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This article is about the frog genus. Hyla_sentence_0

For the given name and surname, see Hyla (name). Hyla_sentence_1



Temporal range: 37.2–0 Ma PreꞒ O S D C P T J K Pg N

Eocene to recentHyla_header_cell_0_0_0
Scientific classification HylaHyla_header_cell_0_1_0
Kingdom:Hyla_cell_0_2_0 AnimaliaHyla_cell_0_2_1
Phylum:Hyla_cell_0_3_0 ChordataHyla_cell_0_3_1
Class:Hyla_cell_0_4_0 AmphibiaHyla_cell_0_4_1
Order:Hyla_cell_0_5_0 AnuraHyla_cell_0_5_1
Family:Hyla_cell_0_6_0 HylidaeHyla_cell_0_6_1
Subfamily:Hyla_cell_0_7_0 HylinaeHyla_cell_0_7_1
Genus:Hyla_cell_0_8_0 Hyla

Laurenti, 1768Hyla_cell_0_8_1


Hyla is a genus of frogs in the tree frog family Hylidae. Hyla_sentence_2

As traditionally defined, it was a wastebasket genus with more than 300 species found in Europe, Asia, Africa, and across the Americas. Hyla_sentence_3

After a major revision of the family most of these have been moved to other genera so that Hyla now only contains 17 extant (living) species from Europe, northern Africa and Asia. Hyla_sentence_4

The earliest known fossil member of this genus is †Hyla swanstoni from the Eocene of Saskatchewan, Canada, but its designation to Hyla happened before the major revision, meaning that its position needs confirmation. Hyla_sentence_5

The genus was established by Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti in 1768. Hyla_sentence_6

It was named after Hylas in Greek mythology, the companion of Hercules. Hyla_sentence_7

The name is unusual in that – though Laurenti knew that Hylas was male – the name is unambiguously treated in the feminine grammatical gender for reasons unknown. Hyla_sentence_8

The etymology of the name is also often incorrectly given as being derived from the Greek word (hūlē, "forest" or "wood"). Hyla_sentence_9

Living species Hyla_section_0

Mating systems Hyla_section_1

Female choice based on male calling Hyla_section_2

The mating systems across most species of Hyla largely feature female choice based on male calling effort. Hyla_sentence_10

The specific parameter of calling effort that is selected for can vary from species to species, however. Hyla_sentence_11

In H. Hyla_sentence_12 versicolor, for example, females show preference for calls of longer duration. Hyla_sentence_13

The selection of males which have calls of longer duration has shown to only be advantageous at low densities. Hyla_sentence_14

This suggests that preference plasticity, based on environmental context, is beneficial. Hyla_sentence_15

Comparatively, males of H. Hyla_sentence_16 arborea achieve a higher rate of mating success with increased chorus attendance, that is the number of nights spent calling at a given breeding site. Hyla_sentence_17

Moreover, increased chorus attendance carries with it a higher energy expenditure and risk of predation. Hyla_sentence_18

Therefore, it may seem intuitive that males with higher chorus attendance are less likely to survive to the next breeding season. Hyla_sentence_19

Conversely, these males are more likely to survive. Hyla_sentence_20

This suggests that the fitness of these males is high enough to overcome the costs associated with chorus attendance. Hyla_sentence_21

This provides evidence for chorus attendance as an indicator of mate quality in H. arborea. Hyla_sentence_22

Male-male contests Hyla_section_3

Although it is studied less frequently than female choice, sexual selection influenced by male-male intrasexual competition does exist in certain species of Hyla. Hyla_sentence_23

Males of H. versicolor produce conspicuous advertisement calls in large groups at territories known to females. Hyla_sentence_24

This behavior, known as lekking, is common in many species of Hyla. Hyla_sentence_25

In order to broadcast a clear acoustic communication to a female, males require distinct calling spaces within their respective leks. Hyla_sentence_26

When males infringe upon the calling space of one another, aggressive interactions may occur. Hyla_sentence_27

Males of H. versicolor may choose to lower costs of aggressive encounters by first assessing one another's resource holding potential. Hyla_sentence_28

In simple terms, the resource holding potential (RHP) of an individual is its ability to win a fight. Hyla_sentence_29

RHP can be based on a number of factors, including mass, size, weaponry, etc. Hyla_sentence_30

In H. versicolor, the question of what determines an individual's RHP still stands. Hyla_sentence_31

Aggressive interactions of this species are hard to observe within natural environments, because they occur briefly and infrequently. Hyla_sentence_32

Research has suggested that RHP in this species is not based on body size, however these findings were not based on in situ observations, but instead on the findings of a manipulated experiment. Hyla_sentence_33

Indirect selection Hyla_section_4

In terms of sexual selection, indirect selection refers to the selection of a specific trait based on its genetic correlation to overall fitness. Hyla_sentence_34

H. arborea is a nocturnal species which depends on calling by males for female mate choice. Hyla_sentence_35

In addition to its ability to detect acoustic communications, H. arborea, as well as most other Anuran species, possess specialized visual systems that function particularly well in low light. Hyla_sentence_36

This visual system allows for detection of observable male traits that could factor into female mate choice. Hyla_sentence_37

Research has shown that H. arborea females have a preference for males with more conspicuous vocal sac coloration. Hyla_sentence_38

It is postulated that this preference may assist in localization and detection of males by searching females. Hyla_sentence_39

However, vocal sac pigmentation is dictated by carotenoid levels, which must be ingested through food intake. Hyla_sentence_40

Thus, the presence of conspicuous vocal sac coloration could in turn signal higher male foraging ability and fitness. Hyla_sentence_41

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyla.