Hungary

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This article is about the country. Hungary_sentence_0

For other uses, see Hungary (disambiguation). Hungary_sentence_1

Hungary_table_infobox_0

Hungary

Magyarország  (Hungarian)Hungary_header_cell_0_0_0

Capital

and largest cityHungary_header_cell_0_1_0

BudapestHungary_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesHungary_header_cell_0_2_0 HungarianHungary_cell_0_2_1
Ethnic groups (microcensus 2016)Hungary_header_cell_0_3_0 Hungary_cell_0_3_1
Religion (census 2011)Hungary_header_cell_0_4_0 Hungary_cell_0_4_1
Demonym(s)Hungary_header_cell_0_5_0 HungarianHungary_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentHungary_header_cell_0_6_0 Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republicHungary_cell_0_6_1
PresidentHungary_header_cell_0_7_0 János ÁderHungary_cell_0_7_1
Prime MinisterHungary_header_cell_0_8_0 Viktor OrbánHungary_cell_0_8_1
Speaker of the National AssemblyHungary_header_cell_0_9_0 László KövérHungary_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureHungary_header_cell_0_10_0 National AssemblyHungary_cell_0_10_1
FoundationHungary_header_cell_0_11_0
Principality of HungaryHungary_header_cell_0_12_0 895Hungary_cell_0_12_1
Christian KingdomHungary_header_cell_0_13_0 25 December 1000Hungary_cell_0_13_1
Golden Bull of 1222Hungary_header_cell_0_14_0 24 April 1222Hungary_cell_0_14_1
Battle of MohácsHungary_header_cell_0_15_0 29 August 1526Hungary_cell_0_15_1
Liberation of BudaHungary_header_cell_0_16_0 2 September 1686Hungary_cell_0_16_1
Revolution of 1848Hungary_header_cell_0_17_0 15 March 1848Hungary_cell_0_17_1
Austro-Hungarian EmpireHungary_header_cell_0_18_0 30 March 1867Hungary_cell_0_18_1
Treaty of TrianonHungary_header_cell_0_19_0 4 June 1920Hungary_cell_0_19_1
Third RepublicHungary_header_cell_0_20_0 23 October 1989Hungary_cell_0_20_1
Joined the European UnionHungary_header_cell_0_21_0 1 May 2004Hungary_cell_0_21_1
Area Hungary_header_cell_0_22_0
TotalHungary_header_cell_0_23_0 93,030 km (35,920 sq mi) (108th)Hungary_cell_0_23_1
Water (%)Hungary_header_cell_0_24_0 3.7Hungary_cell_0_24_1
PopulationHungary_header_cell_0_25_0
2020 estimateHungary_header_cell_0_26_0 9,769,526 (91st)Hungary_cell_0_26_1
DensityHungary_header_cell_0_27_0 105/km (271.9/sq mi) (78th)Hungary_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Hungary_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateHungary_cell_0_28_1
TotalHungary_header_cell_0_29_0 $350.000 billion (53rd)Hungary_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaHungary_header_cell_0_30_0 $35,941 (40th)Hungary_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Hungary_header_cell_0_31_0 2020 estimateHungary_cell_0_31_1
TotalHungary_header_cell_0_32_0 $180.498 billion (54th)Hungary_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaHungary_header_cell_0_33_0 $18,535 (47th)Hungary_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2019)Hungary_header_cell_0_34_0 28.0

low · 16thHungary_cell_0_34_1

HDI (2018)Hungary_header_cell_0_35_0 0.845

very high · 43rdHungary_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyHungary_header_cell_0_36_0 Forint (HUF)Hungary_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneHungary_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC+1 (CET)Hungary_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Hungary_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Hungary_cell_0_38_1
Date formatHungary_header_cell_0_39_0 yyyy.mm.dd.Hungary_cell_0_39_1
Driving sideHungary_header_cell_0_40_0 rightHungary_cell_0_40_1
Calling codeHungary_header_cell_0_41_0 +36Hungary_cell_0_41_1
ISO 3166 codeHungary_header_cell_0_42_0 HUHungary_cell_0_42_1
Internet TLDHungary_header_cell_0_43_0 .huHungary_cell_0_43_1

Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország [ˈmɒɟɒrorsaːɡ (listen)) is a country in Central Europe. Hungary_sentence_2

Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. Hungary_sentence_3

With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union. Hungary_sentence_4

The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world, and among the few non-Indo-European languages to be widely spoken in Europe. Hungary_sentence_5

Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs, and Győr. Hungary_sentence_6

The territory of present Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. Hungary_sentence_7

The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century AD by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Hungary_sentence_8

His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. Hungary_sentence_9

By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century. Hungary_sentence_10

Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699). Hungary_sentence_11

The country came under Habsburg rule entirely at the turn of the 18th century, and later joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power. Hungary_sentence_12

The Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Hungary_sentence_13

Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary_sentence_14

Postwar Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades (1949–1989). Hungary_sentence_15

Following the failed 1956 revolution against the Soviet-backed government, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressive, member of the Eastern Bloc. Hungary_sentence_16

The seminal opening of the previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989 accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. Hungary_sentence_17

On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic. Hungary_sentence_18

Hungary is an OECD high-income economy, and has the world's 54th-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 53rd-largest by PPP. Hungary_sentence_19

It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, due in large part to its social security system, universal health care, and tuition-free secondary education. Hungary_sentence_20

Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology. Hungary_sentence_21

It is the thirteenth-most popular tourist destination in Europe, drawing 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary_sentence_22

Hungary's cultural, historical, and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary_sentence_23

Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007. Hungary_sentence_24

It is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, IIB, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, and the Visegrád Group. Hungary_sentence_25

Etymology Hungary_section_0

Main article: Name of Hungary Hungary_sentence_26

The "H" in the name of Hungary (and Latin Hungaria) is most likely due to founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. Hungary_sentence_27

The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi (Οὔγγροι). Hungary_sentence_28

The Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur ('ten [tribes of the] Ogurs'). Hungary_sentence_29

Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. Hungary_sentence_30

The Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of magyar ('Hungarian') and ország ('country'). Hungary_sentence_31

The name "Magyar", which refers to the people of the country, more accurately reflects the name of the country in some other languages such as Turkish, Persian and other languages as Magyaristan or Land of Magyars or similar. Hungary_sentence_32

The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri. Hungary_sentence_33

The first element magy is likely from Proto-Ugric *mäńć- 'man, person', also found in the name of the Mansi people (mäńćī, mańśi, måńś). Hungary_sentence_34

The second element eri, 'man, men, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj 'husband', and is cognate with Mari erge 'son', Finnish archaic yrkä 'young man'. Hungary_sentence_35

History Hungary_section_1

Main article: History of Hungary Hungary_sentence_36

Before 895 Hungary_section_2

Medieval Hungary (895–1526) Hungary_section_3

Main articles: Principality of Hungary and Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages Hungary_sentence_37

The freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád (by tradition a descendant of Attila), settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. Hungary_sentence_38

According to the Finno-Ugrian theory, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that formerly inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. Hungary_sentence_39

As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Hungary_sentence_40

Initially, the rising Principality of Hungary ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources) was a state created by a semi-nomadic people. Hungary_sentence_41

It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century. Hungary_sentence_42

This state was well-functioning and the nation's military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful fierce campaigns and raids, from Constantinople to as far as today's Spain. Hungary_sentence_43

The Hungarians defeated no fewer than three major East Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910. Hungary_sentence_44

A later defeat at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 signaled a provisory end to most campaigns on foreign territories, at least towards the West. Hungary_sentence_45

Age of Árpádian kings Hungary_section_4

Main article: Árpád dynasty Hungary_sentence_46

The year 972 marked the date when the ruling prince (Hungarian: fejedelem) Géza of the Árpád dynasty officially started to integrate Hungary into the Christian Western Europe. Hungary_sentence_47

His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first King of Hungary after defeating his pagan uncle Koppány, who also claimed the throne. Hungary_sentence_48

Under Stephen, Hungary was recognized as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom. Hungary_sentence_49

Applying to Pope Sylvester II, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the Holy Crown of Hungary, currently kept in the Hungarian Parliament) from the papacy. Hungary_sentence_50

By 1006, Stephen consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western feudal state. Hungary_sentence_51

The country switched to using the Latin language, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_52

Around this time, Hungary began to become a powerful kingdom. Hungary_sentence_53

Ladislaus I extended Hungary's frontier in Transylvania and invaded Croatia in 1091. Hungary_sentence_54

The Croatian campaign culminated in the Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097 and a personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by Coloman i.e. Könyves Kálmán. Hungary_sentence_55

The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. Hungary_sentence_56

This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown. Hungary_sentence_57

Andrew II issued the Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first Autonomy law in the world. Hungary_sentence_58

He led the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217, setting up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades. Hungary_sentence_59

His Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in Continental Europe. Hungary_sentence_60

The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (parlamentum publicum). Hungary_sentence_61

In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the Mongol (Tatar) invasion. Hungary_sentence_62

Up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the invasion. Hungary_sentence_63

King Béla IV let Cumans and Jassic people into the country, who were fleeing the Mongols. Hungary_sentence_64

Over the centuries, they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population. Hungary_sentence_65

As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. Hungary_sentence_66

The Mongols returned to Hungary in 1285, but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. Hungary_sentence_67

The invading Mongol force was defeated near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_68

As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force. Hungary_sentence_69

Age of elected kings Hungary_section_5

Main article: Ottoman–Hungarian Wars Hungary_sentence_70

The Kingdom of Hungary reached one of its greatest extents during the Árpádian kings, yet royal power was weakened at the end of their rule in 1301. Hungary_sentence_71

After a destructive period of interregnum (1301–1308), the first Angevin king, Charles I of Hungary – a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty – successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so-called "little kings". Hungary_sentence_72

The second Angevin Hungarian king, Louis the Great (1342–1382), led many successful military campaigns from Lithuania to Southern Italy (Kingdom of Naples), and was also King of Poland from 1370. Hungary_sentence_73

After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387–1437) succeeded to the throne, who in 1433 also became Holy Roman Emperor. Hungary_sentence_74

Sigismund was also (in several ways) a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty. Hungary_sentence_75

The first Hungarian Bible translation was completed in 1439. Hungary_sentence_76

For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in Transylvania, the Budai Nagy Antal Revolt, which was strongly influenced by Hussite ideas. Hungary_sentence_77

From a small noble family in Transylvania, John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. Hungary_sentence_78

He was elected governor then regent. Hungary_sentence_79

He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. Hungary_sentence_80

The last strong king of medieval Hungary was the Renaissance king Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), son of John Hunyadi. Hungary_sentence_81

His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. Hungary_sentence_82

He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. Hungary_sentence_83

His library, the Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the Vatican Library. Hungary_sentence_84

Items from the Bibliotheca Corviniana were inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005. Hungary_sentence_85

The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates. Hungary_sentence_86

Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the Battle of Breadfield. Hungary_sentence_87

Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau (Wrocław). Hungary_sentence_88

Matthias' mercenary standing army, the Black Army of Hungary, was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna (1485) and parts of Bohemia. Hungary_sentence_89

Decline of Hungary (1490–1526) Hungary_section_6

King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole Vladislaus II (1490–1516), supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy. Hungary_sentence_90

Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked. Hungary_sentence_91

In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the nobles, led by John Zápolya. Hungary_sentence_92

The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. Hungary_sentence_93

In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South, Nándorfehérvár (today's Belgrade, Serbia), fell to the Turks. Hungary_sentence_94

The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country. Hungary_sentence_95

Ottoman wars (1526–1699) Hungary_section_7

Main articles: Kingdom of Hungary (1526–1867), Ottoman Hungary, Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711), and Ottoman–Habsburg wars Hungary_sentence_96

After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, where King Louis II died while fleeing. Hungary_sentence_97

Amid political chaos, the divided Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, John Zápolya and Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty. Hungary_sentence_98

With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. Hungary_sentence_99

The north-western part, termed as Royal Hungary, was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_100

The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) suzerainty. Hungary_sentence_101

The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the Pashalik of Buda. Hungary_sentence_102

The vast majority of the seventeen and nineteen thousand Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs rather than ethnic Turkish people. Hungary_sentence_103

Orthodox Southern Slavs were also acting as akinjis and other light troops intended for pillaging in the territory of present-day Hungary. Hungary_sentence_104

In 1686, the Holy League's army, containing over 74,000 men from various nations, reconquered Buda from the Turks. Hungary_sentence_105

After some more crushing defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by 1718. Hungary_sentence_106

The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals Tatars from Crimea took place in 1717. Hungary_sentence_107

The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. Hungary_sentence_108

The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks. Hungary_sentence_109

A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished. Hungary_sentence_110

The Austrian-Habsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the depopulated south, and settled Germans (called Danube Swabians) in various areas, but Hungarians were not allowed to settle or re-settle in the south of the Great Plain. Hungary_sentence_111

From the 18th century to World War I (1699-1918) Hungary_section_8

Main articles: Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Austria-Hungary, Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, and Hungary in World War I Hungary_sentence_112

Between 1703 and 1711, there was a large-scale uprising led by Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". Hungary_sentence_113

The uprisings lasted for years. Hungary_sentence_114

The Hungarian Kuruc army, although taking over most of the country, lost the main battle at Trencsén (1708). Hungary_sentence_115

Three years later, because of the growing desertion, defeatism and low morale, the Kuruc forces finally surrendered. Hungary_sentence_116

During the Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades. Hungary_sentence_117

In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, which marked the beginning of a Reform Period (1825–1848, Hungarian: reformkor). Hungary_sentence_118

Count István Széchenyi, one of the most prominent statesmen of the country, recognized the urgent need of modernization and his message got through. Hungary_sentence_119

The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. Hungary_sentence_120

A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. Hungary_sentence_121

Lajos Kossuth – a famous journalist at that time – emerged as leader of the lower gentry in the Parliament. Hungary_sentence_122

A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernization even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to civil and political rights and economic reforms. Hungary_sentence_123

Many reformers (Lajos Kossuth, Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities. Hungary_sentence_124

On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of 12 demands. Hungary_sentence_125

Under governor and president Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, Lajos Batthyány, the House of Habsburg was dethroned. Hungary_sentence_126

The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skillfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers. Hungary_sentence_127

In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and minority rights in the world. Hungary_sentence_128

Many members of the nationalities gained the coveted highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps or Józef Bem, who was Polish and also became a national hero in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_129

The Hungarian forces (Honvédség) defeated Austrian armies. Hungary_sentence_130

To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Habsburg Emperor Franz Joseph I asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe", Tsar Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. Hungary_sentence_131

This made Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849. Hungary_sentence_132

The leader of the Austrian army, Julius Jacob von Haynau, became governor of Hungary for a few months, and ordered the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, and Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Hungary_sentence_133

Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. Hungary_sentence_134

Following the war of 1848 – 1849, the whole country was in "passive resistance". Hungary_sentence_135

Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of Austria–Hungary was formed. Hungary_sentence_136

This Empire had the second largest area in Europe (after the Russian Empire), and it was the third most populous (after Russia and the German Empire). Hungary_sentence_137

The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Hungary_sentence_138

Economically, the empire was a customs union. Hungary_sentence_139

The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph I was crowned as King of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_140

The era witnessed impressive economic development. Hungary_sentence_141

The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialized by the turn of the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until 1890. Hungary_sentence_142

In 1873, the old capital Buda and Óbuda were officially united with Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of Budapest. Hungary_sentence_143

Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. Hungary_sentence_144

After the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister István Tisza and his cabinet tried to avoid the outbreak and escalating of a war in Europe, but their diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful. Hungary_sentence_145

Austria–Hungary drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. Hungary_sentence_146

The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the Brusilov Offensive in June 1916, and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania, both of which were repelled. Hungary_sentence_147

In comparison, of the total army, Hungary's loss ratio was more than any other nations of Austria-Hungary. Hungary_sentence_148

The Central Powers conquered Serbia. Hungary_sentence_149

Romania declared war. Hungary_sentence_150

The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital Bucharest. Hungary_sentence_151

In 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, and the new monarch Charles IV sympathized with the pacifists. Hungary_sentence_152

With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire. Hungary_sentence_153

The Eastern front of the Allied (Entente) Powers completely collapsed. Hungary_sentence_154

The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. Hungary_sentence_155

On the Italian front, the Austro-Hungarian army made no progress against Italy after January 1918. Hungary_sentence_156

Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat on the more important Western front. Hungary_sentence_157

By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organized by leftist and pacifist movements) and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. Hungary_sentence_158

In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. Hungary_sentence_159

Austria-Hungary signed a general armistice in Padua on 3 November 1918. Hungary_sentence_160

In October 1918, Hungary's union with Austria was dissolved. Hungary_sentence_161

Between the World Wars (1918–1941) Hungary_section_9

Main articles: Hungary between the World Wars and Hungarian interwar economy Hungary_sentence_162

Following the First World War, Hungary underwent a period of profound political upheaval, beginning with the Aster Revolution in 1918, which brought the social-democratic Mihály Károlyi to power as Prime Minister. Hungary_sentence_163

The Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1,400,000 soldiers when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_164

Károlyi yielded to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's demand for pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. Hungary_sentence_165

This happened under the direction of Béla Linder, minister of war in the Károlyi government. Hungary_sentence_166

Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. Hungary_sentence_167

During the rule of Károlyi's pacifist cabinet, Hungary lost the control over approx. Hungary_sentence_168

75% of its former pre-WW1 territories (325 411 km²) without fight and was subject to foreign occupation. Hungary_sentence_169

The Little Entente, sensing an opportunity, invaded the country from three sides—Romania invaded Transylvania, Czechoslovakia annexed Upper Hungary (today's Slovakia), and a joint Serb-French coalition annexed Vojvodina and other southern regions. Hungary_sentence_170

In March 1919, communists led by Béla Kun ousted the Károlyi government and proclaimed the Hungarian Soviet Republic (Tanácsköztársaság), followed by a thorough Red Terror campaign. Hungary_sentence_171

Despite some successes on the Czechoslovak front, Kun's forces were ultimately unable to resist the Romanian invasion; by August 1919, Romanian troops occupied Budapest and ousted Kun. Hungary_sentence_172

In November 1919, rightist forces led by former Austro-Hungarian admiral Miklós Horthy entered Budapest; exhausted by the war and its aftermath, the populace accepted Horthy's leadership. Hungary_sentence_173

In January 1920, parliamentary elections were held and Horthy was proclaimed Regent of the reestablished Kingdom of Hungary, inaugurating the so-called "Horthy era" (Horthy-kor). Hungary_sentence_174

The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into 1920. Hungary_sentence_175

On 4 June of that year, the Treaty of Trianon established new borders for Hungary. Hungary_sentence_176

The country lost 71% of its territory and 66% of its antebellum population, as well as many sources of raw materials and its sole port, Fiume. Hungary_sentence_177

Though the revision of the Treaty quickly rose to the top of the national political agenda, the Horthy government was not willing to resort to military intervention to do so. Hungary_sentence_178

The initial years of the Horthy regime were preoccupied by putsch attempts by Charles IV, the Austro-Hungarian pretender; continued suppression of communists; and a migration crisis triggered by the Trianon territorial changes. Hungary_sentence_179

Though free elections continued, Horthy's personality, and those of his personally selected prime ministers, dominated the political scene. Hungary_sentence_180

The government's actions continued to drift right with the passage of antisemitic laws and, due to the continued isolation of the Little Entente, economic and then political gravitation toward Italy and Germany. Hungary_sentence_181

The Great Depression further exacerbated the situation and the popularity of fascist politicians such as Gyula Gömbös and Ferenc Szálasi, promising economic and social recovery, rose. Hungary_sentence_182

Horthy's nationalist agenda reached its apogee in 1938 and 1940, when the Nazis rewarded Hungary's staunchly pro-Germany foreign policy in the First and Second Vienna Awards, respectively, peacefully restoring ethnic-Hungarian-majority areas lost after Trianon. Hungary_sentence_183

In 1939, Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia through force. Hungary_sentence_184

Hungary formally joined the Axis Powers on 20 November 1940, and in 1941, participated in the invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some of its former territories in the south. Hungary_sentence_185

World War II (1941–1945) Hungary_section_10

Main articles: Hungary during World War II, Holocaust in Hungary, and Soviet occupation of Hungary Hungary_sentence_186

Hungary formally entered World War II as an Axis Power on 26 June 1941, declaring war on the Soviet Union after unidentified planes bombed Kassa, Munkács, and Rahó. Hungary_sentence_187

Hungarian troops fought on the Eastern Front for two years. Hungary_sentence_188

Despite some early successes, the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with the Allies after the Second Army suffered catastrophic losses at the River Don in January 1943. Hungary_sentence_189

Learning of the planned defection, German troops occupied Hungary on 19 March 1944 to guarantee Horthy's compliance. Hungary_sentence_190

In October, as the Soviet front approached and the Hungarian government made further efforts to disengage from the war, German troops ousted Horthy and installed a puppet government under Szálasi's fascist Arrow Cross Party. Hungary_sentence_191

Szálasi pledged all the country's capabilities in service of the German war machine. Hungary_sentence_192

By October 1944, the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite some losses, succeeded in encircling and besieging Budapest in December. Hungary_sentence_193

After German occupation, Hungary participated in the Holocaust. Hungary_sentence_194

During the German occupation in May–June 1944, the Arrow Cross and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mainly to Auschwitz. Hungary_sentence_195

Nearly all of them were murdered. Hungary_sentence_196

The Swedish Diplomat Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports. Hungary_sentence_197

Rezső Kasztner, one of the leaders of the Hungarian Aid and Rescue Committee, bribed senior SS officers such as Adolf Eichmann to allow some Jews to escape. Hungary_sentence_198

The Horthy government's complicity in the Holocaust remains a point of controversy and contention. Hungary_sentence_199

The war left Hungary devastated, destroying over 60% of the economy and causing significant loss of life. Hungary_sentence_200

In addition to the over 600,000 Hungarian Jews killed, as many as 280,000 other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labor by Czechoslovaks, Soviet Red Army troops, and Yugoslavs. Hungary_sentence_201

On 13 February 1945, Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation. Hungary_sentence_202

200,000 Hungarians were expelled from Czechoslovakia in exchange for 70,000 Slovaks living in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_203

202,000 ethnic Germans were expelled to Germany, and through the 1947 Paris Peace Treaties, Hungary was again reduced to its immediate post-Trianon borders. Hungary_sentence_204

Communism (1945–1989) Hungary_section_11

Main articles: Hungarian Republic (1946–49), Hungarian People's Republic, and Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Hungary_sentence_205

Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Hungary_sentence_206

The Soviet leadership selected Mátyás Rákosi to front the Stalinization of the country, and Rákosi de facto ruled Hungary from 1949 to 1956. Hungary_sentence_207

His government's policies of militarization, industrialization, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards. Hungary_sentence_208

In imitation of Stalin's KGB, the Rákosi government established a secret political police, the ÁVH, to enforce the new regime. Hungary_sentence_209

In the ensuing purges approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from 1948 to 1956. Hungary_sentence_210

Many freethinkers, democrats, and Horthy-era dignitaries were secretly arrested and extrajudicially interned in domestic and foreign Gulags. Hungary_sentence_211

Some 600,000 Hungarians were deported to Soviet labor camps, where at least 200,000 died. Hungary_sentence_212

After Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviet Union pursued a program of destalinization that was inimical to Rákosi, leading to his deposition. Hungary_sentence_213

The following political cooling saw the ascent of Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life. Hungary_sentence_214

Nagy promised market liberalization and political openness, while Rákosi opposed both vigorously. Hungary_sentence_215

Rákosi eventually managed to discredit Nagy and replace him with the more hard-line Ernő Gerő. Hungary_sentence_216

Hungary joined the Warsaw Pact in May 1955, as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Hungary_sentence_217

Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October 1956, protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the 1956 Revolution. Hungary_sentence_218

In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact. Hungary_sentence_219

The violence nonetheless continued as revolutionary militias sprung up against the Soviet Army and the ÁVH; the roughly 3,000-strong resistance fought Soviet tanks using Molotov cocktails and machine-pistols. Hungary_sentence_220

Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October 1956, most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside. Hungary_sentence_221

For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc. Hungary_sentence_222

On 4 November, reinforcements of more than 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union. Hungary_sentence_223

Nearly 20,000 Hungarians were killed resisting the intervention, while an additional 21,600 were imprisoned afterwards for political reasons. Hungary_sentence_224

Some 13,000 were interned and 230 brought to trial and executed. Hungary_sentence_225

Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June 1958. Hungary_sentence_226

Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed. Hungary_sentence_227

Kádár era (1956–1988) Hungary_section_12

See also: Goulash Communism Hungary_sentence_228

After a second, briefer period of Soviet military occupation, János Kádár, Nagy's former Minister of State, was chosen by the Soviet leadership to head the new government and chair the new ruling Socialist Workers' Party (MSzMP). Hungary_sentence_229

Kádár quickly normalized the situation. Hungary_sentence_230

In 1963, the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising. Hungary_sentence_231

Kádár proclaimed a new policy line, according to which the people were no longer compelled to profess loyalty to the party if they tacitly accepted the Socialist regime as a fact of life. Hungary_sentence_232

In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us." Hungary_sentence_233

Kádár introduced new planning priorities in the economy, such as allowing farmers significant plots of private land within the collective farm system (háztáji gazdálkodás). Hungary_sentence_234

The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one-tenth of pre-revolutionary levels. Hungary_sentence_235

In 1968, the New Economic Mechanism (NEM) introduced free-market elements into socialist command economy. Hungary_sentence_236

From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often referred to as "the happiest barrack" within the Eastern bloc. Hungary_sentence_237

During the latter part of the Cold War Hungary's GDP per capita was fourth only to East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union itself. Hungary_sentence_238

As a result of this relatively high standard of living, a more liberalized economy, a less censored press, and less restricted travel rights, Hungary was generally considered one of the more liberal countries in which to live in Central Europe during communism. Hungary_sentence_239

In the 1980s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond. Hungary_sentence_240

By the time Kádár died in 1989, the Soviet Union was in steep decline and a younger generation of reformists saw liberalization as the solution to economic and social issues. Hungary_sentence_241

Third Republic (1989–present) Hungary_section_13

See also: Revolutions of 1989 and 2006 protests in Hungary Hungary_sentence_242

Hungary's transition from communism to democracy and capitalism (rendszerváltás, "regime change") was peaceful and prompted by economic stagnation, domestic political pressure, and changing relations with other Warsaw Pact countries. Hungary_sentence_243

Although the MSzMP began Round Table Talks with various opposition groups in March 1989, the reburial of Imre Nagy as a revolutionary martyr that June is widely considered the symbolic end of communism in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_244

Over 100,000 people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country. Hungary_sentence_245

Free elections were held in May 1990, and the Hungarian Democratic Forum, a major conservative opposition group, was elected to the head of a coalition government. Hungary_sentence_246

József Antall became the first democratically elected Prime Minister since World War II. Hungary_sentence_247

With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in 1991, Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession. Hungary_sentence_248

The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the Socialist Party, won the subsequent 1994 elections. Hungary_sentence_249

This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in 1998 and 2002; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected. Hungary_sentence_250

Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an integrationist agenda, joining NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Hungary_sentence_251

As a NATO member, Hungary was involved in the Yugoslav Wars. Hungary_sentence_252

In 2006, major protests erupted after it was revealed that Prime Minister Ferenc Gyurcsány had claimed in a private speech that his party "lied" to win the recent elections. Hungary_sentence_253

The popularity of left-wing parties plummeted in the ensuing political upheaval, and in 2010, Viktor Orbán's national-conservative Fidesz was elected to a parliamentary supermajority. Hungary_sentence_254

The legislature consequently approved a new constitution, among other sweeping governmental and legal changes. Hungary_sentence_255

Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority in 2014 and a third in 2018. Hungary_sentence_256

In September 2018, the European parliament voted to act against Hungary, under the terms of Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union. Hungary_sentence_257

Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a "systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law. Hungary_sentence_258

The vote was carried with the support of 448 MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. Hungary_sentence_259

The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state. Hungary_sentence_260

Péter Szijjártó, the Hungarian foreign minister, described the vote as "petty revenge" which had been provoked by Hungary's tough anti-migration policies. Hungary_sentence_261

Szijjártó alleged that the vote was fraudulent because abstentions were not counted which made it easier to reach the two-thirds majority required to pass the vote. Hungary_sentence_262

At the European elections in May 2019, Viktor Orbán's Fidesz Party secured another a sweeping victory, receiving more than 50 % of the votes. Hungary_sentence_263

In March 2020, during the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, the Hungarian parliament passed a law granting the Government the power to rule by decree to the extent it is necessary to diminish the consequences of the pandemic, suspending by-elections and outlawing the "spreading of misinformation". Hungary_sentence_264

The Government's special authorization is in force until the pandemic is declared to have ended. Hungary_sentence_265

The law was lifted on 16 June, 2020. Hungary_sentence_266

Geography Hungary_section_14

Main article: Geography of Hungary Hungary_sentence_267

See also: List of national parks of Hungary Hungary_sentence_268

Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the Danube and Tisza rivers. Hungary_sentence_269

The common tripartite division of the country into three sections—Dunántúl ("beyond the Danube", Transdanubia), Tiszántúl ("beyond the Tisza"), and Duna-Tisza köze ("between the Danube and Tisza")—is a reflection of this. Hungary_sentence_270

The Danube flows north–south right through the center of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its drainage basin. Hungary_sentence_271

Transdanubia, which stretches westward from the center of the country toward Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. Hungary_sentence_272

These include the very eastern stretch of the Alps, Alpokalja, in the west of the country, the Transdanubian Mountains in the central region of Transdanubia, and the Mecsek Mountains and Villány Mountains in the south. Hungary_sentence_273

The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at 882 metres (2,894 ft). Hungary_sentence_274

The Little Hungarian Plain (Kisalföld) is found in northern Transdanubia. Hungary_sentence_275

Lake Balaton and Lake Hévíz, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest thermal lake in the world, respectively, are in Transdanubia as well. Hungary_sentence_276

The Duna-Tisza köze and Tiszántúl are characterized mainly by the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld), which stretches across most of the eastern and southeastern areas of the country. Hungary_sentence_277

To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the Carpathians in a wide band near the Slovakian border. Hungary_sentence_278

The Kékes at 1,014 m or 3,327 ft is the tallest mountain in Hungary and is found here. Hungary_sentence_279

Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. Hungary_sentence_280

According to the WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the ecoregion of Pannonian mixed forests. Hungary_sentence_281

Hungary has 10 national parks, 145 minor nature reserves, and 35 landscape protection areas. Hungary_sentence_282

Hungary is a landlocked country. Hungary_sentence_283

Climate Hungary_section_15

Hungary has a temperate seasonal climate, with generally warm summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters. Hungary_sentence_284

Average annual temperature is 9.7 °C (49.5 °F). Hungary_sentence_285

Temperature extremes are 41.9 °C (107.4 °F) on 20 July 2007 at Kiskunhalas in the summer and −35 °C (−31.0 °F) on 16 February 1940 Miskolc-Görömbölytapolca in the winter. Hungary_sentence_286

Average high temperature in the summer is 23 to 28 °C (73 to 82 °F) and average low temperature in the winter is −3 to −7 °C (27 to 19 °F). Hungary_sentence_287

The average yearly rainfall is approximately 600 mm (23.6 in). Hungary_sentence_288

Hungary is ranked sixth in an environmental protection index by GW/CAN. Hungary_sentence_289

Government and politics Hungary_section_16

Main articles: Politics of Hungary, Government of Hungary, and Taxation in Hungary Hungary_sentence_290

Hungary is a unitary, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. Hungary_sentence_291

The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in 2012; this constitutional document is the Fundamental Law of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_292

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution (as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the rule of law) are valid in perpetuity. Hungary_sentence_293

199 Members of Parliament (országgyűlési képviselő) are elected to the highest organ of state authority, the unicameral Országgyűlés (National Assembly), every four years in a single-round first-past-the-post election with an election threshold of 5%. Hungary_sentence_294

The President of the Republic (köztársasági elnök) serves as the head of state and is elected by the National Assembly every five years. Hungary_sentence_295

The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: receiving foreign heads of state, formally nominating the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the National Assembly, and serving as Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Hungary_sentence_296

Importantly, the president is also invested with veto power, and may send legislation to the 15-member Constitutional Court for review. Hungary_sentence_297

The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the Speaker of the National Assembly, who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. Hungary_sentence_298

The Prime Minister (miniszterelnök) is elected by the National Assembly, serving as the head of government and exercising executive power. Hungary_sentence_299

Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. Hungary_sentence_300

The Prime Minister selects Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president. Hungary_sentence_301

The cabinet reports to parliament. Hungary_sentence_302

In 2009 Hungary, due to strong economic difficulties, had to request the help of the IMF for about €9 billion. Hungary_sentence_303

The debt-to-GDP ratio of Hungary had its peak in 2011 when it stood at 83% and decreased since then. Hungary_sentence_304

According to Eurostat, the government gross debt of Hungary amounts to 25.119 billion HUF or 74.1% of its GDP in 2016. Hungary_sentence_305

The government achieved a budget deficit 1.9% of the GDP in 2015. Hungary_sentence_306

Hungary's credit rating by credit rating agencies Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch Ratings stands at Investment Grade BBB with a stable outlook in 2016. Hungary_sentence_307

On Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index Hungary's public sector has deteriorated from a score of 51 in 2015 to 44 in 2019 making it the 2nd most corrupt EU member at pair with Romania and behind Bulgaria. Hungary_sentence_308

Following a decade of Fidesz-KDNP rule lead by Viktor Orbán, Freedom House's Nations in Transit 2020 report reclassified Hungary from a democracy to a transitional or hybrid regime. Hungary_sentence_309

According to the report, "the right-wing alliance... has gradually undermined the rule of law in Hungary and established tight control over the country’s independent institutions... [it] has steadily rewritten the Hungarian constitution, and eliminated democratic safeguards statutorily embodied in the Constitutional Court, Prosecutors Office, Media Authority, and State Audit Office...". Hungary_sentence_310

It also limited parliamentary oversight, independent media, non-governmental organizations and academics, while consolidating power around the central government. Hungary_sentence_311

Political parties Hungary_section_17

Main articles: Political parties in Hungary and Elections in Hungary Hungary_sentence_312

Hungary_table_infobox_1

Current Structure of the National Assembly of HungaryHungary_header_cell_1_0_0
StructureHungary_header_cell_1_1_0
SeatsHungary_header_cell_1_2_0 199Hungary_cell_1_2_1
Political groupsHungary_header_cell_1_3_0 Government (133)


Supported by (1)


Opposition (65)Hungary_cell_1_3_1

Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a multi-party system. Hungary_sentence_313

The last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018. Hungary_sentence_314

This parliamentary election was the 7th since the 1990 first multi-party election. Hungary_sentence_315

The result was a victory for FideszKDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. Hungary_sentence_316

It was the second election according to the new Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012. Hungary_sentence_317

The new electoral law also entered into force that day. Hungary_sentence_318

The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers. Hungary_sentence_319

The current political landscape in Hungary is dominated by the conservative Fidesz, who have a near supermajority, and two medium-sized parties, the left-wing Democratic Coalition (DK) and liberal Momentum. Hungary_sentence_320

The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in 1989. Hungary_sentence_321

Today's parliament is still called Országgyűlés just like in royal times, but in order to differentiate between the historical royal diet is referred to as "National Assembly" now. Hungary_sentence_322

The Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, and in its successor states, Royal Hungary and the Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the Early Modern period. Hungary_sentence_323

The articles of the 1790 diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the Habsburg monarchy, this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter. Hungary_sentence_324

As a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. Hungary_sentence_325

The Latin term Natio Hungarica ("Hungarian nation") was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the nobility, the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers, regardless of language or ethnicity. Hungary_sentence_326

Law and judicial system Hungary_section_18

Main articles: Law of Hungary and Law enforcement in Hungary Hungary_sentence_327

The judicial system of Hungary is a civil law system divided between courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Hungary_sentence_328

Hungarian law is codified and based on German law and in a wider sense, civil law or Roman law. Hungary_sentence_329

The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (járásbíróság), regional appellate courts (ítélőtábla), and the supreme court (Kúria). Hungary_sentence_330

Hungary's highest courts are located in Budapest. Hungary_sentence_331

Law enforcement in Hungary is split among the police and the National Tax and Customs Administration. Hungary_sentence_332

The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state law enforcement agency in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_333

It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control. Hungary_sentence_334

It is led by the National Police Commissioner under the control of the Minister of the Interior. Hungary_sentence_335

The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments. Hungary_sentence_336

The National Police also have subordinate agencies with nationwide jurisdiction, such as the "Nemzeti Nyomozó Iroda" (National Bureau of Investigation), a civilian police force specialised in investigating serious crimes, and the gendarmerie-like, militarised "Készenléti Rendőrség" (Stand-by Police) mainly dealing with riots and often reinforcing local police forces. Hungary_sentence_337

Due to Hungary's accession to the Schengen Treaty, the Police and Border Guards were merged into a single national corps, with the Border Guards becoming Police Officers. Hungary_sentence_338

This merger took place in January 2008. Hungary_sentence_339

The Customs and Excise Authority remained subject to the Ministry of Finance under the National Tax and Customs Administration. Hungary_sentence_340

Administrative divisions Hungary_section_19

Main article: Administrative divisions of Hungary Hungary_sentence_341

Hungary is a unitary state nation divided into 19 counties (megye). Hungary_sentence_342

In addition, the capital (főváros), Budapest, is an independent entity. Hungary_sentence_343

The counties and the capital are the 20 NUTS third-level units of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_344

The states are further subdivided into 174 districts (járás) as of 1 January 2013. Hungary_sentence_345

The districts are further divided into towns and villages, of which 23 are designated towns with county rights (megyei jogú város), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English. Hungary_sentence_346

The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units. Hungary_sentence_347

County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. Hungary_sentence_348

The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Hungary_sentence_349

Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into seven regions for statistical and development purposes. Hungary_sentence_350

These seven regions constitute NUTS' second-level units of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_351

They are Central Hungary, Central Transdanubia, Northern Great Plain, Northern Hungary, Southern Transdanubia, Southern Great Plain, and Western Transdanubia. Hungary_sentence_352

Hungary_table_general_2

County

(megye)Hungary_header_cell_2_0_0

Administrative

centreHungary_header_cell_2_0_1

PopulationHungary_header_cell_2_0_2 RegionHungary_header_cell_2_0_3
Bács-KiskunHungary_cell_2_1_0 KecskemétHungary_cell_2_1_1 524,841Hungary_cell_2_1_2 Southern Great PlainHungary_cell_2_1_3
BaranyaHungary_cell_2_2_0 PécsHungary_cell_2_2_1 391,455Hungary_cell_2_2_2 Southern TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_2_3
BékésHungary_cell_2_3_0 BékéscsabaHungary_cell_2_3_1 361,802Hungary_cell_2_3_2 Southern Great PlainHungary_cell_2_3_3
Borsod-Abaúj-ZemplénHungary_cell_2_4_0 MiskolcHungary_cell_2_4_1 684,793Hungary_cell_2_4_2 Northern HungaryHungary_cell_2_4_3
Capital City of BudapestHungary_cell_2_5_0 BudapestHungary_cell_2_5_1 1,744,665Hungary_cell_2_5_2 Central HungaryHungary_cell_2_5_3
Csongrád-CsanádHungary_cell_2_6_0 SzegedHungary_cell_2_6_1 421,827Hungary_cell_2_6_2 Southern Great PlainHungary_cell_2_6_3
FejérHungary_cell_2_7_0 SzékesfehérvárHungary_cell_2_7_1 426,120Hungary_cell_2_7_2 Central TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_7_3
Győr-Moson-SopronHungary_cell_2_8_0 GyőrHungary_cell_2_8_1 449,967Hungary_cell_2_8_2 Western TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_8_3
Hajdú-BiharHungary_cell_2_9_0 DebrecenHungary_cell_2_9_1 565,674Hungary_cell_2_9_2 Northern Great PlainHungary_cell_2_9_3
HevesHungary_cell_2_10_0 EgerHungary_cell_2_10_1 307,985Hungary_cell_2_10_2 Northern HungaryHungary_cell_2_10_3
Jász-Nagykun-SzolnokHungary_cell_2_11_0 SzolnokHungary_cell_2_11_1 386,752Hungary_cell_2_11_2 Northern Great PlainHungary_cell_2_11_3
Komárom-EsztergomHungary_cell_2_12_0 TatabányaHungary_cell_2_12_1 311,411Hungary_cell_2_12_2 Central TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_12_3
NógrádHungary_cell_2_13_0 SalgótarjánHungary_cell_2_13_1 201,919Hungary_cell_2_13_2 Northern HungaryHungary_cell_2_13_3
PestHungary_cell_2_14_0 BudapestHungary_cell_2_14_1 1,237,561Hungary_cell_2_14_2 Central HungaryHungary_cell_2_14_3
SomogyHungary_cell_2_15_0 KaposvárHungary_cell_2_15_1 317,947Hungary_cell_2_15_2 Southern TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_15_3
Szabolcs-Szatmár-BeregHungary_cell_2_16_0 NyíregyházaHungary_cell_2_16_1 552,000Hungary_cell_2_16_2 Northern Great PlainHungary_cell_2_16_3
TolnaHungary_cell_2_17_0 SzekszárdHungary_cell_2_17_1 231,183Hungary_cell_2_17_2 Southern TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_17_3
VasHungary_cell_2_18_0 SzombathelyHungary_cell_2_18_1 257,688Hungary_cell_2_18_2 Western TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_18_3
VeszprémHungary_cell_2_19_0 VeszprémHungary_cell_2_19_1 353,068Hungary_cell_2_19_2 Central TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_19_3
ZalaHungary_cell_2_20_0 ZalaegerszegHungary_cell_2_20_1 287,043Hungary_cell_2_20_2 Western TransdanubiaHungary_cell_2_20_3

Foreign relations Hungary_section_20

Main article: Foreign relations of Hungary Hungary_sentence_353

The foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to Atlantic co-operation, to European integration, to international development and to international law. Hungary_sentence_354

The Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on international trade. Hungary_sentence_355

Hungary has been a member of the United Nations since December 1955 and a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the Visegrád Group, the WTO, the World Bank, the AIIB and the IMF. Hungary_sentence_356

Hungary took on the presidency of the Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011 and the next will be in 2024. Hungary_sentence_357

In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest OECD Non-DAC donor of development aid in the world, which represents 0.13% of its Gross National Income. Hungary_sentence_358

Hungary's capital city, Budapest, is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor. Hungary_sentence_359

Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organizations as well, including European Institute of Innovation and Technology, European Police College, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Centre for Democratic Transition, Institute of International Education, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, International Red Cross, Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Danube Commission and others. Hungary_sentence_360

Since 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organizations. Hungary_sentence_361

Hungary joined the Partnership for Peace program in 1994 and has actively supported the IFOR and SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary_sentence_362

Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighborly relations by signing basic treaties with Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Hungary_sentence_363

These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. Hungary_sentence_364

However, the issue of ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Hungary_sentence_365

Since 2017, the relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the Hungarian minority in Ukraine. Hungary_sentence_366

Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the OSCE documents, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997. Hungary_sentence_367

Military Hungary_section_21

Main article: Hungarian Defence Force Hungary_sentence_368

The 2016 Global Peace Index ranked Hungary 19th out of 163 countries. Hungary_sentence_369

The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. Hungary_sentence_370

The Ministry of Defence jointly with Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the Hungarian Ground Force and the Hungarian Air Force. Hungary_sentence_371

Since 2007, the Hungarian Armed Forces has been under a unified command structure. Hungary_sentence_372

The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army. Hungary_sentence_373

A subordinate Joint Forces Command coordinates and commands the HDF. Hungary_sentence_374

In 2016, the armed forces had 31,080 personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand. Hungary_sentence_375

In 2016, it was planned that military spending the following year would be $1.21 billion, about 0.94% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%. Hungary_sentence_376

In 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1.4% of GDP by 2022. Hungary_sentence_377

Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime. Hungary_sentence_378

In a significant move for modernization, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy 14 JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. Hungary_sentence_379

Hungarian National Cyber Security Center was re-organized in 2016 in order to become more efficient through cyber security. Hungary_sentence_380

In 2016, the Hungarian military had about 700 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including 100 HDF troops in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan, 210 Hungarian soldiers in Kosovo under command of KFOR, and 160 troops in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Hungary_sentence_381

Hungary sent a 300-strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war. Hungary_sentence_382

One soldier was killed in action by a roadside bomb while serving in Iraq. Hungary_sentence_383

During the 18th and 19th century, Hungarian Hussars rose to international fame and served as a model for light cavalry in many European countries. Hungary_sentence_384

In 1848–49, Hungarian forces achieved successes against better-trained and equipped Austrian forces, despite the Austrian advantage in numbers. Hungary_sentence_385

In 1872, the Ludovica Military Academy officially began training cadets. Hungary_sentence_386

By 1873, the Hungarian military consisted of over 2,800 officers and 158,000 men organized into eighty-six infantry battalions and fifty-eight mounted squadrons. Hungary_sentence_387

During World War I, out of the eight million men mobilized by Austro Hungarian Empire, over one million died. Hungary_sentence_388

During the 1930s and early 1940s, Hungary was preoccupied with regaining the territories and population lost as a result of the Trianon peace treaty at Versailles in 1920. Hungary_sentence_389

Conscription was introduced on a national basis in 1939. Hungary_sentence_390

The peacetime strength of the Royal Hungarian Army grew to 80,000 men organized into seven corps commands. Hungary_sentence_391

During World War II, the Hungarian Second Army was heavily depleted fighting on the banks of the Don River in December 1942 during the Battle for Stalingrad. Hungary_sentence_392

During the Socialist and the Warsaw Pact era (1947–1989), the entire 200,000 strong Southern Group of Forces was garrisoned in Hungary, complete with artillery, tank regiments, air force and missile troops with nuclear weapons. Hungary_sentence_393

Economy Hungary_section_22

Main article: Economy of Hungary Hungary_sentence_394

Hungary is an OECD high-income mixed economy with very high human development index and skilled labour force with the 16th lowest income inequality in the world. Hungary_sentence_395

Furthermore, it is the 9th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index. Hungary_sentence_396

The Hungarian is the 57th-largest economy in the world (out of 188 countries measured by IMF) with $265.037 billion output, and ranks 49th in the world in terms of GDP per capita measured by purchasing power parity. Hungary_sentence_397

Hungary is an export-oriented market economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade, thus the country is the 36th largest export economy in the world. Hungary_sentence_398

The country has more than $100 billion export in 2015 with high, $9.003 billion trade surplus, of which 79% went to the EU and 21% was extra-EU trade. Hungary_sentence_399

Hungary has a more than 80% privately owned economy with 39,1% overall taxation, which provides the basis for the country's welfare economy. Hungary_sentence_400

On the expenditure side, household consumption is the main component of GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed capital formation with 22 percent and government expenditure with 20 percent. Hungary_sentence_401

Hungary continues to be one of the leading nations for attracting foreign direct investment in Central and Eastern Europe, the inward FDI in the country was $119.8 billion in 2015, while Hungary invests more than $50 billion abroad. Hungary_sentence_402

As of 2015, the key trading partners of Hungary were Germany, Austria, Romania, Slovakia, France, Italy, Poland and Czech Republic. Hungary_sentence_403

Major industries include food processing, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, information technology, chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism (in 2014 Hungary welcomed 12.1 million international tourists). Hungary_sentence_404

Hungary is the largest electronics producer in Central and Eastern Europe. Hungary_sentence_405

Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of innovation and economic growth in the country. Hungary_sentence_406

In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major center for mobile technology, information security, and related hardware research. Hungary_sentence_407

The employment rate in the economy was 68.3% in 2017, the employment structure shows the characteristics of post-industrial economies, 63.2% of employed workforce work in service sector, the industry contributed by 29.7%, while agriculture with 7.1%. Hungary_sentence_408

Unemployment rate was 4.1% in 2017 September, down from 11% during the financial crisis of 2007–08. Hungary_sentence_409

Hungary is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. Hungary_sentence_410

Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation. Hungary_sentence_411

Large Hungarian companies are included in the BUX, the Hungarian stock market index listed on Budapest Stock Exchange. Hungary_sentence_412

Well-known companies include the Fortune Global 500 firm MOL Group, the OTP Bank, Gedeon Richter Plc. Hungary_sentence_413

, Magyar Telekom, CIG Pannonia, FHB Bank, Zwack Unicum and more. Hungary_sentence_414

Besides this Hungary has a large portion of specialised small and medium enterprise, for example a significant number of automotive suppliers and technology start ups among others. Hungary_sentence_415

Budapest is the financial and business capital of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_416

The capital is a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha – world city in the study by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network and it is the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe as GDP per capita in the city increased by 2.4 per cent and employment by 4.7 per cent compared to the previous year in 2014. Hungary_sentence_417

On the national level, Budapest is the primate city of Hungary regarding business and economy, accounting for 39% of the national income, the city has a gross metropolitan product more than $100 billion in 2015, making it one of the largest regional economies in the European Union. Hungary_sentence_418

Budapest is also among the Top 100 GDP performing cities in the world, measured by PricewaterhouseCoopers and in a global city competitiveness ranking by EIU, Budapest stands before Tel Aviv, Lisbon, Moscow and Johannesburg among others. Hungary_sentence_419

Furthermore, Hungary's corporate tax rate is only 9%, which is relatively low for EU states. Hungary_sentence_420

Hungary maintains its own currency, the Hungarian forint (HUF), although the economy fulfills the Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of 75.3% in 2015. Hungary_sentence_421

The Hungarian National Bank—founded in 1924, after the dissolution of Austro-Hungarian Empire—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 3%. Hungary_sentence_422

Science and technology Hungary_section_23

Main articles: Science and technology in Hungary and Education in Hungary Hungary_sentence_423

Hungary's achievements in science and technology have been significant, and research and development efforts form an integral part of the country's economy. Hungary_sentence_424

Hungary spent 1.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on civil research and development in 2015, which is the 25th highest ratio in the world. Hungary_sentence_425

Hungary ranks 32nd among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index, standing before Hong Kong, Iceland or Malta. Hungary_sentence_426

The Global Innovation Index places Hungary 33rd among the countries of the world in 2016. Hungary_sentence_427

In 2014, Hungary counted 2,651 full-time equivalent researchers per million inhabitants, steadily increasing from 2,131 in 2010 and compares with 3,984 in the US or 4,380 in Germany. Hungary_sentence_428

Hungary's high technology industry has benefited from both the country's skilled workforce and the strong presence of foreign high-tech firms and research centres. Hungary_sentence_429

Hungary also has one of the highest rates of filed patents, the sixth highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrial output, the 12th highest research FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world. Hungary_sentence_430

The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NRDI Office), which is a national strategic and funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation, the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the Hungarian Government, and the primary RDI funding agency. Hungary_sentence_431

Its role is to develop RDI policy and ensure that Hungary adequately invest in RDI by funding excellent research and supporting innovation to increase competitiveness and to prepare the RDI strategy of the Hungarian Government, to handle the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, and represents the Hungarian Government and a Hungarian RDI community in international organizations. Hungary_sentence_432

Scientific research in the country is supported partly by industry and partly by the state, through the network of Hungarian universities and by scientific state-institutions such as Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Hungary_sentence_433

Hungary has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific disciplines, notably physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Hungary_sentence_434

As of 2018, twelve Hungarian scientists have been recipients of a Nobel Prize. Hungary_sentence_435

Until 2012 three individuals: Csoma, János Bolyai and Tihanyi were included in the UNESCO Memory of the world register as well as the collective contributions: Tabula Hungariae and Bibliotheca Corviniana. Hungary_sentence_436

Contemporary, internationally well-known Hungarian scientists include: mathematician László Lovász, physicist Albert-László Barabási, physicist Ferenc Krausz, and biochemist Árpád Pusztai. Hungary_sentence_437

Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Hungary_sentence_438

Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, who was one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry; Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked, and John von Neumann, a key contributor in the fields of quantum mechanics and game theory, a pioneer of digital computing, and the chief mathematician in the Manhattan Project. Hungary_sentence_439

Notable Hungarian inventions include the lead dioxide match (János Irinyi), a type of carburetor (Donát Bánki, János Csonka), the electric (AC) train engine and generator (Kálmán Kandó), holography (Dennis Gabor), the Kalman filter (Rudolf E. Kálmán), and Rubik's Cube (Ernő Rubik). Hungary_sentence_440

Transport Hungary_section_24

Main article: Transport in Hungary Hungary_sentence_441

Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Hungary_sentence_442

Budapest, the capital, serves as an important hub for the Hungarian railway system (MÁV). Hungary_sentence_443

The capital is served by three large train stations called Keleti (Eastern), Nyugati (Western), and Déli (Southern) pályaudvars. Hungary_sentence_444

Szolnok is the most important railway hub outside Budapest, while Tiszai Railway Station in Miskolc and the main stations of Szombathely, Győr, Szeged, and Székesfehérvár are also key to the network. Hungary_sentence_445

Budapest, Debrecen, Miskolc, and Szeged have tram networks. Hungary_sentence_446

The Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground metro system in the world; its Line 1 dates from 1896. Hungary_sentence_447

The system consists of four lines. Hungary_sentence_448

A commuter rail system, HÉV, operates in the Budapest metropolitan area. Hungary_sentence_449

Hungary has a total length of approximately 1,314 km (816.48 mi) motorways (Hungarian: autópálya). Hungary_sentence_450

Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital. Hungary_sentence_451

The most important port is Budapest. Hungary_sentence_452

Other important ones include Dunaújváros and Baja. Hungary_sentence_453

There are five international airports in Hungary: Budapest Liszt Ferenc (informally called "Ferihegy" after its previous name), Debrecen, Sármellék (also called Hévíz-Balaton Airport), Győr-Pér, and Pécs-Pogány. Hungary_sentence_454

The national carrier, MALÉV, operated flights to over 60, mostly European cities, but ceased operations in 2012. Hungary_sentence_455

Low-budget airline WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy. Hungary_sentence_456

Demographics Hungary_section_25

Main articles: Demographics of Hungary, Hungarians, and Women in Hungary Hungary_sentence_457

Hungary's population was 9,937,628 according to the 2011 census, making it the fifth most populous country in Central and Eastern Europe and medium-sized member state of the European Union. Hungary_sentence_458

Population density stands at 107 inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the world average. Hungary_sentence_459

More than one quarter of the population lived in the Budapest metropolitan area, 6,903,858 people (69.5%) in cities and towns overall. Hungary_sentence_460

Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing sub-replacement fertility; its estimated total fertility rate of 1.43 children per woman is well below the replacement rate of 2.1, albeit higher than its nadir of 1.28 in 1999, and remains considerably below the high of 5.59 children born per woman in 1884. Hungary_sentence_461

As a result, its population has been gradually declining and rapidly aging. Hungary_sentence_462

In 2011, the conservative government began a program to increase the birth rate with a focus on ethnic Magyars by reinstating 3 year maternity leave as well as boosting part-time jobs. Hungary_sentence_463

The fertility rate has gradually increased from 1.27 children born/woman in 2011. Hungary_sentence_464

The natural decrease in the first 10 months of 2016 was only 25,828 which was 8,162 less than the corresponding period in 2015. Hungary_sentence_465

In 2015, 47.9% of births were to unmarried women. Hungary_sentence_466

Hungary has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 42.7 years. Hungary_sentence_467

Life expectancy was 71.96 years for men and 79.62 years for women in 2015, growing continuously since the fall of Communism. Hungary_sentence_468

Hungary recognizes two sizable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: a German community of about 130,000 that lives throughout the country, and a Romani minority numerous around 300,000 that mainly resides in the northern part of the country. Hungary_sentence_469

Some studies indicate a considerably larger number of Romani in Hungary (876,000 people – c. 9% of the population.). Hungary_sentence_470

According to the 2011 census, there were 8,314,029 (83.7%) ethnic Hungarians, 308,957 (3.1%) Romani, 131,951 (1.3%) Germans, 29,647 (0.3%) Slovaks, 26,345 (0.3%) Romanians, and 23,561 (0.2%) Croats in Hungary; 1,455,883 people (14.7% of the total population) did not declare their ethnicity. Hungary_sentence_471

Thus, Hungarians made up more than 90% of people who declared their ethnicity. Hungary_sentence_472

In Hungary, people can declare more than one ethnicity, so the sum of ethnicities is higher than the total population. Hungary_sentence_473

Today approximately 5 million Hungarians live outside Hungary. Hungary_sentence_474

Urbanization Hungary_section_26

Main article: List of cities and towns of Hungary Hungary_sentence_475

Hungary has 3,152 localities as of July 15, 2013. Hungary_sentence_476

346 towns (Hungarian term: város, plural: városok; the terminology doesn't distinguish between cities and towns – the term town is used in official translations) and 2,806 villages (Hungarian: község, plural: községek). Hungary_sentence_477

The number of towns can change, since villages can be elevated to town status by act of the President. Hungary_sentence_478

The capital Budapest has a special status and is not included in any county while 23 of the towns are so-called urban counties (megyei jogú város – town with county rights). Hungary_sentence_479

All county seats except Budapest are urban counties. Hungary_sentence_480

Four of the cities (Budapest, Miskolc, Győr, and Pécs) have agglomerations, and the Hungarian Statistical Office distinguishes seventeen other areas in earlier stages of agglomeration development. Hungary_sentence_481

The largest city is the capital, Budapest, the smallest town is Pálháza with 1038 inhabitants (2010). Hungary_sentence_482

The largest village is Solymár (population: 10,123 as of 2010) There are more than 100 villages with fewer than 100 inhabitants while the smallest villages have fewer than 20 inhabitants. Hungary_sentence_483

Languages Hungary_section_27

Main articles: Hungarian language and Languages of Hungary Hungary_sentence_484

Hungarian is the official and predominant spoken language in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_485

Hungarian is the 13th most widely spoken first language in Europe with around 13 million native speakers and it is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union. Hungary_sentence_486

Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries and by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide. Hungary_sentence_487

According to the 2011 census, 9,896,333 people (99.6%) speak Hungarian in Hungary, of whom 9,827,875 people (99%) speak it as a first language, while 68,458 people (0.7%) speak it as a second language. Hungary_sentence_488

English (1,589,180 speakers, 16.0%), and German (1,111,997 speakers, 11.2%) are the most widely spoken foreign languages, while there are several recognized minority languages in Hungary (Armenian, Bulgarian, Croatian, German, Greek, Romanian, Romani, Rusyn, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, and Ukrainian). Hungary_sentence_489

Hungarian (Magyar) is a member of the Uralic language family, unrelated to any neighboring language and distantly related to Finnish and Estonian. Hungary_sentence_490

It is the largest of the Uralic languages in terms of the number of speakers and the only one spoken in Central Europe. Hungary_sentence_491

There are sizable populations of Hungarian speakers in Romania, the Czech and Slovak Republics, the former Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Israel, and the U.S. Hungary_sentence_492

Smaller groups of Hungarian speakers live in Canada, Slovenia, and Austria, but also in Australia, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela and Chile. Hungary_sentence_493

Standard Hungarian is based on the variety spoken in the capital of Budapest, although use of the standard dialect is enforced, Hungarian has a number of urban and rural dialects. Hungary_sentence_494

Religion Hungary_section_28

Main article: Religion in Hungary Hungary_sentence_495

Hungary is a historically Christian country. Hungary_sentence_496

Hungarian historiography identifies the foundation of the Hungarian state with Stephen I's baptism and coronation with the Holy Crown in A.D. 1000. Hungary_sentence_497

Stephen promulgated Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the Apostolic Kings. Hungary_sentence_498

The Catholic Church in Hungary remained strong through the centuries, and the Archbishop of Esztergom was granted extraordinary temporal privileges as prince-primate (hercegprímás) of Hungary. Hungary_sentence_499

Although contemporary Hungary has no official religion and recognizes freedom of religion as a fundamental right, the Hungarian constitution "recognizes Christianity's nation-building role" in its preamble and in Article VII affirms that "the state may cooperate with the churches for community goals." Hungary_sentence_500

The 2011 census showed that the majority of Hungarians were Christians (54.2%), with Roman Catholics (Katolikusok) (37.1%) and Hungarian Reformed Calvinists (Reformátusok) (11.1%) making up the bulk of these alongside Lutherans (Evangélikusok) (2.2%), Greek Catholics (1.8%), and other Christians (1.3%). Hungary_sentence_501

Jewish (0.1%), Buddhist (0.1%) and Muslim (0.06%) communities are in the minority. Hungary_sentence_502

27.2% of the population did not declare a religious affiliation while 16.7% declared themselves explicitly irreligious, another 1.5% atheist. Hungary_sentence_503

During the initial stages of the Protestant Reformation, most Hungarians adopted first Lutheranism and then Calvinism in the form of the Hungarian Reformed Church. Hungary_sentence_504

In the second half of the 16th century, the Jesuits led a Counterreformation campaign and the population once again became predominantly Catholic. Hungary_sentence_505

This campaign was only partially successful, however, and the (mainly Reformed) Hungarian nobility were able to secure freedom of worship for Christians. Hungary_sentence_506

In practice this meant cuius regio, eius religio; thus, most individual localities in Hungary are still identifiable as historically Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed. Hungary_sentence_507

The country's eastern regions, especially around Debrecen (the "Calvinist Rome"), remain almost completely Reformed, a trait they share with historically contiguous ethnically Hungarian regions across the Romanian border. Hungary_sentence_508

Orthodox Christianity in Hungary is associated with the country's ethnic minorities: Armenians, Bulgarians, Greeks, Romanians, Rusyns, Ukrainians, and Serbs. Hungary_sentence_509

Historically, Hungary was home to a significant Jewish community with a pre-World War II population of more than 800,000, but it is estimated that just over 564,000 Hungarian Jews were killed between 1941 and 1945 during the Holocaust in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_510

Between 15 May and 9 July 1944 alone, over 434,000 Jews were deported on 147 trains, most of them to Auschwitz, where about 80 percent were gassed on arrival. Hungary_sentence_511

Some Jews were able to escape, but most were either deported to concentration camps, where they were killed, or murdered in Hungary by Arrow Cross members. Hungary_sentence_512

From over 800,000 Jews living within Hungary's borders in 1941–1944, about 255,500 are thought to have survived. Hungary_sentence_513

There are about 120,000 Jews in Hungary today. Hungary_sentence_514

Education Hungary_section_29

Main article: Education in Hungary Hungary_sentence_515

Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the Ministry of Education. Hungary_sentence_516

Preschool-kindergarten education is compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also compulsory until the age of sixteen. Hungary_sentence_517

Primary education usually lasts for eight years. Hungary_sentence_518

Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrolls the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the secondary vocational schools for intermediate students lasts four years and the technical school prepares pupils for vocational education and the world of work. Hungary_sentence_519

The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years program to have access to vocational higher education for instance. Hungary_sentence_520

The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated 13–14-year-old pupils in Hungary among the bests in the world for maths and science. Hungary_sentence_521

Most of the Hungarian universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. Hungary_sentence_522

The general requirement for university is the Matura. Hungary_sentence_523

The Hungarian public higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities. Hungary_sentence_524

Health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. Hungary_sentence_525

English and German language is important in Hungarian higher education, there are a number of degree programs that are taught in these languages, which attracts thousands of exchange students every year. Hungary_sentence_526

Hungary's higher education and training has been ranked 44 out of 148 countries in the Global Competitiveness Report 2014. Hungary_sentence_527

Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established knowledge economy. Hungary_sentence_528

The established universities in Hungary include some of the oldest in the world, the first was the University of Pécs founded in 1367 which is still functioning, although, in the year 1276, the university of Veszprém was destroyed by the troops of Peter Csák, but it was never rebuilt. Hungary_sentence_529

Sigismund established Óbuda University in 1395. Hungary_sentence_530

Another, Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in Pozsony by Mattias Corvinus. Hungary_sentence_531

Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777 and it is called Eötvös Loránd University today. Hungary_sentence_532

The world's first institute of technology was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary in 1735, its legal successor is the University of Miskolc. Hungary_sentence_533

The Budapest University of Technology and Economics is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure, its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II. Hungary_sentence_534

Hungary ranks fourth (above neighbour Romania, and after China, the United States and Russia) in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 336 total medals, dating back to 1959. Hungary_sentence_535

Health Hungary_section_30

Main article: Healthcare in Hungary Hungary_sentence_536

Hungary maintains a universal health care system largely financed by government national health insurance. Hungary_sentence_537

According to the OECD, 100% of the population is covered by universal health insurance, which is absolutely free for children, students, pensioners, people with low income, handicapped people, and church employees. Hungary_sentence_538

Hungary spends 7.2% of GDP on healthcare, spending $2,045 per capita, of which $1,365 is provided by the government. Hungary_sentence_539

Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in Europe, particularly in dental tourism, in which its share is 42% in Europe and 21% worldwide. Hungary_sentence_540

Plastic surgery is also a key sector, with 30% of the clients coming from abroad. Hungary_sentence_541

Hungary is well known for its spa culture and is home to numerous medicinal spas, which attract "spa tourism". Hungary_sentence_542

In common with other developed countries, cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality, accounting for 49.4% (62,979) of all deaths in 2013. Hungary_sentence_543

However, this number peaked in 1985 with 79,355 deaths, and has been declining continuously since the fall of Communism. Hungary_sentence_544

The second leading cause of death is cancer with 33,274 (26.2%), which has been stagnant since the 1990s. Hungary_sentence_545

Deaths from accidents dropped from 8,760 in 1990 to 3,654 in 2013; the number of suicides has declined precipitously from 4,911 in 1983 to 2,093 in 2013 (21.1 per 100,000 people), the lowest since 1956. Hungary_sentence_546

There are considerable health disparities between the western and eastern parts of Hungary; heart disease, hypertension, stroke, and suicide is prevalent in the mostly agricultural and low-income Great Plain region in the east, but infrequent in the high-income, middle class areas of Western Transdanubia and Central Hungary. Hungary_sentence_547

Smoking is a leading cause of death in the country, although it is in steep decline: The proportion of adult smokers declined to 19% in 2013 from 28% in 2012, owing to strict regulations such as a nationwide smoking ban in every indoor public place and the limiting of tobacco sales to state-controlled "National Tobacco Shops". Hungary_sentence_548

Hungary ranks as the 17th safest country in the world, with a homicide rate of 1.3 per 100,000 people. Hungary_sentence_549

Culture Hungary_section_31

Main article: Culture of Hungary Hungary_sentence_550

Architecture Hungary_section_32

Main article: Architecture of Hungary Hungary_sentence_551

Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe (Great Synagogue), built in 1859 in Moorish Revival style with a capacity of 3,000 people, the largest medicinal bath in Europe (Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), completed in 1913 in Modern Renaissance Style and located in the Budapest city park, the biggest building in Hungary with its 268 metres (879 feet) length (the Parliament building), one of the largest basilicas in Europe (Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world (Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest early Christian necropolis outside Italy (Pécs). Hungary_sentence_552

Notable architectural styles in Hungary include Historicism and Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. Hungary_sentence_553

In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Hungary_sentence_554

Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. Hungary_sentence_555

In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. Hungary_sentence_556

By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary. Hungary_sentence_557

Turning away from the style of Lechner, yet taking inspiration from his approach, the group of "Young People" (Fiatalok), which included Károly Kós and Dezsö Zrumeczky, were to use the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Hungarian architecture to achieve the same end. Hungary_sentence_558

Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. Hungary_sentence_559

The Sezession from Vienna, the German Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century. Hungary_sentence_560

Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. Hungary_sentence_561

Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. Hungary_sentence_562

István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. Hungary_sentence_563

In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896. Hungary_sentence_564

Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings. Hungary_sentence_565

In the Budapest downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall. Hungary_sentence_566

Music Hungary_section_33

Main article: Music of Hungary Hungary_sentence_567

Hungarian music consists mainly of traditional Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as Liszt and Bartók, considered to be among the greatest Hungarian composers. Hungary_sentence_568

Other renowned composers are Dohnányi, Franz Schmidt, Zoltán Kodály, Gabriel von Wayditch, Rudolf Wagner-Régeny, László Lajtha, Franz Lehár, Imre Kálmán, Sándor Veress and Rózsa. Hungary_sentence_569

Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary_sentence_570

Hungary has renowned composers of contemporary classical music, György Ligeti, György Kurtág, Péter Eötvös, Zoltán Kodály and Zoltán Jeney among them. Hungary_sentence_571

One of the greatest Hungarian composers, Béla Bartók, was also among the most significant musicians of the 20th century. Hungary_sentence_572

His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighboring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesized with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style. Hungary_sentence_573

Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of folk, popular and classical music. Hungary_sentence_574

Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungary_sentence_575

Hungarian folk music has been significant in former country parts that belong – since the 1920 Treaty of Trianon – to neighbouring countries such as Romania, Slovakia, Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and Transylvania; both regions have significant numbers of Hungarians. Hungary_sentence_576

After the establishment of a music academy led by Ferenc Erkel and Franz Liszt Hungary produced an important number of art musicians: Hungary_sentence_577

Hungary_unordered_list_0

Broughton claims that Hungary's "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries (thanks perhaps to the common Austro-Hungarian history) and it's not uncommon to hear Hungarian-sounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and Poland". Hungary_sentence_578

It is also strong in the Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. Hungary_sentence_579

The Busójárás carnival in Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded Bogyiszló orchestra. Hungary_sentence_580

Hungarian classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antecedents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song". Hungary_sentence_581

Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style. Hungary_sentence_582

For example, Bartók collected folk songs from across Central and Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, while Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style. Hungary_sentence_583

During the era of communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989), a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Hungary_sentence_584

Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of jazz such as trumpeter Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer Károly Binder and, in a modernized form of Hungarian folk, Ferenc Sebő and Márta Sebestyén. Hungary_sentence_585

The three giants of Hungarian rock, Illés, Metró and Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_586

Older veteran underground bands such as Beatrice, from the 1980s, also remain popular. Hungary_sentence_587

Literature Hungary_section_34

Main article: Hungarian literature Hungary_sentence_588

In the earliest times, Hungarian language was written in a runic-like script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). Hungary_sentence_589

The country switched to the Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038). Hungary_sentence_590

The oldest remained written record in Hungarian language is a fragment in the Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea, "up the military road to Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin. Hungary_sentence_591

The oldest remaining complete text in Hungarian language is the Funeral Sermon and Prayer (Halotti beszéd és könyörgés) (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon. Hungary_sentence_592

The oldest remaining poem in Hungarian is the Old Hungarian Laments of Mary (Ómagyar Mária-siralom), also a (not very strict) translation from Latin, from the 13th century. Hungary_sentence_593

It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem. Hungary_sentence_594

Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") by the unknown author usually called Anonymus, and Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and the Hungarians") by Simon Kézai. Hungary_sentence_595

Both are in Latin. Hungary_sentence_596

These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Hungary_sentence_597

Another chronicle is the Képes krónika (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for Louis the Great. Hungary_sentence_598

Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of King Matthias (1458–1490). Hungary_sentence_599

Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period. Hungary_sentence_600

The first printing house was also founded during Matthias' reign, by András Hess, in Buda. Hungary_sentence_601

The first book printed in Hungary was the Chronica Hungarorum. Hungary_sentence_602

The most important poets of the period was Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) and Miklós Zrínyi (1620–1664). Hungary_sentence_603

Balassi's poetry shows medieval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Hungary_sentence_604

Zrínyi's most significant work, the epic Szigeti veszedelem ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to the Iliad, and recounts the heroic Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. Hungary_sentence_605

Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by Gáspár Károli (The second Hungarian Bible translation in the history), the Protestant pastor of Gönc, in 1590. Hungary_sentence_606

The translation is called the Bible of Vizsoly, after the town where it was first published. Hungary_sentence_607

(See Bible translations into Hungarian for more details.) Hungary_sentence_608

The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French Enlightenment. Hungary_sentence_609

The first enlightened writers were Maria Theresia's bodyguards (György Bessenyei, János Batsányi and others). Hungary_sentence_610

The greatest poets of the time were Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Dániel Berzsenyi. Hungary_sentence_611

The greatest figure of the language reform was Ferenc Kazinczy. Hungary_sentence_612

The Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions. Hungary_sentence_613

Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Hungary_sentence_614

Some modern Hungarian authors have become increasingly popular in Germany and Italy especially Sándor Márai, Péter Esterházy, Péter Nádas and Imre Kertész. Hungary_sentence_615

The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 2002. Hungary_sentence_616

The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. Hungary_sentence_617

János Arany, a famous 19th-century Hungarian poet, is still much loved in Hungary (especially his collection of Ballads), among several other "true classics" like Sándor Petőfi, the poet of the Revolution of 1848, Endre Ady, Mihály Babits, Dezső Kosztolányi, Attila József, Miklós Radnóti and János Pilinszky. Hungary_sentence_618

Other well-known Hungarian authors are László Krasznahorkai, Ferenc Móra, Géza Gárdonyi, Zsigmond Móricz, Gyula Illyés, Albert Wass, Miklós Szentkuthy, Magda Szabó and Stephen Vizinczey. Hungary_sentence_619

Cuisine Hungary_section_35

Main article: Hungarian cuisine Hungary_sentence_620

See also: Hungarian wine and Beer in Hungary Hungary_sentence_621

Traditional dishes such as the world-famous Goulash (gulyás stew or gulyás soup) feature prominently in Hungarian cuisine. Hungary_sentence_622

Dishes are often flavoured with paprika (ground red peppers), a Hungarian innovation. Hungary_sentence_623

The paprika powder, obtained from a special type of pepper, is one of the most common spices used in typical Hungarian cuisine. Hungary_sentence_624

Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called tejföl is often used to soften the dishes' flavour. Hungary_sentence_625

The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman's soup or halászlé is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish. Hungary_sentence_626

Other dishes are chicken paprikash, foie gras made of goose liver, pörkölt stew, vadas, (game stew with vegetable gravy and dumplings), trout with almonds and salty and sweet dumplings, like túrós csusza, (dumplings with fresh quark cheese and thick sour cream). Hungary_sentence_627

Desserts include the iconic Dobos Cake, strudels (rétes), filled with apple, cherry, poppy seed or cheese, Gundel pancake, plum dumplings (szilvás gombóc), somlói dumplings, dessert soups like chilled sour cherry soup and sweet chestnut puree, gesztenyepüré (cooked chestnuts mashed with sugar and rum and split into crumbs, topped with whipped cream). Hungary_sentence_628

Perec and kifli are widely popular pastries. Hungary_sentence_629

The csárda is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inn, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. Hungary_sentence_630

Borozó usually denotes a cozy old-fashioned wine tavern, pince is a beer or wine cellar and a söröző is a pub offering draught beer and sometimes meals. Hungary_sentence_631

The bisztró is an inexpensive restaurant often with self-service. Hungary_sentence_632

The büfé is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Hungary_sentence_633

Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at the confectionery called cukrászda, while an eszpresszó is a café. Hungary_sentence_634

Pálinka is a fruit brandy, distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the Great Hungarian Plain. Hungary_sentence_635

It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (barack) and cherry (cseresznye). Hungary_sentence_636

However, plum (szilva) is the most popular flavour. Hungary_sentence_637

Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. Hungary_sentence_638

The five main Hungarian beer brands are: Borsodi, Soproni, Arany Ászok, Kõbányai, and Dreher. Hungary_sentence_639

In Hungary, people traditionally do not clink their glasses or mugs when drinking beer. Hungary_sentence_640

There is an urban legend in Hungarian culture that Austrian generals clinked their beer glasses to celebrate the execution of the 13 Martyrs of Arad in 1849. Hungary_sentence_641

Many people still follow the tradition, although younger people often disavow it, citing that the vow was only meant to last 150 years. Hungary_sentence_642

Wine: As Hugh Johnson says in The History of Wine, the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making and the country can be divided to six wine regions: North-Transdanubia, Lake Balaton, South-Pannónia, Duna-region or Alföld, Upper-Hungary and Tokaj-Hegyalja. Hungary_sentence_643

The Romans brought vines to Pannonia, and by the 5th century AD, there are records of extensive vineyards in what is now Hungary. Hungary_sentence_644

The Hungarians brought their wine-making knowledge from the East. Hungary_sentence_645

According to Ibn Rustah, the Hungarian tribes were familiar with wine-making long time before the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Hungary_sentence_646

Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of styles: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant (Eger) and full-bodied robust reds (Villány and Szekszárd). Hungary_sentence_647

The main varieties are: Olaszrizling, Hárslevelű, Furmint, Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, Chardonnay (whites), Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), Kadarka, Portugieser, Zweigelt, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc and Merlot. Hungary_sentence_648

The most famous wines from Hungary are Tokaji Aszú and Egri Bikavér. Hungary_sentence_649

Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of Tokaj-Hegyalja. Hungary_sentence_650

Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including Beethoven, Liszt, Schubert and Goethe; Joseph Haydn's favorite wine was a Tokaji. Hungary_sentence_651

Louis XV and Frederick the Great tried to outdo one another when they entertained guests with Tokaji. Hungary_sentence_652

Napoleon III, the last Emperor of France, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji at the French Royal Court every year. Hungary_sentence_653

Gustav III, King of Sweden, loved Tokaji. Hungary_sentence_654

In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth, while Catherine the Great actually established a Russian garrison in the town of Tokaj with the aim of assuring regular wine deliveries to St. Petersburg. Hungary_sentence_655

For over 150 years, a blend of forty Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur Unicum. Hungary_sentence_656

Unicum is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion. Hungary_sentence_657

Recreation Hungary_section_36

Hungary is a land of thermal water. Hungary_sentence_658

A passion for spa culture and Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungary_sentence_659

Hungarian spas feature Roman, Greek, Turkish, and northern country architectural elements. Hungary_sentence_660

Because of an advantageous geographical location, good quality thermal water can be found in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary's territory. Hungary_sentence_661

Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary (more than 100 just in the Capital area). Hungary_sentence_662

There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_663

The Romans heralded the first age of spas in Hungary. Hungary_sentence_664

The remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in Óbuda. Hungary_sentence_665

Spa culture was revived during the Turkish Invasion and the thermal springs of Buda were used for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which such as (Király Baths, Rudas Baths) are still functioning. Hungary_sentence_666

In the 19th century, the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Hungary_sentence_667

Grand spas such as Gellért Baths, Lukács Baths, Margaret Island, and Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity. Hungary_sentence_668

The Széchenyi Thermal Bath is the largest spa complex in Europe and it was the first thermal bath built in the Pest side of Budapest. Hungary_sentence_669

This building is a noted example of modern Renaissance style. Hungary_sentence_670

Located on the Buda side of Budapest, the Gellért spa is the most famous and luxurious thermal complex of the capital city. Hungary_sentence_671

Folk art Hungary_section_37

Ugrós (Jumping dances) are old style dances dating back to the Middle Ages. Hungary_sentence_672

Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group. Hungary_sentence_673

Karikázó is a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folk songs. Hungary_sentence_674

Csárdás are new style dances developed in the 18–19th centuries. Hungary_sentence_675

Csárdás is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. Hungary_sentence_676

From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages. Hungary_sentence_677

Verbunkos is a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the Austro-Hungarian army. Hungary_sentence_678

The Legényes is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Hungary_sentence_679

Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. Hungary_sentence_680

The dance is generally performed freestyle by one dancer at a time in front of a band. Hungary_sentence_681

Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side, and singing or shouting verses while the men dance. Hungary_sentence_682

Each man performs a number of points (dance phrases), typically four to eight without repetition. Hungary_sentence_683

Each point consists of four parts, each lasting four counts. Hungary_sentence_684

The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations). Hungary_sentence_685

It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both Renaissance and Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian Sassanide influences. Hungary_sentence_686

Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. Hungary_sentence_687

The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centerpiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather. Hungary_sentence_688

Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all. Hungary_sentence_689

The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Hungary_sentence_690

Those of Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single color – red, blue, or black. Hungary_sentence_691

Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow-cases and sheets. Hungary_sentence_692

In Hungary proper, Sárköz in Transdanubia and the Matyóföld in the Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. Hungary_sentence_693

In the Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace, and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. Hungary_sentence_694

The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations. Hungary_sentence_695

These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. Hungary_sentence_696

No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. Hungary_sentence_697

The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece. Hungary_sentence_698

Porcelain Hungary_section_38

Main articles: Herend Porcelain and Zsolnay Hungary_sentence_699

Founded in 1826, Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specializing in luxury hand painted and gilded porcelain. Hungary_sentence_700

In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Hungary_sentence_701

Many of its classic patterns are still in production. Hungary_sentence_702

After the fall of communism in Hungary, the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers, exporting to over 60 countries of the world. Hungary_sentence_703

Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles and stoneware. Hungary_sentence_704

The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics. Hungary_sentence_705

The Zsolnay factory was established by Miklós Zsolnay in Pécs, Hungary, to produce stoneware and ceramics in 1853. Hungary_sentence_706

In 1863, his son, Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. Hungary_sentence_707

He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix. Hungary_sentence_708

Sport Hungary_section_39

See also: Hungary at the Olympics Hungary_sentence_709

Hungarian athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, only ten countries have won more Olympic medals than Hungary, with a total of 498 medals ranking eighth in an all-time Olympic Games medal count. Hungary_sentence_710

Hungary has the third-highest number of Olympic medals per capita and second-highest number of gold medals per capita in the world. Hungary_sentence_711

Hungary has historically excelled in Olympic water sports. Hungary_sentence_712

In water polo the Hungarian team is the leading medal winner by a significant margin and in swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while the women are eighth most successful overall. Hungary_sentence_713

They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking they are the third most successful overall. Hungary_sentence_714

Hungary won its first gold medal in Winter Olympics in 2018 in mens short track speed skating with a team of four: , , , . Hungary_sentence_715

In 2015 the Assembly of the Hungarian Olympic Committee and the Assembly of Budapest decided to bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics but eventually awarded to Paris. Hungary_sentence_716

Budapest has also lost several bids to host the games, in 1916, 1920, 1936, 1944, and 1960 to Berlin, Antwerp, London, and Rome, respectively. Hungary_sentence_717

Hungary hosted many global sport event in the past, among others the 1997 World Amateur Boxing Championships, 2000 World Fencing Championships, 2001 World Allround Speed Skating Championships, 2008 World Interuniversity Games, 2008 World Modern Pentathlon Championships, 2010 ITU World Championship Series, 2011 IIHF World Championship, 2013 World Fencing Championships, 2013 World Wrestling Championships, 2014 World Masters Athletics Championships, 2017 World Aquatics Championships and 2017 World Judo Championships, only in the last two decade. Hungary_sentence_718

Besides these, Hungary was the home of many European-level tournaments, like 2006 European Aquatics Championships, 2010 European Aquatics Championships, 2013 European Judo Championships, 2013 European Karate Championships, 2017 European Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship and will be the host of 4 matches in the UEFA Euro 2020, which will be held in the 67,889-seat new multi-purpose Puskás Ferenc Stadium. Hungary_sentence_719

The Hungarian Grand Prix in Formula One has been held at the Hungaroring just outside Budapest, which circuit has FIA Grade 1 license. Hungary_sentence_720

Since 1986, the race has been a round of the FIA Formula One World Championship. Hungary_sentence_721

At the 2013 Hungarian Grand Prix, it was confirmed that Hungary will continue to host a Formula 1 race until 2021. Hungary_sentence_722

The track was completely resurfaced for the first time in early 2016, and it was announced the Grand Prix's deal was extended for a further five years, until 2026. Hungary_sentence_723

Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of World Chess Federation. Hungary_sentence_724

There are about 54 Grandmasters and 118 International Masters in Hungary, which is more than in France or United Kingdom. Hungary_sentence_725

World top junior player is the Hungarian Richárd Rapport currently on the FIDE World Rankings, while Judit Polgár generally considered the strongest female chess player of all time. Hungary_sentence_726

Some of the world's best sabre athletes have historically also hailed from Hungary, and in 2009, the Hungary men's national ice hockey team qualified for their first IIHF World Championship, in 2015, they qualified for their second World Championship in the top division. Hungary_sentence_727

Football Hungary_section_40

See also: Football in Hungary Hungary_sentence_728

Hungary has won three Olympic football titles, finished runners-up in the 1938 and 1954 FIFA World Cups, and third in Euro 1964. Hungary_sentence_729

Hungary revolutionized the sport in the 1950s, laying the tactical fundamentals of total football and dominating international football with the Aranycsapat ("Golden Team"), which included Ferenc Puskás, top goalscorer of the 20th century, to whom FIFA dedicated its newest award, the Puskás Award. Hungary_sentence_730

The side of that era has the second all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2166, and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games spanning more than four years. Hungary_sentence_731

The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. Hungary_sentence_732

The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in 2008, as youth development thrives. Hungary_sentence_733

For the first time in Hungarian football's history, they hosted the 2010 UEFA Futsal Championship in Budapest and Debrecen, the first time the MLSZ staged a UEFA finals tournament. Hungary_sentence_734

Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating Euro 2004 winner Greece 3–2 and 2006 FIFA World Cup winner Italy 3–1. Hungary_sentence_735

During UEFA Euro 2016 Hungary won Group F and were eventually defeated in the round of 16. Hungary_sentence_736

See also Hungary_section_41

Hungary_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungary.