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This article is about the State of Idaho. Idaho_sentence_0

For other uses, see Idaho (disambiguation). Idaho_sentence_1


CountryIdaho_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesIdaho_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodIdaho_header_cell_0_2_0 Oregon Territory, Washington Territory, Idaho TerritoryIdaho_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionIdaho_header_cell_0_3_0 July 3, 1890 (43rd)Idaho_cell_0_3_1

(and largest city)Idaho_header_cell_0_4_0

Largest metroIdaho_header_cell_0_5_0 Boise metropolitan areaIdaho_cell_0_5_1
GovernorIdaho_header_cell_0_7_0 Brad Little (R)Idaho_cell_0_7_1
Lieutenant GovernorIdaho_header_cell_0_8_0 Janice McGeachin (R)Idaho_cell_0_8_1
LegislatureIdaho_header_cell_0_9_0 LegislatureIdaho_cell_0_9_1
Upper houseIdaho_header_cell_0_10_0 SenateIdaho_cell_0_10_1
Lower houseIdaho_header_cell_0_11_0 House of RepresentativesIdaho_cell_0_11_1
JudiciaryIdaho_header_cell_0_12_0 Idaho Supreme CourtIdaho_cell_0_12_1
U.S. senatorsIdaho_header_cell_0_13_0 Mike Crapo (R)

Jim Risch (R)Idaho_cell_0_13_1

U.S. House delegationIdaho_header_cell_0_14_0 1. Russ Fulcher (R)

2. Mike Simpson (R) (list)Idaho_cell_0_14_1

TotalIdaho_header_cell_0_16_0 83,569 sq mi (216,443 km)Idaho_cell_0_16_1
LandIdaho_header_cell_0_17_0 82,643 sq mi (214,044 km)Idaho_cell_0_17_1
WaterIdaho_header_cell_0_18_0 926 sq mi (2,398 km)  1.11%Idaho_cell_0_18_1
Area rankIdaho_header_cell_0_19_0 14thIdaho_cell_0_19_1
LengthIdaho_header_cell_0_21_0 479 mi (771 km)Idaho_cell_0_21_1
WidthIdaho_header_cell_0_22_0 305 mi (491 km)Idaho_cell_0_22_1
ElevationIdaho_header_cell_0_23_0 5,000 ft (1,520 m)Idaho_cell_0_23_1
Highest elevation (Borah Peak)Idaho_header_cell_0_24_0 12,662 ft (3,859 m)Idaho_cell_0_24_1
Lowest elevation (Confluence of Snake and Clearwater River; Lewiston)Idaho_header_cell_0_25_0 713 ft (217 m)Idaho_cell_0_25_1
Population (2019)Idaho_header_cell_0_26_0
TotalIdaho_header_cell_0_27_0 1,787,065Idaho_cell_0_27_1
RankIdaho_header_cell_0_28_0 39thIdaho_cell_0_28_1
DensityIdaho_header_cell_0_29_0 21.6/sq mi (8.33/km)Idaho_cell_0_29_1
Density rankIdaho_header_cell_0_30_0 44thIdaho_cell_0_30_1
Median household incomeIdaho_header_cell_0_31_0 $52,225Idaho_cell_0_31_1
Income rankIdaho_header_cell_0_32_0 41stIdaho_cell_0_32_1
Demonym(s)Idaho_header_cell_0_33_0 IdahoanIdaho_cell_0_33_1
Official languageIdaho_header_cell_0_35_0 EnglishIdaho_cell_0_35_1
Time zonesIdaho_header_cell_0_36_0
primaryIdaho_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−07:00 (Mountain)Idaho_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Idaho_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−06:00 (MDT)Idaho_cell_0_38_1
Idaho PanhandleIdaho_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−08:00 (Pacific)Idaho_cell_0_39_1
Summer (DST)Idaho_header_cell_0_40_0 UTC−07:00 (PDT)Idaho_cell_0_40_1
USPS abbreviationIdaho_header_cell_0_41_0 IDIdaho_cell_0_41_1
ISO 3166 codeIdaho_header_cell_0_42_0 US-IDIdaho_cell_0_42_1
LatitudeIdaho_header_cell_0_43_0 42° N to 49° NIdaho_cell_0_43_1
LongitudeIdaho_header_cell_0_44_0 111°03′ W to 117°15′ WIdaho_cell_0_44_1
WebsiteIdaho_header_cell_0_45_0 Idaho_cell_0_45_1


Idaho state symbolsIdaho_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaIdaho_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianIdaho_header_cell_1_2_0 Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)Idaho_cell_1_2_1
BirdIdaho_header_cell_1_3_0 Idaho_cell_1_3_1
FishIdaho_header_cell_1_4_0 Cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)Idaho_cell_1_4_1
FlowerIdaho_header_cell_1_5_0 Syringa (Philadelphus lewisii)Idaho_cell_1_5_1
Horse breedIdaho_header_cell_1_6_0 AppaloosaIdaho_cell_1_6_1
InsectIdaho_header_cell_1_7_0 Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)Idaho_cell_1_7_1
TreeIdaho_header_cell_1_8_0 Western white pine (Pinus monticola)Idaho_cell_1_8_1
Inanimate insigniaIdaho_header_cell_1_9_0
DanceIdaho_header_cell_1_10_0 Square danceIdaho_cell_1_10_1
FoodIdaho_header_cell_1_11_0 Idaho_cell_1_11_1
FossilIdaho_header_cell_1_12_0 Hagerman horse (Equus simplicidens)Idaho_cell_1_12_1
GemstoneIdaho_header_cell_1_13_0 Star garnetIdaho_cell_1_13_1
SloganIdaho_header_cell_1_14_0 "Great Potatoes. Tasty Destinations."Idaho_cell_1_14_1
SoilIdaho_header_cell_1_15_0 ThreebearIdaho_cell_1_15_1
State route markerIdaho_header_cell_1_16_0
State quarterIdaho_header_cell_1_17_0

Idaho (/ˈaɪdəhoʊ/ (listen)) is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Idaho_sentence_2

It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. Idaho_sentence_3

To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. Idaho_sentence_4

With a population of approximately 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles (216,440 km), Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. Idaho_sentence_5

The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho_sentence_6

For thousands of years Idaho has been inhabited by Native American peoples. Idaho_sentence_7

In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the United States and the British Empire. Idaho_sentence_8

It officially became U.S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho_sentence_9

Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state. Idaho_sentence_10

Forming part of the Pacific Northwest (and the associated Cascadia bioregion), Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. Idaho_sentence_11

The state's north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle, is closely linked with Eastern Washington with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone—the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone. Idaho_sentence_12

The state's south includes the Snake River Plain (which has most of the population and agricultural land). Idaho_sentence_13

The state's southeast incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho_sentence_14

Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains. Idaho_sentence_15

The United States Forest Service holds about 38% of Idaho's land, the highest proportion of any state. Idaho_sentence_16

Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry, and tourism. Idaho_sentence_17

A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, and the state also contains the Idaho National Laboratory, which is the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho_sentence_18

Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield. Idaho_sentence_19

The official state nickname is the "Gem State", which references Idaho's natural beauty. Idaho_sentence_20

Etymology Idaho_section_0

The name's origin remains a mystery. Idaho_sentence_21

In the early 1860s, when the U.S. Idaho_sentence_22 Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, the name "Idaho" was suggested by George M. Willing, a politician posing as an unrecognized delegate from the unofficial Jefferson Territory. Idaho_sentence_23

Willing claimed that the name was derived from a Shoshone term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains", but it was revealed later that there was no such term and Willing claimed that he had been inspired to coin the name when he met a little girl named "Ida". Idaho_sentence_24

Since the name appeared to be fabricated, the U.S. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory instead when it was created in February 1861, but by the time this decision was made, the town of Idaho Springs, Colorado had already been named after Willing's proposal. Idaho_sentence_25

The same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. Idaho_sentence_26

The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860. Idaho_sentence_27

It is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willing's claim was revealed. Idaho_sentence_28

Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863. Idaho_sentence_29

Eventually, the name was given to the Idaho Territory, which would later become the U.S. state. Idaho_sentence_30

Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". Idaho_sentence_31

A 1956 Idaho history textbook says: Idaho_sentence_32

An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́" IPA: [í.taː.hɛ̃́ (enemy) that was used in reference to the Comanche. Idaho_sentence_33

Geography Idaho_section_1

Idaho borders six U.S. states and one Canadian province. Idaho_sentence_34

The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west, Nevada and Utah are to the south, and Montana and Wyoming are to the east. Idaho_sentence_35

Idaho also shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. Idaho_sentence_36

The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. Idaho_sentence_37

For example, at 2.3 million acres (930,000 ha), the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho_sentence_38

Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with abundant natural resources and scenic areas. Idaho_sentence_39

The state has snow-capped mountain ranges, rapids, vast lakes and steep canyons. Idaho_sentence_40

The waters of the Snake River run through Hells Canyon, the deepest gorge in the United States. Idaho_sentence_41

Shoshone Falls falls down cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls. Idaho_sentence_42

By far, the most important river in Idaho is the Snake River, a major tributary of the Columbia River. Idaho_sentence_43

The Snake River flows out from Yellowstone in northwestern Wyoming through the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho before turning north, leaving the state at Lewiston before joining the Columbia in Kennewick. Idaho_sentence_44

Other major rivers are the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Spokane River, and major tributaries of the Snake river, including the Clearwater River, the Salmon River, the Boise River, and the Payette River. Idaho_sentence_45

The Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat. Idaho_sentence_46

The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho_sentence_47

The vast majority of Idaho's population lives in the Snake River Plain, a valley running from across the entirety of southern Idaho from east to west. Idaho_sentence_48

The valley contains the major cities of Boise, Meridian, Nampa, Caldwell, Twin Falls, Idaho Falls, and Pocatello. Idaho_sentence_49

The plain served as an easy pass through the Rocky Mountains for westward-bound settlers on the Oregon Trail, and many settlers chose to settle the area rather than risking the treacherous route through the Blue Mountains and the Cascade Range to the west. Idaho_sentence_50

The western region of the plain is known as the Treasure Valley, bound between the Owyhee Mountains to the southwest and the Boise Mountains to the northeast. Idaho_sentence_51

The central region of the Snake River Plain is known as the Magic Valley. Idaho_sentence_52

Idaho's highest point is Borah Peak, 12,662 ft (3,859 m), in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho_sentence_53

Idaho's lowest point, 710 ft (216 m), is in Lewiston, where the Clearwater River joins the Snake River and continues into Washington. Idaho_sentence_54

The Sawtooth Range is often considered Idaho's most famous mountain range. Idaho_sentence_55

Other mountain ranges in Idaho include the Bitterroot Range, the White Cloud Mountains, the Lost River Range, the Clearwater Mountains, and the Salmon River Mountains. Idaho_sentence_56

Idaho has two time zones, with the dividing line approximately midway between Canada and Nevada. Idaho_sentence_57

Southern Idaho, including the Boise metropolitan area, Idaho Falls, Pocatello, and Twin Falls, are in the Mountain Time Zone. Idaho_sentence_58

A legislative error (15 U.S.C. §264) theoretically placed this region in the Central Time Zone, but this was corrected with a 2007 amendment. Idaho_sentence_59

Areas north of the Salmon River, including Coeur d'Alene, Moscow, Lewiston, and Sandpoint, are in the Pacific Time Zone, which contains less than a quarter of the state's population and land area. Idaho_sentence_60

Climate Idaho_section_2

Idaho's climate varies widely. Idaho_sentence_61

Although the state's western border is about 350 miles (560 km) from the Pacific Ocean, the maritime influence is still felt in Idaho, especially in the winter when cloud cover, humidity, and precipitation are at their maximum extent. Idaho_sentence_62

This influence has a moderating effect in the winter where temperatures are not as low as would otherwise be expected for a northern state with predominantly high elevations. Idaho_sentence_63

The maritime influence is least prominent in the state's eastern part where the precipitation patterns are often reversed, with wetter summers and drier winters, and seasonal temperature differences are more extreme, showing a more semi-arid continental climate. Idaho_sentence_64

Idaho can be hot, although extended periods over 98 °F (37 °C) are rare, except for the lowest point in elevation, Lewiston, which correspondingly sees little snow. Idaho_sentence_65

Hot summer days are tempered by the low relative humidity and cooler evenings during summer months since, for most of the state, the highest diurnal difference in temperature is often in the summer. Idaho_sentence_66

Winters can be cold, although extended periods of bitter cold weather below zero are unusual. Idaho_sentence_67

Idaho's all-time highest temperature of 118 °F (48 °C) was recorded at Orofino on July 28, 1934; the all-time lowest temperature of −60 °F (−51 °C) was recorded at Island Park Dam on January 18, 1943. Idaho_sentence_68


Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Idaho cities. (°F)Idaho_cell_2_0_0
CityIdaho_header_cell_2_1_0 JanIdaho_header_cell_2_1_1 FebIdaho_header_cell_2_1_2 MarIdaho_header_cell_2_1_3 AprIdaho_header_cell_2_1_4 MayIdaho_header_cell_2_1_5 JunIdaho_header_cell_2_1_6 JulIdaho_header_cell_2_1_7 AugIdaho_header_cell_2_1_8 SepIdaho_header_cell_2_1_9 OctIdaho_header_cell_2_1_10 NovIdaho_header_cell_2_1_11 DecIdaho_header_cell_2_1_12
BoiseIdaho_header_cell_2_2_0 38/24Idaho_cell_2_2_1 45/27Idaho_cell_2_2_2 55/33Idaho_cell_2_2_3 62/38Idaho_cell_2_2_4 72/46Idaho_cell_2_2_5 81/53Idaho_cell_2_2_6 91/59Idaho_cell_2_2_7 90/59Idaho_cell_2_2_8 79/50Idaho_cell_2_2_9 65/40Idaho_cell_2_2_10 48/31Idaho_cell_2_2_11 38/23Idaho_cell_2_2_12
LewistonIdaho_header_cell_2_3_0 42/30Idaho_cell_2_3_1 47/31Idaho_cell_2_3_2 55/36Idaho_cell_2_3_3 62/41Idaho_cell_2_3_4 71/47Idaho_cell_2_3_5 79/54Idaho_cell_2_3_6 89/60Idaho_cell_2_3_7 89/60Idaho_cell_2_3_8 78/51Idaho_cell_2_3_9 63/41Idaho_cell_2_3_10 48/34Idaho_cell_2_3_11 40/28Idaho_cell_2_3_12
PocatelloIdaho_header_cell_2_4_0 33/16Idaho_cell_2_4_1 38/19Idaho_cell_2_4_2 49/27Idaho_cell_2_4_3 59/33Idaho_cell_2_4_4 68/40Idaho_cell_2_4_5 78/46Idaho_cell_2_4_6 88/52Idaho_cell_2_4_7 88/51Idaho_cell_2_4_8 76/42Idaho_cell_2_4_9 62/33Idaho_cell_2_4_10 45/24Idaho_cell_2_4_11 33/16Idaho_cell_2_4_12
OrofinoIdaho_header_cell_2_5_0 38/25Idaho_cell_2_5_1 46/28Idaho_cell_2_5_2 55/32Idaho_cell_2_5_3 64/38Idaho_cell_2_5_4 72/44Idaho_cell_2_5_5 80/50Idaho_cell_2_5_6 89/54Idaho_cell_2_5_7 90/53Idaho_cell_2_5_8 79/45Idaho_cell_2_5_9 63/36Idaho_cell_2_5_10 46/31Idaho_cell_2_5_11 37/26Idaho_cell_2_5_12

Lakes and rivers Idaho_section_3

See also: List of rivers of Idaho Idaho_sentence_69

History Idaho_section_4

Main article: History of Idaho Idaho_sentence_70

Humans may have been present in the Idaho area as long as 14,500 years ago. Idaho_sentence_71

Excavations at Wilson Butte Cave near Twin Falls in 1959 revealed evidence of human activity, including arrowheads, that rank among the oldest dated artifacts in North America. Idaho_sentence_72

American Indian peoples predominant in the area included the Nez Percé in the north and the Northern and Western Shoshone in the south. Idaho_sentence_73

A Late Upper Paleolithic site was identified at Cooper's Ferry in western Idaho near the town of Cottonwood by archaeologists in 2019. Idaho_sentence_74

Based on evidence found at the site, first people lived in this area 15,300 to 16,600 years ago, predating the Beringia land bridge by about a thousand years. Idaho_sentence_75

The discoverers, anthropology professor Loren Davis and colleagues, emphasized that they possess similarities with tools and artifacts discovered in Japan that date from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago. Idaho_sentence_76

The discovery also showed that the first people might not have come to North America by land, as previously theorized. Idaho_sentence_77

On the contrary, they probably came through the water, using a Pacific coastal road. Idaho_sentence_78

An early presence of French-Canadian trappers is visible in names and toponyms: Nez Percé, Cœur d'Alène, Boisé, Payette, some preexisting the Lewis and Clark and Astorian expeditions which themselves included significant numbers of French and Métis guides recruited for their familiarity with the terrain. Idaho_sentence_79

Idaho, as part of the Oregon Country, was claimed by both the United States and Great Britain until the United States gained undisputed jurisdiction in 1846. Idaho_sentence_80

From 1843 to 1849, present-day Idaho was under the de facto jurisdiction of the Provisional Government of Oregon. Idaho_sentence_81

When Oregon became a state, what is now Idaho was in what remained of the original Oregon Territory not part of the new state, and designated as the Washington Territory. Idaho_sentence_82

Between then and the creation of the Idaho Territory on March 4, 1863, at Lewiston, parts of the present-day state were included in the Oregon, Washington, and Dakota Territories. Idaho_sentence_83

The new territory included present-day Idaho, Montana, and most of Wyoming. Idaho_sentence_84

The Lewis and Clark expedition crossed Idaho in 1805 on the way to the Pacific and in 1806 on the return, largely following the Clearwater River both directions. Idaho_sentence_85

The first non-indigenous settlement was Kullyspell House, established on the shore of Lake Pend Oreille for fur trading in 1809 by David Thompson of the North West Company. Idaho_sentence_86

In 1812 Donald Mackenzie, working for the Pacific Fur Company at the time, established a post on the lower Clearwater River near present-day Lewiston. Idaho_sentence_87

This post, known as "MacKenzie's Post" or "Clearwater", operated until the Pacific Fur Company was bought out by the North West Company in 1813, after which it was abandoned. Idaho_sentence_88

The first attempts at organized communities, within the present borders of Idaho, were established in 1860. Idaho_sentence_89

The first permanent, substantial incorporated community was Lewiston in 1861. Idaho_sentence_90

After some tribulation as a territory, including the chaotic transfer of the territorial capital from Lewiston to Boise, disenfranchisement of Mormon polygamists upheld by the U.S. Idaho_sentence_91 Supreme Court in 1877, and a federal attempt to split the territory between Washington Territory which gained statehood in 1889, a year before Idaho, and the state of Nevada which had been a state since 1864, Idaho achieved statehood in 1890. Idaho_sentence_92

Idaho was one of the hardest hit of the Pacific Northwest states during the Great Depression. Idaho_sentence_93

Prices plummeted for Idaho's major crops: in 1932 a bushel of potatoes brought only ten cents compared to $1.51 in 1919, while Idaho farmers saw their annual income of $686 in 1929 drop to $250 by 1932. Idaho_sentence_94

In recent years, Idaho has expanded its commercial base as a tourism and agricultural state to include science and technology industries. Idaho_sentence_95

Science and technology have become the largest single economic center (over 25% of the state's total revenue) within the state and are greater than agriculture, forestry and mining combined. Idaho_sentence_96

Demographics Idaho_section_5

Population Idaho_section_6

The United States Census Bureau estimates Idaho's population was 1,787,065 on July 1, 2018, a 14% increase since 2010. Idaho_sentence_97

Idaho had an estimated population of 1,754,208 in 2018, which was an increase of 37,265, from the prior year and an increase of 186,626, or 11.91%, since 2010. Idaho_sentence_98

This includes a natural increase since the last census of 58,884 (111,131 births minus 52,247 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 75,795 people into the state. Idaho_sentence_99

There are large numbers of Americans of English and German ancestry in Idaho. Idaho_sentence_100

Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 14,522 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 61,273 people. Idaho_sentence_101

This made Idaho the tenth fastest-growing state after District of Columbia (+16.74%), Utah (+14.37%), Texas (+14.14%), Florida (+13.29%), Colorado (+13.25%), North Dakota (+13.01%), Nevada (+12.36%), Arizona (+12.20%) and Washington. Idaho_sentence_102

From 2017 to 2018, Idaho grew the second-fastest, surpassed only by Nevada. Idaho_sentence_103

Nampa, about 20 miles (30 km) west of downtown Boise, became the state's second largest city in the late 1990s, passing Pocatello and Idaho Falls. Idaho_sentence_104

Nampa's population was under 29,000 in 1990 and grew to over 81,000 by 2010. Idaho_sentence_105

Located between Nampa and Boise, Meridian also experienced high growth, from fewer than 10,000 residents in 1990 to more than 75,000 in 2010 and is now Idaho's third largest city. Idaho_sentence_106

Growth of 5% or more over the same period has also been observed in Caldwell, Coeur d'Alene, Post Falls, and Twin Falls. Idaho_sentence_107

From 1990 to 2010, Idaho's population increased by over 560,000 (55%). Idaho_sentence_108

The Boise metropolitan area (officially known as the Boise City-Nampa, ID Metropolitan Statistical Area) is Idaho's largest metropolitan area. Idaho_sentence_109

Other metropolitan areas in order of size are Coeur d'Alene, Idaho Falls, Pocatello and Lewiston. Idaho_sentence_110

The table below shows the racial composition of Idaho's population as of 2016. Idaho_sentence_111


Idaho racial composition of populationIdaho_table_caption_3
RaceIdaho_header_cell_3_0_0 Population (2017 est.)Idaho_header_cell_3_0_1 PercentageIdaho_header_cell_3_0_2
Total populationIdaho_cell_3_1_0 1,657,375Idaho_cell_3_1_1 100%Idaho_cell_3_1_2
WhiteIdaho_cell_3_2_0 1,507,880Idaho_cell_3_2_1 91.0%Idaho_cell_3_2_2
Black or African AmericanIdaho_cell_3_3_0 11,231Idaho_cell_3_3_1 0.7%Idaho_cell_3_3_2
American Indian and Alaska NativeIdaho_cell_3_4_0 21,323Idaho_cell_3_4_1 1.3%Idaho_cell_3_4_2
AsianIdaho_cell_3_5_0 22,720Idaho_cell_3_5_1 1.4%Idaho_cell_3_5_2
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific IslanderIdaho_cell_3_6_0 2,343Idaho_cell_3_6_1 0.1%Idaho_cell_3_6_2
Some other raceIdaho_cell_3_7_0 47,964Idaho_cell_3_7_1 2.9%Idaho_cell_3_7_2
Two or more racesIdaho_cell_3_8_0 43,914Idaho_cell_3_8_1 2.6%Idaho_cell_3_8_2


Idaho historical racial compositionIdaho_table_caption_4
Racial compositionIdaho_header_cell_4_0_0 1970Idaho_header_cell_4_0_1 1990Idaho_header_cell_4_0_2 2000Idaho_header_cell_4_0_3 2010Idaho_header_cell_4_0_4
WhiteIdaho_cell_4_1_0 98.1%Idaho_cell_4_1_1 94.4%Idaho_cell_4_1_2 90.1%Idaho_cell_4_1_3 89.1%Idaho_cell_4_1_4
NativeIdaho_cell_4_2_0 0.9%Idaho_cell_4_2_1 1.4%Idaho_cell_4_2_2 1.4%Idaho_cell_4_2_3 1.4%Idaho_cell_4_2_4
AsianIdaho_cell_4_3_0 0.5%Idaho_cell_4_3_1 0.9%Idaho_cell_4_3_2 0.9%Idaho_cell_4_3_3 1.2%Idaho_cell_4_3_4
BlackIdaho_cell_4_4_0 0.3%Idaho_cell_4_4_1 0.3%Idaho_cell_4_4_2 0.4%Idaho_cell_4_4_3 0.6%Idaho_cell_4_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderIdaho_cell_4_5_0

Idaho_cell_4_5_1 Idaho_cell_4_5_2 0.1%Idaho_cell_4_5_3 0.1%Idaho_cell_4_5_4
Other raceIdaho_cell_4_6_0 0.2%Idaho_cell_4_6_1 3.0%Idaho_cell_4_6_2 4.2%Idaho_cell_4_6_3 5.1%Idaho_cell_4_6_4
Two or more racesIdaho_cell_4_7_0 Idaho_cell_4_7_1 Idaho_cell_4_7_2 2.0%Idaho_cell_4_7_3 2.5%Idaho_cell_4_7_4

According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 12.2% of Idaho's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (10.6%), Puerto Rican (0.2%), Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (1.3%). Idaho_sentence_112

The five largest ancestry groups were: German (17.5%), English (16.4%), Irish (9.3%), American (8.1%), and Scottish (3.2%). Idaho_sentence_113


Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Idaho_sentence_114


Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherIdaho_table_caption_5
RaceIdaho_header_cell_5_0_0 2013Idaho_header_cell_5_0_1 2014Idaho_header_cell_5_0_2 2015Idaho_header_cell_5_0_3 2016Idaho_header_cell_5_0_4 2017Idaho_header_cell_5_0_5 2018Idaho_header_cell_5_0_6
White:Idaho_cell_5_1_0 21,246 (94.9%)Idaho_cell_5_1_1 21,696 (94.8%)Idaho_cell_5_1_2 21,618 (94.7%)Idaho_cell_5_1_3 ...Idaho_cell_5_1_4 ...Idaho_cell_5_1_5 ...Idaho_cell_5_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteIdaho_cell_5_2_0 17,951 (80.2%)Idaho_cell_5_2_1 18,188 (79.5%)Idaho_cell_5_2_2 18,087 (79.2%)Idaho_cell_5_2_3 17,543 (78.0%)Idaho_cell_5_2_4 17,151 (77.3%)Idaho_cell_5_2_5 16,574 (77.4%)Idaho_cell_5_2_6
AsianIdaho_cell_5_3_0 491 (2.2%)Idaho_cell_5_3_1 501 (2.2%)Idaho_cell_5_3_2 516 (2.3%)Idaho_cell_5_3_3 363 (1.6%)Idaho_cell_5_3_4 366 (1.7%)Idaho_cell_5_3_5 348 (1.6%)Idaho_cell_5_3_6
American IndianIdaho_cell_5_4_0 421 (1.9%)Idaho_cell_5_4_1 429 (1.9%)Idaho_cell_5_4_2 406 (1.8%)Idaho_cell_5_4_3 261 (1.2%)Idaho_cell_5_4_4 337 (1.5%)Idaho_cell_5_4_5 285 (1.3%)Idaho_cell_5_4_6
BlackIdaho_cell_5_5_0 225 (1.0%)Idaho_cell_5_5_1 250 (1.1%)Idaho_cell_5_5_2 287 (1.2%)Idaho_cell_5_5_3 217 (1.0%)Idaho_cell_5_5_4 243 (1.1%)Idaho_cell_5_5_5 233 (1.1%)Idaho_cell_5_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Idaho_cell_5_6_0 3,422 (15.3%)Idaho_cell_5_6_1 3,651 (16.0%)Idaho_cell_5_6_2 3,645 (16.0%)Idaho_cell_5_6_3 3,614 (16.1%)Idaho_cell_5_6_4 3,598 (16.2%)Idaho_cell_5_6_5 3,549 (16.6%)Idaho_cell_5_6_6
Total IdahoIdaho_cell_5_7_0 22,383 (100%)Idaho_cell_5_7_1 22,876 (100%)Idaho_cell_5_7_2 22,827 (100%)Idaho_cell_5_7_3 22,482 (100%)Idaho_cell_5_7_4 22,181 (100%)Idaho_cell_5_7_5 21,403 (100%)Idaho_cell_5_7_6


  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Idaho_item_1_0

Religion Idaho_section_7

According to the Pew Research Center on Religion & Public Life, the self-identified religious affiliations of Idahoans over the age of 18 in 2008 and 2014 were: Idaho_sentence_115


DenominationIdaho_header_cell_6_0_0 2008Idaho_header_cell_6_0_1 2014Idaho_header_cell_6_0_2
Christian, including:Idaho_cell_6_1_0 81%Idaho_cell_6_1_1 67%Idaho_cell_6_1_2
* Evangelical ProtestantIdaho_cell_6_2_0 22%Idaho_cell_6_2_1 21%Idaho_cell_6_2_2
* Mainline ProtestantIdaho_cell_6_3_0 16%Idaho_cell_6_3_1 16%Idaho_cell_6_3_2
* CatholicIdaho_cell_6_4_0 18%Idaho_cell_6_4_1 10%Idaho_cell_6_4_2
* Eastern OrthodoxIdaho_cell_6_5_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_5_1 1%Idaho_cell_6_5_2
* Historically Black ProtestantIdaho_cell_6_6_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_6_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_6_2
* The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day SaintsIdaho_cell_6_7_0 23%Idaho_cell_6_7_1 19%Idaho_cell_6_7_2
* Jehovah's WitnessesIdaho_cell_6_8_0 1%Idaho_cell_6_8_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_8_2
* Other ChristianIdaho_cell_6_9_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_9_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_9_2
Unaffiliated, including:Idaho_cell_6_10_0 18%Idaho_cell_6_10_1 27%Idaho_cell_6_10_2
* Nothing in particularIdaho_cell_6_11_0 n/dIdaho_cell_6_11_1 22%Idaho_cell_6_11_2
* AgnosticIdaho_cell_6_12_0 n/dIdaho_cell_6_12_1 3%Idaho_cell_6_12_2
* AtheistIdaho_cell_6_13_0 n/dIdaho_cell_6_13_1 2%Idaho_cell_6_13_2
Non-Christian faiths, including:Idaho_cell_6_14_0 n/dIdaho_cell_6_14_1 4%Idaho_cell_6_14_2
* MuslimIdaho_cell_6_15_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_15_1 1%Idaho_cell_6_15_2
* JewishIdaho_cell_6_16_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_16_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_16_2
* BuddhistIdaho_cell_6_17_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_17_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_17_2
* HinduIdaho_cell_6_18_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_18_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_18_2
* Other World religionsIdaho_cell_6_19_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_19_1 < 1%Idaho_cell_6_19_2
* Other faiths (New Age, Native American, etc.)Idaho_cell_6_20_0 n/dIdaho_cell_6_20_1 2%Idaho_cell_6_20_2
Don't know/refusedIdaho_cell_6_21_0 < 0.5%Idaho_cell_6_21_1 1%Idaho_cell_6_21_2

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives, the largest denominations by number of members in 2010 were The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 409,265; the Catholic Church with 123,400; the non-denominational Evangelical Protestant with 62,637; and the Assemblies of God with 22,183. Idaho_sentence_116

Language Idaho_section_8

English is the state's predominant language. Idaho_sentence_117

Minority languages include Spanish and various Native American languages. Idaho_sentence_118

Economy Idaho_section_9

See also: Idaho locations by per capita income Idaho_sentence_119


  • Total employment 2016Idaho_item_2_1


  • Idaho_item_3_2
    • 562,282Idaho_item_3_3


  • Total employer establishmentsIdaho_item_4_4


  • Idaho_item_5_5
    • 45,826Idaho_item_5_6

Gross state product for 2015 was $64.9 billion, and the per capita income based on 2015 GDP and 2015 population estimates was $39,100. Idaho_sentence_120

Idaho is an important agricultural state, producing nearly one-third of the potatoes grown in the United States. Idaho_sentence_121

All three varieties of wheat, dark northern spring, hard red, and soft white are grown in the state. Idaho_sentence_122

Nez Perce County is considered a premier soft white growing locale. Idaho_sentence_123

Important industries in Idaho are food processing, lumber and wood products, machinery, chemical products, paper products, electronics manufacturing, silver and other mining, and tourism. Idaho_sentence_124

The world's largest factory for barrel cheese, the raw product for processed cheese is in Gooding, Idaho. Idaho_sentence_125

It has a capacity of 120,000 metric tons per year of barrel cheese and belongs to the Glanbia group. Idaho_sentence_126

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is the largest Department of Energy facility in the country by area. Idaho_sentence_127

INL is an important part of the eastern Idaho economy. Idaho_sentence_128

Idaho also is home to three facilities of Anheuser-Busch which provide a large part of the malt for breweries across the nation. Idaho_sentence_129

A variety of industries are important. Idaho_sentence_130

Outdoor recreation is a common example ranging from numerous snowmobile and downhill and cross-country ski areas in winter to the evolution of Lewiston as a retirement community based on mild winters, dry, year-round climate and one of the lowest median wind velocities anywhere, combined with the rivers for a wide variety of activities. Idaho_sentence_131

Other examples would be ATK Corporation, which operates three ammunition and ammunition components plants in Lewiston. Idaho_sentence_132

Two are sporting and one is defense contract. Idaho_sentence_133

The Lewis-Clark valley has an additional independent ammunition components manufacturer and the Chipmunk rifle factory until it was purchased in 2007 by Keystone Sporting Arms and production was moved to Milton, Pennsylvania. Idaho_sentence_134

Four of the world's six welded aluminum jet boat (for running river rapids) manufacturers are in the Lewiston-Clarkston, WA valley. Idaho_sentence_135

Wine grapes were grown between Kendrick and Juliaetta in the Idaho Panhandle by the French Rothschilds until Prohibition. Idaho_sentence_136

In keeping with this, while there are no large wineries or breweries in Idaho, there are numerous and growing numbers of award-winning boutique wineries and microbreweries in the northern part of the state. Idaho_sentence_137

Today, Idaho's largest industry is the science and technology sector. Idaho_sentence_138

It accounts for over 25% of the state's revenue and over 70% of the state's exports. Idaho_sentence_139

Idaho's industrial economy is growing, with high-tech products leading the way. Idaho_sentence_140

Since the late 1970s, Boise has emerged as a center for semiconductor manufacturing. Idaho_sentence_141

Boise is the home of Micron Technology, the only U.S. manufacturer of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) chips. Idaho_sentence_142

Micron at one time manufactured desktop computers, but with very limited success. Idaho_sentence_143

Hewlett-Packard has operated a large plant in Boise since the 1970s, which is devoted primarily to LaserJet printers production. Idaho_sentence_144

Boise-based Clearwater Analytics is another rapidly growing investment accounting and reporting software firm, reporting on over $1 trillion in assets. Idaho_sentence_145

ON Semiconductor, whose worldwide headquarters is in Pocatello, is a widely recognized innovator of modern integrated mixed-signal semiconductor products, mixed-signal foundry services, and structured digital products. Idaho_sentence_146

Coldwater Creek, a women's clothing retailer, is headquartered in Sandpoint. Idaho_sentence_147

Sun Microsystems (now a part of Oracle Corporation) has two offices in Boise and a parts depot in Pocatello. Idaho_sentence_148

Sun brings $4 million in annual salaries and over $300 million of revenue to the state each year. Idaho_sentence_149

A number of Fortune 500 companies started in or trace their roots to Idaho, including Safeway in American Falls, Albertsons in Boise, JR Simplot across southern Idaho, and Potlatch Corp. in Lewiston. Idaho_sentence_150

Zimmerly Air Transport in Lewiston-Clarkston was one of the five companies in the merger centered around Varney Air Lines of Pasco, Washington, which became United Airlines and subsequently Varney Air Group which became Continental Airlines. Idaho_sentence_151

In 2014, Idaho emerged as the second most small business friendly state, ranking behind Utah, based on a study drawing upon data from more than 12,000 small business owners. Idaho_sentence_152

Idaho has a state gambling lottery which contributed $333.5 million in payments to all Idaho public schools and Idaho higher education from 1990 to 2006. Idaho_sentence_153


  • Idaho_item_6_7
  • Idaho_item_6_8
  • Idaho_item_6_9

Taxation Idaho_section_10

Tax is collected by the Idaho State Tax Commission. Idaho_sentence_154

The state personal income tax ranges from 1.6% to 7.8% in eight income brackets. Idaho_sentence_155

Idahoans may apply for state tax credits for taxes paid to other states, as well as for donations to Idaho state educational entities and some nonprofit youth and rehabilitation facilities. Idaho_sentence_156

The state sales tax is 6% with a very limited, selective local option up to 6.5%. Idaho_sentence_157

Sales tax applies to the sale, rental or lease of tangible personal property and some services. Idaho_sentence_158

Food is taxed, but prescription drugs are not. Idaho_sentence_159

Hotel, motel, and campground accommodations are taxed at a higher rate (7% to 11%). Idaho_sentence_160

Some jurisdictions impose local option sales tax. Idaho_sentence_161

The sales tax was introduced at 3% in 1965, easily approved by voters, where it remained at 3% until 1983. Idaho_sentence_162

Energy Idaho_section_11

As of 2017, the primary energy source in Idaho was hydropower, and the energy companies had a total retail sales of 23,793,790 megawatthours (MWh). Idaho_sentence_163

As of 2017, Idaho had a regulated electricity market, with the Idaho Public Utilities Commission regulating the three major utilities of Avista Utilities, Idaho Power, and Rocky Mountain Power. Idaho_sentence_164

Idaho's energy landscape is favorable to the development of renewable energy systems. Idaho_sentence_165

The state is rich in renewable energy resources but has limited fossil fuel resources. Idaho_sentence_166

The Snake River Plain and smaller river basins provide Idaho with some of the nation's best hydroelectric power resources and its geologically active mountain areas have significant geothermal power and wind power potential. Idaho_sentence_167

These realities have shaped much of the state's energy landscape. Idaho_sentence_168

Idaho imports most of the energy it consumes. Idaho_sentence_169

Imports account for more than 80% of energy consumption, including all of Idaho's natural gas and petroleum supplies and more than half of its electricity. Idaho_sentence_170

Of the electricity consumed in Idaho in 2005, 48% came from hydroelectricity, 42% was generated by burning coal and 9% was generated by burning natural gas. Idaho_sentence_171

The remainder came from other renewable sources such as wind. Idaho_sentence_172

The state's numerous river basins allow hydroelectric power plants to provide 556,000 MWh, which amounts to about three-fourths of Idaho's electricity generated in the state. Idaho_sentence_173

Washington State provides most of the natural gas used in Idaho through one of the two major pipeline systems supplying the state. Idaho_sentence_174

Although the state relies on out-of-state sources for its entire natural gas supply, it uses natural gas-fired plants to generate 127,000 MWh, or about ten percent of its output. Idaho_sentence_175

Coal-fired generation and the state's small array of wind turbines supplies the remainder of the state's electricity output. Idaho_sentence_176

The state produces 739,000 MWh but still needs to import half of its electricity from out-of-state to meet demand. Idaho_sentence_177

While Idaho's 515 trillion British thermal units (151 TWh) total energy consumption is low compared with other states and represents just 0.5% of United States consumption, the state also has the nation's 11th smallest population, 1.5 million, so its per capita energy consumption of 352 million BTU (103 MWh) is just above the national average of 333 million BTU (98 MWh). Idaho_sentence_178

As the 13th‑largest state in terms of land area of 83,570 square miles (53,480,000 acres; 216,400 km), distance creates the additional problem of "line loss". Idaho_sentence_179

When the length of an electrical transmission line is doubled, the resistance to an electric current passing through it is also doubled. Idaho_sentence_180

In addition, Idaho also has the 6th fastest growing population in the United States with the population expected to increase by 31% from 2008 to 2030. Idaho_sentence_181

This projected increase in population will contribute to a 42% increase in demand by 2030, further straining Idaho's finite hydroelectric resources. Idaho_sentence_182

Idaho has an upper-boundary estimate of development potential to generate 44,320 GWh/year from 18,076 MW of wind power, and 7,467,000 GWh/year from solar power using 2,061,000 MW of photovoltaics (PV), including 3,224 MW of rooftop photovoltaics, and 1,267,000 MW of concentrated solar power. Idaho_sentence_183

Transportation Idaho_section_12

The Idaho Transportation Department is the government agency responsible for Idaho's transportation infrastructure, including operations and maintenance as well as planning for future needs. Idaho_sentence_184

The agency is also responsible for overseeing the disbursement of federal, state, and grant funding for the transportation programs of the state. Idaho_sentence_185

Highways Idaho_section_13

Main article: List of state highways in Idaho Idaho_sentence_186

Idaho is among the few states in the nation without a major freeway linking its two largest metropolitan areas, Boise in the south and Coeur d'Alene in the north. Idaho_sentence_187

US-95 links the two ends of the state, but like many other highways in Idaho, it is badly in need of repair and upgrade. Idaho_sentence_188

In 2007, the Idaho Transportation Department stated the state's highway infrastructure faces a $200 million per year shortfall in maintenance and upgrades. Idaho_sentence_189

I-84 is the main highway linking the southeast and southwest portions of the state, along with I-86 and I-15. Idaho_sentence_190

Major federal aid highways in Idaho: Idaho_sentence_191

Airports Idaho_section_14

Major airports include the Boise International Airport which serves the southwest region of Idaho and the Spokane International Airport (in Spokane, Washington) which serves northern Idaho. Idaho_sentence_192

Other airports with scheduled service are the Pullman-Moscow Regional Airport serving the Palouse; the Lewiston-Nez Perce County Airport, serving the Lewis-Clark Valley and north central and west central Idaho; The Magic Valley Regional Airport in Twin Falls; the Idaho Falls Regional Airport; and the Pocatello Regional Airport. Idaho_sentence_193

Railroads Idaho_section_15

Idaho is served by three transcontinental railroads. Idaho_sentence_194

The Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) connects the Idaho Panhandle with Seattle, Portland, and Spokane to the west, and Minneapolis and Chicago to the east. Idaho_sentence_195

The BNSF travels through Kootenai, Bonner, and Boundary counties. Idaho_sentence_196

The Union Pacific Railroad crosses North Idaho entering from Canada through Boundary and Bonner, and proceeding to Spokane. Idaho_sentence_197

Canadian Pacific Railway uses Union Pacific Railroad tracks in North Idaho carrying products from Alberta to Spokane and Portland, Oregon. Idaho_sentence_198

Amtrak's Empire Builder crosses northern Idaho, with its only stop being in Sandpoint. Idaho_sentence_199

Montana Rail Link also operates between Billings, Montana and Sandpoint, Idaho Idaho_sentence_200

The Union Pacific Railroad also crosses southern Idaho traveling between Portland, Oregon, Green River, Wyoming, and Ogden, Utah and serves Boise, Nampa, Twin Falls, and Pocatello. Idaho_sentence_201

Ports Idaho_section_16

The Port of Lewiston is the farthest inland Pacific port on the west coast. Idaho_sentence_202

A series of dams and locks on the Snake River and Columbia River facilitate barge travel from Lewiston to Portland, where goods are loaded on ocean-going vessels. Idaho_sentence_203

Law and government Idaho_section_17

State constitution Idaho_section_18

The constitution of Idaho is roughly modeled on the national constitution with several additions. Idaho_sentence_204

The constitution defines the form and functions of the state government, and may be amended through . Idaho_sentence_205

Notably, the state constitution presently requires the state government to maintain a balanced budget. Idaho_sentence_206

As result, Idaho has limited debt (construction bonds, etc.). Idaho_sentence_207

Idaho Code and Statutes Idaho_section_19

All of Idaho's state laws are contained in the Idaho Code and Statutes. Idaho_sentence_208

The code is amended through the legislature with the approval of the governor. Idaho_sentence_209

Idaho still operates under its original (1889) state constitution. Idaho_sentence_210

State government Idaho_section_20

The constitution of Idaho provides for three branches of government: the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Idaho_sentence_211

Idaho has a bicameral legislature, elected from 35 legislative districts, each represented by one senator and two representatives. Idaho_sentence_212

Since 1946, statewide elected constitutional officers have been elected to four-year terms. Idaho_sentence_213

They include: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of State, Idaho state controller (Auditor before 1994), Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction. Idaho_sentence_214

Last contested in 1966, Inspector of Mines was an originally elected constitutional office. Idaho_sentence_215

Afterward it was an appointed position and ultimately done away with entirely in 1974. Idaho_sentence_216

Idaho's government has an alcohol monopoly. Idaho_sentence_217

Executive branch Idaho_section_21

Further information: List of Governors of Idaho Idaho_sentence_218

Further information: Lieutenant Governor of Idaho Idaho_sentence_219

Further information: Secretary of State of Idaho Idaho_sentence_220

The governor of Idaho serves a four-year term, and is elected during what is nationally referred to as midterm elections. Idaho_sentence_221

As such, the governor is not elected in the same election year as the president of the United States. Idaho_sentence_222

The current governor is Republican Brad Little, who was elected in 2018. Idaho_sentence_223

Legislative branch Idaho_section_22

Main article: Idaho Legislature Idaho_sentence_224

Idaho's legislature is part-time. Idaho_sentence_225

However, the session may be extended if necessary, and often is. Idaho_sentence_226

Because of this, Idaho's legislators are considered "citizen legislators", meaning their position as a legislator is not their main occupation. Idaho_sentence_227

Terms for both the Senate and House of Representatives are two years. Idaho_sentence_228

Legislative elections occur every even numbered year. Idaho_sentence_229

The Idaho Legislature has been continuously controlled by the Republican Party since the late 1950s, although Democratic legislators are routinely elected from Boise, Pocatello, Blaine County and the northern Panhandle. Idaho_sentence_230

Judicial branch Idaho_section_23

Main article: Courts of Idaho Idaho_sentence_231

The highest court in Idaho is the Idaho Supreme Court. Idaho_sentence_232

There is also an intermediate appellate court, the Idaho Court of Appeals, which hears cases assigned to it from the Supreme Court. Idaho_sentence_233

The state's District Courts serve seven judicial districts. Idaho_sentence_234

Counties Idaho_section_24

Main article: List of counties in Idaho Idaho_sentence_235

Idaho is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties. Idaho_sentence_236

Since 1919 there are 44 counties in the state, ranging in size from 410 to 8,502 square miles (1,060 to 22,020 km). Idaho_sentence_237

Three counties were first designated as such by the Washington Territorial Legislature in 1861; they were subsequently redesignated as Idaho counties in 1864. Idaho_sentence_238

The 1861 Nez Percé county has since been broken up into Nez Percé, Lewis, Boundary, Benewah, Latah, Kootenai, and Clearwater counties. Idaho_sentence_239

Idaho license plates begin with a county designation based on the first letter of the county's name. Idaho_sentence_240

Where a letter is at the beginning of more than one name, a number accompanies precedingly in alphabetical order. Idaho_sentence_241

This reflects an anomalous coincidental situation wherein 10 counties begin with B, seven with C and four with L, which is 21 of the 44 counties. Idaho_sentence_242

Politics Idaho_section_25

See also: Political party strength in Idaho and United States presidential elections in Idaho Idaho_sentence_243

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: