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This article is about the State of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_0

For the river, see Illinois River. Illinois_sentence_1

For other uses, see Illinois (disambiguation). Illinois_sentence_2


CountryIllinois_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesIllinois_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodIllinois_header_cell_0_2_0 Illinois TerritoryIllinois_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionIllinois_header_cell_0_3_0 December 3, 1818 (21st)Illinois_cell_0_3_1
CapitalIllinois_header_cell_0_4_0 SpringfieldIllinois_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityIllinois_header_cell_0_5_0 ChicagoIllinois_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroIllinois_header_cell_0_6_0 Chicago metropolitan areaIllinois_cell_0_6_1
GovernorIllinois_header_cell_0_8_0 J. B. Pritzker (D)Illinois_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorIllinois_header_cell_0_9_0 Juliana Stratton (D)Illinois_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureIllinois_header_cell_0_10_0 Illinois General AssemblyIllinois_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseIllinois_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateIllinois_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseIllinois_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesIllinois_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryIllinois_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of IllinoisIllinois_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsIllinois_header_cell_0_14_0 Dick Durbin (D)

Tammy Duckworth (D)Illinois_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationIllinois_header_cell_0_15_0 13 Democrats

5 Republicans (list)Illinois_cell_0_15_1

TotalIllinois_header_cell_0_17_0 57,915 sq mi (149,997 km)Illinois_cell_0_17_1
LandIllinois_header_cell_0_18_0 55,593 sq mi (143,969 km)Illinois_cell_0_18_1
WaterIllinois_header_cell_0_19_0 2,320 sq mi (5,981 km)  3.99%Illinois_cell_0_19_1
Area rankIllinois_header_cell_0_20_0 25thIllinois_cell_0_20_1
LengthIllinois_header_cell_0_22_0 390 mi (628 km)Illinois_cell_0_22_1
WidthIllinois_header_cell_0_23_0 210 mi (338 km)Illinois_cell_0_23_1
ElevationIllinois_header_cell_0_24_0 600 ft (180 m)Illinois_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Charles Mound)Illinois_header_cell_0_25_0 1,235 ft (376.4 m)Illinois_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Confluence of Mississippi River and Ohio River)Illinois_header_cell_0_26_0 280 ft (85 m)Illinois_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Illinois_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalIllinois_header_cell_0_28_0 12,671,821Illinois_cell_0_28_1
RankIllinois_header_cell_0_29_0 6thIllinois_cell_0_29_1
DensityIllinois_header_cell_0_30_0 232/sq mi (89.4/km)Illinois_cell_0_30_1
Density rankIllinois_header_cell_0_31_0 12thIllinois_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeIllinois_header_cell_0_32_0 $65,030Illinois_cell_0_32_1
Income rankIllinois_header_cell_0_33_0 16thIllinois_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Illinois_header_cell_0_34_0 IllinoisanIllinois_cell_0_34_1
Official languageIllinois_header_cell_0_36_0 EnglishIllinois_cell_0_36_1
Spoken languageIllinois_header_cell_0_37_0 English (80.8%)

Spanish (14.9%) Other (5.1%)Illinois_cell_0_37_1

Time zoneIllinois_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−06:00 (Central)Illinois_cell_0_38_1
Summer (DST)Illinois_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−05:00 (CDT)Illinois_cell_0_39_1
USPS abbreviationIllinois_header_cell_0_40_0 ILIllinois_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeIllinois_header_cell_0_41_0 US-ILIllinois_cell_0_41_1
Traditional abbreviationIllinois_header_cell_0_42_0 Ill.Illinois_cell_0_42_1
LatitudeIllinois_header_cell_0_43_0 36° 58′ N to 42° 30′ NIllinois_cell_0_43_1
LongitudeIllinois_header_cell_0_44_0 87° 30′ W to 91° 31′ WIllinois_cell_0_44_1
WebsiteIllinois_header_cell_0_45_0 Illinois_cell_0_45_1


Illinois state symbolsIllinois_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaIllinois_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianIllinois_header_cell_1_2_0 Eastern tiger salamanderIllinois_cell_1_2_1
BirdIllinois_header_cell_1_3_0 Northern cardinalIllinois_cell_1_3_1
ButterflyIllinois_header_cell_1_4_0 Monarch butterflyIllinois_cell_1_4_1
FishIllinois_header_cell_1_5_0 BluegillIllinois_cell_1_5_1
FlowerIllinois_header_cell_1_6_0 VioletIllinois_cell_1_6_1
GrassIllinois_header_cell_1_7_0 Big bluestemIllinois_cell_1_7_1
MammalIllinois_header_cell_1_8_0 White-tailed deerIllinois_cell_1_8_1
ReptileIllinois_header_cell_1_9_0 Painted turtleIllinois_cell_1_9_1
TreeIllinois_header_cell_1_10_0 White oakIllinois_cell_1_10_1
Inanimate insigniaIllinois_header_cell_1_11_0
DanceIllinois_header_cell_1_12_0 Square danceIllinois_cell_1_12_1
FoodIllinois_header_cell_1_13_0 Gold Rush Apple, popcornIllinois_cell_1_13_1
FossilIllinois_header_cell_1_14_0 Tully monsterIllinois_cell_1_14_1
MineralIllinois_header_cell_1_15_0 FluoriteIllinois_cell_1_15_1
SloganIllinois_header_cell_1_16_0 "Land of Lincoln"Illinois_cell_1_16_1
SoilIllinois_header_cell_1_17_0 Drummer silty clay loamIllinois_cell_1_17_1
State route markerIllinois_header_cell_1_18_0
State quarterIllinois_header_cell_1_19_0

Illinois (/ˌɪləˈnɔɪ/ (listen) IL-ə-NOY) is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of the United States. Illinois_sentence_3

It has the fifth largest gross domestic product (GDP), the sixth largest population, and the 25th largest land area of all U.S. states. Illinois_sentence_4

Illinois has been noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. Illinois_sentence_5

With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, and natural resources such as coal, timber, and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, and is a major transportation hub. Illinois_sentence_6

The Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois River, through the Illinois Waterway. Illinois_sentence_7

The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, and the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_8

For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports. Illinois_sentence_9

Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. Illinois_sentence_10

The capital of Illinois is Springfield, which is located in the central part of the state. Illinois_sentence_11

Although today Illinois's largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled lands near the Mississippi River, when the region was known as Illinois Country and was part of New France. Illinois_sentence_12

Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, and the population grew from south to north. Illinois_sentence_13

In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Illinois_sentence_14

Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was incorporated in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. Illinois_sentence_15

John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden. Illinois_sentence_16

The Illinois and Michigan Canal (1848) made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, and new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. Illinois_sentence_17

The state became a transportation hub for the nation. Illinois_sentence_18

By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois_sentence_19

Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars. Illinois_sentence_20

The Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Illinois_sentence_21

Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global city. Illinois_sentence_22

Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses about 65% of the state's population. Illinois_sentence_23

The most populous metropolitan areas outside the Chicago area include, Metro East (of Greater St. Louis), Peoria and Rockford. Illinois_sentence_24

Three U.S. Illinois_sentence_25

presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and Barack Obama. Illinois_sentence_26

Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state. Illinois_sentence_27

Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, which has been displayed on its license plates since 1954. Illinois_sentence_28

The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. Illinois_sentence_29

Etymology Illinois_section_0

See also: Illinois Confederation and List of counties in Illinois Illinois_sentence_30

"Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name that was spelled in many different ways in the early records. Illinois_sentence_31

American scholars previously thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois. Illinois_sentence_32

This etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, and plural of "man" is ireniwaki. Illinois_sentence_33

The name Illiniwek has also been said to mean "tribe of superior men", which is a false etymology. Illinois_sentence_34

The name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa—"he speaks the regular way". Illinois_sentence_35

This was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe· (pluralized as ilinwe·k). Illinois_sentence_36

The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. Illinois_sentence_37

The current spelling form, Illinois, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area. Illinois_sentence_38

The Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. Illinois_sentence_39

History Illinois_section_1

Main article: History of Illinois Illinois_sentence_40

Geologic history Illinois_section_2

Main article: Geology of Illinois Illinois_sentence_41

During the early part of the Paleozoic Era, the area that would one day become Illinois was submerged beneath a shallow sea and located near the Equator. Illinois_sentence_42

Diverse marine life lived at this time, including trilobites, brachiopods, and crinoids. Illinois_sentence_43

Changing environmental conditions led to the formation of large coal swamps in the Carboniferous. Illinois_sentence_44

Illinois was above sea level for at least part of the Mesozoic, but by its end was again submerged by the Western Interior Seaway. Illinois_sentence_45

This receded by the Eocene Epoch. Illinois_sentence_46

During the Pleistocene Epoch, vast ice sheets covered much of Illinois, with only the Driftless Area remaining exposed. Illinois_sentence_47

These glaciers carved the basin of Lake Michigan and left behind traces of ancient glacial lakes and moraines. Illinois_sentence_48

Pre-European Illinois_section_3

American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans. Illinois_sentence_49

The Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Illinois_sentence_50

Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and Urban Center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Illinois_sentence_51

They built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre (20 ha) plaza larger than 35 football fields, and a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology. Illinois_sentence_52

Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. Illinois_sentence_53

It is 100 feet (30 m) high, 951 feet (290 m) long, 836 feet (255 m) wide, and covers 13.8 acres (5.6 ha). Illinois_sentence_54

It contains about 814,000 cubic yards (622,000 m) of earth. Illinois_sentence_55

It was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet (32 m) in length and 48 feet (15 m) in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet (460 m), and been as much as 50 feet (15 m) high, making its peak 150 feet (46 m) above the level of the plaza. Illinois_sentence_56

The finely crafted ornaments and tools recovered by archaeologists at Cahokia include elaborate ceramics, finely sculptured stonework, carefully embossed and engraved copper and mica sheets, and one funeral blanket for an important chief fashioned from 20,000 shell beads. Illinois_sentence_57

These artifacts indicate that Cahokia was truly an urban center, with clustered housing, markets, and specialists in toolmaking, hide dressing, potting, jewelry making, shell engraving, weaving and salt making. Illinois_sentence_58

The civilization vanished in the 15th century for unknown reasons, but historians and archeologists have speculated that the people depleted the area of resources. Illinois_sentence_59

Many indigenous tribes engaged in constant warfare. Illinois_sentence_60

According to Suzanne Austin Alchon, "At one site in the central Illinois River valley, one third of all adults died as a result of violent injuries." Illinois_sentence_61

The next major power in the region was the Illinois Confederation or Illini, a political alliance. Illinois_sentence_62

As the Illini declined during the Beaver Wars era, members of the Algonquian-speaking Potawatomi, Miami, Sauk, and other tribes including the Fox (Mesquakie), Ioway, Kickapoo, Mascouten, Piankashaw, Shawnee, Wea, and Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) came into the area from the east and north around the Great Lakes. Illinois_sentence_63

European exploration and settlement prior to 1800 Illinois_section_4

Main articles: New France; Louisiana (New France); Canada (New France); Illinois Country; French and Indian War; Treaty of Paris (1763); Province of Quebec (1763–1791); Indian Reserve (1763); American Revolutionary War; Western theater of the American Revolutionary War; Illinois County, Virginia; Treaty of Paris (1783); Northwest Ordinance; and Northwest Territory Illinois_sentence_64

French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet explored the Illinois River in 1673. Illinois_sentence_65

Marquette soon after founded a mission at the Grand Village of the Illinois in Illinois Country. Illinois_sentence_66

In 1680, French explorers under René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Henri de Tonti constructed a fort at the site of present-day Peoria, and in 1682, a fort atop Starved Rock in today's Starved Rock State Park. Illinois_sentence_67

French Empire Canadiens came south to settle particularly along the Mississippi River, and Illinois was part of first New France, and then of La Louisiane until 1763, when it passed to the British with their defeat of France in the Seven Years' War. Illinois_sentence_68

The small French settlements continued, although many French migrated west to Ste. Illinois_sentence_69

Genevieve and St. Illinois_sentence_70

Louis, Missouri, to evade British rule. Illinois_sentence_71

A few British soldiers were posted in Illinois, but few British or American settlers moved there, as the Crown made it part of the territory reserved for Indians west of the Appalachians, and then part of the British Province of Quebec. Illinois_sentence_72

In 1778, George Rogers Clark claimed Illinois County for Virginia. Illinois_sentence_73

In a compromise, Virginia (and other states that made various claims) ceded the area to the new United States in the 1780s and it became part of the Northwest Territory, administered by the federal government and later organized as states. Illinois_sentence_74

19th century Illinois_section_5

Main articles: Indiana Territory, Organic act § List of organic acts, Illinois Territory, Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Illinois_sentence_75

See also: History of Chicago and History of Nauvoo, Illinois Illinois_sentence_76

Prior to statehood Illinois_section_6

The Illinois-Wabash Company was an early claimant to much of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_77

The Illinois Territory was created on February 3, 1809, with its capital at Kaskaskia, an early French settlement. Illinois_sentence_78

During the discussions leading up to Illinois's admission to the Union, the proposed northern boundary of the state was moved twice. Illinois_sentence_79

The original provisions of the Northwest Ordinance had specified a boundary that would have been tangent to the southern tip of Lake Michigan. Illinois_sentence_80

Such a boundary would have left Illinois with no shoreline on Lake Michigan at all. Illinois_sentence_81

However, as Indiana had successfully been granted a 10-mile (16 km) northern extension of its boundary to provide it with a usable lakefront, the original bill for Illinois statehood, submitted to Congress on January 23, 1818, stipulated a northern border at the same latitude as Indiana's, which is defined as 10 miles north of the southernmost extremity of Lake Michigan. Illinois_sentence_82

However, the Illinois delegate, Nathaniel Pope, wanted more, and lobbied to have the boundary moved further north. Illinois_sentence_83

The final bill passed by Congress included an amendment to shift the border to 42° 30' north, which is approximately 51 miles (82 km) north of the Indiana northern border. Illinois_sentence_84

This shift added 8,500 square miles (22,000 km) to the state, including the lead mining region near Galena. Illinois_sentence_85

More importantly, it added nearly 50 miles of Lake Michigan shoreline and the Chicago River. Illinois_sentence_86

Pope and others envisioned a canal that would connect the Chicago and Illinois rivers and thus connect the Great Lakes to the Mississippi. Illinois_sentence_87

The State of Illinois prior to the Civil War Illinois_section_7

In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. Illinois_sentence_88

The capital remained at Kaskaskia, headquartered in a small building rented by the state. Illinois_sentence_89

In 1819, Vandalia became the capital, and over the next 18 years, three separate buildings were built to serve successively as the capitol building. Illinois_sentence_90

In 1837, the state legislators representing Sangamon County, under the leadership of state representative Abraham Lincoln, succeeded in having the capital moved to Springfield, where a fifth capitol building was constructed. Illinois_sentence_91

A sixth capitol building was erected in 1867, which continues to serve as the Illinois capitol today. Illinois_sentence_92

Though it was ostensibly a "free state", there was nonetheless slavery in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_93

The ethnic French had owned black slaves since the 1720s, and American settlers had already brought slaves into the area from Kentucky. Illinois_sentence_94

Slavery was nominally banned by the Northwest Ordinance, but that was not enforced for those already holding slaves. Illinois_sentence_95

When Illinois became a sovereign state in 1818, the Ordinance no longer applied, and about 900 slaves were held in the state. Illinois_sentence_96

As the southern part of the state, later known as "Egypt" or "Little Egypt", was largely settled by migrants from the South, the section was hostile to free blacks. Illinois_sentence_97

Settlers were allowed to bring slaves with them for labor, but, in 1822, state residents voted against making slavery legal. Illinois_sentence_98

Still, most residents opposed allowing free blacks as permanent residents. Illinois_sentence_99

Some settlers brought in slaves seasonally or as house servants. Illinois_sentence_100

The Illinois Constitution of 1848 was written with a provision for exclusionary laws to be passed. Illinois_sentence_101

In 1853, John A. Logan helped pass a law to prohibit all African Americans, including freedmen, from settling in the state. Illinois_sentence_102

The winter of 1830–1831 is called the "Winter of the Deep Snow"; a sudden, deep snowfall blanketed the state, making travel impossible for the rest of the winter, and many travelers perished. Illinois_sentence_103

Several severe winters followed, including the "Winter of the Sudden Freeze". Illinois_sentence_104

On December 20, 1836, a fast-moving cold front passed through, freezing puddles in minutes and killing many travelers who could not reach shelter. Illinois_sentence_105

The adverse weather resulted in crop failures in the northern part of the state. Illinois_sentence_106

The southern part of the state shipped food north, and this may have contributed to its name: "Little Egypt", after the Biblical story of Joseph in Egypt supplying grain to his brothers. Illinois_sentence_107

In 1832, the Black Hawk War was fought in Illinois and present-day Wisconsin between the United States and the Sauk, Fox (Meskwaki), and Kickapoo Indian tribes. Illinois_sentence_108

It represents the end of Indian resistance to white settlement in the Chicago region. Illinois_sentence_109

The Indians had been forced to leave their homes and move to Iowa in 1831; when they attempted to return, they were attacked and eventually defeated by U.S. militia. Illinois_sentence_110

The survivors were forced back to Iowa. Illinois_sentence_111

By 1839, the Latter Day Saints had founded a utopian city called Nauvoo. Illinois_sentence_112

Located in Hancock County along the Mississippi River, Nauvoo flourished, and soon rivaled Chicago for the position of the state's largest city. Illinois_sentence_113

But in 1844, the Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith was killed in the Carthage Jail, about 30 miles away from Nauvoo. Illinois_sentence_114

Following a succession crisis (Latter Day Saints), Brigham Young led most Latter Day Saints out of Illinois in a mass exodus to present-day Utah; after close to six years of rapid development, Nauvoo rapidly declined afterward. Illinois_sentence_115

After it was established in 1833, Chicago gained prominence as a Great Lakes port, and then as an Illinois and Michigan Canal port after 1848, and as a rail hub soon afterward. Illinois_sentence_116

By 1857, Chicago was Illinois's largest city. Illinois_sentence_117

With the tremendous growth of mines and factories in the state in the 19th century, Illinois was the ground for the formation of labor unions in the United States. Illinois_sentence_118

In 1847, after lobbying by Dorothea L. Dix, Illinois became one of the first states to establish a system of state-supported treatment of mental illness and disabilities, replacing local almshouses. Illinois_sentence_119

Dix came into this effort after having met J. O. Illinois_sentence_120

King, a Jacksonville, Illinois businessman, who invited her to Illinois, where he had been working to build an asylum for the insane. Illinois_sentence_121

With the lobbying expertise of Dix, plans for the Jacksonville State Hospital (now known as the Jacksonville Developmental Center) were signed into law on March 1, 1847. Illinois_sentence_122

Civil War and after Illinois_section_8

Main article: Illinois in the American Civil War Illinois_sentence_123

During the American Civil War, Illinois ranked fourth in men who served (more than 250,000) in the Union Army, a figure surpassed by only New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. Illinois_sentence_124

Beginning with President Abraham Lincoln's first call for troops and continuing throughout the war, Illinois mustered 150 infantry regiments, which were numbered from the 7th to the 156th regiments. Illinois_sentence_125

Seventeen cavalry regiments were also gathered, as well as two light artillery regiments. Illinois_sentence_126

The town of Cairo, at the southern tip of the state at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, served as a strategically important supply base and training center for the Union army. Illinois_sentence_127

For several months, both General Grant and Admiral Foote had headquarters in Cairo. Illinois_sentence_128

During the Civil War, and more so afterwards, Chicago's population skyrocketed, which increased its prominence. Illinois_sentence_129

The Pullman Strike and Haymarket Riot, in particular, greatly influenced the development of the American labor movement. Illinois_sentence_130

From Sunday, October 8, 1871, until Tuesday, October 10, 1871, the Great Chicago Fire burned in downtown Chicago, destroying four square miles (10 km). Illinois_sentence_131

20th century Illinois_section_9

At the turn of the 20th century, Illinois had a population of nearly 5 million. Illinois_sentence_132

Many people from other parts of the country were attracted to the state by employment caused by the expanding industrial base. Illinois_sentence_133

Whites were 98% of the state's population. Illinois_sentence_134

Bolstered by continued immigration from southern and eastern Europe, and by the African-American Great Migration from the South, Illinois grew and emerged as one of the most important states in the union. Illinois_sentence_135

By the end of the century, the population had reached 12.4 million. Illinois_sentence_136

The Century of Progress World's fair was held at Chicago in 1933. Illinois_sentence_137

Oil strikes in Marion County and Crawford County led to a boom in 1937, and by 1939, Illinois ranked fourth in U.S. oil production. Illinois_sentence_138

Illinois manufactured 6.1 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking seventh among the 48 states. Illinois_sentence_139

Chicago became an ocean port with the opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway in 1959. Illinois_sentence_140

The seaway and the Illinois Waterway connected Chicago to both the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean. Illinois_sentence_141

In 1960, Ray Kroc opened the first McDonald's franchise in Des Plaines (which still exists as a museum, with a working McDonald's across the street). Illinois_sentence_142

Illinois had a prominent role in the emergence of the nuclear age. Illinois_sentence_143

In 1942, as part of the Manhattan Project, the University of Chicago conducted the first sustained nuclear chain reaction. Illinois_sentence_144

In 1957, Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, activated the first experimental nuclear power generating system in the United States. Illinois_sentence_145

By 1960, the first privately financed nuclear plant in the United States, Dresden 1, was dedicated near Morris. Illinois_sentence_146

In 1967, Fermilab, a national nuclear research facility near Batavia, opened a particle accelerator, which was the world's largest for over 40 years. Illinois_sentence_147

With eleven plants currently operating, Illinois leads all states in the amount of electricity generated from nuclear power. Illinois_sentence_148

In 1961, Illinois became the first state in the nation to adopt the recommendation of the American Law Institute and pass a comprehensive criminal code revision that repealed the law against sodomy. Illinois_sentence_149

The code also abrogated common law crimes and established an age of consent of 18. Illinois_sentence_150

The state's fourth constitution was adopted in 1970, replacing the 1870 document. Illinois_sentence_151

The first Farm Aid concert was held in Champaign to benefit American farmers, in 1985. Illinois_sentence_152

The worst upper Mississippi River flood of the century, the Great Flood of 1993, inundated many towns and thousands of acres of farmland. Illinois_sentence_153

21st century Illinois_section_10

On August 28, 2017, Illinois Governor Bruce Rauner signed a bill into law that prohibited state and local police from arresting anyone solely due to their immigration status or due to federal detainers. Illinois_sentence_154

Some fellow Republicans criticized Rauner for his action, claiming the bill made Illinois a sanctuary state. Illinois_sentence_155

Geography Illinois_section_11

Main article: Geography of Illinois Illinois_sentence_156

Further information: List of ecoregions in Illinois Illinois_sentence_157

Illinois is located in the Midwest region of the United States and is one of the eight states and Ontario, Canada, in the Great Lakes region of North America. Illinois_sentence_158

Boundaries Illinois_section_12

Illinois's eastern border with Indiana consists of a north–south line at 87° 31′ 30″ west longitude in Lake Michigan at the north, to the Wabash River in the south above Post Vincennes. Illinois_sentence_159

The Wabash River continues as the eastern/southeastern border with Indiana until the Wabash enters the Ohio River. Illinois_sentence_160

This marks the beginning of Illinois's southern border with Kentucky, which runs along the northern shoreline of the Ohio River. Illinois_sentence_161

Most of the western border with Missouri and Iowa is the Mississippi River; Kaskaskia is an exclave of Illinois, lying west of the Mississippi and reachable only from Missouri. Illinois_sentence_162

The state's northern border with Wisconsin is fixed at 42° 30′ north latitude. Illinois_sentence_163

The northeastern border of Illinois lies in Lake Michigan, within which Illinois shares a water boundary with the state of Michigan, as well as Wisconsin and Indiana. Illinois_sentence_164

Topography Illinois_section_13

Though Illinois lies entirely in the Interior Plains, it does have some minor variation in its elevation. Illinois_sentence_165

In extreme northwestern Illinois, the Driftless Area, a region of unglaciated and therefore higher and more rugged topography, occupies a small part of the state. Illinois_sentence_166

Southern Illinois includes the hilly areas around the Shawnee National Forest. Illinois_sentence_167

Charles Mound, located in the Driftless region, has the state's highest natural elevation above sea level at 1,235 feet (376 m). Illinois_sentence_168

Other highlands include the Shawnee Hills in the south, and there is varying topography along its rivers; the Illinois River bisects the state northeast to southwest. Illinois_sentence_169

The floodplain on the Mississippi River from Alton to the Kaskaskia River is known as the American Bottom. Illinois_sentence_170

Divisions Illinois_section_14

Illinois has three major geographical divisions. Illinois_sentence_171

Northern Illinois is dominated by Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, which is the city of Chicago and its suburbs, and the adjoining exurban area into which the metropolis is expanding. Illinois_sentence_172

As defined by the federal government, the Chicago metro area includes several counties in Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin, and has a population of over 9.8 million. Illinois_sentence_173

Chicago itself is a cosmopolitan city, densely populated, industrialized, the transportation hub of the nation, and settled by a wide variety of ethnic groups. Illinois_sentence_174

The city of Rockford, Illinois's third-largest city and center of the state's fourth largest metropolitan area, sits along Interstates 39 and 90 some 75 miles (121 km) northwest of Chicago. Illinois_sentence_175

The Quad Cities region, located along the Mississippi River in northern Illinois, had a population of 381,342 in 2011. Illinois_sentence_176

The midsection of Illinois is the second major division, called Central Illinois. Illinois_sentence_177

It is an area of mainly prairie and known as the Heart of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_178

It is characterized by small towns and medium–small cities. Illinois_sentence_179

The western section (west of the Illinois River) was originally part of the Military Tract of 1812 and forms the conspicuous western bulge of the state. Illinois_sentence_180

Agriculture, particularly corn and soybeans, as well as educational institutions and manufacturing centers, figure prominently in Central Illinois. Illinois_sentence_181

Cities include Peoria; Springfield, the state capital; Quincy; Decatur; Bloomington-Normal; and Champaign-Urbana. Illinois_sentence_182

The third division is Southern Illinois, comprising the area south of U.S. Illinois_sentence_183

Route 50, including Little Egypt, near the juncture of the Mississippi River and Ohio River. Illinois_sentence_184

Southern Illinois is the site of the ancient city of Cahokia, as well as the site of the first state capital at Kaskaskia, which today is separated from the rest of the state by the Mississippi River. Illinois_sentence_185

This region has a somewhat warmer winter climate, different variety of crops (including some cotton farming in the past), more rugged topography (due to the area remaining unglaciated during the Illinoian Stage, unlike most of the rest of the state), as well as small-scale oil deposits and coal mining. Illinois_sentence_186

The Illinois suburbs of St. Illinois_sentence_187

Louis, such as East St. Louis, are located in this region, and collectively, they are known as the Metro-East. Illinois_sentence_188

The other somewhat significant concentration of population in Southern Illinois is the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area centered on Carbondale and Marion, a two-county area that is home to 123,272 residents. Illinois_sentence_189

A portion of southeastern Illinois is part of the extended Evansville, Indiana, Metro Area, locally referred to as the Tri-State with Indiana and Kentucky. Illinois_sentence_190

Seven Illinois counties are in the area. Illinois_sentence_191

In addition to these three, largely latitudinally defined divisions, all of the region outside the Chicago Metropolitan area is often called "downstate" Illinois. Illinois_sentence_192

This term is flexible, but is generally meant to mean everything outside the influence of the Chicago area. Illinois_sentence_193

Thus, some cities in Northern Illinois, such as DeKalb, which is west of Chicago, and Rockford—which is actually north of Chicago—are sometimes incorrectly considered to be 'downstate'. Illinois_sentence_194

Climate Illinois_section_15

Main article: Climate of Illinois Illinois_sentence_195

See also: St. Illinois_sentence_196

Louis tornado history Illinois_sentence_197

Illinois has a climate that varies widely throughout the year. Illinois_sentence_198

Because of its nearly 400-mile distance between its northernmost and southernmost extremes, as well as its mid-continental situation, most of Illinois has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), with hot, humid summers and cold winters. Illinois_sentence_199

The southern part of the state, from about Carbondale southward, has a humid subtropical climate (Koppen Cfa), with more moderate winters. Illinois_sentence_200

Average yearly precipitation for Illinois varies from just over 48 inches (1,219 mm) at the southern tip to around 35 inches (889 mm) in the northern portion of the state. Illinois_sentence_201

Normal annual snowfall exceeds 38 inches (965 mm) in the Chicago area, while the southern portion of the state normally receives less than 14 inches (356 mm). Illinois_sentence_202

The all-time high temperature was 117 °F (47 °C), recorded on July 14, 1954, at East St. Louis, and the all-time low temperature was −38 °F (−39 °C), recorded on January 31, 2019, during the January 2019 North American cold wave at a weather station near Mount Carroll, and confirmed on March 5, 2019. Illinois_sentence_203

This followed the previous record of −36 °F (−38 °C) recorded on January 5, 1999, near Congerville. Illinois_sentence_204

Prior to the Mount Carroll record, a temperature of −37 °F (−38 °C) was recorded on January 15, 2009, at Rochelle, but at a weather station not subjected to the same quality control as official records. Illinois_sentence_205

Illinois averages approximately 51 days of thunderstorm activity a year, which ranks somewhat above average in the number of thunderstorm days for the United States. Illinois_sentence_206

Illinois is vulnerable to tornadoes, with an average of 35 occurring annually, which puts much of the state at around five tornadoes per 10,000 square miles (30,000 km) annually. Illinois_sentence_207

While tornadoes are no more powerful in Illinois than other states, some of Tornado Alley's deadliest tornadoes on record have occurred in the state. Illinois_sentence_208

The Tri-State Tornado of 1925 killed 695 people in three states; 613 of the victims died in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_209


Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Illinois CitiesIllinois_table_caption_2
CityIllinois_header_cell_2_0_0 JanuaryIllinois_header_cell_2_0_1 FebruaryIllinois_header_cell_2_0_2 MarchIllinois_header_cell_2_0_3 AprilIllinois_header_cell_2_0_4 MayIllinois_header_cell_2_0_5 JuneIllinois_header_cell_2_0_6 JulyIllinois_header_cell_2_0_7 AugustIllinois_header_cell_2_0_8 SeptemberIllinois_header_cell_2_0_9 OctoberIllinois_header_cell_2_0_10 NovemberIllinois_header_cell_2_0_11 DecemberIllinois_header_cell_2_0_12
CairoIllinois_header_cell_2_1_0 43/25Illinois_cell_2_1_1 48/29Illinois_cell_2_1_2 59/37Illinois_cell_2_1_3 70/46Illinois_cell_2_1_4 78/57Illinois_cell_2_1_5 86/67Illinois_cell_2_1_6 90/71Illinois_cell_2_1_7 88/69Illinois_cell_2_1_8 81/61Illinois_cell_2_1_9 71/49Illinois_cell_2_1_10 57/39Illinois_cell_2_1_11 46/30Illinois_cell_2_1_12
ChicagoIllinois_header_cell_2_2_0 31/16Illinois_cell_2_2_1 36/21Illinois_cell_2_2_2 47/31Illinois_cell_2_2_3 59/42Illinois_cell_2_2_4 70/52Illinois_cell_2_2_5 81/61Illinois_cell_2_2_6 85/65Illinois_cell_2_2_7 83/65Illinois_cell_2_2_8 75/57Illinois_cell_2_2_9 64/45Illinois_cell_2_2_10 48/34Illinois_cell_2_2_11 36/22Illinois_cell_2_2_12
EdwardsvilleIllinois_header_cell_2_3_0 36/19Illinois_cell_2_3_1 42/24Illinois_cell_2_3_2 52/34Illinois_cell_2_3_3 64/45Illinois_cell_2_3_4 75/55Illinois_cell_2_3_5 84/64Illinois_cell_2_3_6 89/69Illinois_cell_2_3_7 86/66Illinois_cell_2_3_8 79/58Illinois_cell_2_3_9 68/46Illinois_cell_2_3_10 53/35Illinois_cell_2_3_11 41/25Illinois_cell_2_3_12
MolineIllinois_header_cell_2_4_0 30/12Illinois_cell_2_4_1 36/18Illinois_cell_2_4_2 48/29Illinois_cell_2_4_3 62/39Illinois_cell_2_4_4 73/50Illinois_cell_2_4_5 83/60Illinois_cell_2_4_6 86/64Illinois_cell_2_4_7 84/62Illinois_cell_2_4_8 76/53Illinois_cell_2_4_9 64/42Illinois_cell_2_4_10 48/30Illinois_cell_2_4_11 34/18Illinois_cell_2_4_12
PeoriaIllinois_header_cell_2_5_0 31/14Illinois_cell_2_5_1 37/20Illinois_cell_2_5_2 49/30Illinois_cell_2_5_3 62/40Illinois_cell_2_5_4 73/51Illinois_cell_2_5_5 82/60Illinois_cell_2_5_6 86/65Illinois_cell_2_5_7 84/63Illinois_cell_2_5_8 77/54Illinois_cell_2_5_9 64/42Illinois_cell_2_5_10 49/31Illinois_cell_2_5_11 36/20Illinois_cell_2_5_12
RockfordIllinois_header_cell_2_6_0 27/11Illinois_cell_2_6_1 33/16Illinois_cell_2_6_2 46/27Illinois_cell_2_6_3 59/37Illinois_cell_2_6_4 71/48Illinois_cell_2_6_5 80/58Illinois_cell_2_6_6 83/63Illinois_cell_2_6_7 81/61Illinois_cell_2_6_8 74/52Illinois_cell_2_6_9 62/40Illinois_cell_2_6_10 46/29Illinois_cell_2_6_11 32/17Illinois_cell_2_6_12
SpringfieldIllinois_header_cell_2_7_0 33/17Illinois_cell_2_7_1 39/22Illinois_cell_2_7_2 51/32Illinois_cell_2_7_3 63/42Illinois_cell_2_7_4 74/53Illinois_cell_2_7_5 83/62Illinois_cell_2_7_6 86/66Illinois_cell_2_7_7 84/64Illinois_cell_2_7_8 78/55Illinois_cell_2_7_9 67/44Illinois_cell_2_7_10 51/34Illinois_cell_2_7_11 38/23Illinois_cell_2_7_12

Demographics Illinois_section_16

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Illinois was 12,671,821 in 2019, moving from the fifth-largest state to the sixth-largest state (losing out to Pennsylvania). Illinois_sentence_210

Illinois's population declined by 69,259 people from July 2018 to July 2019, making it the worst decline of any state in the U.S. in raw terms. Illinois_sentence_211

This includes a natural increase since the last census of 462,146 people (i.e., 1,438,187 births minus 976,041 deaths) and an decrease due to net migration of 622,928 people. Illinois_sentence_212

Immigration resulted in a net increase of 242,945 people, and migration from within the U.S. resulted in a net decrease of 865,873 people. Illinois_sentence_213

Illinois is the most populous state in the Midwest region. Illinois_sentence_214

Chicago, the third-most populous city in the United States, is the center of the Chicago metropolitan area or Chicagoland, as this area is nicknamed. Illinois_sentence_215

Although Chicagoland comprises only 9% of the land area of the state, it contains 65% of the state's residents. Illinois_sentence_216

According to the 2010 Census, the racial composition of the state was: Illinois_sentence_217


  • 71.5% White American (63.7% non-Hispanic white, 7.8% White Hispanic)Illinois_item_0_0
  • 14.5% Black or African AmericanIllinois_item_0_1
  • 0.3% American Indian and Alaska NativeIllinois_item_0_2
  • 4.6% Asian AmericanIllinois_item_0_3
  • 2.3% Multiracial AmericanIllinois_item_0_4
  • 6.8% some other raceIllinois_item_0_5

In the same year 15.8% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race). Illinois_sentence_218

According to 2018 U.S. Census Bureau estimates, Illinois's population was 71.7% White (60.9% Non-Hispanic White), 5.6% Asian, 5.6% Some Other Race, 14.1% Black or African American, 0.3% Native Americans and Alaskan Native, 0.1% Pacific Islander and 2.7% from two or more races. Illinois_sentence_219

The White population continues to remain the largest racial category in Illinois as Hispanics primarily identify as White (62.2%) with others identifying as Some Other Race (31.2%), Multiracial (3.9%), Black (1.5%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (0.8%), Asian (0.3%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.1%). Illinois_sentence_220

By ethnicity, 17.3% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 82.7% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). Illinois_sentence_221

If treated as a separate category, Hispanics are the largest minority group in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_222


Illinois Racial Breakdown of PopulationIllinois_table_caption_3
Racial compositionIllinois_header_cell_3_0_0 1990Illinois_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Illinois_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Illinois_header_cell_3_0_3
WhiteIllinois_cell_3_1_0 78.3%Illinois_cell_3_1_1 73.5%Illinois_cell_3_1_2 71.5%Illinois_cell_3_1_3
BlackIllinois_cell_3_2_0 14.8%Illinois_cell_3_2_1 15.1%Illinois_cell_3_2_2 14.5%Illinois_cell_3_2_3
AsianIllinois_cell_3_3_0 2.5%Illinois_cell_3_3_1 3.4%Illinois_cell_3_3_2 4.6%Illinois_cell_3_3_3
NativeIllinois_cell_3_4_0 0.2%Illinois_cell_3_4_1 0.2%Illinois_cell_3_4_2 0.3%Illinois_cell_3_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderIllinois_cell_3_5_0

Illinois_cell_3_5_1 Illinois_cell_3_5_2 Illinois_cell_3_5_3
Other raceIllinois_cell_3_6_0 4.2%Illinois_cell_3_6_1 5.8%Illinois_cell_3_6_2 6.7%Illinois_cell_3_6_3
Two or more racesIllinois_cell_3_7_0 Illinois_cell_3_7_1 1.9%Illinois_cell_3_7_2 2.3%Illinois_cell_3_7_3

The state's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, has declined from 83.5% in 1970 to 60.90% in 2018. Illinois_sentence_223

As of 2011, 49.4% of Illinois's population younger than age 1 were minorities (Note: Children born to white Hispanics or to a sole full or partial minority parent are counted as minorities). Illinois_sentence_224

At the 2007 estimates from the U.S. Illinois_sentence_225

Census Bureau, there were 1,768,518 foreign-born inhabitants of the state or 13.8% of the population, with 48.4% from Latin America, 24.6% from Asia, 22.8% from Europe, 2.9% from Africa, 1.2% from Canada, and 0.2% from Oceania. Illinois_sentence_226

Of the foreign-born population, 43.7% were naturalized U.S. citizens, and 56.3% were not U.S. citizens. Illinois_sentence_227

In 2007, 6.9% of Illinois's population was reported as being under age 5, 24.9% under age 18 and 12.1% were age 65 and over. Illinois_sentence_228

Females made up approximately 50.7% of the population. Illinois_sentence_229

According to the 2007 estimates, 21.1% of the population had German ancestry, 13.3% had Irish ancestry, 8% had British ancestry, 7.9% had Polish ancestry, 6.4% had Italian ancestry, 4.6% listed themselves as American, 2.4% had Swedish ancestry, 2.2% had French ancestry, other than Basque, 1.6% had Dutch ancestry, and 1.4% had Norwegian ancestry. Illinois_sentence_230

Illinois also has large numbers of African Americans and Latinos (mostly Mexicans and Puerto Ricans). Illinois_sentence_231

Chicago, along the shores of Lake Michigan, is the nation's third largest city. Illinois_sentence_232

In 2000, 23.3% of Illinois's population lived in the city of Chicago, 43.3% in Cook County, and 65.6% in the counties of the Chicago metropolitan area: Will, DuPage, Kane, Lake, and McHenry counties, as well as Cook County. Illinois_sentence_233

The remaining population lives in the smaller cities and rural areas that dot the state's plains. Illinois_sentence_234

As of 2000, the state's center of population was at , located in Grundy County, northeast of the village of Mazon. Illinois_sentence_235

Birth data Illinois_section_17

Births do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by ethnicity and by race. Illinois_sentence_236


Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherIllinois_table_caption_4
RaceIllinois_header_cell_4_0_0 2013Illinois_header_cell_4_0_1 2014Illinois_header_cell_4_0_2 2015Illinois_header_cell_4_0_3 2016Illinois_header_cell_4_0_4 2017Illinois_header_cell_4_0_5 2018Illinois_header_cell_4_0_6
White:Illinois_cell_4_1_0 119,157 (75.9%)Illinois_cell_4_1_1 119,995 (75.7%)Illinois_cell_4_1_2 119,630 (75.6%)Illinois_cell_4_1_3 Illinois_cell_4_1_4 Illinois_cell_4_1_5 Illinois_cell_4_1_6
Non-Hispanic WhiteIllinois_cell_4_2_0 85,866 (54.7%)Illinois_cell_4_2_1 86,227 (54.4%)Illinois_cell_4_2_2 85,424 (54.0%)Illinois_cell_4_2_3 82,318 (53.3%)Illinois_cell_4_2_4 78,925 (52.8%)Illinois_cell_4_2_5 77,244 (53.3%)Illinois_cell_4_2_6
BlackIllinois_cell_4_3_0 27,692 (17.6%)Illinois_cell_4_3_1 28,160 (17.8%)Illinois_cell_4_3_2 28,059 (17.7%)Illinois_cell_4_3_3 25,619 (16.6%)Illinois_cell_4_3_4 25,685 (17.2%)Illinois_cell_4_3_5 24,482 (16.9%)Illinois_cell_4_3_6
AsianIllinois_cell_4_4_0 9,848 (6.3%)Illinois_cell_4_4_1 10,174 (6.4%)Illinois_cell_4_4_2 10,222 (6.5%)Illinois_cell_4_4_3 10,015 (6.5%)Illinois_cell_4_4_4 9,650 (6.5%)Illinois_cell_4_4_5 9,452 (6.5%)Illinois_cell_4_4_6
American IndianIllinois_cell_4_5_0 234 (0.1%)Illinois_cell_4_5_1 227 (0.1%)Illinois_cell_4_5_2 205 (0.1%)Illinois_cell_4_5_3 110 (0.0%)Illinois_cell_4_5_4 133 (0.1%)Illinois_cell_4_5_5 129 (0.1%)Illinois_cell_4_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Illinois_cell_4_6_0 33,454 (21.3%)Illinois_cell_4_6_1 33,803 (21.3%)Illinois_cell_4_6_2 33,902 (21.4%)Illinois_cell_4_6_3 32,635 (21.1%)Illinois_cell_4_6_4 31,428 (21.0%)Illinois_cell_4_6_5 30,362 (21.0%)Illinois_cell_4_6_6
Total IllinoisIllinois_cell_4_7_0 156,931 (100%)Illinois_cell_4_7_1 158,556 (100%)Illinois_cell_4_7_2 158,116 (100%)Illinois_cell_4_7_3 154,445 (100%)Illinois_cell_4_7_4 149,390 (100%)Illinois_cell_4_7_5 144,815 (100%)Illinois_cell_4_7_6


  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Illinois_item_1_6

Urban areas Illinois_section_18

See also: Illinois statistical areas, List of cities in Illinois, and List of towns and villages in Illinois Illinois_sentence_237

Chicago is the largest city in the state and the third-most populous city in the United States, with its 2010 population of 2,695,598. Illinois_sentence_238

The U.S. Illinois_sentence_239

Census Bureau currently lists seven other cities with populations of over 100,000 within Illinois. Illinois_sentence_240

Based upon the Census Bureau's official 2010 population: Aurora, a Chicago satellite town that eclipsed Rockford for the title of second-most populous city in Illinois; its 2010 population was 197,899. Illinois_sentence_241

Rockford, at 152,871, is the third-largest city in the state, and is the largest city in the state not located within the Chicago suburbs. Illinois_sentence_242

Joliet, located in metropolitan Chicago, is the fourth-largest city in the state, with a population of 147,433. Illinois_sentence_243

Naperville, a suburb of Chicago, is fifth with 141,853. Illinois_sentence_244

Naperville and Aurora share a boundary along Illinois Route 59. Illinois_sentence_245

Springfield, the state's capital, comes in as sixth-most populous with 117,352 residents. Illinois_sentence_246

Peoria, which decades ago was the second-most populous city in the state, is seventh with 115,007. Illinois_sentence_247

The eighth-largest and final city in the 100,000 club is Elgin, a northwest suburb of Chicago, with a 2010 population of 108,188. Illinois_sentence_248

The most populated city in the state south of Springfield is Belleville, with 44,478 people at the 2010 census. Illinois_sentence_249

It is located in the Illinois portion of Greater St. Louis (often called the Metro-East area), which has a rapidly growing population of over 700,000. Illinois_sentence_250

Other major urban areas include the Champaign-Urbana Metropolitan Area, which has a combined population of almost 230,000 people, the Illinois portion of the Quad Cities area with about 215,000 people, and the Bloomington-Normal area with a combined population of over 165,000. Illinois_sentence_251

Languages Illinois_section_19

Main article: Languages of Illinois Illinois_sentence_252

The official language of Illinois is English, although between 1923 and 1969, state law gave official status to "the American language". Illinois_sentence_253

Nearly 80% of people in Illinois speak English natively, and most of the rest speak it fluently as a second language. Illinois_sentence_254

A number of dialects of American English are spoken, ranging from Inland Northern American English and African-American English around Chicago, to Midland American English in Central Illinois, to Southern American English in the far south. Illinois_sentence_255

Over 20% of Illinoians speak a language other than English at home, of which Spanish is by far the most widespread, at more than 12% of the total population. Illinois_sentence_256

A sizeable number of Polish speakers is present in the Chicago Metropolitan Area. Illinois_sentence_257

Illinois Country French has mostly gone extinct in Illinois, although it is still celebrated in the French Colonial Historic District. Illinois_sentence_258

Religion Illinois_section_20

Christianity Illinois_section_21

Roman Catholics constitute the single largest religious denomination in Illinois; they are heavily concentrated in and around Chicago, and account for nearly 30% of the state's population. Illinois_sentence_259

However, taken together as a group, the various Protestant denominations comprise a greater percentage of the state's population than do Catholics. Illinois_sentence_260

In 2010 Catholics in Illinois numbered 3,648,907. Illinois_sentence_261

The largest Protestant denominations were the United Methodist Church with 314,461, and the Southern Baptist Convention, with 283,519 members. Illinois_sentence_262

Illinois has one of the largest concentrations of Missouri Synod Lutherans in the United States. Illinois_sentence_263

Illinois played an important role in the early Latter Day Saint movement, with Nauvoo, Illinois, becoming a gathering place for Mormons in the early 1840s. Illinois_sentence_264

Nauvoo was the location of the succession crisis, which led to the separation of the Mormon movement into several Latter Day Saint sects. Illinois_sentence_265

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest of the sects to emerge from the Mormon schism, has more than 55,000 adherents in Illinois today. Illinois_sentence_266

Other Abrahamic religious communities Illinois_section_22

A significant number of adherents of other Abrahamic faiths can be found in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_267

Largely concentrated in the Chicago metropolitan area, followers of the Muslim, Baháʼí, and Jewish religions all call the state home. Illinois_sentence_268

Muslims constituted the largest non-Christian group, with 359,264 adherents. Illinois_sentence_269

Illinois has the largest concentration of Muslims by state in the country, with 2,800 Muslims per 100,000 citizens. Illinois_sentence_270

The largest and oldest surviving Baháʼí House of Worship in the world is located in Wilmette, Illinois, The Chicago area has a very large Jewish community, particularly in the suburbs of Skokie, Buffalo Grove, Highland Park, and surrounding suburbs. Illinois_sentence_271

Former Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel is the Windy City's first Jewish mayor. Illinois_sentence_272

Other religions Illinois_section_23

Chicago is also home to a very large population of Hindus, Sikhs, Jains, and Buddhists. Illinois_sentence_273

The Baháʼí House of Worship in Wilmette is the center of that religion's worship in North America. Illinois_sentence_274

Economy Illinois_section_24

Main article: Economy of Illinois Illinois_sentence_275

See also: Illinois locations by per capita income Illinois_sentence_276

The dollar gross state product for Illinois was estimated to be US$909 billion in 2019. Illinois_sentence_277

The state's 2019 per capita gross state product was estimated to be around $72,000. Illinois_sentence_278

As of February 2019, the unemployment rate in Illinois reached 4.2%. Illinois_sentence_279

Illinois's minimum wage will rise to $15 per hour by 2025, making it one of the highest in the nation. Illinois_sentence_280

Agriculture Illinois_section_25

Illinois's major agricultural outputs are corn, soybeans, hogs, cattle, dairy products, and wheat. Illinois_sentence_281

In most years, Illinois is either the first or second state for the highest production of soybeans, with a harvest of 427.7 million bushels (11.64 million metric tons) in 2008, after Iowa's production of 444.82 million bushels (12.11 million metric tons). Illinois_sentence_282

Illinois ranks second in U.S. corn production with more than 1.5 billion bushels produced annually. Illinois_sentence_283

With a production capacity of 1.5 billion gallons per year, Illinois is a top producer of ethanol, ranking third in the United States in 2011. Illinois_sentence_284

Illinois is a leader in food manufacturing and meat processing. Illinois_sentence_285

Although Chicago may no longer be "Hog Butcher for the World", the Chicago area remains a global center for food manufacture and meat processing, with many plants, processing houses, and distribution facilities concentrated in the area of the former Union Stock Yards. Illinois_sentence_286

Illinois also produces wine, and the state is home to two American viticultural areas. Illinois_sentence_287

In the area of The Meeting of the Great Rivers Scenic Byway, peaches and apples are grown. Illinois_sentence_288

The German immigrants from agricultural backgrounds who settled in Illinois in the mid- to late 19th century are in part responsible for the profusion of fruit orchards in that area of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_289

Illinois's universities are actively researching alternative agricultural products as alternative crops. Illinois_sentence_290

Manufacturing Illinois_section_26

Illinois is one of the nation's manufacturing leaders, boasting annual value added productivity by manufacturing of over $107 billion in 2006. Illinois_sentence_291

As of 2011, Illinois is ranked as the 4th-most productive manufacturing state in the country, behind California, Texas, and Ohio. Illinois_sentence_292

About three-quarters of the state's manufacturers are located in the Northeastern Opportunity Return Region, with 38 percent of Illinois's approximately 18,900 manufacturing plants located in Cook County. Illinois_sentence_293

As of 2006, the leading manufacturing industries in Illinois, based upon value-added, were chemical manufacturing ($18.3 billion), machinery manufacturing ($13.4 billion), food manufacturing ($12.9 billion), fabricated metal products ($11.5 billion), transportation equipment ($7.4 billion), plastics and rubber products ($7.0 billion), and computer and electronic products ($6.1 billion). Illinois_sentence_294

Services Illinois_section_27

By the early 2000s, Illinois's economy had moved toward a dependence on high-value-added services, such as financial trading, higher education, law, logistics, and medicine. Illinois_sentence_295

In some cases, these services clustered around institutions that hearkened back to Illinois's earlier economies. Illinois_sentence_296

For example, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, a trading exchange for global derivatives, had begun its life as an agricultural futures market. Illinois_sentence_297

Other important non-manufacturing industries include publishing, tourism, and energy production and distribution. Illinois_sentence_298

Investments Illinois_section_28

Venture capitalists funded a total of approximately $62 billion in the U.S. economy in 2016. Illinois_sentence_299

Of this amount, Illinois-based companies received approximately $1.1 billion. Illinois_sentence_300

Similarly, in FY 2016, the federal government spent $461 billion on contracts in the U.S. Of this amount, Illinois-based companies received approximately $8.7 billion. Illinois_sentence_301

Energy Illinois_section_29

See also: List of power stations in Illinois and Solar power in Illinois Illinois_sentence_302

Illinois is a net importer of fuels for energy, despite large coal resources and some minor oil production. Illinois_sentence_303

Illinois exports electricity, ranking fifth among states in electricity production and seventh in electricity consumption. Illinois_sentence_304

Coal Illinois_section_30

The coal industry of Illinois has its origins in the middle 19th century, when entrepreneurs such as Jacob Loose discovered coal in locations such as Sangamon County. Illinois_sentence_305

Jacob Bunn contributed to the development of the Illinois coal industry, and was a founder and owner of the Western Coal & Mining Company of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_306

About 68% of Illinois has coal-bearing strata of the Pennsylvanian geologic period. Illinois_sentence_307

According to the Illinois State Geological Survey, 211 billion tons of bituminous coal are estimated to lie under the surface, having a total heating value greater than the estimated oil deposits in the Arabian Peninsula. Illinois_sentence_308

However, this coal has a high sulfur content, which causes acid rain, unless special equipment is used to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions. Illinois_sentence_309

Many Illinois power plants are not equipped to burn high-sulfur coal. Illinois_sentence_310

In 1999, Illinois produced 40.4 million tons of coal, but only 17 million tons (42%) of Illinois coal was consumed in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_311

Most of the coal produced in Illinois is exported to other states and countries. Illinois_sentence_312

In 2008, Illinois exported three million tons of coal, and was projected to export nine million in 2011, as demand for energy grows in places such as China, India, and elsewhere in Asia and Europe. Illinois_sentence_313

As of 2010, Illinois was ranked third in recoverable coal reserves at producing mines in the nation. Illinois_sentence_314

Most of the coal produced in Illinois is exported to other states, while much of the coal burned for power in Illinois (21 million tons in 1998) is mined in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming. Illinois_sentence_315

Mattoon was recently chosen as the site for the Department of Energy's FutureGen project, a 275-megawatt experimental zero emission coal-burning power plant that the DOE just gave a second round of funding. Illinois_sentence_316

In 2010, after a number of setbacks, the city of Mattoon backed out of the project. Illinois_sentence_317

Petroleum Illinois_section_31

Illinois is a leading refiner of petroleum in the American Midwest, with a combined crude oil distillation capacity of nearly 900,000 barrels per day (140,000 m/d). Illinois_sentence_318

However, Illinois has very limited crude oil proved reserves that account for less than 1% of the U.S. total reserves. Illinois_sentence_319

Residential heating is 81% natural gas compared to less than 1% heating oil. Illinois_sentence_320

Illinois is ranked 14th in oil production among states, with a daily output of approximately 28,000 barrels (4,500 m) in 2005. Illinois_sentence_321

Nuclear power Illinois_section_32

Main article: Nuclear power in the United States Illinois_sentence_322

Nuclear power arguably began in Illinois with the Chicago Pile-1, the world's first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction in the world's first nuclear reactor, built on the University of Chicago campus. Illinois_sentence_323

There are six operating nuclear power plants in Illinois: Braidwood, Byron, Clinton, Dresden, LaSalle, and Quad Cities. Illinois_sentence_324

With the exception of the single-unit Clinton plant, each of these facilities has two reactors. Illinois_sentence_325

Three reactors have been permanently shut down and are in various stages of decommissioning: Dresden-1 and Zion-1 and 2. Illinois_sentence_326

Illinois ranked first in the nation in 2010 in both nuclear capacity and nuclear generation. Illinois_sentence_327

Generation from its nuclear power plants accounted for 12 percent of the nation's total. Illinois_sentence_328

In 2007, 48% of Illinois's electricity was generated using nuclear power. Illinois_sentence_329

The Morris Operation is the only de facto high-level radioactive waste storage site in the United States. Illinois_sentence_330

Wind power Illinois_section_33

Main article: Wind power in Illinois Illinois_sentence_331

Illinois has seen growing interest in the use of wind power for electrical generation. Illinois_sentence_332

Most of Illinois was rated in 2009 as "marginal or fair" for wind energy production by the U.S. Illinois_sentence_333

Department of Energy, with some western sections rated "good" and parts of the south rated "poor". Illinois_sentence_334

These ratings are for wind turbines with 50-meter (160 ft) hub heights; newer wind turbines are taller, enabling them to reach . Illinois_sentence_335

As a result, more areas of Illinois have become prospective wind farm sites. Illinois_sentence_336

As of September 2009, Illinois had 1116.06 MW of installed wind power nameplate capacity with another 741.9 MW under construction. Illinois_sentence_337

Illinois ranked ninth among U.S. states in installed wind power capacity, and sixteenth by potential capacity. Illinois_sentence_338

Large wind farms in Illinois include Twin Groves, Rail Splitter, EcoGrove, and Mendota Hills. Illinois_sentence_339

As of 2007, wind energy represented only 1.7% of Illinois's energy production, and it was estimated that wind power could provide 5–10% of the state's energy needs. Illinois_sentence_340

Also, the Illinois General Assembly mandated in 2007 that by 2025, 25% of all electricity generated in Illinois is to come from renewable resources. Illinois_sentence_341

Biofuels Illinois_section_34

Illinois is ranked second in corn production among U.S. states, and Illinois corn is used to produce 40% of the ethanol consumed in the United States. Illinois_sentence_342

The Archer Daniels Midland corporation in Decatur, Illinois, is the world's leading producer of ethanol from corn. Illinois_sentence_343

The National Corn-to-Ethanol Research Center (NCERC), the world's only facility dedicated to researching the ways and means of converting corn (maize) to ethanol is located on the campus of Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Illinois_sentence_344

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is one of the partners in the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI), a $500 million biofuels research project funded by petroleum giant BP. Illinois_sentence_345

Taxes Illinois_section_35

Tax is collected by the Illinois Department of Revenue. Illinois_sentence_346

State income tax is calculated by multiplying net income by a flat rate. Illinois_sentence_347

In 1990, that rate was set at 3%, but in 2010, the General Assembly voted for a temporary increase in the rate to 5%; the new rate went into effect on January 1, 2011; the personal income rate partially sunset on January 1, 2015, to 3.75%, while the corporate income tax fell to 5.25%. Illinois_sentence_348

Illinois failed to pass a budget from 2015 to 2017, after the 736-day budget impasse, a budget was passed in Illinois after lawmakers overturned Governor Bruce Rauner's veto; this budget raised the personal income rate to 4.95% and the corporate rate to 7%. Illinois_sentence_349

There are two rates for state sales tax: 6.25% for general merchandise and 1% for qualifying food, drugs, and medical appliances. Illinois_sentence_350

The property tax is a major source of tax revenue for local government taxing districts. Illinois_sentence_351

The property tax is a local—not state—tax, imposed by local government taxing districts, which include counties, townships, municipalities, school districts, and special taxation districts. Illinois_sentence_352

The property tax in Illinois is imposed only on real property. Illinois_sentence_353

On May 1, 2019, the Illinois Senate voted to a approve a constitutional amendment to change from a flat tax rate to a graduated rate, in a 73–44 vote. Illinois_sentence_354

The governor, J.B. Pritzker, approved the bill on May 27, 2019. Illinois_sentence_355

It was scheduled for a 2020 general election ballot vote and requires 60 percent voter approval. Illinois_sentence_356

It needed 71 votes to pass, with taxpayers making over $250,000 to be impacted. Illinois_sentence_357

It also includes $100 million for property tax relief. Illinois_sentence_358

As of 2017 Chicago had the highest state and local sales tax rate for a U.S. city with a populations above 200,000, at 10.250%. Illinois_sentence_359

The state of Illinois has the second highest rate of real estate tax: 2.31%, which is second only to New Jersey at 2.44%. Illinois_sentence_360

Toll roads are a de facto user tax on the citizens and visitors to the state of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_361

Illinois ranks seventh out of the 11 states with the most miles of toll roads, at 282.1 miles. Illinois_sentence_362

Chicago ranks fourth in most expensive toll roads in America by the mile, with the Chicago Skyway charging 51.2 cents per mile. Illinois_sentence_363

Illinois also has the 11th highest gasoline tax by state, at 37.5 cents per gallon. Illinois_sentence_364

Culture Illinois_section_36

Museums Illinois_section_37

For a more comprehensive list, see List of museums in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_365

Illinois has numerous museums; the greatest concentration of these are in Chicago. Illinois_sentence_366

Several museums in Chicago are ranked as some of the best in the world. Illinois_sentence_367

These include the John G. Shedd Aquarium, the Field Museum of Natural History, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Adler Planetarium, and the Museum of Science and Industry. Illinois_sentence_368

The modern Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield is the largest and most attended presidential library in the country. Illinois_sentence_369

The Illinois State Museum boasts a collection of 13.5 million objects that tell the story of Illinois life, land, people, and art. Illinois_sentence_370

The ISM is among only 5% of the nation's museums that are accredited by the American Alliance of Museums. Illinois_sentence_371

Other historical museums in the state include the Polish Museum of America in Chicago; Magnolia Manor in Cairo; Easley Pioneer Museum in Ipava; the Elihu Benjamin Washburne; Ulysses S. Grant Homes, both in Galena; and the Chanute Air Museum, located on the former Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul. Illinois_sentence_372

The Chicago metropolitan area also hosts two zoos: The very large Brookfield Zoo, located about ten miles west of the city center in suburban Brookfield, contains more than 2,300 animals and covers 216 acres (87 ha). Illinois_sentence_373

The Lincoln Park Zoo is located in huge Lincoln Park on Chicago's North Side, approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the Loop. Illinois_sentence_374

The zoo covers over 35 acres (14 ha) within the park. Illinois_sentence_375


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Music Illinois_section_38

Main article: Music of Illinois Illinois_sentence_376

Illinois is a leader in music education, having hosted the Midwest Clinic International Band and Orchestra Conference since 1946, as well being home to the Illinois Music Educators Association (IMEA), one of the largest professional music educator's organizations in the country. Illinois_sentence_377

Each summer since 2004, Southern Illinois University Carbondale has played host to the Southern Illinois Music Festival, which presents dozens of performances throughout the region. Illinois_sentence_378

Past featured artists include the Eroica Trio and violinist David Kim. Illinois_sentence_379

Chicago, in the northeast corner of the state, is a major center for music in the midwestern United States where distinctive forms of blues (greatly responsible for the future creation of rock and roll), and house music, a genre of electronic dance music, were developed. Illinois_sentence_380

The Great Migration of poor black workers from the South into the industrial cities brought traditional jazz and blues music to the city, resulting in Chicago blues and "Chicago-style" Dixieland jazz. Illinois_sentence_381

Notable blues artists included Muddy Waters, Junior Wells, Howlin' Wolf and both Sonny Boy Williamsons; jazz greats included Nat King Cole, Gene Ammons, Benny Goodman, and Bud Freeman. Illinois_sentence_382

Chicago is also well known for its soul music. Illinois_sentence_383

In the early 1930s, Gospel music began to gain popularity in Chicago due to Thomas A. Dorsey's contributions at Pilgrim Baptist Church. Illinois_sentence_384

In the 1980s and 1990s, heavy rock, punk, and hip hop also became popular in Chicago. Illinois_sentence_385

Orchestras in Chicago include the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, and the Chicago Sinfonietta. Illinois_sentence_386

Movies Illinois_section_39

John Hughes, who moved from Grosse Pointe to Northbrook, based many films of his in Chicago, and its suburbs. Illinois_sentence_387

Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Home Alone, The Breakfast Club, and all his films take place in the fictional Shermer, Illinois (the original name of Northbrook was Shermerville, and Hughes's High School, Glenbrook North High School, is on Shermer Road). Illinois_sentence_388

Most locations in his films include Glenbrook North, the former Maine North High School, the Ben Rose House in Highland Park, and the famous Home Alone house in Winnetka, Illinois. Illinois_sentence_389

Sports Illinois_section_40

For a more comprehensive list, see List of professional sports teams in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_390

Major league sports Illinois_section_41

As one of the United States' major metropolises, all major sports leagues have teams headquartered in Chicago. Illinois_sentence_391


Other top-level professional sports Illinois_section_42


Minor league sports Illinois_section_43

Many minor league teams also call Illinois their home. Illinois_sentence_392

They include: Illinois_sentence_393


College sports Illinois_section_44

The state features 13 athletic programs that compete in NCAA Division I, the highest level of U.S. college sports. Illinois_sentence_394

The two most prominent are the Illinois Fighting Illini and Northwestern Wildcats, both members of the Big Ten Conference and the only ones competing in one of the so-called "Power Five conferences". Illinois_sentence_395

The Fighting Illini football team has won five national championships and three Rose Bowl Games, whereas the men's basketball team has won 17 conference seasons and played five Final Fours. Illinois_sentence_396

Meanwhile, the Wildcats have won eight football conference championships and one Rose Bowl Game. Illinois_sentence_397

The Northern Illinois Huskies from DeKalb, Illinois compete in the Mid-American Conference winning four conference championships and earning a bid in the Orange Bowl along with producing Heisman candidate Jordan Lynch at quarterback. Illinois_sentence_398

The Huskies are the state's only other team competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the top level of NCAA football. Illinois_sentence_399

Four schools have football programs that compete in the second level of Division I football, the Football Championship Subdivision. Illinois_sentence_400

The Illinois State Redbirds (Normal, adjacent to Bloomington) and Southern Illinois Salukis (the latter representing Southern Illinois University's main campus in Carbondale) are members of the Missouri Valley Conference (MVC) for non-football sports and the Missouri Valley Football Conference (MVFC). Illinois_sentence_401

The Western Illinois Leathernecks (Macomb) are full members of the Summit League, which does not sponsor football, and also compete in the MVFC. Illinois_sentence_402

The Eastern Illinois Panthers (Charleston) are members of the Ohio Valley Conference (OVC). Illinois_sentence_403

The city of Chicago is home to four Division I programs that do not sponsor football. Illinois_sentence_404

The DePaul Blue Demons, with main campuses in Lincoln Park and the Loop, are members of the Big East Conference. Illinois_sentence_405

The Loyola Ramblers, with their main campus straddling the Edgewater and Rogers Park community areas on the city's far north side, compete in the MVC. Illinois_sentence_406

The UIC Flames, from the Near West Side next to the Loop, are in the Horizon League. Illinois_sentence_407

The Chicago State Cougars, from the city's south side, compete in the Western Athletic Conference. Illinois_sentence_408

Finally, two non-football Division I programs are located downstate. Illinois_sentence_409

The Bradley Braves (Peoria) are MVC members, and the SIU Edwardsville Cougars (in the Metro East region across the Mississippi River from St. Louis) compete in the OVC. Illinois_sentence_410

Former Chicago sports franchises Illinois_section_45

Folded teams Illinois_section_46

The city was formerly home to several other teams that either failed to survive or belonged to leagues that folded. Illinois_sentence_411


Relocated teams Illinois_section_47

The NFL's Arizona Cardinals, who currently play in the Phoenix suburb of Glendale, Arizona, played in Chicago as the Chicago Cardinals, until moving to St. Illinois_sentence_412

Louis, Missouri after the 1959 season. Illinois_sentence_413

An NBA expansion team known as the Chicago Packers in 1961–1962, and as the Chicago Zephyrs the following year, moved to Baltimore after the 1962–1963 season. Illinois_sentence_414

The franchise is now known as the Washington Wizards. Illinois_sentence_415

Professional sports teams outside Chicago Illinois_section_48

The Peoria Chiefs and Kane County Cougars are minor league baseball teams affiliated with MLB. Illinois_sentence_416

The Schaumburg Boomers and Lake County Fielders are members of the North American League, and the Southern Illinois Miners, Gateway Grizzlies, Joliet Slammers, Windy City ThunderBolts, and Normal CornBelters belong to the Frontier League. Illinois_sentence_417

In addition to the Chicago Wolves, the AHL also has the Rockford IceHogs serving as the AHL affiliate of the Chicago Blackhawks. Illinois_sentence_418

The second incarnation of the Peoria Rivermen plays in the SPHL. Illinois_sentence_419

Motor racing Illinois_section_49

Motor racing oval tracks at the Chicagoland Speedway in Joliet, the Chicago Motor Speedway in Cicero and the Gateway International Raceway in Madison, near St. Louis, have hosted NASCAR, CART, and IRL races, whereas the Sports Car Club of America, among other national and regional road racing clubs, have visited the Autobahn Country Club in Joliet, the Blackhawk Farms Raceway in South Beloit and the former Meadowdale International Raceway in Carpentersville. Illinois_sentence_420

Illinois also has several short tracks and dragstrips. Illinois_sentence_421

The dragstrip at Gateway International Raceway and the Route 66 Raceway, which sits on the same property as the Chicagoland Speedway, both host NHRA drag races. Illinois_sentence_422

Golf Illinois_section_50

Illinois features several golf courses, such as Olympia Fields, Medinah, Midlothian, Cog Hill, and Conway Farms, which have often hosted the BMW Championship, Western Open, and Women's Western Open. Illinois_sentence_423

Also, the state has hosted 13 editions of the U.S. Open (latest at Olympia Fields in 2003), six editions of the PGA Championship (latest at Medinah in 2006), three editions of the U.S. Illinois_sentence_424

Women's Open (latest at The Merit Club), the 2009 Solheim Cup (at Rich Harvest Farms), and the 2012 Ryder Cup (at Medinah). Illinois_sentence_425

The John Deere Classic is a regular PGA Tour event played in the Quad Cities since 1971, whereas the Encompass Championship is a Champions Tour event since 2013. Illinois_sentence_426

Previously, the LPGA State Farm Classic was an LPGA Tour event from 1976 to 2011. Illinois_sentence_427

Parks and recreation Illinois_section_51

For a more comprehensive list, see List of protected areas of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_428

The Illinois state parks system began in 1908 with what is now Fort Massac State Park, becoming the first park in a system encompassing more than 60 parks and about the same number of recreational and wildlife areas. Illinois_sentence_429

Areas under the protection of the National Park Service include: the Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor near Lockport, the Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail, the Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield, the Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail, the Trail of Tears National Historic Trail, the American Discovery Trail, and the Pullman National Monument. Illinois_sentence_430

The federal government also manages the Shawnee National Forest and the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie. Illinois_sentence_431

Law and politics Illinois_section_52

Main articles: Law of Illinois and Politics of Illinois Illinois_sentence_432

State government Illinois_section_53

Main article: Government of Illinois Illinois_sentence_433

The government of Illinois, under the Constitution of Illinois, has three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial. Illinois_sentence_434

The executive branch is split into several statewide elected offices, with the governor as chief executive. Illinois_sentence_435

Legislative functions are granted to the Illinois General Assembly. Illinois_sentence_436

The judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court and lower courts. Illinois_sentence_437

The Illinois General Assembly is the state legislature, composed of the 118-member Illinois House of Representatives and the 59-member Illinois Senate. Illinois_sentence_438

The members of the General Assembly are elected at the beginning of each even-numbered year. Illinois_sentence_439

The Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS) are the codified statutes of a general and permanent nature. Illinois_sentence_440

The executive branch is composed of six elected officers and their offices as well as numerous other departments. Illinois_sentence_441

The six elected officers are: Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, Comptroller, and Treasurer. Illinois_sentence_442

The government of Illinois has numerous departments, agencies, boards and commissions, but the so-called code departments provide most of the state's services. Illinois_sentence_443

The Judiciary of Illinois is the unified court system of Illinois. Illinois_sentence_444

It consists of the Supreme Court, Appellate Court, and Circuit Courts. Illinois_sentence_445

The Supreme Court oversees the administration of the court system. Illinois_sentence_446

The administrative divisions of Illinois are counties, townships, precincts, cities, towns, villages, and special-purpose districts. Illinois_sentence_447

The basic subdivision of Illinois are the 102 counties. Illinois_sentence_448

Eighty-five of the 102 counties are in turn divided into townships and precincts. Illinois_sentence_449

Municipal governments are the cities, villages, and incorporated towns. Illinois_sentence_450

Some localities possess home rule, which allows them to govern themselves to a certain extent. Illinois_sentence_451

Party balance Illinois_section_54

Illinois is a Democratic stronghold. Illinois_sentence_452

Historically, Illinois was a political swing state, with near-parity existing between the Republican and the Democratic parties. Illinois_sentence_453

However, in recent elections, the Democratic Party has gained ground, and Illinois has come to be seen as a solid "blue" state in presidential campaigns. Illinois_sentence_454

Votes from Chicago and most of Cook County have long been strongly Democratic. Illinois_sentence_455

However, the "collar counties" (the suburbs surrounding Chicago's Cook County, Illinois), can be seen as moderate voting districts. Illinois_sentence_456

College towns like Carbondale, Champaign, and Normal also lean Democratic. Illinois_sentence_457

Republicans continue to prevail in the rural areas of northern and central Illinois, as well as southern Illinois outside of East St. Louis. Illinois_sentence_458

From 1920 until 1972, Illinois was carried by the victor of each of these 14 presidential elections. Illinois_sentence_459

In fact, the state was long seen as a national bellwether, supporting the winner in every election in the 20th century, except for 1916 and 1976. Illinois_sentence_460

By contrast, Illinois has trended more toward the Democratic party, and has voted for their presidential candidates in the last six elections; in 2000, George W. Bush became the first Republican to win the presidency without carrying either Illinois or Vermont. Illinois_sentence_461

Local politician and Chicago resident Barack Obama easily won the state's 21 electoral votes in 2008, with 61.9% of the vote. Illinois_sentence_462

In 2010, incumbent governor Pat Quinn was re-elected with 47% of the vote, while Republican Mark Kirk was elected to the Senate with 48% of the vote. Illinois_sentence_463

In 2012, President Obama easily carried Illinois again, with 58% to Republican candidate Mitt Romney's 41%. Illinois_sentence_464

In 2014, Republican Bruce Rauner defeated Governor Quinn 50% to 46% to become Illinois's first Republican governor in 12 years after being sworn in on January 12, 2015, while Democratic senator Dick Durbin was re-elected with 53% of the vote. Illinois_sentence_465

In 2016, Hillary Clinton carried Illinois with 55% of the vote, and Tammy Duckworth defeated incumbent Mark Kirk 54% to 40%. Illinois_sentence_466

George W. Bush and Donald Trump are the only Republican presidential candidates to win without carrying either Illinois or Vermont. Illinois_sentence_467

In 2018, Democrat JB Pritzker defeated the incumbent Bruce Rauner for the governorship with 54% of the vote. Illinois_sentence_468

History of corruption Illinois_section_55

Main article: Political corruption in Illinois Illinois_sentence_469

Politics in the state have been infamous for highly visible corruption cases, as well as for crusading reformers, such as governors Adlai Stevenson and James R. Thompson. Illinois_sentence_470

In 2006, former governor George Ryan was convicted of racketeering and bribery, leading to a six-and-a-half-year prison sentence. Illinois_sentence_471

In 2008, then-Governor Rod Blagojevich was served with a criminal complaint on corruption charges, stemming from allegations that he conspired to sell the vacated Senate seat left by President Barack Obama to the highest bidder. Illinois_sentence_472

Subsequently, on December 7, 2011, Rod Blagojevich was sentenced to 14 years in prison for those charges, as well as perjury while testifying during the case, totaling 18 convictions. Illinois_sentence_473

Blagojevich was impeached and convicted by the legislature, resulting in his removal from office. Illinois_sentence_474

In the late 20th century, Congressman Dan Rostenkowski was imprisoned for mail fraud; former governor and federal judge Otto Kerner, Jr. was imprisoned for bribery; Secretary of State Paul Powell was investigated and found to have gained great wealth through bribes, and State Auditor of Public Accounts (Comptroller) Orville Hodge was imprisoned for embezzlement. Illinois_sentence_475

In 1912, William Lorimer, the GOP boss of Chicago, was expelled from the U.S. Senate for bribery and in 1921, Governor Len Small was found to have defrauded the state of a million dollars. Illinois_sentence_476

U.S. presidential elections Illinois_section_56

Main article: United States presidential elections in Illinois Illinois_sentence_477

Illinois has shown a strong presence in presidential elections. Illinois_sentence_478

Three presidents have claimed Illinois as their political base when running for president: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, and most recently Barack Obama. Illinois_sentence_479

Lincoln was born in Kentucky, but he moved to Illinois at age 21. Illinois_sentence_480

He served in the General Assembly and represented the 7th congressional district in the U.S. Illinois_sentence_481

House of Representatives before his election to the presidency in 1860. Illinois_sentence_482

Ulysses S. Grant was born in Ohio and had a military career that precluded settling down, but on the eve of the Civil War and approaching middle age, he moved to Illinois and thus utilized the state as his home and political base when running for president. Illinois_sentence_483

Barack Obama was born in Hawaii and made Illinois his home after graduating from law school, and later represented Illinois in the U.S. Illinois_sentence_484 Senate. Illinois_sentence_485

He then became president in 2008, running as a candidate from his Illinois base. Illinois_sentence_486

Ronald Reagan was born in Illinois, in the city of Tampico, raised in Dixon, Illinois, and educated at Eureka College, outside Peoria. Illinois_sentence_487

Reagan later moved to California during his young adulthood. Illinois_sentence_488

He then became an actor, and later became California's Governor before being elected president. Illinois_sentence_489

Hillary Clinton was born and raised in the suburbs of Chicago and became the first woman to represent a major political party in the general election of the U.S. presidency. Illinois_sentence_490

Clinton ran from a platform based in New York State. Illinois_sentence_491

African-American U.S. senators Illinois_section_57

Nine African-Americans have served as members of the United States Senate. Illinois_sentence_492

Of which three have represented Illinois, the most of any single state: Carol Moseley-Braun, Barack Obama, and Roland Burris, who was appointed to replace Obama after his election to the presidency. Illinois_sentence_493

Moseley-Braun was the first African-American woman to become a U.S. Illinois_sentence_494

Senator. Illinois_sentence_495

Political families Illinois_section_58

Three families from Illinois have played particularly prominent roles in the Democratic Party, gaining both statewide and national fame. Illinois_sentence_496

Stevenson Illinois_section_59

The Stevenson family, initially rooted in central Illinois and later based in the Chicago metropolitan area, has provided four generations of Illinois officeholders. Illinois_sentence_497


Daley Illinois_section_60

The Daley family's powerbase was in Chicago. Illinois_sentence_498


Pritzker Illinois_section_61

The Pritzker family is based in Chicago and have played important roles in both the private and the public sectors. Illinois_sentence_499


Education Illinois_section_62

Illinois State Board of education Illinois_section_63

Main article: Illinois State Board of Education Illinois_sentence_500

The Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) is autonomous of the governor and the state legislature, and administers public education in the state. Illinois_sentence_501

Local municipalities and their respective school districts operate individual public schools, but the ISBE audits performance of public schools with the Illinois School Report Card. Illinois_sentence_502

The ISBE also makes recommendations to state leaders concerning education spending and policies. Illinois_sentence_503

Primary and secondary schools Illinois_section_64

See also: List of school districts in Illinois and List of high schools in Illinois Illinois_sentence_504

Education is compulsory for ages 7–17 in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_505

Schools are commonly, but not exclusively, divided into three tiers of primary and secondary education: elementary school, middle school or junior high school, and high school. Illinois_sentence_506

District territories are often complex in structure. Illinois_sentence_507

Many areas in the state are actually located in two school districts—one for high school, the other for elementary and middle schools. Illinois_sentence_508

And such districts do not necessarily share boundaries. Illinois_sentence_509

A given high school may have several elementary districts that feed into it, yet some of those feeder districts may themselves feed into multiple high school districts. Illinois_sentence_510

Colleges and universities Illinois_section_65

For a more comprehensive list, see List of colleges and universities in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_511

Using the criterion established by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, there are eleven "National Universities" in the state. Illinois_sentence_512

As of 19 August 2010, six of these rank in the "first tier" (that is, the top quartile) among the top 500 National Universities in the United States, as determined by the U.S. Illinois_sentence_513 News & World Report rankings: the University of Chicago (3), Northwestern University (10), the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign (41), Loyola University Chicago (89), the Illinois Institute of Technology (108), DePaul University (123), University of Illinois at Chicago (129), Illinois State University (149), Southern Illinois University Carbondale (153), and Northern Illinois University (194). Illinois_sentence_514

The University of Chicago is continuously ranked as one of the world's top ten universities on various independent university rankings, and its Booth School of Business, along with Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management consistently rank within the top five graduate business schools in the country and top ten globally. Illinois_sentence_515

The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is often ranked among the best engineering schools in the world and in United States. Illinois_sentence_516

Illinois also has more than twenty additional accredited four-year universities, both public and private, and dozens of small liberal arts colleges across the state. Illinois_sentence_517

Additionally, Illinois supports 49 public community colleges in the Illinois Community College System. Illinois_sentence_518

School financing Illinois_section_66

Schools in Illinois are funded primarily by property taxes, based on state assessment of property values, rather than direct state contributions. Illinois_sentence_519

Scholar Tracy Steffes has described Illinois public education as historically “inequitable,” a system where one of “the wealthiest of states” is “the stingiest in its support for education.” There have been several attempts to reform school funding in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_520

The most notable attempt came in 1973 with the adoption of the Illinois Resource Equalizer Formula, a measure through which it was hoped funding could be collected and distributed to Illinois schools more equitably. Illinois_sentence_521

However, opposition from affluent Illinois communities who objected to having to pay for the less well-off school districts (many of them Black majority communities, produced by redlining, white flight, and other “soft” segregation methods) resulted in the formula’s abolition in the late 1980s. Illinois_sentence_522

Infrastructure Illinois_section_67

Transportation Illinois_section_68

See also: List of airports in Illinois, List of Illinois Routes, List of Illinois railroads, and :Category:Illinois waterways Illinois_sentence_523

Because of its central location and its proximity to the Rust Belt and Grain Belt, Illinois is a national crossroads for air, auto, rail, and truck traffic. Illinois_sentence_524

Airports Illinois_section_69

From 1962 until 1998, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport (ORD) was the busiest airport in the world, measured both in terms of total flights and passengers. Illinois_sentence_525

While it was surpassed by Atlanta's Hartsfield in 1998 (as Chicago splits its air traffic between O'Hare and Midway airports, while Atlanta uses only one airport), with 59.3 million domestic passengers annually, along with 11.4 million international passengers in 2008, O'Hare consistently remains one of the two or three busiest airports globally, and in some years still ranks number one in total flights. Illinois_sentence_526

It is a major hub for both United Airlines and American Airlines, and a major airport expansion project is currently underway. Illinois_sentence_527

Midway Airport (MDW), which had been the busiest airport in the world at one point until it was supplanted by O'Hare as the busiest airport in 1962, is now the secondary airport in the Chicago metropolitan area and still ranks as one of the nation's busiest airports. Illinois_sentence_528

Midway is a major hub for Southwest Airlines and services many other carriers as well. Illinois_sentence_529

Midway served 17.3 million domestic and international passengers in 2008. Illinois_sentence_530

Rail Illinois_section_70

Illinois has an extensive passenger and freight rail transportation network. Illinois_sentence_531

Chicago is a national Amtrak hub and in-state passengers are served by Amtrak's Illinois Service, featuring the Chicago to Carbondale Illini and Saluki, the Chicago to Quincy Carl Sandburg and Illinois Zephyr, and the Chicago to St. Louis Lincoln Service. Illinois_sentence_532

Currently there is trackwork on the Chicago–St. Illinois_sentence_533

Louis line to bring the maximum speed up to 110 mph (180 km/h), which would reduce the trip time by an hour and a half. Illinois_sentence_534

Nearly every North American railway meets at Chicago, making it the largest and most active rail hub in the country. Illinois_sentence_535

Extensive commuter rail is provided in the city proper and some immediate suburbs by the Chicago Transit Authority's 'L' system. Illinois_sentence_536

One of the largest suburban commuter rail system in the United States, operated by Metra, uses existing rail lines to provide direct commuter rail access for hundreds of suburbs to the city and beyond. Illinois_sentence_537

In addition to the state's rail lines, the Mississippi River and Illinois River provide major transportation routes for the state's agricultural interests. Illinois_sentence_538

Lake Michigan gives Illinois access to the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Illinois_sentence_539

Interstate highway system Illinois_section_71

Main article: List of Interstate Highways in Illinois Illinois_sentence_540

The Interstate Highways in Illinois are all segments of the Interstate Highway System that are owned and maintained by the state. Illinois_sentence_541

Illinois has the distinction of having the most primary (two-digit) interstates pass through it among all the 50 states with 13. Illinois_sentence_542

Illinois also ranks third among the fifty states with the most interstate mileage, coming in after California and Texas, which are much bigger states in area. Illinois_sentence_543

Major U.S. Interstate highways crossing the state include: Interstate 24 (I-24), I-39, I-41, I-55, I-57, I-64, I-70, I-72, I-74, I-80, I-88, I-90, and I-94. Illinois_sentence_544

U.S. highway system Illinois_section_72

Main article: List of U.S. Illinois_sentence_545 Highways in Illinois Illinois_sentence_546

The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) is responsible for maintaining the U.S Highways in Illinois. Illinois_sentence_547

The system in Illinois consists of 21 primary highways. Illinois_sentence_548

Among the U.S. highways that pass through the state, the primary ones are: US 6, US 12, US 14, US 20, US 24, US 30, US 34, US 36, US 40, US 41, US 45, US 50, US 51, US 52, US 54, US 60, US 62, and US 67. Illinois_sentence_549

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