Imam

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For other uses, see Imam (disambiguation). Imam_sentence_0

Not to be confused with Iman. Imam_sentence_1

Imam (/ɪˈmɑːm/; Arabic: إمام‎ imām; plural: أئمة aʼimmah) is an Islamic leadership position. Imam_sentence_2

It is most commonly used as the title of a worship leader of a mosque and Muslim community among Sunni Muslims. Imam_sentence_3

In this context, imams may lead Islamic worship services, serve as community leaders, and provide religious guidance. Imam_sentence_4

For Shi'a Muslims, the Imams are leaders of the Islamic community or ummah after the Prophet. Imam_sentence_5

The term is only applicable to the members of Ahl al-Bayt, the family of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, considered infallibles by Twelver Shia. Imam_sentence_6

The title was also used by the Zaidi Shia Imams of Yemen, who eventually founded the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918-1970). Imam_sentence_7

Sunni imams Imam_section_0

The Sunni branch of Islam does not have imams in the same sense as the Shi'a, an important distinction often overlooked by those outside of the Islamic religion. Imam_sentence_8

In everyday terms, the imam for Sunni Muslims is the one who leads Islamic formal (Fard) prayers, even in locations besides the mosque, whenever prayers are done in a group of two or more with one person leading (imam) and the others following by copying his ritual actions of worship. Imam_sentence_9

Friday sermon is most often given by an appointed imam. Imam_sentence_10

All mosques have an imam to lead the (congregational) prayers, even though it may sometimes just be a member from the gathered congregation rather than an officially appointed salaried person. Imam_sentence_11

The position of women as imams is controversial. Imam_sentence_12

The person that should be chosen, according to Hadith, is one who has most knowledge of the Quran and Sunnah (prophetic tradition) and is of good character. Imam_sentence_13

The term is also used for a recognized religious scholar or authority in Islam, often for the founding scholars of the four Sunni madhhabs, or schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). Imam_sentence_14

It may also refer to the Muslim scholars who created the analytical sciences related to Hadith or it may refer to the heads of Muhammad's family in their generational times. Imam_sentence_15

The Position of Imams In Turkey Imam_sentence_16

Imams are appointed by the state to work at mosques and they are required to be graduates of an İmam Hatip high school or have a university degree in Theology. Imam_sentence_17

This is an official position regulated by the Presidency of Religious Affairs in Turkey and only males are appointed to this position while female officials under the same state organisation work as preachers and Qur'an course tutors, religious services experts. Imam_sentence_18

These officials are supposed to belong to the Hanafi school of the Sunni sect. Imam_sentence_19

A central figure in an Islamic movement is also called an Imam, like the Imam Nabhawi in Syria and Ahmad Raza Khan in India and Pakistan is also called the Imam for Sunni Muslims. Imam_sentence_20

Shi'a imams Imam_section_1

Main articles: Imamah (Shi'a doctrine) and The Twelve Imams Imam_sentence_21

In the Shi'a context, an imam is not only presented as the man of God par excellence, but as participating fully in the names, attributes, and acts that theology usually reserves for God alone. Imam_sentence_22

Imams have a meaning more central to belief, referring to leaders of the community. Imam_sentence_23

Twelver and Ismaili Shi'a believe that these imams are chosen by God to be perfect examples for the faithful and to lead all humanity in all aspects of life. Imam_sentence_24

They also believe that all the imams chosen are free from committing any sin, impeccability which is called ismah. Imam_sentence_25

These leaders must be followed since they are appointed by God. Imam_sentence_26

In “The Epistle” (Risāla) by Khwāja Muḥammad Riḍā b. Sulṭān Ḥusayn, he writes that the Imam (Haḍrat-i Mawlānā) provides the miracle of knowledge (a trait exclusive to the Imam) only to the proof (ḥujjat), and the proof (ḥujjat) shares this miracle of knowledge with the community. Imam_sentence_27

Twelver Imam_section_2

Here follows a list of the Twelvers Shia imams: Imam_sentence_28

Imam_table_general_0

NumberImam_header_cell_0_0_0 Name

(Full/Kunya)Imam_header_cell_0_0_1

Title

(Arabic/Turkish)Imam_header_cell_0_0_2

Birth–Death

(CE/AH)Imam_header_cell_0_0_3

ImportanceImam_header_cell_0_0_4 Birthplace (present day country)Imam_header_cell_0_0_5 Place of death and burialImam_header_cell_0_0_6
1Imam_cell_0_1_0 Ali ibn Abu Talib

علي بن أبي طالبAbu al-Hassan or Abu al-Husayn

أبو الحسین or أبو الحسنImam_cell_0_1_1
Amir al-Mu'minin

(Commander of the Faithful)Birinci AliImam_cell_0_1_2

600–66123 BH–40Imam_cell_0_1_3 The first imam and successor of Muhammad in Shia Islam; however, the Sunnis acknowledge him as the fourth Caliph as well. He holds a high position in almost all Sufi Muslim orders (Turuq); the members of these orders trace their lineage to Muhammad through him.Imam_cell_0_1_4 Mecca, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_1_5 Assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Kharijite in Kufa, who slashed him with a poisoned sword. Buried at the Imam Ali Mosque in Najaf, Iraq.Imam_cell_0_1_6
2Imam_cell_0_2_0 Hassan ibn Ali

الحسن بن عليAbu Muhammad أبو محمدImam_cell_0_2_1

al-Mujtabaİkinci AliImam_cell_0_2_2 624–670

3–50Imam_cell_0_2_3

He was the eldest surviving grandson of Muhammad through Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah Zahra. Hasan succeeded his father as the caliph in Kufa, and on the basis of peace treaty with Muawiya I, he relinquished control of Iraq following a reign of seven months.Imam_cell_0_2_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_2_5 Poisoned by his wife in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.Imam_cell_0_2_6
3Imam_cell_0_3_0 Husayn ibn Ali

الحسین بن عليAbu Abdillah أبو عبداللهImam_cell_0_3_1

Sayed al-ShuhadaÜçüncü AliImam_cell_0_3_2 626–680

4–61Imam_cell_0_3_3

He was a grandson of Muhammad. Husayn opposed the validity of Caliph Yazid I. As a result, he and his family were later killed in the Battle of Karbala by Yazid's forces. After this incident, the commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali has become a central ritual in Shia identity.Imam_cell_0_3_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_3_5 Killed on Day of Ashura (10 Muharram) and beheaded at the Battle of Karbala. Buried at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala, Iraq.Imam_cell_0_3_6
4Imam_cell_0_4_0 Ali ibn al-Hussein

علي بن الحسینAbu Muhammad أبو محمدImam_cell_0_4_1

al-Sajjad, Zain al-Abedin

Dördüncü AliImam_cell_0_4_2

658-9 – 712

38–95Imam_cell_0_4_3

Author of prayers in Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya, which is known as "The Psalm of the Household of the Prophet."Imam_cell_0_4_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_4_5 According to most Shia scholars, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph al-Walid I in Medina, Saudi Arabia. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.Imam_cell_0_4_6
5Imam_cell_0_5_0 Muhammad ibn Ali

محمد بن عليAbu Ja'far أبو جعفرImam_cell_0_5_1

al-Baqir al-Ulum

(splitting open knowledge)

Beşinci AliImam_cell_0_5_2

677–732

57–114Imam_cell_0_5_3

Sunni and Shia sources both describe him as one of the early and most eminent legal scholars, teaching many students during his tenure.Imam_cell_0_5_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_5_5 According to some Shia scholars, he was poisoned by Ibrahim ibn Walid ibn 'Abdallah in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.Imam_cell_0_5_6
6Imam_cell_0_6_0 Ja'far ibn Muhammad

جعفر بن محمدAbu Abdillah أبو عبداللهImam_cell_0_6_1

al-Sadiq

(the Trustworthy)

Altıncı AliImam_cell_0_6_2

702–765

83–148Imam_cell_0_6_3

Established the Ja'fari jurisprudence and developed the Theology of Shia. He instructed many scholars in different fields, including Abu Hanifah and Malik ibn Anas in fiqh, Wasil ibn Ata and Hisham ibn Hakam in Islamic theology, and Jābir ibn Hayyān in science and alchemy.Imam_cell_0_6_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_6_5 According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Medina, Saudi Arabia on the order of Caliph Al-Mansur. Buried in Jannat al-Baqi.Imam_cell_0_6_6
7Imam_cell_0_7_0 Musa ibn Ja'far

موسی بن جعفرAbu al-Hassan I أبو الحسن الأولImam_cell_0_7_1

al-Kazim

Yedinci AliImam_cell_0_7_2

744–799

128–183Imam_cell_0_7_3

Leader of the Shia community during the schism of Ismaili and other branches after the death of the former imam, Jafar al-Sadiq. He established the network of agents who collected khums in the Shia community of the Middle East and the Greater Khorasan.Imam_cell_0_7_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_7_5 Imprisoned and poisoned in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. Buried in the Kazimayn shrine in Baghdad.Imam_cell_0_7_6
8Imam_cell_0_8_0 Ali ibn Musa

علي بن موسیImam_cell_0_8_1

al-Rida, Reza

Sekizinci AliImam_cell_0_8_2

765–817

148–203Imam_cell_0_8_3

Made crown-prince by Caliph Al-Ma'mun, and famous for his discussions with both Muslim and non-Muslim religious scholars.Imam_cell_0_8_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_8_5 According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Mashad, Iran on the order of Caliph Al-Ma'mun. Buried in the Imam Reza shrine in Mashad.Imam_cell_0_8_6
9Imam_cell_0_9_0 Muhammad ibn Ali

محمد بن عليAbu Ja'far أبو جعفرImam_cell_0_9_1

al-Taqi, al-Jawad

Dokuzuncu AliImam_cell_0_9_2

810–835

195–220Imam_cell_0_9_3

Famous for his generosity and piety in the face of persecution by the Abbasid caliphate.Imam_cell_0_9_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_9_5 Poisoned by his wife, Al-Ma'mun's daughter, in Baghdad, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tasim. Buried in the Kazmain shrine in Baghdad.Imam_cell_0_9_6
10Imam_cell_0_10_0 Ali ibn Muhammad

علي بن محمدAbu al-Hassan III أبو الحسن الثالثImam_cell_0_10_1

al-Hadi, al-Naqi

Onuncu AliImam_cell_0_10_2

827–868

212–254Imam_cell_0_10_3

Strengthened the network of deputies in the Shia community. He sent them instructions, and received in turn financial contributions of the faithful from the khums and religious vows.Imam_cell_0_10_4 Surayya, a village near Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_10_5 According to Shia sources, he was poisoned in Samarra, Iraq on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tazz. Buried in the Al Askari Mosque in Samarra.Imam_cell_0_10_6
11Imam_cell_0_11_0 Hassan ibn Ali

الحسن بن عليAbu Muhammad أبو محمدImam_cell_0_11_1

al-Askari

Onbirinci AliImam_cell_0_11_2

846–874

232–260Imam_cell_0_11_3

For most of his life, the Abbasid Caliph, Al-Mu'tamid, placed restrictions on him after the death of his father. Repression of the Shi'ite population was particularly high at the time due to their large size and growing power.Imam_cell_0_11_4 Medina, Saudi ArabiaImam_cell_0_11_5 According to Shia, he was poisoned on the order of Caliph Al-Mu'tamid in Samarra, Iraq. Buried in Al Askari Mosque in Samarra.Imam_cell_0_11_6
12Imam_cell_0_12_0 Muhammad ibn al-Hassan

محمد بن الحسنAbu al-Qasim أبو القاسمImam_cell_0_12_1

al-Mahdi, Hidden Imam, al-Hujjah

Onikinci AliImam_cell_0_12_2

868–unknown

255–unknownImam_cell_0_12_3

According to Twelver doctrine, he is the current imam and the promised Mahdi, a messianic figure who will return with Jesus. He will reestablish the rightful governance of Islam and replete the earth with justice and peace.Imam_cell_0_12_4 Samarra, IraqImam_cell_0_12_5 According to Shia doctrine, he has been living in the Occultation since 872, and will continue as long as God wills it.Imam_cell_0_12_6

Fatimah, also Fatimah al-Zahraa, daughter of Muhammed (615–632), is also considered infallible but not an Imam. Imam_sentence_29

The Shi'a believe that the last Imam, the 12th Imam Mahdi will one day emerge on the Day of Resurrection (Qiyamah). Imam_sentence_30

Ismaili Imam_section_3

See Imamah (Ismaili doctrine) and List of Ismaili imams for Ismaili imams. Imam_sentence_31

Zaidi Imam_section_4

See details under Zaidiyyah, Islamic history of Yemen and Imams of Yemen. Imam_sentence_32

Imams as secular rulers Imam_section_5

At times, have held both secular and religious authority. Imam_sentence_33

This was the case in Oman among the Kharijite or Ibadi sects. Imam_sentence_34

At times, the imams were elected. Imam_sentence_35

At other times the position was inherited, as with the Yaruba dynasty from 1624 and 1742. Imam_sentence_36

See List of rulers of Oman, the Rustamid dynasty: 776–909, Nabhani dynasty: 1154–1624, the Yaruba dynasty: 1624–1742, the Al Said: 1744–present for further information. Imam_sentence_37

The Imamate of Futa Jallon (1727-1896) was a Fulani state in West Africa where secular power alternated between two lines of hereditary Imams, or almami. Imam_sentence_38

In the Zaidi Shiite sect, imams were secular as well as spiritual leaders who held power in Yemen for more than a thousand years. Imam_sentence_39

In 897, a Zaidi ruler, al-Hadi ila'l-Haqq Yahya, founded a line of such imams, a theocratic form of government which survived until the second half of the 20th century. Imam_sentence_40

(See details under Zaidiyyah, History of Yemen, Imams of Yemen.) Imam_sentence_41

Ruhollah Khomeini is officially referred to as Imam in Iran. Imam_sentence_42

Several Iranian places and institutions are named "Imam Khomeini", including a city, an international airport, a hospital, and a university. Imam_sentence_43


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imam.