International Standard Serial Number

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International Standard Serial Number_table_infobox_0

International Standard Serial NumberInternational Standard Serial Number_table_caption_0
AcronymInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_0_0 ISSNInternational Standard Serial Number_cell_0_0_1
OrganisationInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_1_0 ISSN International CentreInternational Standard Serial Number_cell_0_1_1
IntroducedInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_2_0 1976; 44 years ago (1976)International Standard Serial Number_cell_0_2_1
No. issuedInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_3_0 > 2,000,000International Standard Serial Number_cell_0_3_1
No. of digitsInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_4_0 8International Standard Serial Number_cell_0_4_1
Check digitInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_5_0 Weighted sumInternational Standard Serial Number_cell_0_5_1
ExampleInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_6_0 2049-3630International Standard Serial Number_cell_0_6_1
WebsiteInternational Standard Serial Number_header_cell_0_7_0 International Standard Serial Number_cell_0_7_1

An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_0

The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_1

ISSNs are used in ordering, cataloging, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_2

The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_3

ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_4

When a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_5

For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_6

The ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN (p-ISSN) and electronic ISSN (e-ISSN), respectively. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_7

Consequently, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is also assigned a linking ISSN (ISSN-L), typically the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_8

Code format International Standard Serial Number_section_0

The format of the ISSN is an eight-digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_9

As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_10

The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_11

Formally, the general form of the ISSN code (also named "ISSN structure" or "ISSN syntax") can be expressed as follows: International Standard Serial Number_sentence_12

International Standard Serial Number_description_list_0

  • NNNN-NNNCInternational Standard Serial Number_item_0_0
  • where N is in the set {0,1,2,...,9}, a digit character, and C is in {0,1,2,...,9,X};International Standard Serial Number_item_0_1

or by a Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) regular expression: International Standard Serial Number_sentence_13

International Standard Serial Number_description_list_1

  • ^[0-9]{4}-[0-9]{3}[0-9xX]$.International Standard Serial Number_item_1_2

The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, that is C=5. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_14

To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: International Standard Serial Number_sentence_15

International Standard Serial Number_description_list_2

  • For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10 (like a Roman ten).International Standard Serial Number_item_2_3

To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right (if the check digit is X, then add 10 to the sum). International Standard Serial Number_sentence_16

The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_17

There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, based on the above algorithm. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_18

In EANs International Standard Serial Number_section_1

ISSNs can be encoded in EAN-13 bar codes with a 977 "country code" (compare the 978 country code ("bookland") for ISBNs), followed by the 7 main digits of the ISSN (the check digit is not included), followed by 2 publisher-defined digits, followed by the EAN check digit (which need not match the ISSN check digit). International Standard Serial Number_sentence_19

Code assignment, maintenance and look-up International Standard Serial Number_section_2

ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_20

The International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_21

Linking ISSN International Standard Serial Number_section_3

ISSN-L is a unique identifier for all versions of the serial containing the same content across different media. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_22

As defined by ISO 3297:2007, the "linking ISSN (ISSN-L)" provides a mechanism for collocation or linking among the different media versions of the same continuing resource. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_23

The ISSN-L is one of a serial’s existing ISSNs, so does not change the use or assignment of "ordinary" ISSNs; it is based on the ISSN of the first published medium version of the publication. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_24

If the print and online versions of the publication are published at the same time, the ISSN of the print version is chosen as the basis of the ISSN-L. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_25

With ISSN-L is possible to designate one single ISSN for all those media versions of the title. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_26

The use of ISSN-L facilitates search, retrieval and delivery across all media versions for services like OpenURL, library catalogues, search engines or knowledge bases. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_27

Register International Standard Serial Number_section_4

The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register (International Serials Data System), otherwise known as the ISSN Register. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_28

At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_29

The Register is not freely available for interrogation on the web, but is available by subscription. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_30

International Standard Serial Number_unordered_list_3

  • The print version of a serial typically will include the ISSN code as part of the publication information.International Standard Serial Number_item_3_4
  • Most serial websites contain ISSN code information.International Standard Serial Number_item_3_5
  • Derivative lists of publications will often contain ISSN codes; these can be found through on-line searches with the ISSN code itself or serial title.International Standard Serial Number_item_3_6
  • WorldCat permits searching its catalog by ISSN, by entering "issn:" before the code in the query field. One can also go directly to an ISSN's record by appending it to "https://www.worldcat.org/ISSN/", e.g. . This does not query the ISSN Register itself, but rather shows whether any Worldcat library holds an item with the given ISSN.International Standard Serial Number_item_3_7

Comparison with other identifiers International Standard Serial Number_section_5

ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_31

An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_32

An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_33

For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_34

Extensions International Standard Serial Number_section_6

Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, other identifiers have been built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components (like the table of contents): the Publisher Item Identifier (PII) and the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (SICI). International Standard Serial Number_sentence_35

Media versus content International Standard Serial Number_section_7

Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media (except reproduction microforms). International Standard Serial Number_sentence_36

Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs, and CD-ROM versions and web versions require different ISSNs. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_37

However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats (e.g. PDF and HTML) of the same online serial. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_38

This "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_39

In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, and the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_40

This "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_41

A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_42

An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier (DOI), an ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_43

Only later, in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the new ISSN standard (ISO 3297:2007) as an "ISSN designated by the ISSN Network to enable collocation or versions of a continuing resource linking among the different media". International Standard Serial Number_sentence_44

Use in URNs International Standard Serial Number_section_8

An ISSN can be encoded as a uniform resource name (URN) by prefixing it with "urn:ISSN:". International Standard Serial Number_sentence_45

For example, Rail could be referred to as "urn:ISSN:0953-4563". International Standard Serial Number_sentence_46

URN namespaces are case-sensitive, and the ISSN namespace is all caps. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_47

If the checksum digit is "X" then it is always encoded in uppercase in a URN. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_48

Problems International Standard Serial Number_section_9

The URNs are content-oriented, but ISSN is media-oriented: International Standard Serial Number_sentence_49

International Standard Serial Number_unordered_list_4

  • ISSN is not unique when the concept is "a journal is a set of contents, generally copyrighted content": the same journal (same contents and same copyrights) may have two or more ISSN codes. A URN needs to point to "unique content" (a "unique journal" as a "set of contents" reference).International Standard Serial Number_item_4_8

International Standard Serial Number_description_list_5

  • Example: Nature has an ISSN for print, 0028-0836, and another for the same content on the Web, 1476-4687; only the oldest (0028-0836) is used as a unique identifier. As the ISSN is not unique, the U.S. National Library of Medicine needed to create, prior to 2007, the NLM Unique ID (JID).International Standard Serial Number_item_5_9

International Standard Serial Number_unordered_list_6

  • ISSN does not offer resolution mechanisms like a digital object identifier (DOI) or a URN does, so the DOI is used as a URN for articles, with (for historical reasons) no need for an ISSN's existence.International Standard Serial Number_item_6_10

International Standard Serial Number_description_list_7

A unique URN for serials simplifies the search, recovery and delivery of data for various services including, in particular, search systems and knowledge databases. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_50

ISSN-L (see Linking ISSN above) was created to fill this gap. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_51

Media category labels International Standard Serial Number_section_10

The two standard categories of media in which serials are most available are print and electronic. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_52

In metadata contexts (e.g., JATS), these may have standard labels. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_53

Print ISSN International Standard Serial Number_section_11

p-ISSN is a standard label for "Print ISSN", the ISSN for the print media (paper) version of a serial. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_54

Usually it is the "default media" and so the "default ISSN". International Standard Serial Number_sentence_55

Electronic ISSN International Standard Serial Number_section_12

e-ISSN (or eISSN) is a standard label for "Electronic ISSN", the ISSN for the electronic media (online) version of a serial. International Standard Serial Number_sentence_56

ROAD International Standard Serial Number_section_13

International Standard Serial Number_unordered_list_8

See also International Standard Serial Number_section_14

International Standard Serial Number_unordered_list_9

  • CODENInternational Standard Serial Number_item_9_13
  • WorldCat—an ISSN-resolve serviceInternational Standard Serial Number_item_9_14


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International Standard Serial Number.