holocaust_sentence_527

In a memorandum to Hitler dated 25 May 1940, "A Few Thoughts on the Treatment of the Ethnically Alien Population in the East", Himmler stated that it was in German interests to foster divisions between the ethnic groups in the East. The Holocaust_sentence_528

He wanted to restrict non-Germans in the conquered territories to an elementary-school education that would teach them how to write their names, count up to 500, work hard, and obey Germans. The Holocaust_sentence_529

The Polish political class became the target of a campaign of murder (Intelligenzaktion and AB-Aktion). The Holocaust_sentence_530

Between 1.8 and 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish citizens were killed by Germans during the war; about four-fifths were ethnic Poles and the rest Ukrainians and Belarusians. The Holocaust_sentence_531

At least 200,000 died in concentration camps, around 146,000 in Auschwitz. The Holocaust_sentence_532

Others died in massacres or in uprisings such as the Warsaw Uprising, where 120,000–200,000 were killed. The Holocaust_sentence_533

Roma The Holocaust_section_49

Main articles: Pořajmos and Auschwitz#Gypsy family camp The Holocaust_sentence_534

Germany and its allies killed up to 220,000 Roma, around 25 percent of the community in Europe, in what the Romani people call the Pořajmos. The Holocaust_sentence_535

Robert Ritter, head of the Rassenhygienische und Bevolkerungsbiologische Forschungsstelle called them "a peculiar form of the human species who are incapable of development and came about by mutation". The Holocaust_sentence_536

In May 1942 they were placed under similar laws to the Jews, and in December Himmler ordered that they be sent to Auschwitz, unless they had served in the Wehrmacht. The Holocaust_sentence_537

He adjusted the order on 15 November 1943 to allow "sedentary Gypsies and part-Gypsies" in the occupied Soviet areas to be viewed as citizens. The Holocaust_sentence_538

In Belgium, France and the Netherlands, the Roma were subject to restrictions on movement and confinement to collection camps, while in Eastern Europe they were sent to concentration camps, where large numbers were murdered. The Holocaust_sentence_539

In the camps, they were usually counted among the asocials and required to wear brown or black triangles on their prison clothes. The Holocaust_sentence_540

Political and religious opponents The Holocaust_section_50

Main articles: German resistance to Nazism, Religion in Nazi Germany, and Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany The Holocaust_sentence_541

German communists, socialists and trade unionists were among the earliest opponents of the Nazis and among the first to be sent to concentration camps. The Holocaust_sentence_542

Nacht und Nebel ("Night and Fog"), a directive issued by Hitler on 7 December 1941, resulted in the disappearance, torture and death of political activists throughout German-occupied Europe; the courts had sentenced 1,793 people to death by April 1944, according to Jack Fischel. The Holocaust_sentence_543

Because they refused to pledge allegiance to the Nazi party or serve in the military, Jehovah's Witnesses were sent to concentration camps, where they were identified by purple triangles and given the option of renouncing their faith and submitting to the state's authority. The Holocaust_sentence_544

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum estimates that between 2,700 and 3,300 were sent to the camps, where 1,400 died. The Holocaust_sentence_545

According to German historian Detlef Garbe, "no other religious movement resisted the pressure to conform to National Socialism with comparable unanimity and steadfastness." The Holocaust_sentence_546

Gay men and Afro-Germans The Holocaust_section_51

Main articles: Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and Persecution of black people in Nazi Germany The Holocaust_sentence_547

Around 100,000 gay men were arrested in Germany and 50,000 jailed between 1933 and 1945; 5,000–15,000 are thought to have been sent to concentration camps, where they were identified by a pink triangle on their camp clothes. The Holocaust_sentence_548

It is not known how many died. The Holocaust_sentence_549

Hundreds were castrated, sometimes "voluntarily" to avoid criminal sentences. The Holocaust_sentence_550

In 1936 Himmler created the Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion. The Holocaust_sentence_551

The police closed gay bars and shut down gay publications. The Holocaust_sentence_552

Lesbians were left relatively unaffected; the Nazis saw them as "asocials", rather than sexual deviants. The Holocaust_sentence_553

There were 5,000–25,000 Afro-Germans in Germany when the Nazis came to power. The Holocaust_sentence_554

Although blacks in Germany and German-occupied Europe were subjected to incarceration, sterilization and murder, there was no program to kill them as a group. The Holocaust_sentence_555

Aftermath The Holocaust_section_52

Main articles: Aftermath of the Holocaust, Responsibility for the Holocaust, List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Displaced persons camps in post-World War II Europe, and Stunde Null The Holocaust_sentence_556

Trials The Holocaust_section_53

Main articles: Nuremberg trials and Subsequent Nuremberg trials The Holocaust_sentence_557

Further information: Dachau trials, Auschwitz trial, Majdanek trials, Trial of Adolf Eichmann, Belzec trial, Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, Sobibor trial, Treblinka trials, and :Category:Holocaust trials The Holocaust_sentence_558

The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals held after the war by the Allies in Nuremberg, Germany, to prosecute the German leadership. The Holocaust_sentence_559

The first was the 1945–1946 trial of 22 political and military leaders before the International Military Tribunal. The Holocaust_sentence_560

Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels had committed suicide months earlier. The Holocaust_sentence_561

The prosecution entered indictments against 24 men (two were dropped before the end of the trial) and seven organizations: the Reich Cabinet, Schutzstaffel (SS), Sicherheitsdienst (SD), Gestapo, Sturmabteilung (SA), and the "General Staff and High Command". The Holocaust_sentence_562

The indictments were for participation in a common plan or conspiracy for the accomplishment of a crime against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression and other crimes against peace; war crimes; and crimes against humanity. The Holocaust_sentence_563

The tribunal passed judgements ranging from acquittal to death by hanging. The Holocaust_sentence_564

Eleven defendants were executed, including Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, Alfred Rosenberg, and Alfred Jodl. The Holocaust_sentence_565

Ribbentrop, the judgement declared, "played an important part in Hitler's 'final solution of the Jewish question'". The Holocaust_sentence_566

The subsequent Nuremberg trials, 1946–1949, tried another 185 defendants. The Holocaust_sentence_567

West Germany initially tried few ex-Nazis, but after the 1958 Ulm Einsatzkommando trial, the government set up a dedicated agency. The Holocaust_sentence_568

Other trials of Nazis and collaborators took place in Western and Eastern Europe. The Holocaust_sentence_569

In 1960 Mossad agents captured Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel to stand trial on 15 indictments, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and crimes against the Jewish people. The Holocaust_sentence_570

He was convicted in December 1961 and executed in June 1962. The Holocaust_sentence_571

Eichmann's trial and death revived interest in war criminals and the Holocaust in general. The Holocaust_sentence_572

Reparations The Holocaust_section_54

Main articles: Wiedergutmachung, Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany, List of companies involved in the Holocaust, Holocaust Era Asset Restitution Taskforce, and German collective guilt The Holocaust_sentence_573

The government of Israel requested $1.5 billion from the Federal Republic of Germany in March 1951 to finance the rehabilitation of 500,000 Jewish survivors, arguing that Germany had stolen $6 billion from the European Jews. The Holocaust_sentence_574

Israelis were divided about the idea of taking money from Germany. The Holocaust_sentence_575

The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany (known as the Claims Conference) was opened in New York, and after negotiations the claim was reduced to $845 million. The Holocaust_sentence_576

West Germany allocated another $125 million for reparations in 1988. The Holocaust_sentence_577

Companies such as BMW, Deutsche Bank, Ford, Opel, Siemens, and Volkswagen faced lawsuits for their use of forced labor during the war. The Holocaust_sentence_578

In response, Germany set up the "Remembrance, Responsibility and Future" Foundation in 2000, which paid €4.45 billion to former slave laborers (up to €7,670 each). The Holocaust_sentence_579

In 2013 Germany agreed to provide €772 million to fund nursing care, social services, and medication for 56,000 Holocaust survivors around the world. The Holocaust_sentence_580

The French state-owned railway company, the SNCF, agreed in 2014 to pay $60 million to Jewish-American survivors, around $100,000 each, for its role in the transport of 76,000 Jews from France to extermination camps between 1942 and 1944. The Holocaust_sentence_581

Historikerstreit and the uniqueness question The Holocaust_section_55

Further information: Bitburg controversy, Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism, and Double genocide theory The Holocaust_sentence_582

In the early decades of Holocaust studies, scholars approached the Holocaust as a genocide unique in its reach and specificity; Nora Levin called the "world of Auschwitz" a "new planet." The Holocaust_sentence_583

This was questioned in the 1980s during the West German Historikerstreit ("historians' dispute"), an attempt to re-position the Holocaust within German historiography. The Holocaust_sentence_584

Ernst Nolte triggered the Historikerstreit in June 1986 with an article in the conservative newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: "The past that will not pass: A speech that could be written but no longer delivered." The Holocaust_sentence_585

The Nazi era was suspended like a sword over Germany's present, he wrote, rather than being studied as an historical event. The Holocaust_sentence_586

He compared "the guilt of the Germans" to the Nazi idea of "the guilt of the Jews", and argued that the focus on the Final Solution overlooked the Nazi's euthanasia program and treatment of Soviet POWs, as well as post-war issues such as the Vietnam War and Soviet–Afghan War. The Holocaust_sentence_587

Comparing Auschwitz to the Gulag, he suggested that the Holocaust was a response to Hitler's fear of the Soviet Union: "Did the Gulag Archipelago not precede Auschwitz? The Holocaust_sentence_588

Was the Bolshevik murder of an entire class not the logical and factual prius of the 'racial murder' of National Socialism? The Holocaust_sentence_589

... Was Auschwitz perhaps rooted in a past that would not pass?" The Holocaust_sentence_590

Nolte's arguments were viewed as an attempt to normalize the Holocaust; one of the debate's key questions, according to historian Ernst Piper, was whether history should "historicize" or "moralize". The Holocaust_sentence_591

In September 1986 in Die Zeit, Eberhard Jäckel responded that "never before had a state, with the authority of its leader, decided and announced that a specific group of humans, including the elderly, women, children and infants, would be killed as quickly as possible, then carried out this resolution using every possible means of state power." The Holocaust_sentence_592

Despite the criticism of Nolte, the Historikerstreit put "the question of comparison" on the agenda, according to Dan Stone in 2010. The Holocaust_sentence_593

He argued that the idea of the Holocaust as unique was overtaken by attempts to place it within the context of Stalinism, ethnic cleansing, and the Nazis' intentions for post-war "demographic reordering", particularly the Generalplan Ost, the plan to kill tens of millions of Slavs to create living space for Germans. The Holocaust_sentence_594

Jäckel's position continued nevertheless to inform the views of many specialists. The Holocaust_sentence_595

Richard J. Evans argued in 2015: The Holocaust_sentence_596

Awareness The Holocaust_section_56

In September 2018 an online CNNComRes poll of 7,092 adults in seven European countries—Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Poland, and Sweden—found that one in 20 had never heard of the Holocaust. The Holocaust_sentence_597

The figure included one in five people in France aged 18–34. The Holocaust_sentence_598

Four in 10 Austrians said they knew "just a little" about it; 12 percent of young people there said they had never heard of it. The Holocaust_sentence_599

A 2018 survey in the United States found that 22 percent of 1,350 adults said they had never heard of it, while 41 percent of Americans and 66 percent of millennials did not know what Auschwitz was. The Holocaust_sentence_600

In 2019 a survey of 1,100 Canadians found that 49 percent could not name any of the concentration camps. The Holocaust_sentence_601

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Holocaust.