|Republic of Indonesia
Republik Indonesia (Indonesian)
|Regional languages||Over 700 languages|
|Ethnic groups||Over 600 ethnic groups|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Vice President||Ma'ruf Amin|
|DPR Speaker||Puan Maharani|
|Chief Justice||Muhammad Syarifuddin|
|Legislature||People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)|
|Upper house||Regional Representative Council (DPD)|
|Lower house||People's Representative Council (DPR)|
|Independence from the Netherlands|
|Proclaimed||17 August 1945|
|Recognition||27 December 1949|
|Land||1,904,569 km (735,358 sq mi) (14th)|
|2010 census||237,641,326 (4th)|
|Density||138/km (357.4/sq mi) (88th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|Total||$3.328 trillion (7th)|
|Per capita||$12,345 (95th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|Total||$1.089 trillion (15th)|
|Per capita||$4,038 (108th)|
high · 111th
|Currency||Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 to +9 (various)|
|Mains electricity||220 V–50 Hz|
|ISO 3166 code||ID|
Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia (listen)), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans.
Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.
Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.
A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.
The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Further information: Names of Indonesia
The name Indonesia derives from Greek words of (Ἰνδός) and nesos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands".
The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.
In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.
However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia; they preferred Malay Archipelago (Dutch: Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.
After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.
Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894.
The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Main article: History of Indonesia
Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE.
Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan.
They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east.
Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE.
The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE.
Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.
Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan.
This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.
Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century.
For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.
Main article: Dutch East Indies
Dutch and British traders followed.
In 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power for almost 200 years.
For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous.
Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java.
The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces.
Only in the early 20th century did the Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries.
Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president respectively.
The Netherlands attempted to re-establish their rule, and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949 when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure.
Despite extraordinary political, social and sectarian divisions, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence.
As president, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism and maintained power by balancing the opposing forces of the military, political Islam, and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).
Tensions between the military and the PKI culminated in an attempted coup in 1965.
The PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed.
Suharto capitalised on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968.
Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis.
It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency.
Since 1998, democratic processes have been strengthened by enhancing regional autonomy and instituting the country's first direct presidential election in 2004.
Political, economic and social instability, corruption, and instances of terrorism (the deadliest being the 2002 Bali bombings) remained problems in the 2000s; however, the economy has performed strongly in the last 15 years.
Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas.
It is the largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5,120 kilometres (3,181 mi) from east to west and 1,760 kilometres (1,094 mi) from north to south.
The country's Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs says Indonesia has 17,504 islands (with 16,056 registered at the UN) scattered over both sides of the equator, around 6,000 of which are inhabited.
Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia.
They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.
Main article: Climate of Indonesia
Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round.
For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between May and October with the wet season between November and April.
More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level.
The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round.
In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season.
Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season, and floods in the wet.
Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tend to be dry.
The almost uniformly warm waters that constitute 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that temperatures on land remain relatively constant.
Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%.
Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October, and from the northwest in November through March.
Main article: Geology of Indonesia
See also: Volcanoes of Indonesia
Tectonically, Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.
Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active.
Between 1972 and 1991, there were 29 volcanic eruptions, mostly on Java.
Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas.
However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali.
The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash which spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago, and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in 1816.
The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event.
Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.
Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.
Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.
The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia, and have a wealth of Asian fauna.
Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna.
Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.
Forests cover approximately 70% of the country.
However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture.
Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.
Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometres (50,000 miles) of coastline.
The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.
Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line.
In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.
The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.
Main article: Environment of Indonesia
Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues.
They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.
Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation (causing extensive haze across parts of Southeast Asia), over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services.
These issues contribute to Indonesia's low ranking (number 116 out of 180 countries) in the 2020 Environmental Performance Index.
The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context.
Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation.
While it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems.
This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases.
It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened, and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling, Sumatran orangutan, and Javan rhinoceros.
Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change.
These include unreduced emissions resulting in an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century.
It would raise the frequency of drought and food shortages (with an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, and thus Indonesia's agriculture system) as well as numerous diseases and wildfires.
Rising sea levels would also threaten the majority of Indonesia's population who lives in low-lying coastal areas.
Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change.
Government and politics
Main article: Politics of Indonesia
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system.
Following the fall of the New Order in 1998, political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches.
Chief among them is the delegation of power and authority to various regional entities while remaining a unitary state.
The President of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs.
The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.
The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR).
Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy.
The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch.
Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased its role in national governance, while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.
Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi).
The Supreme Court of Indonesia (Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews.
Other courts include the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) that listens to constitutional and political matters and the Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) that deals with codified Islamic Law (sharia) cases.
Additionally, the Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) monitors the performance of judges.
Parties and elections
Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system.
The 2019 elections resulted in nine political parties in the DPR, with a parliamentary threshold of 4% of the national vote.
The first general election was held in 1955 to elect members of the DPR and the Constitutional Assembly (Konstituante).
At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until 2004.
Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD.
Beginning with 2015 local elections, elections for governors and mayors have occurred on the same date.
In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that legislative and presidential elections are to be held simultaneously, starting in 2019.
Main article: Subdivisions of Indonesia
Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions.
The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status.
Each has a legislature (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) and an elected governor.
The third level is that of the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Papua, or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta), and the fourth is of the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh).
The village is the lowest level of government administration.
It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT).
In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW.
Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units, responsible for providing most government services.
The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village head (lurah or kepala desa).
A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia.
Yogyakarta is the only pre-colonial monarchy legally recognised in Indonesia, with the positions of governor and vice governor being prioritised for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Paku Alam, respectively.
Papua and West Papua are the only provinces where the indigenous people have privileges in their local government.
Jakarta is the only city granted a provincial government due to its position as the capital of Indonesia.
Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia
Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies.
The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries.
Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War.
Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union, and China to some degree, culminated in the 1965 coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy.
Quiet alignment with the Western world while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then.
In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine.
However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly.
It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal.
Indonesia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1966, and recently, the country established its first overseas aid program in late 2019.
The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel.
Defence spending in the national budget was 0.7% of GDP in 2018, with controversial involvement of military-owned commercial interests and foundations.
The Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia.
Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats.
The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which peaked during the New Order.
Political reforms in 1998 included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature.
Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level.
Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements.
The former was resolved peacefully in 2005, while the latter continues, amid a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses since 2004.
Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Konfrontasi to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the mass killings of PKI, and the invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation.
Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles.
Per capita GDP in PPP is US$14,020, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,120.
The debt ratio to GDP is 29.2%.
The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%).
Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%).
Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably.
Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency.
A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.
This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%.
As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%.
Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated.
The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that had a severe impact on the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and inflation reaching 78%.
The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth.
Relatively steady inflation and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years.
From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption, helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession, and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997.
As of 2019, 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%.
However, in late 2020, Indonesia fell into its first recession in 22 years due to the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic.
Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber.
These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities.
In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports.
China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners.
Main article: Transport in Indonesia
Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java.
All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive.
In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP.
The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 542,310 kilometres (336,980 miles) as of 2018.
Jakarta has the most extended bus rapid transit system in the world, boasting some 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes.
Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities.
In the late 2010s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future.
In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia.
Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port, handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic.
Main article: Energy in Indonesia
In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4,200 terawatt-hours (14.2 quadrillion British thermal units), and the 15th largest energy consumer, with 2,100 terawatt-hours (7.1 quadrillion British thermal units).
The country has substantial energy resources, including 22 billion barrels (3.5 billion cubic metres) of conventional oil and gas reserves (of which about 4 billion barrels are recoverable), 8 billion barrels of oil-equivalent of coal-based methane (CBM) resources, and 28 billion tonnes of recoverable coal.
While reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased, Indonesia has seen progress in renewable energy with hydropower being the most abundant source.
Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy.
Indonesia has set out to achieve 23% use of renewable energy by 2025 and 31% by 2050.
As of 2015, Indonesia's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 55,528.51 MW.
The earth-fill dam is 105 m (344 ft) high and withholds a reservoir of 3.0 billion m (2.4 million acre⋅ft).
It helps to supply water to Jakarta and to irrigate 240,000 ha (590,000 acres) of rice fields and has an installed capacity of 186.5 MW which feeds into the Java grid managed by the State Electricity Company (Perusahaan Listrik Negara, PLN).
Science and technology
Main article: Science and technology in Indonesia
Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0.1% of GDP (2017).
Historical examples of scientific and technological developments include the paddy cultivation technique terasering, which is common in Southeast Asia, and the pinisi boats by the Bugis and Makassar people.
In the 1980s, Indonesian engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption.
It later became widely used in several countries.
The country is also an active producer of passenger trains and freight wagons with its state-owned company, the Indonesian Railway Industry (INKA), and has exported trains abroad.
Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft.
With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (PT.
Former President B. played a vital role in this achievement. J. Habibie
Indonesia has a space programme and space agency, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, LAPAN).
The first satellite, PALAPA A1 was launched on 8 July 1976 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States.
As of 2019, Indonesia has launched 18 satellites for various purposes, and LAPAN has expressed a desire to put satellites in orbit with native launch vehicles by 2040.
Main article: Tourism in Indonesia
Tourism contributed around US$19.7 billion to GDP in 2019.
In 2018, Indonesia received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US$967.
China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia.
Since 2011, Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism.
Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism.
The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity.
Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rain forests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres).
Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve.
Moreover, Indonesia has one of the world's longest coastlines, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi).
Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands.
Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang, and the royal palaces of Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta.
Java is the world's most populous island, where 58% of the country's population lives.
The population density is 138 people per km (357 per sq mi), ranking 88th in the world, although Java has a population density of 1,067 people per km (2,435 per sq mi).
In 1961, the first post-colonial census recorded a total of 97 million people.
It is expected to grow to around 295 million by 2030 and 321 million by 2050.
The country currently possesses a relatively young population, with a median age of 30.2 years (2017 estimate).
As of 2017, about 54.7% of the population lives in urban areas.
About 8 million Indonesians live overseas; most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia.
Ethnic groups and languages
Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around 600 distinct native ethnic groups.
The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population, and are politically dominant.
They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also sizable numbers in most provinces.
A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.
It was promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in 1945.
As a result of centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences, including from Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, Hindi, Sanskrit, Chinese, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese and English.
Nearly every Indonesian speaks the language due to its widespread use in education, academics, communications, business, politics, and mass media.
Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than 700 local languages, often as their first language.
Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken.
Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today.
Despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status.
The small minorities that can speak it or Dutch-based creole languages fluently are the aforementioned ethnic groups and descendants of Dutch colonisers.
Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals, as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch.
Main article: Religion in Indonesia
While the constitution stipulates religious freedom, the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism; with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged.
Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country with 227 million adherents in 2017, with the majority being Sunnis (99%).
Almost 11% of Indonesians are Christians, while the rest are Hindus, Buddhists, and others.
They worshipped and revered ancestral spirit, and believed that supernatural spirits (hyang) might inhabit certain places such as large trees, stones, forests, mountains, or sacred sites.
They have had a significant impact on how other faiths are practised, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practising a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion.
Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE.
Buddhism arrived around the 6th century, and its history in Indonesia is closely related to that of Hinduism, as some empires based on Buddhism had its roots around the same period.
Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain to have a substantial influence on Indonesian culture.
For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences that resulted in a distinct form of Islam.
Trade, missionary works such as by the Wali Sanga and Chinese explorer Zheng He, and military campaigns by several sultanates helped accelerate the spread of the religion.
By the end of the 16th century, Islam had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of Java and Sumatra.
Its spread faced difficulty due to the VOC policy of banning the religion and the Dutch hostility due to the Eighty Years' War against Catholic Spain's rule.
Although they are the most common branch, there is a multitude of other denominations elsewhere in the country.
There was a sizable Jewish presence in the archipelago until 1945, mostly Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews.
Since most have left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mostly in Jakarta and Surabaya.
At the national and local level, Indonesia's political leadership and civil society groups have played a crucial role in interfaith relations, both positively and negatively.
The invocation of the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila (the belief in the one and only God) often serves as a reminder of religious tolerance, though instances of intolerance have occurred.
An overwhelming majority of Indonesians consider religion to be essential, and its role is present in almost all aspects of society, including politics, education, marriage, and public holidays.
Education and health
Education is compulsory for 12 years.
Parents can choose between state-run, non-sectarian schools or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools, supervised by the ministries of Education and Religion, respectively.
Private international schools that do not follow the national curriculum are also available.
The enrolment rate is 93% for primary education, 79% for secondary education, and 36% for tertiary education (2018).
The literacy rate is 96% (2018), and the government spends about 3.6% of GDP (2015) on education.
In 2018, there were more than 4,500 higher educational institutions in Indonesia, with the top universities (the University of Indonesia, Bandung Institute of Technology and Gadjah Mada University) and most others located in Java.
Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.3% of GDP in 2016.
As part of an attempt to achieve universal health care, the government launched the National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, JKN) in 2014.
It includes coverage for a range of services from the public and also private firms that have opted to join the scheme.
In recent decades, there have been remarkable improvements such as rising life expectancy (from 62.3 years in 1990 to 71.7 years in 2019) and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to 25.4 deaths in 2017).
Nevertheless, Indonesia continues to face challenges that include maternal and child health, low air quality, malnutrition, high rate of smoking, and infectious diseases.
Main article: Human rights in Indonesia
Nearly 80% of Indonesia's population lives in the western parts of the archipelago, but they are growing at a slower pace than the rest of the country.
This situation creates a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres (such as Sumatra and Java) and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas (such as Maluku and Papua).
LGBT issues in Indonesia has been relatively obscure.
However, in the 2010s (especially after 2016), a wave of anti-LGBT rhetoric has surged rapidly, putting LGBT Indonesians into a frequent subject of intimidation, discrimination, and even violence.
Main article: Culture of Indonesia
See also: Public holidays in Indonesia
The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia.
Influences from the Indian subcontinent, mainland China, the Middle East, Europe, and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious makeup of the archipelago.
As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures.
Indonesia currently holds ten items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage, including a wayang puppet theatre, kris, batik, pencak silat, angklung, and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance.
Art and architecture
Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and a recently developed contemporary art.
Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India, the Arab world, China and Europe, as a result of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade.
Painting is an established and developed art in Bali, where its people are famed for their artistry.
There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Indonesia.
Wood and stone are common materials used as the media for sculpting among these tribes.
Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation.
As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques.
The most dominant has traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant.
Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' (rumah adat) styles that have been developed.
The traditional houses and settlements in the country vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history.
Examples include Toraja's Tongkonan, Minangkabau's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak's longhouses, various Malay houses, Balinese houses and temples, and also different forms of rice barns (lumbung).
Music, dance and clothing
The music of Indonesia predates historical records.
Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals.
The diverse world of Indonesian music genres is the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences.
Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3,000 original dances.
Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship.
Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods.
Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture, as well as those of Japan and South Korea to some extent.
Various traditional dances, however, including those of Java, Bali and Dayak continue to be a living and dynamic tradition.
Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history.
The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions.
People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, and they vary from traditional to modern attire.
Theatre and cinema
Main article: Cinema of Indonesia
They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances.
It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story.
Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with their distinct style of drama.
Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society.
The first film produced in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng, a silent film by Dutch director L. Heuveldorp.
The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in 1949 rising to 58 in 1955.
Usmar Ismail, who made significant imprints in the 1950s and 1960s, is generally considered to be the pioneer of Indonesian films.
The latter part of the Sukarno era saw the use of cinema for nationalistic, anti-Western purposes, and foreign films were subsequently banned, while the New Order utilised a censorship code that aimed to maintain social order.
Production of films peaked during the 1980s, although it declined significantly in the next decade.
Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since 1998, where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love.
Between 2000 and 2005, the number of films released each year steadily increased.
(2002), and Laskar Pelangi (2008).
In 2016, Warkop DKI Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6.8 million tickets sold.
Indonesia has held annual film festivals and awards, including the Indonesian Film Festival (Festival Film Indonesia) that has been held intermittently since 1955.
It hands out the Citra Award, the film industry's most prestigious award.
From 1973 to 1992, the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in 2004.
Mass media and literature
Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media.
The television market includes several national commercial networks and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI, which held a monopoly on TV broadcasting from 1962 to 1989.
By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels.
Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes.
The number of printed publications has increased significantly since 1998.
Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early 1990s.
Its first commercial Internet service provider, PT.
Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in 1994.
The country had 171 million Internet users in 2018, with a penetration rate that keeps increasing annually.
Most are between the ages of 15 and 19 and depend primarily on mobile phones for access, outnumbering both laptops and computers.
The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.
Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.
Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition.
Literature and poetry flourished during the decades leading up to and after independence.
Balai Pustaka, the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in 1917 to promote the development of indigenous literature.
Many scholars consider the 1950s and 1960s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature.
The style and characteristics of modern Indonesian literature vary according to the dynamics of the country's political and social landscape, most notably the war of independence in the second half of the 1940s and the anti-communist mass killings in the mid-1960s.
Main article: Indonesian cuisine
Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour.
Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents.
Spices (notably chilli), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.
The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions.
Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling.
Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league.
Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in 1987, became one of the sporting events in the SEA Games, with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors.
In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the SEA Games ten times since 1977, most recently in 2011.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia.