Indianapolis

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This article is about the capital city of the U.S. state of Indiana. Indianapolis_sentence_0

For other uses, see Indianapolis (disambiguation). Indianapolis_sentence_1

Indianapolis_table_infobox_0

Indianapolis, IndianaIndianapolis_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryIndianapolis_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesIndianapolis_cell_0_1_1
StateIndianapolis_header_cell_0_2_0 IndianaIndianapolis_cell_0_2_1
CountyIndianapolis_header_cell_0_3_0 MarionIndianapolis_cell_0_3_1
FoundedIndianapolis_header_cell_0_4_0 January 6, 1821Indianapolis_cell_0_4_1
Incorporated (town)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_5_0 September 3, 1832Indianapolis_cell_0_5_1
Incorporated (city)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_6_0 March 30, 1847Indianapolis_cell_0_6_1
City-county consolidationIndianapolis_header_cell_0_7_0 January 1, 1970Indianapolis_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentIndianapolis_header_cell_0_8_0
TypeIndianapolis_header_cell_0_9_0 Strong mayor–councilIndianapolis_cell_0_9_1
BodyIndianapolis_header_cell_0_10_0 Indianapolis City-County CouncilIndianapolis_cell_0_10_1
MayorIndianapolis_header_cell_0_11_0 Joe Hogsett (D)Indianapolis_cell_0_11_1
AreaIndianapolis_header_cell_0_12_0
State capital and consolidated city-countyIndianapolis_header_cell_0_13_0 367.97 sq mi (953.03 km)Indianapolis_cell_0_13_1
LandIndianapolis_header_cell_0_14_0 361.66 sq mi (936.70 km)Indianapolis_cell_0_14_1
WaterIndianapolis_header_cell_0_15_0 6.30 sq mi (16.33 km)Indianapolis_cell_0_15_1
ElevationIndianapolis_header_cell_0_16_0 715 ft (218 m)Indianapolis_cell_0_16_1
Population (2010)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_17_0
State capital and consolidated city-countyIndianapolis_header_cell_0_18_0 820,445Indianapolis_cell_0_18_1
Estimate (2019)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_19_0 876,384Indianapolis_cell_0_19_1
RankIndianapolis_header_cell_0_20_0 17th in the United StatesIndianapolis_cell_0_20_1
DensityIndianapolis_header_cell_0_21_0 2,423.21/sq mi (935.61/km)Indianapolis_cell_0_21_1
UrbanIndianapolis_header_cell_0_22_0 1,487,483 (US: 33rd)Indianapolis_cell_0_22_1
MetroIndianapolis_header_cell_0_23_0 2,048,703 (US: 33rd)Indianapolis_cell_0_23_1
CSAIndianapolis_header_cell_0_24_0 2,431,361 (US: 28th)Indianapolis_cell_0_24_1
Demonym(s)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_25_0 IndianapolitanIndianapolis_cell_0_25_1
Time zoneIndianapolis_header_cell_0_26_0 UTC−5 (EST)Indianapolis_cell_0_26_1
Summer (DST)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_27_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Indianapolis_cell_0_27_1
ZIP CodesIndianapolis_header_cell_0_28_0 61 total ZIP codes:Indianapolis_cell_0_28_1
Area code(s)Indianapolis_header_cell_0_29_0 317 and 463Indianapolis_cell_0_29_1
FIPS codeIndianapolis_header_cell_0_30_0 18-36003Indianapolis_cell_0_30_1
WebsiteIndianapolis_header_cell_0_31_0 Indianapolis_cell_0_31_1

Indianapolis (/ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɪs/), colloquially known as Indy, is the state capital and most-populous city of the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_2

state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_3

According to 2019 estimates from the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_4

Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 886,220. Indianapolis_sentence_5

The "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 876,384. Indianapolis_sentence_6

It is the 17th most populous city in the U.S., the third-most populous city in the Midwest, after Chicago, Illinois and Columbus, Ohio, and the fourth-most populous state capital after Phoenix, Arizona, Austin, Texas, and Columbus. Indianapolis_sentence_7

The Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 33rd most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U.S., with 2,048,703 residents. Indianapolis_sentence_8

Its combined statistical area ranks 28th, with a population of 2,431,361. Indianapolis_sentence_9

Indianapolis covers 368 square miles (950 km), making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_10

Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to as early as 10000 BC. Indianapolis_sentence_11

In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. Indianapolis_sentence_12

In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government. Indianapolis_sentence_13

The city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1-square-mile (2.6 km) grid next to the White River. Indianapolis_sentence_14

Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail later solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Indianapolis_sentence_15

Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Indianapolis_sentence_16

Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis_sentence_17

Indianapolis anchors the 29th largest economic region in the U.S., based primarily on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing, professional and business services, education and health care, government, and wholesale trade. Indianapolis_sentence_18

The city has notable niche markets in amateur sports and auto racing. Indianapolis_sentence_19

The city is home to three Fortune 500 companies, two major league sports clubs, four university campuses, and several museums, including the world's largest children's museum. Indianapolis_sentence_20

However, the city is perhaps best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500. Indianapolis_sentence_21

Among the city's historic sites and districts, Indianapolis is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U.S. outside of Washington, D.C. Indianapolis_sentence_22

History Indianapolis_section_0

Main articles: History of Indianapolis and Timeline of Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_23

Etymology Indianapolis_section_1

The name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name, Indiana (meaning "Land of the Indians", or simply "Indian Land"), and polis, the Greek word for "city." Indianapolis_sentence_24

Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Indianapolis_sentence_25

Other names considered were Concord, Suwarrow, and Tecumseh. Indianapolis_sentence_26

Founding Indianapolis_section_2

In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_27

Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government. Indianapolis_sentence_28

Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Mary's (1818), the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821. Indianapolis_sentence_29

This tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. Indianapolis_sentence_30

The indigenous people of the land prior to systematic removal are the Miami Nation of Indiana (Miami Nation of Oklahoma) and Indianapolis makes up part of Cession 99; the primary treaty between the indigenous population and the United States was the Treaty of St. Mary's (1818). Indianapolis_sentence_31

The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Indianapolis_sentence_32

Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Indianapolis_sentence_33

Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840. Indianapolis_sentence_34

The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. Indianapolis_sentence_35

The McCormicks are generally considered to be the first permanent settlers; however, some historians believe George Pogue and family may have arrived first, on March 2, 1819, and settled in a log cabin along the creek that was later called Pogue's Run. Indianapolis_sentence_36

Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, and employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820. Indianapolis_sentence_37

On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. Indianapolis_sentence_38

The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. Indianapolis_sentence_39

In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis_sentence_40

Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. Indianapolis_sentence_41

A combined county and town government continued until 1832 when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis_sentence_42

Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Indianapolis_sentence_43

Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. Indianapolis_sentence_44

In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council. Indianapolis_sentence_45

The city charter continued to be revised as Indianapolis expanded. Indianapolis_sentence_46

Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Corydon, Indiana. Indianapolis_sentence_47

In addition to state government offices, a U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_48

district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825. Indianapolis_sentence_49

Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. Indianapolis_sentence_50

A small segment of the ultimately failed Indiana Central Canal was opened in 1839. Indianapolis_sentence_51

The first railroad to serve Indianapolis, the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, began operation in 1847, and subsequent railroad connections fostered growth. Indianapolis_sentence_52

Indianapolis Union Station was the first of its kind in the world when it opened in 1853. Indianapolis_sentence_53

Civil War and Gilded Age Indianapolis_section_3

Main article: Indianapolis in the American Civil War Indianapolis_sentence_54

During the American Civil War, Indianapolis was mostly loyal to the Union cause. Indianapolis_sentence_55

Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a rallying place for Union army troops. Indianapolis_sentence_56

On February 11, 1861, president-elect Lincoln arrived in the city, en route to Washington, D.C. for his presidential inauguration, marking the first visit from a president-elect in the city's history. Indianapolis_sentence_57

On April 16, 1861, the first orders were issued to form Indiana's first regiments and establish Indianapolis as a headquarters for the state's volunteer soldiers. Indianapolis_sentence_58

Within a week, more than 12,000 recruits signed up to fight for the Union. Indianapolis_sentence_59

Indianapolis became a major logistics hub during the war, establishing the city as a crucial military base. Indianapolis_sentence_60

Between 1860 and 1870, the city's population more than doubled. Indianapolis_sentence_61

An estimated 4,000 men from Indianapolis served in 39 regiments, and an estimated 700 died during the war. Indianapolis_sentence_62

On May 20, 1863, Union soldiers attempted to disrupt a statewide Democratic convention at Indianapolis, forcing the proceedings to be adjourned, sarcastically referred to as the Battle of Pogue's Run. Indianapolis_sentence_63

Fear turned to panic in July 1863, during Morgan's Raid into southern Indiana, but Confederate forces turned east toward Ohio, never reaching Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_64

On April 30, 1865, Lincoln's funeral train made a stop at Indianapolis, where an estimated crowd of more than 100,000 people passed the assassinated president's bier at the Indiana Statehouse. Indianapolis_sentence_65

Following the Civil War—and in the wake of the Second Industrial Revolution—Indianapolis experienced tremendous growth and prosperity. Indianapolis_sentence_66

In 1880, Indianapolis was the world's third largest pork packing city, after Chicago and Cincinnati, and the second largest railroad center in the United States by 1888. Indianapolis_sentence_67

By 1890, the city's population surpassed 100,000. Indianapolis_sentence_68

Some of the city's most notable businesses were founded during this period of growth and innovation, including L. Indianapolis_sentence_69

S. Ayres (1872), Eli Lilly and Company (1876), Madam C. J. Walker Manufacturing Company (1910), and Allison Transmission (1915). Indianapolis_sentence_70

Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing. Indianapolis_sentence_71

The city was an early focus of labor organization. Indianapolis_sentence_72

The Indianapolis Street Car Strike of 1913 and subsequent police mutiny and riots led to the creation of the state's earliest labor-protection laws, including a minimum wage, regular work weeks, and improved working conditions. Indianapolis_sentence_73

The International Typographical Union and United Mine Workers of America were among several influential labor unions based in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_74

Progressive Era to World War II Indianapolis_section_4

Some of the city's most prominent architectural features and best known historical events date from the turn of the 20th century. Indianapolis_sentence_75

The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, dedicated on May 15, 1902, would later become the city's unofficial symbol. Indianapolis_sentence_76

Ray Harroun won the inaugural running of the Indianapolis 500, held May 30, 1911, at Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Indianapolis_sentence_77

Indianapolis was one of the hardest hit cities in the Great Flood of 1913, resulting in five known deaths and the displacement of 7,000 families. Indianapolis_sentence_78

Post-World War II Indianapolis_section_5

As a stop on the Underground Railroad, Indianapolis had a higher black population than any other city in the Northern States, until the Great Migration. Indianapolis_sentence_79

Led by D. Indianapolis_sentence_80

C. Stephenson, the Indiana Klan became the most powerful political and social organization in Indianapolis from 1921 through 1928, controlling City Council and the Board of School Commissioners, among others. Indianapolis_sentence_81

At its height, more than 40% of native-born white males in Indianapolis claimed membership in the Klan. Indianapolis_sentence_82

While campaigning in the city in 1968, Robert F. Kennedy delivered one of the most lauded speeches in 20th century American history, following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. As in most U.S. cities during the Civil Rights Movement, the city experienced strained race relations. Indianapolis_sentence_83

A 1971 federal court decision forcing Indianapolis Public Schools to implement desegregation busing proved controversial. Indianapolis_sentence_84

Under the mayoral administration of Richard Lugar, the city and county governments restructured, consolidating most public services into a new entity called Unigov. Indianapolis_sentence_85

The plan removed bureaucratic redundancies, captured increasingly suburbanizing tax revenue, and created a Republican political machine that dominated Indianapolis politics until the 2000s decade. Indianapolis_sentence_86

Unigov went into effect on January 1, 1970, increasing the city's land area by 308.2 square miles (798 km) and population by 268,366 people. Indianapolis_sentence_87

It was the first major city-county consolidation to occur in the United States without a referendum since the creation of the City of Greater New York in 1898. Indianapolis_sentence_88

Amid the changes in government and growth, the city invested in an aggressive strategy to brand Indianapolis as a sports tourism destination, known as the Indianapolis Project. Indianapolis_sentence_89

Under the administration of the city's longest-serving mayor, William Hudnut (1976–1992), millions of dollars were poured into sport facilities and public relations campaigns as part of an economic development strategy. Indianapolis_sentence_90

The strategy was successful in landing the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_91

Olympic Festival in 1983, securing the 1984 relocation of the NFL Baltimore Colts, and hosting the 1987 Pan American Games. Indianapolis_sentence_92

Modern Indianapolis Indianapolis_section_6

Economic development initiatives focused on revitalizing the city's downtown continued in the 1990s under the mayoral administration of Stephen Goldsmith. Indianapolis_sentence_93

During this period, a number of cultural amenities were completed at White River State Park, the Canal Walk continued development, Circle Centre Mall was completed, and new sports venues (Victory Field and Bankers Life Fieldhouse) were opened. Indianapolis_sentence_94

In 1999, several cultural districts were designated to capitalize on cultural assets within historically significant neighborhoods unique to the city's heritage as a means to promote continued economic development. Indianapolis_sentence_95

During the 2000s, the city invested heavily in infrastructure projects, including two of the largest building projects in the city's history: the $1.1 billion Indianapolis International Airport Colonel H. Weir Cook Terminal and $720 million Lucas Oil Stadium, both opened in 2008. Indianapolis_sentence_96

A $275 million expansion of the Indiana Convention Center was completed in 2011. Indianapolis_sentence_97

Construction began that year on DigIndy, a $1.9 billion project to correct the city's combined sewer overflows by 2025. Indianapolis_sentence_98

Rapid transit was reintroduced to Indianapolis with the opening of IndyGo's $96 million Red Line bus rapid transit project in 2019. Indianapolis_sentence_99

Geography Indianapolis_section_7

Indianapolis is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, in central Indiana. Indianapolis_sentence_100

According to the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_101

Census Bureau, the Indianapolis (balance) encompasses a total area of 368.2 square miles (954 km), of which 361.5 square miles (936 km) is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km) is water. Indianapolis_sentence_102

The consolidated city boundaries are coterminous with Marion County, with the exception of the autonomous municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway. Indianapolis_sentence_103

Indianapolis is the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_104

Indianapolis is within the Tipton Till Plain, a flat to gently sloping terrain underlain by glacial deposits known as till. Indianapolis_sentence_105

The lowest point in the city is about 650 feet (198 m) above mean sea level, with the highest natural elevation at about 900 feet (274 m) above sea level. Indianapolis_sentence_106

Few hills or short ridges, known as kames, rise about 100 feet (30 m) to 130 feet (40 m) above the surrounding terrain. Indianapolis_sentence_107

The city lies just north of the Indiana Uplands, a region characterized by rolling hills and high limestone content. Indianapolis_sentence_108

The city is also within the EPA's Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregion, an area of the U.S. known for its fertile agricultural land. Indianapolis_sentence_109

Topographic relief slopes gently toward the White River and its two primary tributaries, Fall and Eagle creeks. Indianapolis_sentence_110

In total, there are about 35 streams in the city, including Indian Creek and Pogue's Run. Indianapolis_sentence_111

Major bodies of water include Indian Lake, Geist Reservoir, and Eagle Creek Reservoir. Indianapolis_sentence_112

Cityscape Indianapolis_section_8

See also: List of tallest buildings in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_113

Indianapolis is a planned city. Indianapolis_sentence_114

On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital, appointing Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to survey and design a town plan for Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_115

Ralston had been a surveyor for the French architect Pierre L'Enfant, assisting him with the plan for Washington, D.C. Ralston's original plan for Indianapolis called for a town of 1 square mile (2.6 km), near the confluence of the White River and Fall Creek. Indianapolis_sentence_116

The plan, known as the Mile Square, is bounded by East, West, North, and South streets, centered on a traffic circle, called Monument Circle (originally Governor's Circle), from which Indianapolis's "Circle City" nickname originated. Indianapolis_sentence_117

Four diagonal streets radiated a block from Monument Circle: Massachusetts, Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana avenues. Indianapolis_sentence_118

The city's address numbering system begins at the intersection of Washington and Meridian streets. Indianapolis_sentence_119

Before its submersion into a sanitary tunnel, Pogue's Run was included into the plan, disrupting the rectilinear street grid to the southeast. Indianapolis_sentence_120

Noted as one of the finest examples of the City Beautiful movement design in the United States, the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District began construction in 1921 in downtown Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_121

The district, a National Historic Landmark, encompasses several examples of neoclassical architecture, including the American Legion, Central Library, and Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse. Indianapolis_sentence_122

The district is also home to several sculptures and memorials, Depew Memorial Fountain, and open space, hosting many annual civic events. Indianapolis_sentence_123

After completion of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, an ordinance was passed in 1905 restricting building heights on the traffic circle to 86 ft (26 m) to protect views of the 284 ft (87 m) monument. Indianapolis_sentence_124

The ordinance was revised in 1922, permitting buildings to rise to 108 ft (33 m), with an additional 42 ft (13 m) allowable with a series of setbacks. Indianapolis_sentence_125

A citywide height restriction ordinance was instituted in 1912, barring structures over 200 ft (61 m). Indianapolis_sentence_126

Completed in 1962, the City-County Building was the first skyscraper in the city, surpassing the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument in height by nearly 100 ft (30 m). Indianapolis_sentence_127

A building boom, lasting from 1982 to 1990, saw the construction of six of the city's ten tallest buildings. Indianapolis_sentence_128

The tallest is Salesforce Tower, completed in 1990 at 811 ft (247 m). Indianapolis_sentence_129

Indiana limestone is the signature building material in Indianapolis, widely included in the city's many monuments, churches, academic, government, and civic buildings. Indianapolis_sentence_130

Compared with similar-sized American cities, Indianapolis is unique in that it contains some 200 farms covering thousands of acres of agricultural land within its municipal boundaries. Indianapolis_sentence_131

Equestrian farms and corn and soybean fields interspersed with suburban development are commonplace on the city's periphery, especially in Franklin Township. Indianapolis_sentence_132

The stark contrast between Indianapolis's urban neighborhoods and rural villages is a result of the 1970 city-county consolidation, which expanded the city's incorporated boundary to be coterminous with Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_133

Neighborhoods Indianapolis_section_9

See also: List of Indianapolis neighborhoods Indianapolis_sentence_134

The city is divided into 99 community areas for statistical purposes, though many smaller neighborhoods exist within them. Indianapolis_sentence_135

Indianapolis's neighborhoods are often difficult to define because the city lacks historical ethnic divisions, as in Chicago, or physical boundaries, seen in Pittsburgh and Cincinnati. Indianapolis_sentence_136

Instead, most neighborhoods are subtle in their distinctions. Indianapolis_sentence_137

The Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission recognizes several neighborhoods as historic districts, including Central Court, Chatham Arch, Golden Hill, Herron-Morton Place, Lockerbie Square, Old Northside, Old Southside and Oliver Johnson's Woods. Indianapolis_sentence_138

Expansion of the interurban system at the turn of the 20th century facilitated growth of several streetcar suburbs, including Broad Ripple, Irvington, University Heights, and Woodruff Place. Indianapolis_sentence_139

The post–World War II economic expansion and subsequent suburbanization had a profound impact on the physical development of the city's neighborhoods. Indianapolis_sentence_140

From 1950 to 1970, 97,000 housing units were built in Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_141

Most of this new construction occurred outside Center Township, expediting out-migration from the city's urban neighborhoods to suburban areas, such as Castleton, Eagledale, and Nora. Indianapolis_sentence_142

Between 1950 and 1990, over 155,000 residents left Center Township, resulting in urban blight and disinvestment. Indianapolis_sentence_143

Since the 2000s, Downtown Indianapolis and surrounding neighborhoods have seen increased reinvestment attributed to nationwide demographic trends, driven by empty nesters and millennials. Indianapolis_sentence_144

By 2020, Downtown is projected to have 30,000 residential units, compared to 18,300 in 2010. Indianapolis_sentence_145

Renewed interest in urban living has been met with some dispute regarding gentrification and affordable housing. Indianapolis_sentence_146

According to a Center for Community Progress report, neighborhoods like Cottage Home and Fall Creek Place have experienced measurable gentrification since 2000. Indianapolis_sentence_147

The North Meridian Street Historic District is among the most affluent urban neighborhoods in the U.S., with a mean household income of $102,599 in 2017. Indianapolis_sentence_148

Climate Indianapolis_section_10

Indianapolis has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), but can be considered a borderline humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) using the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm. Indianapolis_sentence_149

It experiences four distinct seasons. Indianapolis_sentence_150

The city is in USDA hardiness zone 6a. Indianapolis_sentence_151

Typically, summers are hot, humid and wet. Indianapolis_sentence_152

Winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. Indianapolis_sentence_153

The July daily average temperature is 75.4 °F (24.1 °C). Indianapolis_sentence_154

High temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 18 days each year, and occasionally exceed 95 °F (35 °C). Indianapolis_sentence_155

Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, if at times unpredictable; midday temperature drops exceeding 30 °F or 17 °C are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days (80 °F or 27 °C) followed within 36 hours by snowfall are not unusual during these months. Indianapolis_sentence_156

Winters are cold, with an average January temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C). Indianapolis_sentence_157

Temperatures dip to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below an average of 4.7 nights per year. Indianapolis_sentence_158

The rainiest months occur in the spring and summer, with slightly higher averages during May, June, and July. Indianapolis_sentence_159

May is typically the wettest, with an average of 5.05 inches (12.8 cm) of precipitation. Indianapolis_sentence_160

Most rain is derived from thunderstorm activity; there is no distinct dry season, although occasional droughts occur. Indianapolis_sentence_161

Severe weather is not uncommon, particularly in the spring and summer months; the city experiences an average of 20 thunderstorm days annually. Indianapolis_sentence_162

The city's average annual precipitation is 42.4 inches (108 cm), with snowfall averaging 25.9 inches (66 cm) per season. Indianapolis_sentence_163

Official temperature extremes range from 106 °F (41 °C), set on July 14, 1936, to −27 °F (−33 °C), set on January 19, 1994. Indianapolis_sentence_164

Demographics Indianapolis_section_11

See also: History of the Irish in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_165

Indianapolis_table_general_1

Racial demography of IndianapolisIndianapolis_table_caption_1
Racial compositionIndianapolis_header_cell_1_0_0 2016Indianapolis_header_cell_1_0_1 2010Indianapolis_header_cell_1_0_2 1990Indianapolis_header_cell_1_0_3 1970Indianapolis_header_cell_1_0_4
WhiteIndianapolis_cell_1_1_0 61.6%Indianapolis_cell_1_1_1 61.8%Indianapolis_cell_1_1_2 75.8%Indianapolis_cell_1_1_3 81.6%Indianapolis_cell_1_1_4
—Non-HispanicIndianapolis_cell_1_2_0 56.5%Indianapolis_cell_1_2_1 58.6%Indianapolis_cell_1_2_2 75.2%Indianapolis_cell_1_2_3 80.9%Indianapolis_cell_1_2_4
Black or African AmericanIndianapolis_cell_1_3_0 28.0%Indianapolis_cell_1_3_1 27.5%Indianapolis_cell_1_3_2 22.6%Indianapolis_cell_1_3_3 18.0%Indianapolis_cell_1_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Indianapolis_cell_1_4_0 9.9%Indianapolis_cell_1_4_1 9.4%Indianapolis_cell_1_4_2 1.1%Indianapolis_cell_1_4_3 0.8%Indianapolis_cell_1_4_4
AsianIndianapolis_cell_1_5_0 2.8%Indianapolis_cell_1_5_1 2.1%Indianapolis_cell_1_5_2 0.9%Indianapolis_cell_1_5_3 0.1%Indianapolis_cell_1_5_4

The U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_166

Census Bureau considers Indianapolis as two entities: the consolidated city and the city's remainder, or balance. Indianapolis_sentence_167

The consolidated city is coterminous with Marion County, except the independent municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway. Indianapolis_sentence_168

The city's balance excludes the populations of ten semi-autonomous municipalities that are included in totals for the consolidated city. Indianapolis_sentence_169

These are Clermont, Crows Nest, Homecroft, Meridian Hills, North Crows Nest, Rocky Ripple, Spring Hill, Warren Park, Williams Creek, and Wynnedale. Indianapolis_sentence_170

An eleventh town, Cumberland, is partially included. Indianapolis_sentence_171

As of 2018, the city's estimated consolidated population was 876,862 and its balance was 867,125. Indianapolis_sentence_172

As of 2010, the city's population density was 2,270 people per square mile (880/km). Indianapolis_sentence_173

Indianapolis is the most populous city in Indiana, containing nearly 13% of the state's total population. Indianapolis_sentence_174

The Indianapolis metropolitan area, officially the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson metropolitan statistical area (MSA), consists of Marion County and the surrounding counties of Boone, Brown, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Morgan, Putnam, and Shelby. Indianapolis_sentence_175

As of 2018, the metropolitan area's population was 2,048,703, the most populous in Indiana and home to 30% of the state's residents. Indianapolis_sentence_176

With a population of 2,431,361, the larger Indianapolis–Carmel–Muncie combined statistical area (CSA) covers 18 counties, home to 36% of Indiana residents. Indianapolis_sentence_177

Indianapolis is also situated within the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the largest of 11 megaregions in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_178

According to the U.S. Census of 2010, 97.2% of the Indianapolis population was reported as one race: 61.8% White, 27.5% Black or African American, 2.1% Asian (0.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% other Asian); 0.3% American Indian, and 5.5% as other. Indianapolis_sentence_179

The remaining 2.8% of the population was reported as multiracial (two or more races). Indianapolis_sentence_180

The city's Hispanic or Latino community comprised 9.4% of the city's population in the 2010 U.S. Census: 6.9% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 2% as other. Indianapolis_sentence_181

As of 2010, the median age for Indianapolis was 33.7 years. Indianapolis_sentence_182

Age distribution for the city's inhabitants was 25% under the age of 18; 4.4% were between 18 and 21; 16.3% were age 21 to 65; and 13.1% were age 65 or older. Indianapolis_sentence_183

For every 100 females, there were 93 males. Indianapolis_sentence_184

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90 males. Indianapolis_sentence_185

The U.S. Census for 2010 reported 332,199 households in Indianapolis, with an average household size of 2.42 and an average family size of 3.08. Indianapolis_sentence_186

Of the total households, 59.3% were family households, with 28.2% of these including the family's own children under the age of 18; 36.5% were husband-wife families; 17.2% had a female householder (with no husband present) and 5.6% had a male householder (with no wife present). Indianapolis_sentence_187

The remaining 40.7% were non-family households. Indianapolis_sentence_188

As of 2010, 32% of the non-family households included individuals living alone, 8.3% of these households included individuals age 65 years of age or older. Indianapolis_sentence_189

The U.S. Census Bureau's 2007–2011 American Community Survey indicated the median household income for Indianapolis city was $42,704, and the median family income was $53,161. Indianapolis_sentence_190

Median income for males working full-time, year-round, was $42,101, compared to $34,788 for females. Indianapolis_sentence_191

Per capita income for the city was $24,430, 14.7% of families and 18.9% of the city's total population living below the poverty line (28.3% were under the age of 18 and 9.2% were age 65 or older). Indianapolis_sentence_192

As of 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the 18th highest percentage of LGBT residents in the U.S., with 4.2% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Indianapolis_sentence_193

In 2015, Brookings characterized the Indianapolis metropolitan area as a minor-emerging immigrant gateway with a foreign-born population of 126,767, or 6.4% of the total population, a 131% increase from 2000. Indianapolis_sentence_194

Much of this growth can be attributed to the 14,000 to 20,000 Burmese-Chin refugees that have settled in Indianapolis, particularly Perry Township, since the late-1990s. Indianapolis_sentence_195

As of 2020, Indianapolis is home to one of the largest concentrations of Chin people outside of Myanmar (formerly Burma). Indianapolis_sentence_196

Religion Indianapolis_section_12

Of the 42.42% of the city's residents who identify as religious, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, at 11.31%. Indianapolis_sentence_197

The second highest religious group in the city are Baptists at 10.31%, with Methodists following behind at 4.97%. Indianapolis_sentence_198

Presbyterians make up 2.13% of the city's religiously affiliated population, followed by Pentecostals and Lutherans. Indianapolis_sentence_199

Another 8.57% are affiliated with other Christian faiths. Indianapolis_sentence_200

0.32% of religiously affiliated persons identified themselves as following Eastern religions, while 0.68% of the religiously affiliated population identified as Jewish, and 0.29% as Muslim. Indianapolis_sentence_201

According to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute's American Values Atlas, 22% of residents identify as religiously "unaffiliated," consistent with the national average of 22.7%. Indianapolis_sentence_202

Indianapolis is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_203

Joseph W. Tobin, C.Ss.R. Indianapolis_sentence_204

, served as archbishop from 2012 to 2017 and was elevated to cardinal in November 2016. Indianapolis_sentence_205

On June 13, 2017, Pope Francis announced Charles C. Thompson would replace Tobin, who was reassigned to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark in January 2017. Indianapolis_sentence_206

The archdiocese also operates Bishop Simon Bruté College Seminary, affiliated with Marian University, while the Christian Theological Seminary is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Indianapolis_sentence_207

Indianapolis is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Indianapolis, based from Christ Church Cathedral. Indianapolis_sentence_208

The Indiana-Kentucky Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Indiana Conference of the United Methodist Church are also based in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_209

Economy Indianapolis_section_13

In 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $134 billion. Indianapolis_sentence_210

The top five industries were: finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing ($30.7B), manufacturing ($30.1B), professional and business services ($14.3B), educational services, health care, and social assistance ($10.8B), and wholesale trade ($8.1B). Indianapolis_sentence_211

Government, if it had been a private industry, would have ranked fifth, generating $10.2 billion. Indianapolis_sentence_212

Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing. Indianapolis_sentence_213

The city's major exports include pharmaceuticals, motor vehicle parts, medical equipment and supplies, engine and power equipment, and aircraft products and parts. Indianapolis_sentence_214

According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the region's unemployment rate was 2.8 percent in May 2019. Indianapolis_sentence_215

As of 2020, three Fortune 500 companies were based in the city: health insurance company Anthem Inc. (33); pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly (123); and Simon Property Group (496), the largest real estate investment trust in the U.S. Columbus, Indiana-based Cummins (128) opened its Global Distribution Headquarters in downtown Indianapolis in 2017. Indianapolis_sentence_216

The city is home to three Fortune 1000 companies: hydrocarbon manufacturer Calumet Specialty Products Partners (604); automotive transmission manufacturer Allison Transmission (890); and retailer Finish Line (972). Indianapolis_sentence_217

Other companies based in the Indianapolis metropolitan area include: real estate investment trust Duke Realty; media conglomerate Emmis Communications; retailer Lids; financial services holding company OneAmerica; airline holding company Republic Airways; contract research corporation Envigo; and fast food chains Noble Roman's and Steak 'n Shake. Indianapolis_sentence_218

Like many Midwestern cities, recent deindustrialization trends have had a significant impact on the local economy. Indianapolis_sentence_219

Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing in the early 20th century. Indianapolis_sentence_220

Between 1990 and 2012, approximately 26,900 manufacturing jobs were lost in the city, including the automotive plant closures of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors. Indianapolis_sentence_221

In 2016, Carrier Corporation announced the closure of its Indianapolis plant, moving 1,400 manufacturing jobs to Mexico. Indianapolis_sentence_222

Since 1915, Rolls-Royce Holdings has had operations in Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_223

It is the third largest manufacturing employer and thirteenth largest employer overall in the city, with a workforce of 4,300 in aircraft engine development and manufacturing. Indianapolis_sentence_224

Biotechnology, life sciences, and healthcare are major sectors of Indianapolis's economy. Indianapolis_sentence_225

As of 2016, Eli Lilly and Company was the largest private employer in the city, with more than 11,000 workers. Indianapolis_sentence_226

Other notable life sciences employers include Corteva, Covance, and Roche Diagnostics. Indianapolis_sentence_227

A 2014 report by the Battelle Memorial Institute and Biotechnology Industry Organization indicated that the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson MSA was the only U.S. metropolitan area to have specialized employment concentrations in all five bioscience sectors evaluated in the study: agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices and equipment; and research, testing, and medical laboratories. Indianapolis_sentence_228

The regional healthcare providers of Community Health Network, Eskenazi Health, Franciscan Health, Indiana University Health, and St. Indianapolis_sentence_229

Vincent Health have a combined workforce of 43,700. Indianapolis_sentence_230

The city's central location and extensive highway and rail infrastructure have positioned Indianapolis as an important logistics center, home to 1,500 distribution firms employing some 100,000 workers. Indianapolis_sentence_231

As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, Indianapolis International Airport ranks as the sixth busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo transport, handling over 1 million tons and employing 6,600 in 2015. Indianapolis_sentence_232

Indianapolis is a hub for CSX Transportation, home to its division headquarters, an intermodal terminal, and classification yard (in the suburb of Avon). Indianapolis_sentence_233

Amtrak's Beech Grove Shops, in the enclave of Beech Grove, serve as its primary heavy maintenance and overhaul facility, while the Indianapolis Distribution Center is the company's largest material and supply terminal. Indianapolis_sentence_234

The hospitality industry is an increasingly vital sector to the Indianapolis economy. Indianapolis_sentence_235

According to Visit Indy, 28.8 million visitors generated $5.4 billion in 2017, the seventh straight year of record growth. Indianapolis_sentence_236

Indianapolis has long been a sports tourism destination, but has more recently relied on conventions. Indianapolis_sentence_237

The Indiana Convention Center (ICC) and Lucas Oil Stadium are considered mega convention center facilities, with a combined 750,000 square feet (70,000 m) of exhibition space. Indianapolis_sentence_238

ICC is connected to 12 hotels and 4,700 hotel rooms, the most of any U.S. convention center. Indianapolis_sentence_239

Since 2003, Indianapolis has hosted Gen Con, one of the largest gaming conventions in North America. Indianapolis_sentence_240

According to real estate tracking firm CBRE Group, Indianapolis ranks among the fastest high-tech job growth areas in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_241

The metropolitan area is home to 28,500 information technology-related jobs at such companies as Angie's List, Appirio, Formstack, Genesys, Hubstaff, Infosys, Ingram Micro, and Salesforce Marketing Cloud. Indianapolis_sentence_242

Major shopping malls in the city include Castleton Square, Circle Centre, The Fashion Mall at Keystone, Glendale Town Center, Lafayette Square, and Washington Square. Indianapolis_sentence_243

Culture Indianapolis_section_14

Visual arts Indianapolis_section_15

See also: List of public art in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_244

Founded in 1883, the Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) is the ninth oldest and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_245

The permanent collection has over 54,000 works, including African, American, Asian, and European pieces. Indianapolis_sentence_246

In addition to its collections, the Newfields campus consists of The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park: 100 Acres; Oldfields, a restored house museum and estate once owned by Josiah K. Lilly, Jr.; and restored gardens and grounds originally designed by Percival Gallagher of the Olmsted Brothers firm. Indianapolis_sentence_247

The IMA also owns the Miller House, a Mid-century modern home designed by Eero Saarinen in Columbus, Indiana. Indianapolis_sentence_248

The museum's holdings demonstrate the institution's emphasis on the connections among art, design, and the natural environment. Indianapolis_sentence_249

The Indianapolis Art Center, in Broad Ripple Village, was founded in 1934 by the Works Project Administration. Indianapolis_sentence_250

The center opened at its Michael Graves-designed building in 1996, including three public art galleries, 11 studios, a library, and auditorium. Indianapolis_sentence_251

Opened in 2005, the center's ARTSPARK sculpture garden covers 12.5 acres (5.1 ha) along the White River. Indianapolis_sentence_252

Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art opened in 1989 at White River State Park as the only Native American art museum in the Midwest. Indianapolis_sentence_253

IUPUI contains the Herron School of Art and Design. Indianapolis_sentence_254

Established in 1902, the school's first core faculty included Impressionist painters of the Hoosier Group: T. Indianapolis_sentence_255

C. Steele, J. Indianapolis_sentence_256

Ottis Adams, William Forsyth, Richard Gruelle, and Otto Stark. Indianapolis_sentence_257

The university's public art collection is extensive, with more than 30 works. Indianapolis_sentence_258

Other public works can be found in the Eskenazi Health Art Collection and the Indiana Statehouse Public Art Collection. Indianapolis_sentence_259

Performing arts Indianapolis_section_16

Most of Indianapolis's notable performing arts venues are in the Mass Ave cultural district and other locations in the downtown area. Indianapolis_sentence_260

The Indiana Theatre opened as a movie palace on Washington Street in 1927 and houses the Indiana Repertory Theatre, a regional repertory theatre. Indianapolis_sentence_261

Located on Monument Circle since 1916, the 1,786-seat Hilbert Circle Theatre is the home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra (ISO). Indianapolis_sentence_262

Founded in 1930, the ISO performed 180 concerts to over 275,000 guests during the 2015–2016 season, generating a record $8.5 million in ticket sales. Indianapolis_sentence_263

The Indianapolis Opera, founded in 1975, maintains a collaborative relationship with the ISO. Indianapolis_sentence_264

The nonprofit Phoenix Theatre, which opened a new Cultural Centre in 2018, focuses on contemporary theatrical productions. Indianapolis_sentence_265

In 1927, Madam Walker Legacy Center opened in the heart of the city's African-American neighborhood on Indiana Avenue. Indianapolis_sentence_266

The theater is named for Sarah Breedlove, or Madam C. J. Walker, an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist who began her beauty empire in Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_267

Indiana Avenue was home to a notable jazz scene from the 1920s through the 1960s, producing greats such as David Baker, Slide Hampton, Freddie Hubbard, J. Indianapolis_sentence_268

J. Johnson, James Spaulding, and the Montgomery Brothers (Buddy, Monk, and Wes). Indianapolis_sentence_269

Wes Montgomery is considered one of the most influential jazz guitarists of all time, and is credited with popularizing the "Naptown Sound." Indianapolis_sentence_270

Mass Ave is home to the Old National Centre and the Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus). Indianapolis_sentence_271

Old National Centre at the Murat Shrine is the oldest stage house in Indianapolis, opened in 1909. Indianapolis_sentence_272

The building is a prime example of Moorish Revival architecture and features a 2,600-seat performing arts theatre, 1,800-seat concert hall, and 600-seat multi-functional room, hosting approximately 300 public and private events throughout the year. Indianapolis_sentence_273

The Athenæum, houses the American Cabaret Theater and Young Actors Theater. Indianapolis_sentence_274

Other notable venues include the Indianapolis Artsgarden, a performing arts center suspended over the intersection of Washington and Illinois streets, Clowes Memorial Hall on the Butler University campus, Melody Inn in Butler-Tarkington, Rivoli Theater, The Vogue in Broad Ripple, and The Emerson Theater in Little Flower. Indianapolis_sentence_275

Indianapolis is home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands, and the headquarters for Drum Corps International (DCI), a professional drum and bugle corps association. Indianapolis_sentence_276

Annual music events include the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Midwest Music Summit, and Indy Jazz Fest. Indianapolis_sentence_277

The Heartland Film Festival, Indianapolis International Film Festival, Indianapolis Jewish Film Festival, Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival, and the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival are annual events held in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_278

Literature Indianapolis_section_17

Indianapolis was at the center of the Golden Age of Indiana Literature from 1870 to 1920. Indianapolis_sentence_279

Several notable poets and writers based in the city achieved national prominence and critical acclaim during this period, including James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington, and Meredith Nicholson. Indianapolis_sentence_280

In A History of Indiana Literature, Arthur W. Shumaker remarked on the era's influence: "It was the age of famous men and their famous books. Indianapolis_sentence_281

In it Indiana, and particularly Indianapolis, became a literary center which in many ways rivaled the East." Indianapolis_sentence_282

A 1947 study found that Indiana authors ranked second to New York in the number of bestsellers produced in the previous 40 years. Indianapolis_sentence_283

Located in Lockerbie Square, the James Whitcomb Riley Museum Home has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962. Indianapolis_sentence_284

Perhaps the city's most acclaimed twentieth century writer was Kurt Vonnegut, known for his darkly satirical and controversial bestselling novel Slaughterhouse-Five. Indianapolis_sentence_285

The Kurt Vonnegut Museum and Library opened in 2010 downtown. Indianapolis_sentence_286

Vonnegut became known for including at least one character in his novels from Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_287

Upon returning to the city in 1986, Vonnegut acknowledged the influence the city had on his writings: Indianapolis_sentence_288

A key figure of the Black Arts Movement, Indianapolis resident Mari Evans was among the most influential of the twentieth century's black poets. Indianapolis_sentence_289

Indianapolis is home to bestselling young adult fiction writer John Green, known for his critically acclaimed 2012 novel The Fault in Our Stars, set in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_290

Attractions and events Indianapolis_section_18

Main article: Tourism in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_291

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis is the largest of its kind in the world, offering 433,000 square feet (40,227.02 m) of exhibit space. Indianapolis_sentence_292

The museum holds a collection of over 120,000 artifacts, including the Broad Ripple Park Carousel, a National Historic Landmark. Indianapolis_sentence_293

Because of its leadership and innovations, the museum is a world leader in its field. Indianapolis_sentence_294

Child and Parents magazine have both ranked the museum as the best children's museum in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_295

The museum is one of the city's most popular attractions, with 1.2 million visitors in 2014. Indianapolis_sentence_296

The Indianapolis Zoo is home to nearly 1,400 animals of 214 species and 31,000 plants, including many threatened and endangered species. Indianapolis_sentence_297

The zoo is a leader in animal conservation and research, recognized for its biennial Indianapolis Prize designation. Indianapolis_sentence_298

It is the only American zoo accredited as a zoo, aquarium, and zoological garden by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Indianapolis_sentence_299

It is the largest privately funded zoo in the U.S. and one of the city's most visited attractions, with 1.2 million guests in 2014. Indianapolis_sentence_300

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum exhibits an extensive collection of auto racing memorabilia showcasing various motorsports and automotive history. Indianapolis_sentence_301

The museum is the permanent home of the Borg-Warner Trophy, presented to Indianapolis 500 winners. Indianapolis_sentence_302

Daily grounds and track tours are also based at the museum. Indianapolis_sentence_303

The NCAA Hall of Champions opened in 2000 at White River State Park housing collegiate athletic artifacts and interactive exhibits covering all 23 NCAA-sanctioned sports. Indianapolis_sentence_304

Indianapolis is home to several centers commemorating Indiana history. Indianapolis_sentence_305

These include the Indiana Historical Society, Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau, Indiana State Museum, and Indiana Medical History Museum. Indianapolis_sentence_306

Indiana Landmarks, the largest private statewide historic preservation organization in the U.S., is also in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_307

The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, in the Old Northside Historic District, is open for daily tours and includes archives and memorabilia from the 23rd President of the United States. Indianapolis_sentence_308

President Harrison is buried about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the site at Crown Hill Cemetery, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Indianapolis_sentence_309

Other notable graves include three U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_310

Vice Presidents and notorious American gangster, John Dillinger. Indianapolis_sentence_311

Two museums and several memorials in the city commemorate armed forces or conflict, including the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum at the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and Indiana World War Memorial Military Museum at the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. Indianapolis_sentence_312

Outside of Washington, D.C., Indianapolis contains the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the nation. Indianapolis_sentence_313

Other notable sites are the Crown Hill National Cemetery, Indiana 9/11 Memorial, Medal of Honor Memorial, and the USS Indianapolis National Memorial. Indianapolis_sentence_314

Nearly 1.5 miles (2.4 km) of the former Indiana Central Canal—now known as the Canal Walk—link several downtown museums, memorials, and public art pieces. Indianapolis_sentence_315

Flanked by walking and bicycling paths, the Canal Walk also offers gondola rides, pedal boat, kayak, and surrey rentals. Indianapolis_sentence_316

The Indiana Central Canal has been recognized by the American Water Works Association as an American Water Landmark since 1971. Indianapolis_sentence_317

Indianapolis is home to dozens of annual festivals and events showcasing local culture. Indianapolis_sentence_318

The "Month of May" (a series of celebrations leading to the Indianapolis 500) is perhaps the largest annual celebration in the city, with the 500 Festival Parade regularly drawing 300,000 spectators. Indianapolis_sentence_319

Other notable events include Indiana Black Expo, Indiana State Fair, Indy Pride Festival, and Historic Irvington Halloween Festival. Indianapolis_sentence_320

Cuisine Indianapolis_section_19

Indianapolis has an emerging food scene as well as established eateries. Indianapolis_sentence_321

Founded in 1821 as the city's public market, the Indianapolis City Market has served the community from its current building since 1886. Indianapolis_sentence_322

Prior to World War II, the City Market and neighboring Tomlinson Hall (since demolished) were home to meat and vegetable vendors. Indianapolis_sentence_323

As consumer habits evolved and residents moved from the central city, the City Market transitioned from a traditional marketplace to a food court, a function it retains today. Indianapolis_sentence_324

Situated in the Corn Belt, Indianapolis has maintained close ties to farming and food production. Indianapolis_sentence_325

Urban agriculture in the city dates to the 1930s, when non-profit organization Flanner House began teaching Black arrivals how to farm on vacant lots during the Great Migration. Indianapolis_sentence_326

Within a few years, more than 200 families were tending 600 garden plots on nearly 100 acres (40 ha) of urban land on the city's near north side. Indianapolis_sentence_327

Urban agriculture has made a comeback in recent years in an effort to alleviate food deserts. Indianapolis_sentence_328

In 2018, the Indy Food Council reported a 272% increase in the number of community and urban gardens between 2011 and 2016. Indianapolis_sentence_329

As of 2020, several farmers' markets have been established throughout Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_330

Distinctive local dishes include pork tenderloin sandwiches and sugar cream pie, the latter being the unofficial state pie of Indiana. Indianapolis_sentence_331

The beef Manhattan, invented in Indianapolis, can also be found on restaurant menus throughout the city and region. Indianapolis_sentence_332

Opened in 1902, St. Indianapolis_sentence_333

Elmo Steak House is well known for its signature shrimp cocktail, named by the Travel Channel as the "world's spiciest food". Indianapolis_sentence_334

In 2012, it was recognized by the James Beard Foundation as one of "America's Classics". Indianapolis_sentence_335

The Slippery Noodle Inn, a blues bar and restaurant, is the oldest continuously operating tavern in Indiana, having opened in 1850. Indianapolis_sentence_336

The Jazz Kitchen, opened in 1994, was recognized in 2011 by OpenTable as one the "top 50 late night dining hotspots" in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_337

In 2016, Condé Nast Traveler named Indianapolis the "most underrated food city in the U.S.," while ranking Milktooth as one of the best restaurants in the world. Indianapolis_sentence_338

Food & Wine called Indianapolis the "rising star of the Midwest," recognizing Milktooth, Rook, Amelia's, and Bluebeard, all in Fletcher Place. Indianapolis_sentence_339

Several Indianapolis chefs and restaurateurs have been semifinalists in the James Beard Foundation Awards in recent years. Indianapolis_sentence_340

Microbreweries are quickly becoming a staple in the city, increasing fivefold since 2009. Indianapolis_sentence_341

There are now about 50 craft brewers in Indianapolis, with Sun King Brewing being the largest. Indianapolis_sentence_342

For some time, Indianapolis was known as the "100 Percent American City" for its racial and ethnic homogeneity. Indianapolis_sentence_343

Historically, these factors, as well as low taxes and wages, provided chain restaurants a relatively stable market to test dining preferences before expanding nationwide. Indianapolis_sentence_344

As a result, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the highest concentration of chain restaurants per capita of any market in the U.S. in 2008, with one chain restaurant for every 1,459 people—44% higher than the national average. Indianapolis_sentence_345

In recent years, immigrants have opened some 800 ethnic restaurants. Indianapolis_sentence_346

Sports Indianapolis_section_20

Main article: Sports in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_347

Two major league sports teams are based in Indianapolis: the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL) and the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Indianapolis_sentence_348

Originally the Baltimore Colts, the franchise has been based in Indianapolis since relocating in 1984. Indianapolis_sentence_349

The Colts' tenure in Indianapolis has produced 11 division championships, two conference championships, and two Super Bowl appearances. Indianapolis_sentence_350

Quarterback Peyton Manning led the team to win Super Bowl XLI in the 2006 NFL season. Indianapolis_sentence_351

Lucas Oil Stadium replaced the team's first home, the RCA Dome, in 2008. Indianapolis_sentence_352

Founded in 1967, the Indiana Pacers began in the American Basketball Association (ABA), joining the NBA when the leagues merged in 1976. Indianapolis_sentence_353

Prior to joining the NBA, the Pacers won three division titles and three championships (1970, 1972, 1973). Indianapolis_sentence_354

Since the merger, the Pacers have won one conference title and six division titles, most recently in 2014. Indianapolis_sentence_355

Founded in 2000, the Indiana Fever of the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) have won three conference titles and one championship in 2012. Indianapolis_sentence_356

The Fever and Pacers share Bankers Life Fieldhouse, which replaced Market Square Arena in 1999. Indianapolis_sentence_357

The Indianapolis Indians of the International League (AAA) is the second oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball, established in 1902. Indianapolis_sentence_358

The Indians have won 25 division titles, 14 league titles, and seven championships, most recently in 2000. Indianapolis_sentence_359

Since 1996, the team has played at Victory Field, which replaced Bush Stadium. Indianapolis_sentence_360

Of the 160 teams comprising Minor League Baseball, the Indians had the highest attendance during the 2016 season. Indianapolis_sentence_361

Established in 2013, Indy Eleven of the United Soccer League (USL) plays from Lucas Oil Stadium. Indianapolis_sentence_362

Indy Fuel of the ECHL was founded in 2014 and plays from Indiana Farmers Coliseum. Indianapolis_sentence_363

Butler University and IUPUI are NCAA Division I schools based in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_364

The Butler Bulldogs compete in the Big East Conference, except for Butler Bulldogs football, which plays in the Pioneer Football League FCS. Indianapolis_sentence_365

The Butler Bulldogs men's basketball team were runners-up in the 2010 and 2011 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship Games. Indianapolis_sentence_366

The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the Horizon League. Indianapolis_sentence_367

Traditionally, Indianapolis's Hinkle Fieldhouse was the hub for Hoosier Hysteria, a general excitement for the game of basketball throughout the state, specifically the Indiana High School Boys Basketball Tournament. Indianapolis_sentence_368

Hinkle, a National Historic Landmark, was opened in 1928 as the world's largest basketball arena, with seating for 15,000. Indianapolis_sentence_369

It is regarded as "Indiana's Basketball Cathedral". Indianapolis_sentence_370

Perhaps the most notable game was the 1954 state championship, which inspired the critically acclaimed 1986 film, Hoosiers. Indianapolis_sentence_371

Indianapolis has been called the "Amateur Sports Capital of the World". Indianapolis_sentence_372

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, and the National Federation of State High School Associations are based in Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_373

The city is home to three NCAA athletic conferences: the Horizon League (Division I); the Great Lakes Valley Conference (Division II); and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (Division III). Indianapolis_sentence_374

Indianapolis is also home to three national sport governing bodies, as recognized by the United States Olympic Committee: USA Gymnastics; USA Diving; and USA Track & Field. Indianapolis_sentence_375

Indianapolis hosts numerous sporting events annually, including the Circle City Classic (1983–present), NFL Scouting Combine (1987–present), and Big Ten Football Championship Game (2011–present). Indianapolis_sentence_376

Indianapolis is tied with New York City for having hosted the second most NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championships (1980, 1991, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015). Indianapolis_sentence_377

The city will host the men's Final Four next in 2021. Indianapolis_sentence_378

The city has also hosted three NCAA Women's Division I Basketball Championships (2005, 2011, and 2016). Indianapolis_sentence_379

Notable past events include the NBA All-Star Game (1985), Pan American Games X (1987), US Open Series Indianapolis Tennis Championships (1988–2009), World Artistic Gymnastics Championships (1991), WrestleMania VIII (1992), World Rowing Championships (1994), World Police and Fire Games (2001), FIBA Basketball World Cup (2002), and Super Bowl XLVI (2012). Indianapolis_sentence_380

Indianapolis is home to the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, the largest half marathon and seventh largest running event in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_381

The mini-marathon is held the first weekend of May as part of the 500 Festival, leading up to the Indianapolis 500. Indianapolis_sentence_382

As of 2013, it had sold out for 12 consecutive years, with 35,000 participants. Indianapolis_sentence_383

Held in autumn, the Monumental Marathon is also among the largest in the U.S., with nearly 14,000 entrants in 2015. Indianapolis_sentence_384

Motorsports Indianapolis_section_21

Indianapolis is a major center for motorsports. Indianapolis_sentence_385

Two auto racing sanctioning bodies are headquartered in the city (INDYCAR and United States Auto Club) along with more than 500 motorsports companies and racing teams, employing some 10,000 people in the region. Indianapolis_sentence_386

Indianapolis is a metonym for auto racing, having inspired the name "Indy car," used for both the competition and type of car used in it. Indianapolis_sentence_387

Since 1911, Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS) (in the enclave of Speedway, Indiana) has been the site of the Indianapolis 500, an open-wheel automobile race held annually on Memorial Day weekend. Indianapolis_sentence_388

Considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, the Indianapolis 500 is the world's largest single-day sporting event, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats. Indianapolis_sentence_389

Since 1994, IMS has hosted one of NASCAR's highest attended events, the Monster Energy Cup Series Brickyard 400. Indianapolis_sentence_390

IMS has also hosted the NASCAR Xfinity Series Lilly Diabetes 250 since 2012 and the IndyCar Series Grand Prix of Indianapolis since 2014. Indianapolis_sentence_391

From 2000 to 2007, the circuit hosted Formula One at the facility's road course. Indianapolis_sentence_392

Lucas Oil Raceway, in nearby Brownsburg, is home to the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_393

Nationals, the most prestigious drag racing event in the world, held annually each Labor Day weekend. Indianapolis_sentence_394

Parks and recreation Indianapolis_section_22

See also: List of parks in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_395

Indy Parks and Recreation maintains 211 parks covering 11,254 acres (4,554 ha), 127 playgrounds, 155 sports fields, 135 miles (217 km) of trails, 23 recreation and nature centers, 23 spraygrounds, 20 aquatic centers, 13 golf courses, and four dog parks. Indianapolis_sentence_396

The department also provides 2,400 programs and classes annually. Indianapolis_sentence_397

Military Park was established as the city's first state-owned park in 1852. Indianapolis_sentence_398

Garfield Park was the city's first municipally-owned public park, opening in 1876 as Southern Park. Indianapolis_sentence_399

By the 20th century, the city enlisted landscape architect George Kessler to conceive a framework for Indianapolis's modern parks system. Indianapolis_sentence_400

Kessler's 1909 Indianapolis Park and Boulevard Plan linked notable parks, such as Brookside, Ellenberger, and Garfield parks, with a system of parkways following the city's waterways. Indianapolis_sentence_401

In 2003, the system's 3,474 acres (1,406 ha) were added to the National Register of Historic Places. Indianapolis_sentence_402

Eagle Creek Park is the largest and most visited park in the city and ranks among the largest municipal parks in the U.S., covering 4,766 acres (1,929 ha). Indianapolis_sentence_403

Fishing, sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and swimming are popular activities at Eagle Creek Reservoir. Indianapolis_sentence_404

Two of Indiana's 25 state parks, Fort Harrison in Lawrence and White River in Indianapolis, are located in Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_405

Fort Harrison is managed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indianapolis_sentence_406

White River is owned and operated by the White River State Park Development Commission, a quasi-governmental agency. Indianapolis_sentence_407

Encompassing 250 acres (100 ha), White River is the city's major urban park, home to the Indianapolis Zoo, White River Gardens, and several museums. Indianapolis_sentence_408

Indianapolis lies about 50 miles (80 km) north of two state forests, Morgan–Monroe and Yellowwood, and one national forest, Hoosier. Indianapolis_sentence_409

Crown Hill Cemetery, the third largest private cemetery in the U.S., covers 555 acres (225 ha) on the city's north side and is home to more than 250 species of trees and shrubs comprising one of the largest old-growth forests in the Midwest. Indianapolis_sentence_410

Some recreational trails and greenways in the city include Pleasant Run Greenway and the Monon Trail. Indianapolis_sentence_411

The Monon is a popular rail trail and part of the United States Bicycle Route System, drawing some 1.3 million people annually. Indianapolis_sentence_412

The privately managed Indianapolis Cultural Trail provides 8 miles (13 km) of separated bike and pedestrian corridors linking Indianapolis cultural districts with surrounding urban neighborhoods. Indianapolis_sentence_413

According to the Trust for Public Land's 2017 ParkScore Index, Indianapolis tied for last with respect to public park accessibility of the 100 largest U.S. cities evaluated. Indianapolis_sentence_414

Some 68% of residents are underserved. Indianapolis_sentence_415

The city's large land area and low public funding contributed to the ranking. Indianapolis_sentence_416

Government and politics Indianapolis_section_23

Main article: Government of Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_417

See also: List of mayors of Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_418

Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government, a status it has held since 1970 under Indiana Code's Unigov provision. Indianapolis_sentence_419

Many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate. Indianapolis_sentence_420

The city has a strong mayor–council form of government. Indianapolis_sentence_421

The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_422

Joe Hogsett, a Democrat, is the 49th mayor of Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_423

The mayor appoints deputy mayors, department heads, and members of various boards and commissions. Indianapolis_sentence_424

City-County Council is the legislative body and consists of 25 members, all of whom represent geographic districts. Indianapolis_sentence_425

The council has the exclusive power to adopt budgets, levy taxes, and make appropriations. Indianapolis_sentence_426

It can also enact, repeal, or amend ordinances, and make appointments to certain boards and commissions. Indianapolis_sentence_427

According to Moody's, the city maintains a Aaa bond credit rating and an annual budget of $1.1 billion. Indianapolis_sentence_428

The judicial branch consists of a circuit court, a superior court with four divisions and 32 judges, and several small claims courts located in various townships. Indianapolis_sentence_429

The three branches, along with most local government departments, are based in the City-County Building. Indianapolis_sentence_430

As the state capital, Indianapolis is the seat of Indiana's state government. Indianapolis_sentence_431

The city has hosted the capital since its move from Corydon in 1825. Indianapolis_sentence_432

The Indiana Statehouse houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government, including the offices of the Governor of Indiana and Lieutenant Governor of Indiana, the Indiana General Assembly, and the Indiana Supreme Court. Indianapolis_sentence_433

Most state departments and agencies are in Indiana Government Centers North and South. Indianapolis_sentence_434

The Indiana Governor's Residence is on Meridian Street in the Butler–Tarkington neighborhood, about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of downtown. Indianapolis_sentence_435

Most of Indianapolis is within Indiana's 7th congressional district, represented by André Carson (D–Indianapolis), while the northern fifth is part of Indiana's 5th congressional district, represented by Susan Brooks (R–Carmel). Indianapolis_sentence_436

Federal field offices are in the Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse (which houses the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana) and the Minton-Capehart Federal Building, both downtown. Indianapolis_sentence_437

The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, an agency of the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_438

Department of Defense, is headquartered in nearby Lawrence. Indianapolis_sentence_439

Public safety Indianapolis_section_24

Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services is the largest provider of pre-hospital medical care in the city, with 357 emergency medical technicians and full-time paramedics responding to nearly 120,000 emergency dispatch calls annually. Indianapolis_sentence_440

The agency's coverage area excludes Decatur, Pike, and Wayne townships, and the town of Speedway. Indianapolis_sentence_441

The Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) provides fire protection services as the primary emergency response agency for 278 square miles (720 km) of Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_442

IFD provides automatic and mutual aid to the excluded municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, and Speedway, as well as Decatur, Pike, and Wayne townships which have retained their own fire departments. Indianapolis_sentence_443

The fire district comprises seven geographic battalions with 43 fire stations. Indianapolis_sentence_444

Some 1,200 firefighters respond to more than 161,000 incidents annually. Indianapolis_sentence_445

Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) is the primary law enforcement agency for the city of Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_446

IMPD's jurisdiction covers Marion County, with the exceptions of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, Speedway, and the Indianapolis International Airport, which is served by the Indianapolis Airport Authority Police Department. Indianapolis_sentence_447

IMPD was established in 2007 through a merger between the Indianapolis Police Department and the Marion County Sheriff's Office Law Enforcement Division. Indianapolis_sentence_448

The Marion County Sheriff's Office manages Marion County Jails I and II. Indianapolis_sentence_449

IMPD operates six precincts with 1,640 sworn police personnel and 200 civilian employees. Indianapolis_sentence_450

Crime Indianapolis_section_25

According to the FBI's 2017 Uniform Crime Report, Indianapolis recorded 1,333.96 violent crimes per 100,000 people. Indianapolis_sentence_451

Violent crimes include murder and non-negligent manslaughter, rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Indianapolis_sentence_452

In that same report, Indianapolis recorded 4,411.87 property crimes per 100,000 people. Indianapolis_sentence_453

Property crimes include burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Indianapolis_sentence_454

Until 2019, annual criminal homicide numbers had grown each year since 2011, reaching record highs from 2015 to 2018. Indianapolis_sentence_455

With 144 criminal homicides, 2015 surpassed 1998 as the year with the most murder investigations in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_456

With 159 criminal homicides, 2018 stands as the most violent year on record in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_457

FBI data showed a 7 percent increase in violent crimes committed in Indianapolis, outpacing the rest of the state and country. Indianapolis_sentence_458

Law enforcement has blamed increased violence on a combination of root causes, including poverty, substance abuse, mental illness, and availability of firearms. Indianapolis_sentence_459

Politics Indianapolis_section_26

Until fairly recently, Indianapolis was considered one of the most conservative major cities in the U.S. Republicans held the mayor's office for 32 years (1967–1999), and controlled the City-County Council from its inception in 1970 to 2003. Indianapolis_sentence_460

Since the early-2000s, the city's politics have gradually shifted more toward the Democrats. Indianapolis_sentence_461

As of 2014, the city is regarded as politically moderate. Indianapolis_sentence_462

Incumbent mayor Democrat Joe Hogsett faced Republican State Senator Jim Merritt and Libertarian Doug McNaughton in the 2019 Indianapolis mayoral election. Indianapolis_sentence_463

Hogsett was elected to a second term, with 72% of the vote. Indianapolis_sentence_464

The 2019 City-County Council elections expanded Democratic control of the council, flipping six seats to hold a 20–5 supermajority over Republicans. Indianapolis_sentence_465

Recent political issues of local concern have included cutting the city's structural deficit, planning and construction of a new criminal justice center, homelessness, streetlights, and improved mass transit and transportation infrastructure. Indianapolis_sentence_466

Education Indianapolis_section_27

See also: List of schools in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_467

Primary and secondary education Indianapolis_section_28

Nine K–12 public school districts serve Indianapolis residents, the largest being Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS). Indianapolis_sentence_468

The other eight public school districts are Franklin Township Community School Corporation, Metropolitan School District of Decatur Township, Metropolitan School District of Lawrence Township, Metropolitan School District of Pike Township, Metropolitan School District of Warren Township, Metropolitan School District of Washington Township, Metropolitan School District of Wayne Township, and Perry Township Schools. Indianapolis_sentence_469

IPS has an annual enrollment of about 32,000 students attending 59 schools. Indianapolis_sentence_470

In 2015, IPS began contracting with charter organizations and nonprofit school managers to operate failing district schools as innovation schools. Indianapolis_sentence_471

About 37% of IPS students are enrolled in 20 innovation schools, which are run independently but accountable to the Board of School Commissioners, with the remaining 63% of students attending 39 neighborhood or magnet schools. Indianapolis_sentence_472

About 18,000 students are enrolled in tuition-free Mayor-Sponsored Charter Schools (MSCS), as authorized by the Indianapolis Mayor's Office of Education Innovation and Indianapolis Charter School Board. Indianapolis_sentence_473

There are dozens of private, parochial, and independent charter schools operating throughout the city. Indianapolis_sentence_474

Higher education Indianapolis_section_29

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) was founded in 1969 after the branch campuses of Indiana University and Purdue University merged. Indianapolis_sentence_475

IUPUI is classified as an urban research university, containing 17 schools and enrolling about 30,000 students. Indianapolis_sentence_476

Notable schools include the Herron School of Art and Design, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, School of Dentistry, and the Indiana University School of Medicine, among the largest medical schools in the U.S. Public satellite campuses include Ball State University's R. Indianapolis_sentence_477

Wayne Estopinal College of Architecture and Planning, Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, and Vincennes University. Indianapolis_sentence_478

Private universities include Butler University, Marian University, Martin University, and the University of Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_479

Crossroads Bible College and Indiana Bible College are small Christian colleges based in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_480

Private satellite campuses include Grace College, Indiana Institute of Technology, and Indiana Wesleyan University. Indianapolis_sentence_481

Libraries Indianapolis_section_30

Founded in 1873, the Indianapolis Public Library includes Central Library and 24 branches throughout Marion County. Indianapolis_sentence_482

Central Library houses a number of special collections, including the Center for Black Literature & Culture, the Chris Gonzalez LGBT Collection, and the Nina Mason Pulliam Indianapolis Special Collections Room. Indianapolis_sentence_483

The public library serves about 280,000 cardholders with a circulation of nearly 10 million materials annually. Indianapolis_sentence_484

Media Indianapolis_section_31

Main article: Media in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_485

Indianapolis is served by various print media. Indianapolis_sentence_486

Founded in 1903, The Indianapolis Star is the city's daily morning newspaper. Indianapolis_sentence_487

The Star is owned by Gannett Company, with a daily circulation of 127,064. Indianapolis_sentence_488

The Indianapolis News was the city's daily evening newspaper and oldest print media, published from 1869 to 1999. Notable weeklies include NUVO, an alternative weekly newspaper, the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly newspaper serving the local African American community, the Indianapolis Business Journal, reporting on local real estate, and the Southside Times. Indianapolis_sentence_489

Indianapolis Monthly is the city's monthly lifestyle publication. Indianapolis_sentence_490

Broadcast television network affiliates include WTTV 4 (CBS), WRTV 6 (ABC), WISH-TV 8 (The CW), WTHR-TV 13 (NBC), WDNI-CD 19 (Telemundo), WFYI-TV 20 (PBS), WNDY-TV 23 (MyNetworkTV), WUDZ-LD 28 (Buzzr), WSDI-LD 30 (FNX), WHMB-TV 40 (Family), WCLJ-TV 42 (Ion Plus), WBXI-CD 47 (Start TV), WXIN-TV 59 (Fox), WIPX-TV 63 (Ion) and WDTI 69 (Daystar). Indianapolis_sentence_491

The majority of commercial radio stations in the city are owned by Cumulus Media, Emmis Communications, iHeartMedia, and Urban One. Indianapolis_sentence_492

Popular nationally syndicated radio program The Bob & Tom Show has been based at Indianapolis radio station WFBQ since 1983. Indianapolis_sentence_493

In 2019, the Indianapolis metropolitan area was the 25th largest television market and 39th largest radio market in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_494

Indianapolis natives Jane Pauley and David Letterman launched their broadcasting careers in local media, Pauley with WISH-TV and Letterman with WTHR-TV, respectively. Indianapolis_sentence_495

Motion pictures at least partially filmed in the city include Speedway, To Please a Lady, Winning, Hoosiers, Going All the Way, Eight Men Out, and Athlete A. Indianapolis_sentence_496

Television series set in Indianapolis have included One Day at a Time; Good Morning, Miss Bliss; Men Behaving Badly; Close to Home; the second season of anthology drama American Crime; and the web television limited series, Self Made. Indianapolis_sentence_497

Television series shot on location in the city include Cops and HGTV's Good Bones. Indianapolis_sentence_498

NBC's Parks and Recreation occasionally filmed in the city, including the eponymous episode "Indianapolis." Indianapolis_sentence_499

Transportation Indianapolis_section_32

Main article: Transportation in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_500

Indianapolis's transportation infrastructure comprises a complex network that includes a local public bus system, several private intercity bus providers, Amtrak passenger rail service via the Cardinal, 282 miles (454 km) of freight rail lines, an Interstate Highway System, two airports, a heliport, bikeshare system, 104 miles (167 km) of bike lanes, 34 miles (55 km) of multi-use paths, and 99 miles (159 km) of trails and greenways. Indianapolis_sentence_501

The city has also become known for its prevalence of electric scooters. Indianapolis_sentence_502

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 83.7% of working residents in the city commuted by driving alone, 8.4% carpooled, 1.5% used public transportation, and 1.8% walked. Indianapolis_sentence_503

About 1.5% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. Indianapolis_sentence_504

About 3.1% of working city residents worked at home. Indianapolis_sentence_505

In 2015, 10.5 percent of Indianapolis households lacked a car, which decreased to 8.7 percent in 2016, the same as the national average in that year. Indianapolis_sentence_506

Indianapolis averaged 1.63 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Indianapolis_sentence_507

Four Interstates intersect the city: Interstate 65, Interstate 69, Interstate 70, and Interstate 74. Indianapolis_sentence_508

Two auxiliary Interstate Highways are in the metropolitan area: a beltway (Interstate 465) and connector (Interstate 865). Indianapolis_sentence_509

A $3 billion expansion project to extend Interstate 69 from Evansville to Indianapolis is in progress. Indianapolis_sentence_510

The Indiana Department of Transportation manages all Interstates, U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_511

Highways, and Indiana State Roads within the city. Indianapolis_sentence_512

The city's Department of Public Works manages about 8,175 miles (13,156 km) of street, in addition to 540 bridges, alleys, sidewalks, and curbs. Indianapolis_sentence_513

Reliance on the automobile has affected the city's development patterns, with Walk Score ranking Indianapolis as one of the least walkable large cities in the U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_514

The city has enhanced bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in recent years, with some 104 miles (167 km) of on-street bike lanes, 34 miles (55 km) of multi-use paths, and 99 miles (159 km) of trails and greenways. Indianapolis_sentence_515

Indianapolis is designated a "Bronze Level" Bicycle Friendly Community by the League of American Bicyclists. Indianapolis_sentence_516

The Indianapolis Cultural Trail and BCycle launched Indiana Pacers Bikeshare in April 2014 as the city's bicycle-sharing system, consisting of 525 bicycles at 50 stations. Indianapolis_sentence_517

Lyft and Uber as well as taxicabs are available. Indianapolis_sentence_518

After negotiations with city officials, Bird and Lime electric scooter-sharing launched in September 2018. Indianapolis_sentence_519

Indianapolis International Airport (IND) sits on 7,700 acres (3,116 ha) approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of downtown Indianapolis. Indianapolis_sentence_520

IND is the busiest airport in the state, serving more than 9.4 million passengers annually. Indianapolis_sentence_521

Completed in 2008, the Colonel H. Weir Cook Terminal contains two concourses and 40 gates, connecting to 51 nonstop domestic and international destinations and averaging 145 daily departures. Indianapolis_sentence_522

As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, IND ranks among the ten busiest U.S. airports in terms of air cargo throughput. Indianapolis_sentence_523

The Indianapolis Airport Authority is a municipal corporation that oversees operations at five additional airports in the region, two of which are in Indianapolis: Eagle Creek Airpark (EYE), a relief airport for IND, and the Indianapolis Downtown Heliport (8A4). Indianapolis_sentence_524

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, branded as IndyGo, operates the city's public bus system. Indianapolis_sentence_525

In 2016, the Julia M. Carson Transit Center opened, the downtown hub for 27 of its 31 bus routes and operating 9.2 million passenger trips. Indianapolis_sentence_526

In 2017, City-County Council approved a voter referendum increasing Marion County's income tax to help fund IndyGo's first major system expansion since its founding in 1975. Indianapolis_sentence_527

The Marion County Transit Plan outlines proposed system improvements, including three bus rapid transit (BRT) lines, new buses, sidewalks, and bus shelters, extended hours and weekend schedules, and a 70% increase in service hours on all existing local routes. Indianapolis_sentence_528

Phase I of IndyGo's Red Line, the first of the three planned BRT lines, began service on September 1, 2019. Indianapolis_sentence_529

The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that organizes regional car and vanpools and operates three public workforce connectors from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown. Indianapolis_sentence_530

Amtrak provides intercity rail service to Indianapolis via Union Station, serving about 30,000 passengers in 2015. Indianapolis_sentence_531

The Cardinal makes three weekly trips between New York City and Chicago. Indianapolis_sentence_532

Several private intercity bus service providers stop in the city. Indianapolis_sentence_533

Greyhound Lines operates a bus terminal at Union Station and stop at Indianapolis International Airport's Ground Transportation Center. Indianapolis_sentence_534

Barons Bus Lines, Burlington Trailways, and Miller Transportation's Hoosier Ride also stop at Greyhound's Union Station bus terminal. Indianapolis_sentence_535

Megabus stops at the corner of North Alabama Street and East Market Street near the Indianapolis City Market. Indianapolis_sentence_536

GO Express Travel manages two shuttle services: GO Green Express between downtown Indianapolis and the Indianapolis International Airport and Campus Commute between IUPUI and Indiana University Bloomington. Indianapolis_sentence_537

OurBus began daily service between Indianapolis and Chicago, with stops in Zionsville and Lafayette, filling a gap left after Amtrak's Hoosier State was discontinued in July 2019. Indianapolis_sentence_538

Healthcare Indianapolis_section_33

See also: List of hospitals in Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_539

Health & Hospital Corporation of Marion County, a municipal corporation, was formed in 1951 to manage the city's public health facilities and programs, including the Marion County Public Health Department and Eskenazi Health. Indianapolis_sentence_540

Eskenazi Health's flagship medical center, the Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital, opened in 2013 after a $754 million project to replace Wishard Memorial Hospital. Indianapolis_sentence_541

The hospital includes an Adult Level I Trauma Center, 315 beds, and 275 exam rooms, annually serving about 1 million outpatients. Indianapolis_sentence_542

Opened in 1932, the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center is Indiana's tertiary referral hospital for former armed services personnel, treating more than 60,000 veterans annually. Indianapolis_sentence_543

Indiana University Health operates three medical centers in Indianapolis: University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, and Riley Hospital for Children. Indianapolis_sentence_544

The medical centers are anchored by the Indiana University School of Medicine's principal research and education campus, the largest allopathic medical school in the U.S. Riley Hospital for Children is among the nation's foremost pediatric health centers, recognized in all ten specialties by U.S. Indianapolis_sentence_545 News and World Report. Indianapolis_sentence_546

The 430-bed facility also contains Indiana's only Pediatric Level I Trauma Center. Indianapolis_sentence_547

In 2020, IU Health detailed plans to consolidate University and Methodist hospitals and replace Methodist with a new $1.6 billion medical center, to open in 2026. Indianapolis_sentence_548

Other private hospitals include Ascension St. Indianapolis_sentence_549 Vincent Indianapolis Hospital; Franciscan Health Indianapolis; and Community Health Network's Community Hospital East, Community Hospital North, and Community Hospital South. Indianapolis_sentence_550

Utilities Indianapolis_section_34

Electricity is provided by Indianapolis Power & Light (IPL), a subsidiary of AES Corporation. Indianapolis_sentence_551

Citizens Energy Group, the only public charitable trust formed to operate utilities in the U.S., provides residents with natural gas, water, wastewater, and thermal services. Indianapolis_sentence_552

Covanta Energy operates a waste-to-energy plant in the city, processing solid waste for steam production. Indianapolis_sentence_553

Steam is sold to Citizens' Perry K. Generating Station for the downtown Indianapolis district heating system, the second largest in the U.S. Indianapolis's water is supplied through four surface water treatment plants, drawing from the White River, Fall Creek, and Eagle Creek; and four pumping stations, providing water supply from groundwater aquifers. Indianapolis_sentence_554

Additional water supply is ensured by three reservoirs in the region. Indianapolis_sentence_555

A fourth reservoir near the northern suburb of Fishers will be completed in 2020. Indianapolis_sentence_556

Eleven solid waste districts are managed by one of three garbage collection providers: the city's Department of Public Works Solid Waste Division, Republic Services, and Waste Management. Indianapolis_sentence_557

Residential curbside recycling is a subscription service provided by Republic Services and Ray's Trash Service. Indianapolis_sentence_558

Recycling drop-off sites located throughout the city are provided free of charge by the Department of Public Works Solid Waste Division. Indianapolis_sentence_559

Notable people Indianapolis_section_35

Main article: List of people from Indianapolis Indianapolis_sentence_560

International relations Indianapolis_section_36

Sister cities Indianapolis_section_37

Indianapolis has seven sister cities and two friendship cities as designated by Sister Cities International. Indianapolis_sentence_561

The sister-city relationship with Scarborough, Ontario, Canada lasted from 1996 to 1998, ending when Scarborough was amalgamated into Toronto. Indianapolis_sentence_562

Charter sister cities Indianapolis_sentence_563

Indianapolis_unordered_list_0

Friendship cities Indianapolis_sentence_564

Indianapolis_unordered_list_1

Consulates Indianapolis_section_38

As of 2018, Indianapolis contains ten foreign consulates, serving Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Switzerland. Indianapolis_sentence_565

See also Indianapolis_section_39

Indianapolis_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indianapolis.