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This article is about the American multinational technology company. IBM_sentence_0

For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation). IBM_sentence_1

"Big Blue" redirects here. IBM_sentence_2

For other uses, see Big Blue (disambiguation). IBM_sentence_3


International Business Machines CorporationIBM_table_caption_0
Trade nameIBM_header_cell_0_0_0 IBMIBM_cell_0_0_1
TypeIBM_header_cell_0_1_0 PublicIBM_cell_0_1_1
Traded asIBM_header_cell_0_2_0 IBM_cell_0_2_1
ISINIBM_header_cell_0_3_0 IBM_cell_0_3_1
IndustryIBM_header_cell_0_4_0 Cloud computing

Artificial intelligence Computer hardware Computer softwareIBM_cell_0_4_1

PredecessorsIBM_header_cell_0_5_0 Bundy Manufacturing Company

Computing Scale Company of America International Time Recording Company Tabulating Machine CompanyIBM_cell_0_5_1

FoundedIBM_header_cell_0_6_0 June 16, 1911; 109 years ago (1911-06-16) (as Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company)

Endicott, New York, U.S.IBM_cell_0_6_1

FoundersIBM_header_cell_0_7_0 IBM_cell_0_7_1
HeadquartersIBM_header_cell_0_8_0 Armonk, New York, U.S.IBM_cell_0_8_1
Area servedIBM_header_cell_0_9_0 177 countriesIBM_cell_0_9_1
Key peopleIBM_header_cell_0_10_0 Ginni Rometty

(Executive Chairwoman) Arvind Krishna (CEO) Jim Whitehurst (President)IBM_cell_0_10_1

ProductsIBM_header_cell_0_11_0 See IBM productsIBM_cell_0_11_1
ServicesIBM_header_cell_0_12_0 IBM_cell_0_12_1
RevenueIBM_header_cell_0_13_0 US$77.14 billion (2019)IBM_cell_0_13_1
Operating incomeIBM_header_cell_0_14_0 US$13.21 billion (2019)IBM_cell_0_14_1
Net incomeIBM_header_cell_0_15_0 US$9.43 billion (2019)IBM_cell_0_15_1
Total assetsIBM_header_cell_0_16_0 US$152.18 billion (2019)IBM_cell_0_16_1
Total equityIBM_header_cell_0_17_0 US$112 billion (2019)IBM_cell_0_17_1
Number of employeesIBM_header_cell_0_18_0 352,600 (2019)IBM_cell_0_18_1
WebsiteIBM_header_cell_0_19_0 IBM_cell_0_19_1

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with more than 350,000 employees serving clients in 170 countries. IBM_sentence_4

On October 8, 2020 IBM announced it was spinning off the Managed Infrastructure Services unit of its Global Technology Services division into a new public company, an action expected to be completed by the end of 2021. IBM_sentence_5

Prior to the announced split, IBM produced and sold computer hardware, middleware and software, and provided hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM_sentence_6

It is also a major research organization, as of 2020 holding the record for most U.S. patents generated by a business for 27 consecutive years. IBM_sentence_7

Inventions by IBM include the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). IBM_sentence_8

The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM_sentence_9

IBM, sometimes referred to as Big Blue, is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 352,600 employees as of 2019. IBM_sentence_10

At least 70% of IBM employees, known as "IBMers", are based outside the United States, with the largest number in India. IBM_sentence_11

IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology (USA) and five National Medals of Science (USA). IBM_sentence_12

History IBM_section_0

Main article: History of IBM IBM_sentence_13

IBM was founded in 1911 in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM_sentence_14

IBM is incorporated in New York and has operations in over 170 countries. IBM_sentence_15

In the 1880s technologies emerged that would ultimately form the core of International Business Machines (IBM). IBM_sentence_16

Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885; Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder (1888); Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) patented the Electric Tabulating Machine; and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in 1889. IBM_sentence_17

On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) based in Endicott, New York. IBM_sentence_18

The five companies had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto. IBM_sentence_19

They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. IBM_sentence_20

Thomas J. Watson, Sr., fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. IBM_sentence_21

Watson joined CTR as General Manager then, 11 months later, was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. IBM_sentence_22

Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies. IBM_sentence_23

He implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". IBM_sentence_24

His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. IBM_sentence_25

During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million ($133 million today) and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia and Australia. IBM_sentence_26

Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924, chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines" which had previously been used as the name of CTR's Canadian Division. IBM_sentence_27

By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. IBM_sentence_28

In 1937 IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process huge amounts of data. IBM_sentence_29

Its clients included the U.S. IBM_sentence_30 Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act, and Hitler's Third Reich, for the tracking of Jews and other persecuted groups, largely through the German subsidiary Dehomag. IBM_sentence_31

The social security-related business gave an 81% increase in revenue from 1935 to 1939. IBM_sentence_32

In 1949 Thomas Watson, Sr., created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. IBM_sentence_33

In 1952 he stepped down after almost 40 years at the company helm, and his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. IBM_sentence_34

IBM built the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, an electromechanical computer, during World War II. IBM_sentence_35

It offered its first commercial stored program computer, the vacuum tube based IBM 701, in 1952. IBM_sentence_36

The IBM 305 RAMAC introduced the hard disk drive in 1956. IBM_sentence_37

The company switched to transistorized designs with the 7000 and 1400 series, beginning in 1958. IBM_sentence_38

In 1956 the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not merely to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience. IBM_sentence_39

In 1957 the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. IBM_sentence_40

In 1961 IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the highly successful Selectric typewriter. IBM_sentence_41

In 1963 IBM employees and computers helped NASA track the orbital flights of the Mercury astronauts. IBM_sentence_42

A year later, it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York. IBM_sentence_43

The latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights, and 1969 lunar mission. IBM_sentence_44

On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360. IBM_sentence_45

It spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. IBM_sentence_46

It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. IBM_sentence_47

Together the 360 and 370 made the IBM mainframe the dominant mainframe computer and the dominant computing platform in the industry throughout this period and into the early 1980s. IBM_sentence_48

They, and the operating systems that ran on them such as OS/VS1 and MVS, and the middleware built on top of those such as the CICS transaction processing monitor, had a near-monopoly-level marketshare and became the thing IBM was most known for during this period. IBM_sentence_49

In 1969 the United States of America alleged that IBM violated the Sherman Antitrust Act by monopolizing or attempting to monopolize the general-purpose electronic digital computer system market, specifically computers designed primarily for business, and subsequently alleged that IBM violated the antitrust laws in IBM's actions directed against leasing companies and plug-compatible peripheral manufacturers. IBM_sentence_50

Shortly after, IBM unbundled its software and services in what many observers believed was a direct result of the lawsuit, creating a competitive market for software. IBM_sentence_51

In 1982 the Department of Justice dropped the case as “without merit.” IBM_sentence_52

Also in 1969, IBM engineer Forrest Parry invented the magnetic stripe card that would become ubiquitous for credit/debit/ATM cards, driver's licenses, rapid transit cards, and a multitude of other identity and access control applications. IBM_sentence_53

IBM pioneered the manufacture of these cards, and for most of the 1970s, the data processing systems and software for such applications ran exclusively on IBM computers. IBM_sentence_54

In 1974 IBM engineer George J. Laurer developed the Universal Product Code. IBM_sentence_55

IBM and the World Bank first introduced financial swaps to the public in 1981 when they entered into a swap agreement. IBM_sentence_56

The IBM PC, originally designated IBM 5150, was introduced in 1981, and it soon became an industry standard. IBM_sentence_57

In 1991 IBM spun out its printer manufacturing into a new business called Lexmark. IBM_sentence_58

In 1993 IBM posted a US$8 billion loss – at the time the biggest in American corporate history. IBM_sentence_59

Lou Gerstner was hired as CEO from RJR Nabisco to turn the company around. IBM_sentence_60

In 2002 IBM acquired PwC consulting, and in 2003 it initiated a project to redefine company values, hosting a three-day online discussion of key business issues with 50,000 employees. IBM_sentence_61

The result was three values: "Dedication to every client's success", "Innovation that matters—for our company and for the world", and "Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships". IBM_sentence_62

In 2005 the company sold its personal computer business to Chinese technology company Lenovo and, in 2009, it acquired software company SPSS Inc. Later in 2009, IBM's Blue Gene supercomputing program was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by U.S. IBM_sentence_63 President Barack Obama. IBM_sentence_64

In 2011, IBM gained worldwide attention for its artificial intelligence program Watson, which was exhibited on Jeopardy! IBM_sentence_65

where it won against game-show champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter. IBM_sentence_66

The company also celebrated its 100th anniversary in the same year on June 16. IBM_sentence_67

In 2012 IBM announced it has agreed to buy Kenexa and Texas Memory Systems, and a year later it also acquired SoftLayer Technologies, a web hosting service, in a deal worth around $2 billion. IBM_sentence_68

Also that year, the company designed a video surveillance system for Davao City. IBM_sentence_69

In 2014 IBM announced it would sell its x86 server division to Lenovo for $2.1 billion. IBM_sentence_70

Also that year, IBM began announcing several major partnerships with other companies, including Apple Inc., Twitter, Facebook, Tencent, Cisco, UnderArmour, Box, Microsoft, VMware, CSC, Macy's, Sesame Workshop, the parent company of Sesame Street, and IBM_sentence_71

In 2015 IBM announced three major acquisitions: Merge Healthcare for $1 billion, data storage vendor Cleversafe, and all digital assets from The Weather Company, including and the Weather Channel mobile app. IBM_sentence_72

Also that year, IBMers created the film A Boy and His Atom, which was the first molecule movie to tell a story. IBM_sentence_73

In 2016, IBM acquired video conferencing service Ustream and formed a new cloud video unit. IBM_sentence_74

In April 2016, it posted a 14-year low in quarterly sales. IBM_sentence_75

The following month, Groupon sued IBM accusing it of patent infringement, two months after IBM accused Groupon of patent infringement in a separate lawsuit. IBM_sentence_76

In 2015, IBM bought the digital part of The Weather Company;, Truven Health Analytics for $2.6 billion in 2016, and in October 2018, IBM announced its intention to acquire Red Hat for $34 billion, which was completed on July 9, 2019. IBM_sentence_77

IBM announced in October 2020 that it is splitting itself into two separate public companies. IBM_sentence_78

IBM's future focus will be on high-margin cloud computing and artificial intelligence, built on the foundation of the 2019 Red Hat acquisition. IBM_sentence_79

The new company "NewCo”, yet to be formally named, created from IBM Global Technology Services Managed Infrastructure Services unit, will have 90,000 employees, 4,600 clients in 115 countries, with a backlog of $60 billion. IBM_sentence_80

IBM's spin off will be greater than any of its previous divestitures, and welcomed by investors. IBM_sentence_81

IBM has regularly reinvented itself by selling off low margin assets while shifting its focus to higher-value, more profitable markets. IBM_sentence_82

Examples include: IBM_sentence_83


Headquarters and offices IBM_section_1

IBM is headquartered in Armonk, New York, a community 37 miles (60 km) north of Midtown Manhattan. IBM_sentence_84

A nickname for the company is the "Colossus of Armonk". IBM_sentence_85

Its principal building, referred to as CHQ, is a 283,000-square-foot (26,300 m) glass and stone edifice on a 25-acre (10 ha) parcel amid a 432-acre former apple orchard the company purchased in the mid-1950s. IBM_sentence_86

There are two other IBM buildings within walking distance of CHQ: the North Castle office, which previously served as IBM's headquarters; and the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., Center for Learning (formerly known as IBM Learning Center (ILC)), a resort hotel and training center, which has 182 guest rooms, 31 meeting rooms, and various amenities. IBM_sentence_87

IBM operates in 174 countries as of 2016, with mobility centers in smaller markets areas and major campuses in the larger ones. IBM_sentence_88

In New York City, IBM has several offices besides CHQ, including the IBM Watson headquarters at Astor Place in Manhattan. IBM_sentence_89

Outside of New York, major campuses in the United States include Austin, Texas; Research Triangle Park (Raleigh-Durham), North Carolina; Rochester, Minnesota; and Silicon Valley, California. IBM_sentence_90

IBM's real estate holdings are varied and globally diverse. IBM_sentence_91

Towers occupied by IBM include 1250 René-Lévesque (Montreal, Canada) and One Atlantic Center (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). IBM_sentence_92

In Beijing, China, IBM occupies Pangu Plaza, the city's seventh tallest building and overlooking Beijing National Stadium ("Bird's Nest"), home to the 2008 Summer Olympics. IBM_sentence_93

IBM India Private Limited is the Indian subsidiary of IBM, which is headquartered at Bengaluru, Karnataka. IBM_sentence_94

It has facilities in Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune, Gurugram, Noida, Bhubaneshwar, Surat, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Hyderabad. IBM_sentence_95

Other notable buildings include the IBM Rome Software Lab (Rome, Italy), Hursley House (Winchester, UK), 330 North Wabash (Chicago, Illinois, United States), the Cambridge Scientific Center (Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States), the IBM Toronto Software Lab (Toronto, Canada), the IBM Building, Johannesburg (Johannesburg, South Africa), the IBM Building (Seattle) (Seattle, Washington, United States), the IBM Hakozaki Facility (Tokyo, Japan), the IBM Yamato Facility (Yamato, Japan), the IBM Canada Head Office Building (Ontario, Canada) and the Watson IoT Headquarters (Munich, Germany). IBM_sentence_96

Defunct IBM campuses include the IBM Somers Office Complex (Somers, New York) and Tour Descartes (Paris, France). IBM_sentence_97

The company's contributions to industrial architecture and design include works by Marcel Breuer, Eero Saarinen, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and I.M. IBM_sentence_98 Pei. IBM_sentence_99

Van der Rohe's building in Chicago was recognized with the 1990 Honor Award from the National Building Museum. IBM_sentence_100

IBM was recognized as one of the Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2005, which recognized Fortune 500 companies that provided employees with excellent commuter benefits to help reduce traffic and air pollution. IBM_sentence_101

In 2004, concerns were raised related to IBM's contribution in its early days to pollution in its original location in Endicott, New York. IBM_sentence_102

Finance IBM_section_2

For the fiscal year 2017, IBM reported earnings of US$5.7 billion, with an annual revenue of US$79.1 billion, a decline of 1.0% over the previous fiscal cycle. IBM_sentence_103

IBM's shares traded at over $125 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$113.9 billion in September 2018. IBM_sentence_104

IBM ranked No. IBM_sentence_105

34 on the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. IBM_sentence_106


YearIBM_header_cell_1_0_0 Revenue

in mil. US$IBM_header_cell_1_0_1

Net income

in mil. US$IBM_header_cell_1_0_2

Total Assets

in mil. US$IBM_header_cell_1_0_3

Price per Share

in US$IBM_header_cell_1_0_4

2005IBM_cell_1_1_0 91,134IBM_cell_1_1_1 7,934IBM_cell_1_1_2 105,748IBM_cell_1_1_3 61.80IBM_cell_1_1_4 329,373IBM_cell_1_1_5
2006IBM_cell_1_2_0 91,424IBM_cell_1_2_1 9,492IBM_cell_1_2_2 103,234IBM_cell_1_2_3 62.01IBM_cell_1_2_4 355,766IBM_cell_1_2_5
2007IBM_cell_1_3_0 98,786IBM_cell_1_3_1 10,418IBM_cell_1_3_2 120,431IBM_cell_1_3_3 80.04IBM_cell_1_3_4 386,558IBM_cell_1_3_5
2008IBM_cell_1_4_0 103,630IBM_cell_1_4_1 12,334IBM_cell_1_4_2 109,524IBM_cell_1_4_3 84.49IBM_cell_1_4_4 398,455IBM_cell_1_4_5
2009IBM_cell_1_5_0 95,758IBM_cell_1_5_1 13,425IBM_cell_1_5_2 109,022IBM_cell_1_5_3 85.67IBM_cell_1_5_4 399,409IBM_cell_1_5_5
2010IBM_cell_1_6_0 99,870IBM_cell_1_6_1 14,833IBM_cell_1_6_2 113,452IBM_cell_1_6_3 105.32IBM_cell_1_6_4 426,751IBM_cell_1_6_5
2011IBM_cell_1_7_0 106,916IBM_cell_1_7_1 15,855IBM_cell_1_7_2 116,433IBM_cell_1_7_3 138.97IBM_cell_1_7_4 433,362IBM_cell_1_7_5
2012IBM_cell_1_8_0 102,874IBM_cell_1_8_1 16,604IBM_cell_1_8_2 119,213IBM_cell_1_8_3 162.46IBM_cell_1_8_4 434,246IBM_cell_1_8_5
2013IBM_cell_1_9_0 98,367IBM_cell_1_9_1 16,483IBM_cell_1_9_2 126,223IBM_cell_1_9_3 163.30IBM_cell_1_9_4 431,212IBM_cell_1_9_5
2014IBM_cell_1_10_0 92,793IBM_cell_1_10_1 12,022IBM_cell_1_10_2 117,271IBM_cell_1_10_3 156.69IBM_cell_1_10_4 379,592IBM_cell_1_10_5
2015IBM_cell_1_11_0 81,741IBM_cell_1_11_1 13,190IBM_cell_1_11_2 110,495IBM_cell_1_11_3 137.27IBM_cell_1_11_4 377,757IBM_cell_1_11_5
2016IBM_cell_1_12_0 79,919IBM_cell_1_12_1 11,872IBM_cell_1_12_2 117,470IBM_cell_1_12_3 138.09IBM_cell_1_12_4 380,300IBM_cell_1_12_5
2017IBM_cell_1_13_0 79,139IBM_cell_1_13_1 5,753IBM_cell_1_13_2 125,356IBM_cell_1_13_3 149.76IBM_cell_1_13_4 366,600IBM_cell_1_13_5
2018IBM_cell_1_14_0 79,591IBM_cell_1_14_1 8,723IBM_cell_1_14_2 123,382IBM_cell_1_14_3 139.90IBM_cell_1_14_4 350,600IBM_cell_1_14_5
2019IBM_cell_1_15_0 77,100IBM_cell_1_15_1 9,400IBM_cell_1_15_2 152,186IBM_cell_1_15_3 126.85IBM_cell_1_15_4 352,600IBM_cell_1_15_5

Products and services IBM_section_3

See also: List of IBM products IBM_sentence_107

IBM has a large and diverse portfolio of products and services. IBM_sentence_108

As of 2016, these offerings fall into the categories of cloud computing, Artificial intelligence, commerce, data and analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), IT infrastructure, mobile, Digital workplace and cybersecurity. IBM_sentence_109

IBM Cloud includes infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) offered through public, private and hybrid cloud delivery models. IBM_sentence_110

For instance, the IBM Bluemix PaaS enables developers to quickly create complex websites on a pay-as-you-go model. IBM_sentence_111

IBM SoftLayer is a dedicated server, managed hosting and cloud computing provider, which in 2011 reported hosting more than 81,000 servers for more than 26,000 customers. IBM_sentence_112

IBM also provides Cloud Data Encryption Services (ICDES), using cryptographic splitting to secure customer data. IBM_sentence_113

IBM also hosts the industry-wide cloud computing and mobile technologies conference InterConnect each year. IBM_sentence_114

Hardware designed by IBM for these categories include IBM's POWER microprocessors, which are employed inside many console gaming systems, including Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, and Nintendo's Wii U. IBM_sentence_115

IBM Secure Blue is encryption hardware that can be built into microprocessors, and in 2014, the company revealed TrueNorth, a neuromorphic CMOS integrated circuit and announced a $3 billion investment over the following five years to design a neural chip that mimics the human brain, with 10 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, but that uses just 1 kilowatt of power. IBM_sentence_116

In 2016, the company launched designed for small and midsized companies, which includes software for data compression, provisioning, and snapshots across various systems. IBM_sentence_117

IT outsourcing also represents a major service provided by IBM, with more than 60 data centers worldwide. IBM_sentence_118

alphaWorks is IBM's source for emerging software technologies, and SPSS is a software package used for statistical analysis. IBM_sentence_119

IBM's Kenexa suite provides employment and retention solutions, and includes the BrassRing, an applicant tracking system used by thousands of companies for recruiting. IBM_sentence_120

IBM also owns The Weather Company, which provides weather forecasting and includes and Weather Underground. IBM_sentence_121

Smarter Planet is an initiative that seeks to achieve economic growth, near-term efficiency, sustainable development, and societal progress, targeting opportunities such as smart grids, water management systems, solutions to traffic congestion, and greener buildings. IBM_sentence_122

Services provisions include Redbooks, which are publicly available online books about best practices with IBM products, and developerWorks, a website for software developers and IT professionals with how-to articles and tutorials, as well as software downloads, code samples, discussion forums, podcasts, blogs, wikis, and other resources for developers and technical professionals. IBM_sentence_123

IBM Watson is a technology platform that uses natural language processing and machine learning to reveal insights from large amounts of unstructured data. IBM_sentence_124

Watson was debuted in 2011 on the American game-show Jeopardy! IBM_sentence_125 , where it competed against champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter in a three-game tournament and won. IBM_sentence_126

Watson has since been applied to business, healthcare, developers, and universities. IBM_sentence_127

For example, IBM has partnered with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to assist with considering treatment options for oncology patients and for doing melanoma screenings. IBM_sentence_128

Also, several companies have begun using Watson for call centers, either replacing or assisting customer service agents. IBM_sentence_129

In January 2019, IBM introduced its first commercial quantum computer IBM Q System One. IBM_sentence_130

IBM also provides infrastructure for the New York City Police Department through their IBM Cognos Analytics to perform data visualizations of CompStat crime data. IBM_sentence_131

In March 2020 it was announced that IBM will build the first quantum computer in Germany. IBM_sentence_132

The computer should allow researchers to harness the technology without falling foul of the EU's increasingly assertive stance on data sovereignty. IBM_sentence_133

Research IBM_section_4

Research has been a part of IBM since its founding, and its organized efforts trace their roots back to 1945, when the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory was founded at Columbia University in New York City, converting a renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side into IBM's first laboratory. IBM_sentence_134

Now, IBM Research constitutes the largest industrial research organization in the world, with 12 labs on 6 continents. IBM_sentence_135

IBM Research is headquartered at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in New York, and facilities include the Almaden lab in California, Austin lab in Texas, Australia lab in Melbourne, Brazil lab in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, China lab in Beijing and Shanghai, Ireland lab in Dublin, Haifa lab in Israel, India lab in Delhi and Bangalore, Tokyo lab, Zurich lab and Africa lab in Nairobi. IBM_sentence_136

In terms of investment, IBM's R&D expenditure totals several billion dollars each year. IBM_sentence_137

In 2012, that expenditure was approximately US$6.9 billion. IBM_sentence_138

Recent allocations have included $1 billion to create a business unit for Watson in 2014, and $3 billion to create a next-gen semiconductor along with $4 billion towards growing the company's "strategic imperatives" (cloud, analytics, mobile, security, social) in 2015. IBM_sentence_139

IBM has been a leading proponent of the Open Source Initiative, and began supporting Linux in 1998. IBM_sentence_140

The company invests billions of dollars in services and software based on Linux through the IBM Linux Technology Center, which includes over 300 Linux kernel developers. IBM_sentence_141

IBM has also released code under different open source licenses, such as the platform-independent software framework Eclipse (worth approximately US$40 million at the time of the donation), the three-sentence (ICU) license, and the Java-based relational database management system (RDBMS) Apache Derby. IBM_sentence_142

IBM's open source involvement has not been trouble-free, however (see SCO v. IBM). IBM_sentence_143

Famous inventions and developments by IBM include: the Automated teller machine (ATM), Dynamic random access memory (DRAM), the electronic keypunch, the financial swap, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, RISC, the SABRE airline reservation system, SQL, the Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code, and the virtual machine. IBM_sentence_144

Additionally, in 1990 company scientists used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms to spell out the company acronym, marking the first structure assembled one atom at a time. IBM_sentence_145

A major part of IBM research is the generation of patents. IBM_sentence_146

Since its first patent for a traffic signaling device, IBM has been one of the world's most prolific patent sources. IBM_sentence_147

In 2018, the company holds the record for most patents generated by a business, marking 25 consecutive years for the achievement. IBM_sentence_148

Five IBMers have received the Nobel Prize: Leo Esaki, of the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., in 1973, for work in semiconductors; Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, of the Zurich Research Center, in 1986, for the scanning tunneling microscope; and Georg Bednorz and Alex Müller, also of Zurich, in 1987, for research in superconductivity. IBM_sentence_149

Several IBMers have also won the Turing Award, including the first female recipient Frances E. Allen. IBM_sentence_150

Current research includes a collaboration with the University of Michigan to see computers act as an academic advisor for undergraduate computer science and engineering students at the university, and a partnership with AT&T, combining their cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms to make them interoperable and to provide developers with easier tools. IBM_sentence_151

The company is also involved in research into advanced algorithms and machine learning and their decision-making processes. IBM_sentence_152

To that end, the company recently released an analysis tool for how and why algorithms make decisions while scanning for biases in automated decision-making. IBM_sentence_153

Brand and reputation IBM_section_5

IBM is nicknamed Big Blue in part due to its blue logo and color scheme, and also partially since IBM once had a de facto dress code of white shirts with blue suits. IBM_sentence_154

The company logo has undergone several changes over the years, with its current "8-bar" logo designed in 1972 by graphic designer Paul Rand. IBM_sentence_155

It was a general replacement for a 13-bar logo, since period photocopiers did not render large areas well. IBM_sentence_156

Aside from the logo, IBM used Helvetica as a corporate typeface for 50 years, until it was replaced in 2017 by the custom-designed IBM Plex. IBM_sentence_157

IBM has a valuable brand as a result of over 100 years of operations and marketing campaigns. IBM_sentence_158

Since 1996, IBM has been the exclusive technology partner for the Masters Tournament, one of the four major championships in professional golf, with IBM creating the first (1996), the first course cam (1998), the first iPhone app with live streaming (2009), and first-ever live 4K Ultra High Definition feed in the United States for a major sporting event (2016). IBM_sentence_159

As a result, IBM CEO Ginni Rometty became the third female member of the Master's governing body, the Augusta National Golf Club. IBM_sentence_160

IBM is also a major sponsor in professional tennis, with engagements at the U.S. Open, Wimbledon, the Australian Open, and the French Open. IBM_sentence_161

The company also sponsored the Olympic Games from 1960 to 2000, and the National Football League from 2003 to 2012. IBM_sentence_162

In 2012, IBM's brand was valued at $75.5 billion and ranked by Interbrand as the second-best brand worldwide. IBM_sentence_163

That same year, it was also ranked the top company for leaders (Fortune), the number two green company in the U.S. (Newsweek), the second-most respected company (Barron's), the fifth-most admired company (Fortune), the 18th-most innovative company (Fast Company), and the number one in technology consulting and number two in outsourcing (Vault). IBM_sentence_164

In 2015, Forbes ranked IBM the fifth-most valuable brand. IBM_sentence_165

People and culture IBM_section_6

Employees IBM_section_7

See also: List of IBM CEOs IBM_sentence_166

IBM has one of the largest workforces in the world, and employees at Big Blue are referred to as "IBMers". IBM_sentence_167

The company was among the first corporations to provide group life insurance (1934), survivor benefits (1935), training for women (1935), paid vacations (1937), and training for disabled people (1942). IBM_sentence_168

IBM hired its first black salesperson in 1946, and in 1952, CEO Thomas J. Watson, Jr. published the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter, one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. IBM_sentence_169

The Human Rights Campaign has rated IBM 100% on its index of gay-friendliness every year since 2003, with IBM providing same-sex partners of its employees with health benefits and an anti-discrimination clause. IBM_sentence_170

Additionally, in 2005, IBM became the first major company in the world to commit formally to not use genetic information in employment decisions; and in 2017, IBM was named to Working Mother's 100 Best Companies List for the 32nd consecutive year. IBM_sentence_171

IBM has several leadership development and recognition programs to recognize employee potential and achievements. IBM_sentence_172

For early-career high potential employees, IBM sponsors leadership development programs by discipline (e.g., general management (GMLDP), human resources (HRLDP), finance (FLDP)). IBM_sentence_173

Each year, the company also selects 500 IBMers for the IBM Corporate Service Corps (CSC), which has been described as the corporate equivalent of the Peace Corps and gives top employees a month to do humanitarian work abroad. IBM_sentence_174

For certain interns, IBM also has a program called Extreme Blue that partners top business and technical students to develop high-value technology and compete to present their business case to the company's CEO at internship's end. IBM_sentence_175

The company also has various designations for exceptional individual contributors such as Senior Technical Staff Member (STSM), Research Staff Member (RSM), Distinguished Engineer (DE), and Distinguished Designer (DD). IBM_sentence_176

Prolific inventors can also achieve patent plateaus and earn the designation of Master Inventor. IBM_sentence_177

The company's most prestigious designation is that of IBM Fellow. IBM_sentence_178

Since 1963, the company names a handful of Fellows each year based on technical achievement. IBM_sentence_179

Other programs recognize years of service such as the Quarter Century Club established in 1924, and sellers are eligible to join the Hundred Percent Club, composed of IBM salesmen who meet their quotas, convened in Atlantic City, New Jersey. IBM_sentence_180

Each year, the company also selects 1,000 IBMers annually to award the Best of IBM Award, which includes an all-expenses-paid trip to the awards ceremony in an exotic location. IBM_sentence_181

IBM's culture has evolved significantly over its century of operations. IBM_sentence_182

In its early days, a dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a "sincere" tie constituted the public uniform for IBM employees. IBM_sentence_183

During IBM's management transformation in the 1990s, CEO Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. relaxed these codes, normalizing the dress and behavior of IBM employees. IBM_sentence_184

The company's culture has also given to different plays on the company acronym (IBM), with some saying is stands for "I've Been Moved" due to relocations and layoffs, others saying it stands for "I'm By Myself" pursuant to a prevalent work-from-anywhere norm, and others saying it stands for "I'm Being Mentored" due to the company's open door policy and encouragement for mentoring at all levels. IBM_sentence_185

In terms of labor relations, the company has traditionally resisted labor union organizing, although unions represent some IBM workers outside the United States. IBM_sentence_186

In Japan, IBM employees also have an American football team complete with pro stadium, cheerleaders and televised games, competing in the Japanese X-League as the "Big Blue". IBM_sentence_187

In 2015, IBM started giving employees the option of choosing either a PC or a Mac as their primary work device. IBM_sentence_188

In 2016, IBM eliminated forced rankings and changed its annual performance review system to focus more on frequent feedback, coaching, and skills development. IBM_sentence_189

IBM alumni IBM_section_8

Many IBMers have also achieved notability outside of work and after leaving IBM. IBM_sentence_190

In business, former IBM employees include Apple Inc. CEO Tim Cook, former EDS CEO and politician Ross Perot, Microsoft chairman John W. Thompson, SAP co-founder Hasso Plattner, Gartner founder Gideon Gartner, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) CEO Lisa Su, former Citizens Financial Group CEO Ellen Alemany, former Yahoo! IBM_sentence_191

chairman Alfred Amoroso, former AT&T CEO C. IBM_sentence_192 Michael Armstrong, former Xerox Corporation CEOs David T. Kearns and G. IBM_sentence_193 Richard Thoman, former Fair Isaac Corporation CEO Mark N. Greene, Citrix Systems co-founder Ed Iacobucci, chairman Brian McBride, former Lenovo CEO Steve Ward, and former Teradata CEO Kenneth Simonds. IBM_sentence_194

In government, alumna Patricia Roberts Harris served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the first African American woman to serve in the United States Cabinet. IBM_sentence_195

Samuel K. Skinner served as U.S. IBM_sentence_196 Secretary of Transportation and as the White House Chief of Staff. IBM_sentence_197

Alumni also include U.S. IBM_sentence_198 Senators Mack Mattingly and Thom Tillis; Wisconsin governor Scott Walker; former U.S. IBM_sentence_199 Ambassadors Vincent Obsitnik (Slovakia), Arthur K. Watson (France), and Thomas Watson Jr. (Soviet Union); and former U.S. IBM_sentence_200 Representatives Todd Akin, Glenn Andrews, Robert Garcia, Katherine Harris, Amo Houghton, Jim Ross Lightfoot, Thomas J. Manton, Donald W. Riegle Jr., and Ed Zschau. IBM_sentence_201

Others are NASA astronaut Michael J. Massimino, Canadian astronaut and Governor-General Julie Payette, noted musician Dave Matthews, Harvey Mudd College president Maria Klawe, Western Governors University president emeritus Robert Mendenhall, former University of Kentucky president Lee T. Todd Jr., NFL referee Bill Carollo, former Rangers F.C. chairman John McClelland, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature J. IBM_sentence_202 M. Coetzee. IBM_sentence_203

Thomas Watson Jr. also served as the 11th national president of the Boy Scouts of America. IBM_sentence_204

Board and shareholders IBM_section_9

The company's 15 member Board of Directors are responsible for overall corporate management and includes the current or former CEOs of Anthem, Dow Chemical, Johnson and Johnson, Royal Dutch Shell, UPS, and Vanguard as well as the presidents of Cornell University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and a retired U.S. Navy admiral. IBM_sentence_205

In 2011, IBM became the first technology company Warren Buffett's holding company Berkshire Hathaway invested in. IBM_sentence_206

Initially he bought 64 million shares costing 10.5 billion dollars. IBM_sentence_207

Over the years he increased his IBM holdings however he reduced it by 94.5% to 2.05 million shares at the end of 2017. IBM_sentence_208

By May 2018 he was completely out of IBM. IBM_sentence_209

See also IBM_section_10


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