International Standard Book Number

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Not to be confused with ICCU SBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_0

International Standard Book Number_table_infobox_0

International Standard Book NumberInternational Standard Book Number_table_caption_0
AcronymInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_0_0 ISBNInternational Standard Book Number_cell_0_0_1
OrganisationInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_1_0 International ISBN AgencyInternational Standard Book Number_cell_0_1_1
IntroducedInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_2_0 1970; 50 years ago (1970)International Standard Book Number_cell_0_2_1
No. of digitsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_3_0 13 (formerly 10)International Standard Book Number_cell_0_3_1
Check digitInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_4_0 Weighted sumInternational Standard Book Number_cell_0_4_1
ExampleInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_5_0 978-3-16-148410-0International Standard Book Number_cell_0_5_1
WebsiteInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_0_6_0 International Standard Book Number_cell_0_6_1

The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. International Standard Book Number_sentence_1

Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. International Standard Book Number_sentence_2

An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. International Standard Book Number_sentence_3

For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_4

The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. International Standard Book Number_sentence_5

The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. International Standard Book Number_sentence_6

The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. International Standard Book Number_sentence_7

The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the 9-digit SBN code can be converted to a 10-digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero digit '0'). International Standard Book Number_sentence_8

Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_9

The International ISBN Agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative. International Standard Book Number_sentence_10

Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. International Standard Book Number_sentence_11

The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers musical scores. International Standard Book Number_sentence_12

History International Standard Book Number_section_0

The Standard Book Number (SBN) is a commercial system using nine-digit code numbers to identify books. International Standard Book Number_sentence_13

It was created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. International Standard Book Number_sentence_14

The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker (regarded as the "Father of the ISBN") and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay (who later became director of the U.S. ISBN agency R. International Standard Book Number_sentence_15 R. Bowker). International Standard Book Number_sentence_16

The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. International Standard Book Number_sentence_17

The United Kingdom continued to use the nine-digit SBN code until 1974. International Standard Book Number_sentence_18

ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9. International Standard Book Number_sentence_19

The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978. International Standard Book Number_sentence_20

An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". International Standard Book Number_sentence_21

For example, the second edition of Mr. International Standard Book Number_sentence_22 J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8", where "340" indicates the publisher, "01381" is the serial number assigned by the publisher, and "8" is the check digit. International Standard Book Number_sentence_23

By prefixing a zero, this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8; the check digit does not need to be re-calculated. International Standard Book Number_sentence_24

Some publishers, such as Ballantine Books, would sometimes use 12-digit SBNs where the last three digits indicated the price of the book; for example, Woodstock Handmade Houses had a 12-digit Standard Book Number of 345-24223-8-595 (valid SBN: 345-24223-8, ISBN: 0-345-24223-8), and it cost US$5.95. International Standard Book Number_sentence_25

Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained thirteen digits, a format that is compatible with "Bookland" European Article Numbers, which have 13 digits. International Standard Book Number_sentence_26

Overview International Standard Book Number_section_1

A separate ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. International Standard Book Number_sentence_27

For example, an ebook, audiobook, paperback, and hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN assigned to it. International Standard Book Number_sentence_28

The ISBN is thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and ten digits long if assigned before 2007. International Standard Book Number_sentence_29

An International Standard Book Number consists of four parts (if it is a 10-digit ISBN) or five parts (for a 13-digit ISBN). International Standard Book Number_sentence_30

Section 5 of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual describes the structure of the 13-digit ISBN, as follows: International Standard Book Number_sentence_31

International Standard Book Number_ordered_list_0

  1. for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1,International Standard Book Number_item_0_0
  2. the registration group element (language-sharing country group, individual country or territory),International Standard Book Number_item_0_1
  3. the registrant element,International Standard Book Number_item_0_2
  4. the publication element, andInternational Standard Book Number_item_0_3
  5. a checksum character or check digit.International Standard Book Number_item_0_4

A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts (prefix element, registration group, registrant, publication and check digit), and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. International Standard Book Number_sentence_32

Separating the parts (registration group, registrant, publication and check digit) of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces. International Standard Book Number_sentence_33

Figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. International Standard Book Number_sentence_34

How ISBNs are issued International Standard Book Number_section_2

ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language. International Standard Book Number_sentence_35

The ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, and so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number, type, and size of publishers that are active. International Standard Book Number_sentence_36

Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. International Standard Book Number_sentence_37

In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. International Standard Book Number_sentence_38

A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. International Standard Book Number_sentence_39

List for a few countries is given below: International Standard Book Number_sentence_40

International Standard Book Number_unordered_list_1

  • Australia – Thorpe-BowkerInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_5
  • Brazil – The National Library of Brazil; (Up to 28 February 2020)International Standard Book Number_item_1_6
  • Brazil – Câmara Brasileira do Livro (From 1 March 2020)International Standard Book Number_item_1_7
  • Canada – English Library and Archives Canada, a government agency; French Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec;International Standard Book Number_item_1_8
  • Colombia – Cámara Colombiana del Libro, an NGOInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_9
  • Hong Kong – Books Registration Office (BRO), under the Hong Kong Public LibrariesInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_10
  • India – The Raja Rammohun Roy National Agency for ISBN (Book Promotion and Copyright Division), under Department of Higher Education, a constituent of the Ministry of Human Resource DevelopmentInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_11
  • Iceland – Landsbókasafn (National and University Library of Iceland)International Standard Book Number_item_1_12
  • Israel – The Israel Center for LibrariesInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_13
  • Italy – EDISER srl, owned by Associazione Italiana Editori (Italian Publishers Association)International Standard Book Number_item_1_14
  • Maldives – The National Bureau of Classification (NBC)International Standard Book Number_item_1_15
  • Malta – The National Book Council (Maltese: Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ktieb)International Standard Book Number_item_1_16
  • Morocco – The National Library of MoroccoInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_17
  • New Zealand – The National Library of New ZealandInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_18
  • Pakistan – National Library of PakistanInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_19
  • Philippines – National Library of the PhilippinesInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_20
  • South Africa – National Library of South AfricaInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_21
  • Spain –International Standard Book Number_item_1_22
  • Turkey – General Directorate of Libraries and Publications, a branch of the Ministry of CultureInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_23
  • United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland – Nielsen Book Services Ltd, part of Nielsen Holdings N.V.International Standard Book Number_item_1_24
  • United States – R. R. BowkerInternational Standard Book Number_item_1_25

Registration group identifier International Standard Book Number_section_3

The ISBN registration group identifier is a 1- to 5-digit number that is valid within a single prefix element (i.e. one of 978 or 979), and can be separated between hyphens, such as "978-1-...". International Standard Book Number_sentence_41

Registration group identifiers have primarily been allocated within the 978 prefix element. International Standard Book Number_sentence_42

The single-digit group identifiers within the 978-prefix element are: 0 or 1 for English-speaking countries; 2 for French-speaking countries; 3 for German-speaking countries; 4 for Japan; 5 for Russian-speaking countries; and 7 for People's Republic of China. International Standard Book Number_sentence_43

An example 5-digit group identifier is 99936, for Bhutan. International Standard Book Number_sentence_44

The allocated group IDs are: 0–5, 600–625, 65, 7, 80–94, 950–989, 9917–9989, and 99901–99983. International Standard Book Number_sentence_45

Books published in rare languages typically have longer group identifiers. International Standard Book Number_sentence_46

Within the 979 prefix element, the registration group identifier 0 is reserved for compatibility with International Standard Music Numbers (ISMNs), but such material is not actually assigned an ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_47

The registration group identifiers within prefix element 979 that have been assigned are 8 for the United States of America, 10 for France, 11 for the Republic of Korea, and 12 for Italy. International Standard Book Number_sentence_48

The original 9-digit standard book number (SBN) had no registration group identifier, but prefixing a zero (0) to a 9-digit SBN creates a valid 10-digit ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_49

Registrant element International Standard Book Number_section_4

The national ISBN agency assigns the registrant element (cf. International Standard Book Number_sentence_50

:Category:ISBN agencies) and an accompanying series of ISBNs within that registrant element to the publisher; the publisher then allocates one of the ISBNs to each of its books. International Standard Book Number_sentence_51

In most countries, a book publisher is not legally required to assign an ISBN, although most large bookstores only handle publications that have ISBNs assigned to them. International Standard Book Number_sentence_52

A listing of more than 900,000 assigned publisher codes is published, and can be ordered in book form. International Standard Book Number_sentence_53

The web site of the ISBN agency does not offer any free method of looking up publisher codes. International Standard Book Number_sentence_54

Partial lists have been compiled (from library catalogs) for the English-language groups: identifier 0 and identifier 1. International Standard Book Number_sentence_55

Publishers receive blocks of ISBNs, with larger blocks allotted to publishers expecting to need them; a small publisher may receive ISBNs of one or more digits for the registration group identifier, several digits for the registrant, and a single digit for the publication element. International Standard Book Number_sentence_56

Once that block of ISBNs is used, the publisher may receive another block of ISBNs, with a different registrant element. International Standard Book Number_sentence_57

Consequently, a publisher may have different allotted registrant elements. International Standard Book Number_sentence_58

There also may be more than one registration group identifier used in a country. International Standard Book Number_sentence_59

This might occur once all the registrant elements from a particular registration group have been allocated to publishers. International Standard Book Number_sentence_60

By using variable block lengths, registration agencies are able to customise the allocations of ISBNs that they make to publishers. International Standard Book Number_sentence_61

For example, a large publisher may be given a block of ISBNs where fewer digits are allocated for the registrant element and many digits are allocated for the publication element; likewise, countries publishing many titles have few allocated digits for the registration group identifier and many for the registrant and publication elements. International Standard Book Number_sentence_62

Here are some sample ISBN-10 codes, illustrating block length variations. International Standard Book Number_sentence_63

International Standard Book Number_table_general_1

ISBNInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_1_0_0 Country or areaInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_1_0_1 PublisherInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_1_0_2
99921-58-10-7International Standard Book Number_cell_1_1_0 QatarInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_1_1 NCCAH, DohaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_1_2
9971-5-0210-0International Standard Book Number_cell_1_2_0 SingaporeInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_2_1 World ScientificInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_2_2
960-425-059-0International Standard Book Number_cell_1_3_0 GreeceInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_3_1 Sigma PublicationsInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_3_2
80-902734-1-6International Standard Book Number_cell_1_4_0 Czech Republic; SlovakiaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_4_1 Taita PublishersInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_4_2
85-359-0277-5International Standard Book Number_cell_1_5_0 BrazilInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_5_1 Companhia das LetrasInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_5_2
1-84356-028-3International Standard Book Number_cell_1_6_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_6_1 Simon Wallenberg PressInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_6_2
0-684-84328-5International Standard Book Number_cell_1_7_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_7_1 ScribnerInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_7_2
0-8044-2957-XInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_8_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_8_1 Frederick UngarInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_8_2
0-85131-041-9International Standard Book Number_cell_1_9_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_9_1 J. A. Allen & Co.International Standard Book Number_cell_1_9_2
93-86954-21-4International Standard Book Number_cell_1_10_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_10_1 Edupedia Publications Pvt Ltd.International Standard Book Number_cell_1_10_2
0-943396-04-2International Standard Book Number_cell_1_11_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_11_1 Willmann–BellInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_11_2
0-9752298-0-XInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_12_0 English-speaking areaInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_12_1 KT PublishingInternational Standard Book Number_cell_1_12_2

Pattern for English language ISBNs International Standard Book Number_section_5

English-language registration group elements are 0 and 1 (2 of more than 220 registration group elements). International Standard Book Number_sentence_64

These two registration group elements are divided into registrant elements in a systematic pattern, which allows their length to be determined, as follows: International Standard Book Number_sentence_65

International Standard Book Number_table_general_2

Publication

element lengthInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_0_0

0 – Registration group elementInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_0_1 1 – Registration group elementInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_0_4 Total

RegistrantsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_0_7

FromInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_1_0 ToInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_1_1 RegistrantsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_1_2 FromInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_1_3 ToInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_1_4 RegistrantsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_1_5
6 digitsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_2_0 0-00-xxxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_1 0-19-xxxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_2 20International Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_3 1-01-xxxxxx-x

1-04-xxxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_4

1-02-xxxxxx-x

1-06-xxxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_5

5International Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_6 25International Standard Book Number_cell_2_2_7
5 digitsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_3_0 0-200-xxxxx-x

0-229-xxxxx-x 0-370-xxxxx-x 0-640-xxxxx-x 0-646-xxxxx-x 0-649-xxxxx-x 0-656-xxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_1

0-227-xxxxx-x

0-368-xxxxx-x 0-638-xxxxx-x 0-644-xxxxx-x 0-647-xxxxx-x 0-654-xxxxx-x 0-699-xxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_2

494International Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_3 1-000-xxxxx-x

1-030-xxxxx-x 1-100-xxxxx-x 1-714-xxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_4

1-009-xxxxx-x

1-034-xxxxx-x 1-397-xxxxx-x 1-716-xxxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_5

316International Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_6 810International Standard Book Number_cell_2_3_7
4 digitsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_4_0 0-2280-xxxx-x

0-3690-xxxx-x 0-6390-xxxx-x 0-6550-xxxx-x 0-7000-xxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_1

0-2289-xxxx-x

0-3699-xxxx-x 0-6397-xxxx-x 0-6559-xxxx-x 0-8499-xxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_2

1,538International Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_3 1-0350-xxxx-x

1-0700-xxxx-x 1-3980-xxxx-x 1-6500-xxxx-x 1-6860-xxxx-x 1-7170-xxxx-x 1-7900-xxxx-x 1-8672-xxxx-x 1-9730-xxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_4

1-0399-xxxx-x

1-0999-xxxx-x 1-5499-xxxx-x 1-6799-xxxx-x 1-7139-xxxx-x 1-7319-xxxx-x 1-7999-xxxx-x 1-8675-xxxx-x 1-9877-xxxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_5

2,852International Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_6 4,390International Standard Book Number_cell_2_4_7
3 digitsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_5_0 0-85000-xxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_1 0-89999-xxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_2 5,000International Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_3 1-55000-xxx-x

1-68000-xxx-x 1-74000-xxx-x 1-77540-xxx-x 1-77650-xxx-x 1-77770-xxx-x 1-80000-xxx-x 1-83850-xxx-x 1-86760-xxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_4

1-64999-xxx-x

1-68599-xxx-x 1-77499-xxx-x 1-77639-xxx-x 1-77699-xxx-x 1-78999-xxx-x 1-83799-xxx-x 1-86719-xxx-x 1-86979-xxx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_5

22,370International Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_6 27,370International Standard Book Number_cell_2_5_7
2 digitsInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_6_0 0-900000-xx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_1 0-949999-xx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_2 50,000International Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_3 1-869800-xx-x

1-916506-xx-x 1-987800-xx-x 1-991200-xx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_4

1-915999-xx-x

1-972999-xx-x 1-991149-xx-x 1-998989-xx-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_5

113,834International Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_6 163,834International Standard Book Number_cell_2_6_7
1 digitInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_7_0 0-6398000-x-x

0-6450000-x-x 0-6480000-x-x 0-9500000-x-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_1

0-6399999-x-x

0-6459999-x-x 0-6489999-x-x 0-9999999-x-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_2

522,000International Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_3 1-7320000-x-x

1-7750000-x-x 1-7764000-x-x 1-7770000-x-x 1-8380000-x-x 1-9160000-x-x 1-9911500-x-x 1-9989900-x-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_4

1-7399999-x-x

1-7753999-x-x 1-7764999-x-x 1-7776999-x-x 1-8384999-x-x 1-9165059-x-x 1-9911999-x-x 1-9999999-x-xInternational Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_5

112,660International Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_6 634,660International Standard Book Number_cell_2_7_7
TotalInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_8_0 579,052International Standard Book Number_cell_2_8_3 TotalInternational Standard Book Number_header_cell_2_8_4 252,037International Standard Book Number_cell_2_8_6 831,089International Standard Book Number_cell_2_8_7

Check digits International Standard Book Number_section_6

A check digit is a form of redundancy check used for error detection, the decimal equivalent of a binary check bit. International Standard Book Number_sentence_66

It consists of a single digit computed from the other digits in the number. International Standard Book Number_sentence_67

The method for the 10-digit ISBN is an extension of that for SBNs, so the two systems are compatible; an SBN prefixed with a zero (the 10-digit ISBN) will give the same check digit as the SBN without the zero. International Standard Book Number_sentence_68

The check digit is base eleven, and can be an integer between 0 and 9, or an 'X'. International Standard Book Number_sentence_69

The system for 13-digit ISBNs is not compatible with SBNs and will, in general, give a different check digit from the corresponding 10-digit ISBN, so does not provide the same protection against transposition. International Standard Book Number_sentence_70

This is because the 13-digit code was required to be compatible with the EAN format, and hence could not contain an 'X'. International Standard Book Number_sentence_71

ISBN-10 check digits International Standard Book Number_section_7

According to the 2001 edition of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual, the ISBN-10 check digit (which is the last digit of the 10-digit ISBN) must range from 0 to 10 (the symbol 'X' is used for 10), and must be such that the sum of the ten digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 1, is a multiple of 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_72

That is, if xi is the ith digit, then x10 must be chosen such that: International Standard Book Number_sentence_73

For example, for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-2: International Standard Book Number_sentence_74

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered: International Standard Book Number_sentence_75

It is also true for ISBN-10s that the sum of all ten digits, each multiplied by its weight in ascending order from 1 to 10, is a multiple of 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_76

For this example: International Standard Book Number_sentence_77

Formally, this is rendered: International Standard Book Number_sentence_78

The two most common errors in handling an ISBN (e.g. when typing it or writing it down) are a single altered digit or the transposition of adjacent digits. International Standard Book Number_sentence_79

It can be proven mathematically that all pairs of valid ISBN-10s differ in at least two digits. International Standard Book Number_sentence_80

It can also be proven that there are no pairs of valid ISBN-10s with eight identical digits and two transposed digits. International Standard Book Number_sentence_81

(These proofs are true because the ISBN is less than eleven digits long and because 11 is a prime number.) International Standard Book Number_sentence_82

The ISBN check digit method therefore ensures that it will always be possible to detect these two most common types of error, i.e., if either of these types of error has occurred, the result will never be a valid ISBN – the sum of the digits multiplied by their weights will never be a multiple of 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_83

However, if the error were to occur in the publishing house and remain undetected, the book would be issued with an invalid ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_84

In contrast, it is possible for other types of error, such as two altered non-transposed digits, or three altered digits, to result in a valid ISBN (although it is still unlikely). International Standard Book Number_sentence_85

ISBN-10 check digit calculation International Standard Book Number_section_8

Each of the first nine digits of the 10-digit ISBN—excluding the check digit itself—is multiplied by its (integer) weight, descending from 10 to 2, and the sum of these nine products found. International Standard Book Number_sentence_86

The value of the check digit is simply the one number between 0 and 10 which, when added to this sum, means the total is a multiple of 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_87

For example, the check digit for an ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? International Standard Book Number_sentence_88

is calculated as follows: International Standard Book Number_sentence_89

Alternatively, modular arithmetic is convenient for calculating the check digit using modulus 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_90

The remainder of this sum when it is divided by 11 (i.e. its value modulo 11), is computed. International Standard Book Number_sentence_91

This remainder plus the check digit must equal either 0 or 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_92

Therefore, the check digit is (11 minus the remainder of the sum of the products modulo 11) modulo 11. International Standard Book Number_sentence_93

Taking the remainder modulo 11 a second time accounts for the possibility that the first remainder is 0. International Standard Book Number_sentence_94

Without the second modulo operation, the calculation could result in a check digit value of 11−0 = 11, which is invalid. International Standard Book Number_sentence_95

(Strictly speaking, the first "modulo 11" is not needed, but it may be considered to simplify the calculation.) International Standard Book Number_sentence_96

For example, the check digit for the ISBN-10 of 0-306-40615-? International Standard Book Number_sentence_97

is calculated as follows: International Standard Book Number_sentence_98

Thus the check digit is 2. International Standard Book Number_sentence_99

It is possible to avoid the multiplications in a software implementation by using two accumulators. International Standard Book Number_sentence_100

Repeatedly adding t into s computes the necessary multiples: International Standard Book Number_sentence_101

The modular reduction can be done once at the end, as shown above (in which case s could hold a value as large as 496, for the invalid ISBN 99999-999-9-X), or s and t could be reduced by a conditional subtract after each addition. International Standard Book Number_sentence_102

ISBN-13 check digit calculation International Standard Book Number_section_9

Appendix 1 of the International ISBN Agency's official user manual describes how the 13-digit ISBN check digit is calculated. International Standard Book Number_sentence_103

The ISBN-13 check digit, which is the last digit of the ISBN, must range from 0 to 9 and must be such that the sum of all the thirteen digits, each multiplied by its (integer) weight, alternating between 1 and 3, is a multiple of 10. International Standard Book Number_sentence_104

As ISBN-13 is a subset of EAN-13, the algorithm for calculating the check digit is exactly the same for both. International Standard Book Number_sentence_105

Formally, using modular arithmetic, this is rendered: International Standard Book Number_sentence_106

The calculation of an ISBN-13 check digit begins with the first twelve digits of the 13-digit ISBN (thus excluding the check digit itself). International Standard Book Number_sentence_107

Each digit, from left to right, is alternately multiplied by 1 or 3, then those products are summed modulo 10 to give a value ranging from 0 to 9. International Standard Book Number_sentence_108

Subtracted from 10, that leaves a result from 1 to 10. International Standard Book Number_sentence_109

A zero (0) replaces a ten (10), so, in all cases, a single check digit results. International Standard Book Number_sentence_110

For example, the ISBN-13 check digit of 978-0-306-40615-? International Standard Book Number_sentence_111

is calculated as follows: International Standard Book Number_sentence_112

Thus, the check digit is 7, and the complete sequence is ISBN 978-0-306-40615-7. International Standard Book Number_sentence_113

In general, the ISBN-13 check digit is calculated as follows. International Standard Book Number_sentence_114

Let International Standard Book Number_sentence_115

Then International Standard Book Number_sentence_116

This check system – similar to the UPC check digit formula – does not catch all errors of adjacent digit transposition. International Standard Book Number_sentence_117

Specifically, if the difference between two adjacent digits is 5, the check digit will not catch their transposition. International Standard Book Number_sentence_118

For instance, the above example allows this situation with the 6 followed by a 1. International Standard Book Number_sentence_119

The correct order contributes 3×6+1×1 = 19 to the sum; while, if the digits are transposed (1 followed by a 6), the contribution of those two digits will be 3×1+1×6 = 9. International Standard Book Number_sentence_120

However, 19 and 9 are congruent modulo 10, and so produce the same, final result: both ISBNs will have a check digit of 7. International Standard Book Number_sentence_121

The ISBN-10 formula uses the prime modulus 11 which avoids this blind spot, but requires more than the digits 0–9 to express the check digit. International Standard Book Number_sentence_122

Additionally, if the sum of the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th digits is tripled then added to the remaining digits (1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th, and 13th), the total will always be divisible by 10 (i.e., end in 0). International Standard Book Number_sentence_123

ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 conversion International Standard Book Number_section_10

An ISBN-10 is converted to ISBN-13 by prepending "978" to the ISBN-10 and recalculating the final checksum digit using the ISBN-13 algorithm. International Standard Book Number_sentence_124

The reverse process can also be performed, but not for numbers commencing with a prefix other than 978, which have no 10-digit equivalent. International Standard Book Number_sentence_125

Errors in usage International Standard Book Number_section_11

Publishers and libraries have varied policies about the use of the ISBN check digit. International Standard Book Number_sentence_126

Publishers sometimes fail to check the correspondence of a book title and its ISBN before publishing it; that failure causes book identification problems for libraries, booksellers, and readers. International Standard Book Number_sentence_127

For example, ISBN 0-590-76484-5 is shared by two books – Ninja gaiden®: a novel based on the best-selling game by Tecmo (1990) and Wacky laws (1997), both published by Scholastic. International Standard Book Number_sentence_128

Most libraries and booksellers display the book record for an invalid ISBN issued by the publisher. International Standard Book Number_sentence_129

The Library of Congress catalogue contains books published with invalid ISBNs, which it usually tags with the phrase "Cancelled ISBN". International Standard Book Number_sentence_130

However, book-ordering systems such as Amazon.com will not search for a book if an invalid ISBN is entered to its search engine. International Standard Book Number_sentence_131

OCLC often indexes by invalid ISBNs, if the book is indexed in that way by a member library. International Standard Book Number_sentence_132

eISBN International Standard Book Number_section_12

Only the term "ISBN" should be used; the terms "eISBN" and "e-ISBN" have historically been sources of confusion and should be avoided. International Standard Book Number_sentence_133

If a book exists in one or more digital (e-book) formats, each of those formats must have its own ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_134

In other words, each of the three separate EPUB, Amazon Kindle, and PDF formats of a particular book will have its own specific ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_135

They should not share the ISBN of the paper version, and there is no generic "eISBN" which encompasses all the e-book formats for a title. International Standard Book Number_sentence_136

EAN format used in barcodes, and upgrading International Standard Book Number_section_13

Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN-5 for the currency and the recommended retail price. International Standard Book Number_sentence_137

For 10-digit ISBNs, the number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN-13 formula (modulo 10, 1x and 3x weighting on alternating digits). International Standard Book Number_sentence_138

Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to migrate to a 13-digit ISBN (ISBN-13). International Standard Book Number_sentence_139

The process began on 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude on 1 January 2007. International Standard Book Number_sentence_140

As of 2011, all the 13-digit ISBNs began with 978. International Standard Book Number_sentence_141

As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted, the 979 prefix was introduced. International Standard Book Number_sentence_142

Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_143

The 10-digit ISMN codes differed visually as they began with an "M" letter; the bar code represents the "M" as a zero (0), and for checksum purposes it counted as a 3. International Standard Book Number_sentence_144

All ISMNs are now thirteen digits commencing 979-0; 979-1 to 979-9 will be used by ISBN. International Standard Book Number_sentence_145

Publisher identification code numbers are unlikely to be the same in the 978 and 979 ISBNs, likewise, there is no guarantee that language area code numbers will be the same. International Standard Book Number_sentence_146

Moreover, the 10-digit ISBN check digit generally is not the same as the 13-digit ISBN check digit. International Standard Book Number_sentence_147

Because the GTIN-13 is part of the Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) system (that includes the GTIN-14, the GTIN-12, and the GTIN-8), the 13-digit ISBN falls within the 14-digit data field range. International Standard Book Number_sentence_148

Barcode format compatibility is maintained, because (aside from the group breaks) the ISBN-13 barcode format is identical to the EAN barcode format of existing 10-digit ISBNs. International Standard Book Number_sentence_149

So, migration to an EAN-based system allows booksellers the use of a single numbering system for both books and non-book products that is compatible with existing ISBN based data, with only minimal changes to information technology systems. International Standard Book Number_sentence_150

Hence, many booksellers (e.g., Barnes & Noble) migrated to EAN barcodes as early as March 2005. International Standard Book Number_sentence_151

Although many American and Canadian booksellers were able to read EAN-13 barcodes before 2005, most general retailers could not read them. International Standard Book Number_sentence_152

The upgrading of the UPC barcode system to full EAN-13, in 2005, eased migration to the ISBN-13 in North America. International Standard Book Number_sentence_153

See also International Standard Book Number_section_14

International Standard Book Number_unordered_list_2

  • ASIN (Amazon Standard Identification Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_26
  • BICI (Book Item and Component Identifier)International Standard Book Number_item_2_27
  • CODEN (serial publication identifier currently used by libraries; replaced by the ISSN for new works)International Standard Book Number_item_2_28
  • CSBN (Chinese Standard Book Number, 10 digits from 1987 to 2007, 13 digits since 2008, includes the LSBN, by the China ISBN Centre)International Standard Book Number_item_2_29
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier)International Standard Book Number_item_2_30
  • ESTC (English Short Title Catalogue)International Standard Book Number_item_2_31
  • ETTN (Electronic Textbook Track Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_32
  • ISAN (International Standard Audiovisual Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_33
  • ISMN (International Standard Music Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_34
  • ISRC (International Standard Recording Code)International Standard Book Number_item_2_35
  • ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_36
  • ISTC (International Standard Text Code)International Standard Book Number_item_2_37
  • ISWC (International Standard Musical Work Code)International Standard Book Number_item_2_38
  • ISWN (International Standard Wine Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_39
  • LCCN (Library of Congress Control Number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_40
  • License number (East German books) [] (Book identification system used between 1951 and 1990 in the former GDR)International Standard Book Number_item_2_41
  • List of group-0 ISBN publisher codesInternational Standard Book Number_item_2_42
  • List of group-1 ISBN publisher codesInternational Standard Book Number_item_2_43
  • List of ISBN identifier groupsInternational Standard Book Number_item_2_44
  • LSBN (Chinese book identification system since 1982, main part of CSBN)International Standard Book Number_item_2_45
  • OCLC number (Online Computer Library Center number)International Standard Book Number_item_2_46
  • Registration authorityInternational Standard Book Number_item_2_47
  • SICI (Serial Item and Contribution Identifier)International Standard Book Number_item_2_48
  • VD 16 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachbereich erschienenen Drucke des 16. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Sixteenth Century")International Standard Book Number_item_2_49
  • VD 17 (Verzeichnis der im deutschen Sprachraum erschienenen Drucke des 17. Jahrhunderts, "Bibliography of Books Printed in the German Speaking Countries of the Seventeenth Century")International Standard Book Number_item_2_50


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International Standard Book Number.