Hyaline cartilage

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Hyaline cartilage_table_infobox_0

Hyaline cartilageHyaline cartilage_header_cell_0_0_0
IdentifiersHyaline cartilage_header_cell_0_1_0
MeSHHyaline cartilage_header_cell_0_2_0 Hyaline cartilage_cell_0_2_1
THHyaline cartilage_header_cell_0_3_0 Hyaline cartilage_cell_0_3_1

Hyaline cartilage is the glass-like (hyaline) but translucent cartilage found on many joint surfaces. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_0

It is also most commonly found in the ribs, nose, larynx, and trachea. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_1

Hyaline cartilage is pearl-grey in color, with a firm consistency and has a considerable amount of collagen. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_2

It contains no nerves or blood vessels, and its structure is relatively simple. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_3

Structure Hyaline cartilage_section_0

Hyaline cartilage is covered externally by a fibrous membrane known as the perichondrium or, when it's along articulating surfaces, the synovial membrane. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_4

This membrane contains vessels that provide the cartilage with nutrition through diffusion. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_5

Hyaline cartilage matrix is primarily made of type II collagen and chondroitin sulphate, both of which are also found in elastic cartilage. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_6

Hyaline cartilage exists on the sternal ends of the ribs, in the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, and on the articulating surfaces of bones. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_7

It gives the structures a definite but pliable form. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_8

The presence of collagen fibres makes such structures and joints strong, but with limited mobility and flexibility. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_9

Hyaline cartilage is the most prevalent type of cartilage. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_10

It also forms the temporary embryonic skeleton, which is gradually replaced by bone, and the skeleton of elasmobranch fish. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_11

Microanatomy Hyaline cartilage_section_1

When a slice of hyaline cartilage is examined under the microscope, it is shown to consist of cells (chondrocytes) of a rounded or bluntly angular form, lying in groups of two or more in a granular, or almost homogeneous matrix. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_12

When arranged in groups of two or more, the chondrocytes have rounded, but generally straight outlines; where they are in contact with each other, and in the rest of their circumference, they are rounded. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_13

They consist of translucent protoplasm with fine interlacing filaments and minute granules are sometimes present. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_14

Embedded in this are one or two round nuclei, having the usual intranuclear network. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_15

The cells are contained in cavities in the matrix, called cartilage lacunæ. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_16

These cavities are actually artificial gaps formed from the shrinking of the cells during the staining and setting of the tissue for examination. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_17

The inter-territorial space between the isogenous cell groups contains relatively more collagen fibres, allowing it to maintain its shape while the actual cells shrink, creating the lacunae. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_18

This constitutes the so-called 'capsule' of the space. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_19

Each lacuna is usually occupied by a single cell, but during mitosis, it may contain two, four, or even eight cells. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_20

Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage_section_2

Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage on the surfaces of bones, and lies inside the joint cavity of synovial joints, bathed in synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the walls of the cavity. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_21

Though it is often found in close contact with menisci and articular disks, articular cartilage is not considered a part of either of these structures, which are made entirely of fibrocartilage. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_22

The articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) has a highly specialized architecture that is zonally organized: the superficial zone consists mostly of collagen II fibers aligned parallel to the articular surface to resist shear forces, whereas the deep zone consists of the same fibers aligned perpendicularly to the bone interface to absorb compressive loads. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_23

The biochemical breakdown of the articular cartilage results in osteoarthritis – the most common type of joint disease. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_24

Osteoarthritis affects over 30 million individuals in the United States alone, and is the leading cause of chronic disability amongst the elderly. Hyaline cartilage_sentence_25

Additional images Hyaline cartilage_section_3

Hyaline cartilage_unordered_list_0

  • Hyaline cartilage_item_0_0
  • Hyaline cartilage_item_0_1

See also Hyaline cartilage_section_4

Hyaline cartilage_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyaline cartilage.