Ibn Khaldun

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For the horse, see Ibn Khaldun (horse). Ibn Khaldun_sentence_0

Ibn Khaldun_table_infobox_0

Ibn KhaldunIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_0_0
PersonalIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_1_0
BornIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_2_0 27 May 1332

Tunis, Hafsid SultanateIbn Khaldun_cell_0_2_1

DiedIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_3_0 17 March 1406 (1406-03-18) (aged 73)

Cairo, EgyptIbn Khaldun_cell_0_3_1

ReligionIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_4_0 IslamIbn Khaldun_cell_0_4_1
DenominationIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_5_0 SunniIbn Khaldun_cell_0_5_1
JurisprudenceIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_6_0 MalikiIbn Khaldun_cell_0_6_1
CreedIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_7_0 Ash'ariIbn Khaldun_cell_0_7_1
Main interest(s)Ibn Khaldun_header_cell_0_8_0 Ibn Khaldun_cell_0_8_1
Notable idea(s)Ibn Khaldun_header_cell_0_9_0 Ibn Khaldun_cell_0_9_1
Muslim leaderIbn Khaldun_header_cell_0_10_0

Ibn Khaldun (/ˈɪbən kælˈduːn/; Arabic: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī; 27 May 1332 – 17 March 1406) was an Arab scholar of Islam, social scientist and historian who has been described as the founder of the modern disciplines of historiography, sociology, economics, and demography. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_1

Niccolò Machiavelli of the Renaissance and the 19th-century European scholars widely acknowledged the significance of his works and considered Ibn Khaldun to be one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_2

His best-known book, the Muqaddimah or Prolegomena ("Introduction"), which he wrote in six months as he states in his autobiography, influenced 17th-century Ottoman historians like Kâtip Çelebi, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and Mustafa Naima, who used its theories to analyze the growth and decline of the Ottoman Empire. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_3

Ibn Khaldun interacted with Tamerlane, the founder of the Timurid Empire. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_4

Family Ibn Khaldun_section_0

Ibn Khaldun's life is relatively well-documented, as he wrote an autobiography (التعريف بابن خلدون ورحلته غربا وشرقا, at-Taʻrīf bi-ibn Khaldūn wa-Riḥlatih Gharban wa-Sharqan) ("Presenting Ibn Khaldun and his Journey West and East") in which numerous documents regarding his life are quoted word-for-word. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_5

Abdurahman bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hasan bin Jabir bin Muhammad bin Ibrahim bin Abdurahman bin Ibn Khaldun al-Hadrami, generally known as "Ibn Khaldūn" after a remote ancestor, was born in Tunis in AD 1332 (732 AH) into an upper-class Andalusian family of Arab descent, the family's ancestor was a Hadhrami who shared kinship with Waíl ibn Hujr, a companion of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_6

His family, which held many high offices in Al-Andalus, had emigrated to Tunisia after the fall of Seville to the Reconquista in AD 1248. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_7

Under the Tunisian Hafsid dynasty, some of his family held political office; his father and grandfather, however, withdrew from political life and joined a mystical order. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_8

His brother, Yahya Khaldun, was also a historian who wrote a book on the Abdalwadid dynasty and was assassinated by a rival for being the official historiographer of the court. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_9

In his autobiography, Khaldun traces his descent back to the time of Muhammad through an Arab tribe from Yemen, specifically the Hadhramaut, which came to the Iberian Peninsula in the 8th century, at the beginning of the Islamic conquest: "And our ancestry is from Hadhramaut, from the Arabs of Yemen, via Wa'il ibn Hujr also known as Hujr ibn 'Adi, from the best of the Arabs, well-known and respected." Ibn Khaldun_sentence_10

(p. 2429, Al-Waraq's edition). Ibn Khaldun_sentence_11

However, the modern biographer Mohammad Enan questions Ibn Khaldun's words and autobiography, and claims that his family may have been Muladis who pretended to be of Arab origin to gain social status, even though it is well documented that Ibn Khaldun's ancestors came from Yemen and then to Al-Andalus. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_12

Enan also mentions past old tradition that certain Berber groups delusively "aggrandize" themselves with some Arab ancestry, the motive of such inventions was always the desire for political and societal ascendancy. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_13

Some speculate that of the Khaldun family and elaborate that Ibn Khaldun himself was the product of the same Berber ancestry, even though he never mentioned any connections to the Berbers. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_14

A point supporting that posits that his unusual focus on and admiration of Maharlika Muslim Berbers reveals a deference towards them that is born of a vested interest in preserving them in the realm of conscious history. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_15

Islamic scholar Muhammad Hozien contends, "The false [Berber] identity would be valid however at the time that Ibn Khaldun's ancestors left Andulsia and moved to Tunisia they did not change their claim to Arab ancestry. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_16

Even in the times when Berbers were ruling, the reigns of Almoravids and Almohads, et. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_17

al., the Ibn Khalduns did not reclaim their Berber heritage." Ibn Khaldun_sentence_18

Khaldun's tracing of his own genealogy and surname are thought to be the strongest indication of Arab Yemenite ancestry. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_19

Education Ibn Khaldun_section_1

His family's high rank enabled Ibn Khaldun to study with prominent teachers in Maghreb. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_20

He received a classical Islamic education, studying the Quran, which he memorized by heart, Arabic linguistics; the basis for understanding the Qur'an, hadith, sharia (law) and fiqh (jurisprudence). Ibn Khaldun_sentence_21

He received certification (ijazah) for all of those subjects. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_22

The mathematician and philosopher Al-Abili of Tlemcen introduced him to mathematics, logic and philosophy, and he studied especially the works of Averroes, Avicenna, Razi and Tusi. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_23

At the age of 17, Ibn Khaldūn lost both his parents to the Black Death, an intercontinental epidemic of the plague that hit Tunis in 1348–1349. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_24

Following family tradition, he strove for a political career. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_25

In the face of a tumultuous political situation in North Africa, that required a high degree of skill in developing and dropping alliances prudently to avoid falling with the short-lived regimes of the time. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_26

Ibn Khaldūn's autobiography is the story of an adventure, in which he spends time in prison, reaches the highest offices and falls again into exile. Ibn Khaldun_sentence_27

Political career Ibn Khaldun_section_2

Later life Ibn Khaldun_section_3

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn Khaldun.