ITV (TV network)

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about a nation-wide television channel group. ITV (TV network)_sentence_0

For the channel itself serving England, Wales and the Channel Islands, see ITV (TV channel). ITV (TV network)_sentence_1

For a channel operator, see ITV plc. ITV (TV network)_sentence_2

For a unassociated Indian media group, see ITV Network (India). ITV (TV network)_sentence_3

ITV (TV network)_table_infobox_0

Channel 3 ITV networkITV (TV network)_table_caption_0
CountryITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_0_0 United KingdomITV (TV network)_cell_0_0_1
HeadquartersITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_1_0 London, England, UKITV (TV network)_cell_0_1_1
ProgrammingITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_2_0
Language(s)ITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_3_0 EnglishITV (TV network)_cell_0_3_1
OwnershipITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_4_0
OwnerITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_5_0 ITV plc (13 licences)

STV Group (2 licences)ITV (TV network)_cell_0_5_1

HistoryITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_6_0
LaunchedITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_7_0 22 September 1955; 65 years ago (1955-09-22)ITV (TV network)_cell_0_7_1
LinksITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_8_0
WebsiteITV (TV network)_header_cell_0_9_0 ITV (TV network)_cell_0_9_1

ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London. ITV (TV network)_sentence_4

It was launched in 1955 as Independent Television to provide competition to BBC Television, which had been established in 1932. ITV (TV network)_sentence_5

ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. ITV (TV network)_sentence_6

Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. ITV (TV network)_sentence_7

ITV is a network of television companies that operate regional television services and also share programmes between each other to be shown on the entire network. ITV (TV network)_sentence_8

Each franchise was originally owned by a different company, but after several mergers the fifteen regional franchises are held by two companies, ITV plc and STV Group. ITV (TV network)_sentence_9

The ITV network is a separate entity from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004. ITV (TV network)_sentence_10

ITV plc holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences for every region except central and northern Scotland, which are held by STV Group. ITV (TV network)_sentence_11

In Northern Ireland ITV plc uses the brand name UTV, the name used by former owner UTV Media (now known as Wireless Group). ITV (TV network)_sentence_12

History ITV (TV network)_section_0

Main article: History of ITV ITV (TV network)_sentence_13

The origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. ITV (TV network)_sentence_14

The act created the Independent Television Authority (ITA, then IBA after the Sound Broadcasting Act) to heavily regulate the industry and to award franchises. ITV (TV network)_sentence_15

The first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. ITV (TV network)_sentence_16

The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. ITV (TV network)_sentence_17

Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962. ITV (TV network)_sentence_18

The network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced. ITV (TV network)_sentence_19

Only one service operator has ever been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. ITV (TV network)_sentence_20

Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 (with the exception of London) and over the years more services were added; these included a national breakfast franchise from 1983 onward—operating between 6:00 am and 9:25 am—and a teletext service. ITV (TV network)_sentence_21

The Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV; the then regulator the IBA was replaced with a light-touch regulator, the ITC; companies became able to purchase other ITV regional companies and franchises were now being awarded based upon a highest-bidder auction, with few safeguards in place. ITV (TV network)_sentence_22

This heavily criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, and the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. ITV (TV network)_sentence_23

Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. ITV (TV network)_sentence_24

By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two, Carlton and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, Wales, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man. ITV (TV network)_sentence_25

That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011; and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. ITV (TV network)_sentence_26

Organisation (other networks) ITV (TV network)_section_1

The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while also broadcasting programmes across the network. ITV (TV network)_sentence_27

Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc. ITV (TV network)_sentence_28

The network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom who is responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. ITV (TV network)_sentence_29

The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. ITV (TV network)_sentence_30

While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced (following consultation) that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region. ITV (TV network)_sentence_31

All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance previously handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. ITV (TV network)_sentence_32

However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited (and given Channel Television is now owned by ITV plc), it has been replaced by an affiliation system. ITV (TV network)_sentence_33

Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. ITV (TV network)_sentence_34

All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except for the national news bulletins), however many do not due to pressures from the parent company or because of limited resources. ITV (TV network)_sentence_35

Prior to the affiliate system being introduced, STV would frequently (and sometimes controversially) opt out of several popular network programmes – such as the original run of the first series of Downton Abbey – citing the need to provide more Scottish content to its viewers. ITV (TV network)_sentence_36

As a public service broadcaster, the ITV network is obliged to broadcast programming of public importance, including news, current affairs, children's and religious programming as well as party election broadcasts on behalf of the major political parties and political events, such as the Budget. ITV (TV network)_sentence_37

The network also needs to produce accessible output containing subtitles, signing and audio description. ITV (TV network)_sentence_38

In exchange for this programming, the ITV network is available on all platforms free to air and can be found at the top of the EPG of all providers. ITV (TV network)_sentence_39

Since the launch of the platform in 1998, all of the ITV licensees have received gifted capacity on the digital terrestrial television platform. ITV (TV network)_sentence_40

At present, the companies are able to broadcast additional channels and all choose to broadcast the ITV plc owned ITV2, ITV3, ITV4 and CITV in their region. ITV (TV network)_sentence_41

UTV and STV (formerly Scottish Television and Grampian Television) previously broadcast their own services – UTV2 in Northern Ireland and S2 in central and northern Scotland – until 2002, when they adopted the ITV plc channels. ITV (TV network)_sentence_42

The broadcasters all make use of the Digital 3&4 multiplex, shared with Channel 4. ITV (TV network)_sentence_43

ITV Encore launched in June 2014 and ITVBe launched in October 2014. ITV (TV network)_sentence_44

ITV Box Office launched in February 2017. ITV (TV network)_sentence_45

ITV plc ITV (TV network)_section_2

Main article: ITV plc ITV (TV network)_sentence_46

ITV plc owns thirteen of the fifteen franchises and broadcasts to England, Wales, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland through its subsidiary companies ITV Broadcasting Limited, and UTV Limited The company also owns the breakfast contractor that broadcasts across the network between 6:00 and 9:25am each morning using the Good Morning Britain (previously Daybreak) and Lorraine names. ITV (TV network)_sentence_47

The company broadcasts a centralised service under the ITV brand. ITV (TV network)_sentence_48

In Northern Ireland, ITV uses the UTV brand name. ITV (TV network)_sentence_49

The group also owns ITV Studios, the production arm of the company and formed from an amalgamation of all the production departments of the regional licences they own. ITV (TV network)_sentence_50

The company produces a large proportion of ITV's networked programming (around 47%, but previously as high as 66% according to some reports), with the rest coming primarily from independent suppliers (under the Broadcasting Act 1990, at least 25% of ITV's total output must be from independent companies). ITV (TV network)_sentence_51

ITV plc hopes to increase the amount of in-house programming to as close to the 75% limit as possible. ITV (TV network)_sentence_52

The group cut the number of regional news programmes offered from 17 in 2007 to 9 by 2009, resulting several regions being merged to form one programme, including the Border Television and Tyne Tees Television regions, the Westcountry Television and West regions and the removal of sub regional programming, with some regions only represented by pre-recorded segments. ITV (TV network)_sentence_53

STV Group ITV (TV network)_section_3

Main article: STV Group ITV (TV network)_sentence_54

STV Group plc owns two franchises, covering central and northern Scotland, through subsidiary companies STV Central and STV North, broadcasting a central service under the STV brand. ITV (TV network)_sentence_55

The company has had several disputes with ITV plc in recent years over network programming. ITV (TV network)_sentence_56

STV aims to broadcast more Scottish programmes at peak times and so removed several key ITV plc programmes from their schedule in July 2009 including The Bill, Midsomer Murders and Lewis. ITV (TV network)_sentence_57

Despite STV's explanation of expense, ITV plc were angered by the decision, as a recent schedule change had made The Bill central to their programming, and broadcast the programmes on ITV3 as well to ensure Scottish viewers could see the programmes. ITV (TV network)_sentence_58

On 23 September ITV was reported to be in the process of suing STV for £20 million, as ITV plc felt dropping the shows constituted a breach of network agreements; STV subsequently counter-sued ITV plc for £35 million. ITV (TV network)_sentence_59

The dispute was ended in 2011 with STV agreeing to pay ITV plc £18 million. ITV (TV network)_sentence_60

The signing of the new affiliation deal has resulted in STV paying a flat fee for all networked programming, and so to drop any programmes is unlikely due to the large costs involved. ITV (TV network)_sentence_61

Current licensees ITV (TV network)_section_4

Further information: List of ITV regions ITV (TV network)_sentence_62

There are fourteen regional licences and one national licence for the breakfast service. ITV (TV network)_sentence_63

Other licences exist to provide specific programming services, such as Teletext and national news, but are not listed here. ITV (TV network)_sentence_64

All licences listed here were renewed until the end of 2024. ITV (TV network)_sentence_65

Licences in England and Wales were held by the individual regional ITV plc owned companies prior to November 2008. ITV (TV network)_sentence_66

ITV (TV network)_table_general_1

Regional Channel 3 LicencesITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_0_0
Licence Service AreaITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_1_0 Licence HolderITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_1_1 Licence held sinceITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_1_2 Parent CompanyITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_1_3 Service NameITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_1_4 On Air NameITV (TV network)_header_cell_1_1_5
North of ScotlandITV (TV network)_cell_1_2_0 STV North LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_2_1 30 September 1961ITV (TV network)_cell_1_2_2 STV Group plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_2_3 STV NorthITV (TV network)_cell_1_2_4 STVITV (TV network)_cell_1_2_5
Central ScotlandITV (TV network)_cell_1_3_0 STV Central LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_3_1 31 August 1957ITV (TV network)_cell_1_3_2 STV Group plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_3_3 STV CentralITV (TV network)_cell_1_3_4 STVITV (TV network)_cell_1_3_5
Northern IrelandITV (TV network)_cell_1_4_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_4_1 31 October 1959ITV (TV network)_cell_1_4_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_4_3 UTVITV (TV network)_cell_1_4_4 UTVITV (TV network)_cell_1_4_5
Channel IslandsITV (TV network)_cell_1_5_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_5_1 March 2017ITV (TV network)_cell_1_5_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_5_3 ITV Channel TVITV (TV network)_cell_1_5_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_5_5
England–Scotland BorderITV (TV network)_cell_1_6_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_6_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_6_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_6_3 ITV BorderITV (TV network)_cell_1_6_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_6_5
North East EnglandITV (TV network)_cell_1_7_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_7_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_7_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_7_3 ITV Tyne TeesITV (TV network)_cell_1_7_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_7_5
Yorkshire and LincolnshireITV (TV network)_cell_1_8_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_8_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_8_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_8_3 ITV YorkshireITV (TV network)_cell_1_8_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_8_5
North West England and Isle of ManITV (TV network)_cell_1_9_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_9_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_9_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_9_3 ITV GranadaITV (TV network)_cell_1_9_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_9_5
WalesITV (TV network)_cell_1_10_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_10_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_10_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_10_3 ITV Cymru WalesITV (TV network)_cell_1_10_4 ITV Cymru WalesITV (TV network)_cell_1_10_5
East, West and South MidlandsITV (TV network)_cell_1_11_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_11_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_11_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_11_3 ITV CentralITV (TV network)_cell_1_11_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_11_5
East of EnglandITV (TV network)_cell_1_12_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_12_1 December 2006ITV (TV network)_cell_1_12_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_12_3 ITV AngliaITV (TV network)_cell_1_12_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_12_5
London (weekdays)ITV (TV network)_cell_1_13_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_13_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_13_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_13_3 ITV London (weekdays)ITV (TV network)_cell_1_13_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_13_5
London (weekends)ITV (TV network)_cell_1_14_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_14_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_14_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_14_3 ITV London (weekends)ITV (TV network)_cell_1_14_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_14_5
South and South East EnglandITV (TV network)_cell_1_15_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_15_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_15_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_15_3 ITV MeridianITV (TV network)_cell_1_15_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_15_5
South West and West of EnglandITV (TV network)_cell_1_16_0 ITV Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_1_16_1 November 2008ITV (TV network)_cell_1_16_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_1_16_3 ITV West CountryITV (TV network)_cell_1_16_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_1_16_5

ITV (TV network)_table_general_2

National Channel 3 LicencesITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_0_0
Licence Service AreaITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_1_0 Licence HolderITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_1_1 Licence held sinceITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_1_2 Parent CompanyITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_1_3 Service NameITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_1_4 On Air NameITV (TV network)_header_cell_2_1_5
National breakfast timeITV (TV network)_cell_2_2_0 ITV Breakfast Broadcasting LimitedITV (TV network)_cell_2_2_1 1993ITV (TV network)_cell_2_2_2 ITV plcITV (TV network)_cell_2_2_3 ITV BreakfastITV (TV network)_cell_2_2_4 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_2_2_5

Programming ITV (TV network)_section_5

Availability outside the UK ITV (TV network)_section_6

ITV (as UTV) is widely available in Ireland, where it is received directly in areas bordering Northern Ireland, or in coastal areas from Wales (as ITV Cymru Wales). ITV (TV network)_sentence_67

Until 2015, it was also carried on cable, when it was replaced by UTV Ireland, which was itself replaced by be3, now Virgin Media Three. ITV (TV network)_sentence_68

It is also available on cable and IPTV in Switzerland and Liechtenstein. ITV (TV network)_sentence_69

Since 27 March 2013, it has been offered by the British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS) to members of HM Forces and their families around the world, replacing the BFBS3 TV channel, which already carried a selection of ITV programmes. ITV (TV network)_sentence_70

Criticism ITV (TV network)_section_7

Since the launch of ITV, there have been concerns from politicians and the press that ITV faced a conflict concerning programme audiences and advertisers. ITV (TV network)_sentence_71

As advertisers are reluctant to buy advertising space around low viewing programmes, there is a pressure on ITV to broadcast more popular programmes in peak times. ITV (TV network)_sentence_72

This has become more profound in recent years following a relaxation in regulation and significantly more competition in the advertising market following the huge increase in commercial channels. ITV (TV network)_sentence_73

In recent years, programmes have started to dominate from the reality television genre including the celebrity and talent show subgenres. ITV (TV network)_sentence_74

This has led to accusations of ITV 'dumbing down' their programmes and appealing to the 'lowest common denominator', accusations that are at odds with the network's status as a public service broadcaster. ITV (TV network)_sentence_75

ITV was/is also heavily criticised for scaling back its regional programmes, including regional news, also ITV has been criticised (since 2010) for showing Emmerdale and Coronation Street at the 8:30 weekday slot (except Tuesdays). ITV (TV network)_sentence_76

Awards and nominations ITV (TV network)_section_8

ITV (TV network)_table_general_3

YearITV (TV network)_header_cell_3_0_0 AssociationITV (TV network)_header_cell_3_0_1 CategoryITV (TV network)_header_cell_3_0_2 Nominee(s)ITV (TV network)_header_cell_3_0_3 ResultITV (TV network)_header_cell_3_0_4
2017ITV (TV network)_cell_3_1_0 Diversity in Media AwardsITV (TV network)_cell_3_1_1 Broadcaster of the YearITV (TV network)_cell_3_1_2 ITVITV (TV network)_cell_3_1_3 NominatedITV (TV network)_cell_3_1_4

On-air identity ITV (TV network)_section_9

<gallery> File:ITV logo 1989.svg|First logo, used from 1989 to 1998 File:ITV logo 1998 - 2006.svg|Second logo used from 1998 to 2006 File:ITV logo.svg|Third logo used from 2006 to 2013 (ITV-branded regions only) File:ITV (Fernsehsender) logo.svg|Fourth logo used from 2013 to 2019 (ITV-branded regions File:ITV logo.svg 2019-present|fifth logo ITV (TV network)_sentence_77

See also ITV (TV network)_section_10

ITV (TV network)_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ITV (TV network).