Indonesia

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Indonesia_table_infobox_0

Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)Indonesia_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalIndonesia_header_cell_0_1_0 JakartaIndonesia_cell_0_1_1
Official languageIndonesia_header_cell_0_2_0 IndonesianIndonesia_cell_0_2_1
Regional languagesIndonesia_header_cell_0_3_0 Over 700 languagesIndonesia_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groupsIndonesia_header_cell_0_4_0 Over 600 ethnic groupsIndonesia_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2018)Indonesia_header_cell_0_5_0 Indonesia_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Indonesia_header_cell_0_6_0 IndonesianIndonesia_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentIndonesia_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary presidential constitutional republicIndonesia_cell_0_7_1
PresidentIndonesia_header_cell_0_8_0 Joko WidodoIndonesia_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentIndonesia_header_cell_0_9_0 Ma'ruf AminIndonesia_cell_0_9_1
DPR SpeakerIndonesia_header_cell_0_10_0 Puan MaharaniIndonesia_cell_0_10_1
Chief JusticeIndonesia_header_cell_0_11_0 Muhammad SyarifuddinIndonesia_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureIndonesia_header_cell_0_12_0 People's Consultative Assembly (MPR)Indonesia_cell_0_12_1
Upper houseIndonesia_header_cell_0_13_0 Regional Representative Council (DPD)Indonesia_cell_0_13_1
Lower houseIndonesia_header_cell_0_14_0 People's Representative Council (DPR)Indonesia_cell_0_14_1
Independence from the NetherlandsIndonesia_header_cell_0_15_0
ProclaimedIndonesia_header_cell_0_16_0 17 August 1945Indonesia_cell_0_16_1
RecognitionIndonesia_header_cell_0_17_0 27 December 1949Indonesia_cell_0_17_1
Area Indonesia_header_cell_0_18_0
LandIndonesia_header_cell_0_19_0 1,904,569 km (735,358 sq mi) (14th)Indonesia_cell_0_19_1
Water (%)Indonesia_header_cell_0_20_0 4.85Indonesia_cell_0_20_1
PopulationIndonesia_header_cell_0_21_0
2018 estimateIndonesia_header_cell_0_22_0 267,670,543Indonesia_cell_0_22_1
2010 censusIndonesia_header_cell_0_23_0 237,641,326 (4th)Indonesia_cell_0_23_1
DensityIndonesia_header_cell_0_24_0 138/km (357.4/sq mi) (88th)Indonesia_cell_0_24_1
GDP (PPP)Indonesia_header_cell_0_25_0 2020 estimateIndonesia_cell_0_25_1
TotalIndonesia_header_cell_0_26_0 $3.328 trillion (7th)Indonesia_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaIndonesia_header_cell_0_27_0 $12,345 (95th)Indonesia_cell_0_27_1
GDP (nominal)Indonesia_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateIndonesia_cell_0_28_1
TotalIndonesia_header_cell_0_29_0 $1.089 trillion (15th)Indonesia_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaIndonesia_header_cell_0_30_0 $4,038 (108th)Indonesia_cell_0_30_1
Gini (2018)Indonesia_header_cell_0_31_0 37.8

mediumIndonesia_cell_0_31_1

HDI (2018)Indonesia_header_cell_0_32_0 0.707

high · 111thIndonesia_cell_0_32_1

CurrencyIndonesia_header_cell_0_33_0 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) (IDR)Indonesia_cell_0_33_1
Time zoneIndonesia_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC+7 to +9 (various)Indonesia_cell_0_34_1
Date formatIndonesia_header_cell_0_35_0 DD/MM/YYYYIndonesia_cell_0_35_1
Mains electricityIndonesia_header_cell_0_36_0 220 V–50 HzIndonesia_cell_0_36_1
Driving sideIndonesia_header_cell_0_37_0 leftIndonesia_cell_0_37_1
Calling codeIndonesia_header_cell_0_38_0 +62Indonesia_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeIndonesia_header_cell_0_39_0 IDIndonesia_cell_0_39_1
Internet TLDIndonesia_header_cell_0_40_0 .idIndonesia_cell_0_40_1

Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia (listen)), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. Indonesia_sentence_0

It consists of more than seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (Papua). Indonesia_sentence_1

Indonesia is the world's largest island country and the 14th-largest country by land area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). Indonesia_sentence_2

With over 267 million people, it is the world's 4th-most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Indonesia_sentence_3

Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population. Indonesia_sentence_4

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. Indonesia_sentence_5

It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. Indonesia_sentence_6

The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. Indonesia_sentence_7

The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Indonesia_sentence_8

Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia_sentence_9

Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity. Indonesia_sentence_10

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Indonesia_sentence_11

Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesia_sentence_12

Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans introduced Christianity through colonisation. Indonesia_sentence_13

Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. Indonesia_sentence_14

The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century and the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. Indonesia_sentence_15

However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two. Indonesia_sentence_16

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one being the Javanese. Indonesia_sentence_17

A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia_sentence_18

The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. Indonesia_sentence_19

Indonesia is the only regional power in Southeast Asia and is considered a middle power in global affairs. Indonesia_sentence_20

The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Indonesia_sentence_21

Etymology Indonesia_section_0

Further information: Names of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_22

The name Indonesia derives from Greek words of (Ἰνδός) and nesos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands". Indonesia_sentence_23

The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_24

In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". Indonesia_sentence_25

In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. Indonesia_sentence_26

However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia; they preferred Malay Archipelago (Dutch: Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde. Indonesia_sentence_27

After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Indonesia_sentence_28

Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularized the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. Indonesia_sentence_29

The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau. Indonesia_sentence_30

History Indonesia_section_1

Main article: History of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_31

Early history Indonesia_section_2

Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Indonesia_sentence_32

Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE. Indonesia_sentence_33

Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan. Indonesia_sentence_34

They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east. Indonesia_sentence_35

Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. Indonesia_sentence_36

The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE. Indonesia_sentence_37

Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. Indonesia_sentence_38

From the seventh century CE, the Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism. Indonesia_sentence_39

Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. Indonesia_sentence_40

The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_41

This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history. Indonesia_sentence_42

The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Indonesia_sentence_43

Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. Indonesia_sentence_44

For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java. Indonesia_sentence_45

Colonial era Indonesia_section_3

Main article: Dutch East Indies Indonesia_sentence_46

The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolise the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in the Maluku Islands. Indonesia_sentence_47

Dutch and British traders followed. Indonesia_sentence_48

In 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power for almost 200 years. Indonesia_sentence_49

The VOC was dissolved in 1800 following bankruptcy, and the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalised colony. Indonesia_sentence_50

For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous. Indonesia_sentence_51

Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. Indonesia_sentence_52

The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces. Indonesia_sentence_53

Only in the early 20th century did the Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. Indonesia_sentence_54

The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule and encouraged the previously suppressed independence movement. Indonesia_sentence_55

Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president respectively. Indonesia_sentence_56

The Netherlands attempted to re-establish their rule, and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949 when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure. Indonesia_sentence_57

Despite extraordinary political, social and sectarian divisions, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence. Indonesia_sentence_58

Modern era Indonesia_section_4

As president, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism and maintained power by balancing the opposing forces of the military, political Islam, and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Indonesia_sentence_59

Tensions between the military and the PKI culminated in an attempted coup in 1965. Indonesia_sentence_60

The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered by instigating a violent anti-communist purge that killed between 500,000 and one million people. Indonesia_sentence_61

The PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed. Indonesia_sentence_62

Suharto capitalised on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968. Indonesia_sentence_63

His "New Order" administration, supported by the United States, encouraged foreign direct investment, which was a crucial factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. Indonesia_sentence_64

Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Indonesia_sentence_65

It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency. Indonesia_sentence_66

In 1999, East Timor seceded from Indonesia, following its 1975 invasion by Indonesia and a 25-year occupation that was marked by international condemnation of human rights abuses. Indonesia_sentence_67

Since 1998, democratic processes have been strengthened by enhancing regional autonomy and instituting the country's first direct presidential election in 2004. Indonesia_sentence_68

Political, economic and social instability, corruption, and instances of terrorism (the deadliest being the 2002 Bali bombings) remained problems in the 2000s; however, the economy has performed strongly in the last 15 years. Indonesia_sentence_69

Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas. Indonesia_sentence_70

A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005 following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 130,000 Indonesians. Indonesia_sentence_71

Geography Indonesia_section_5

Main articles: Geography of Indonesia and List of islands of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_72

Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. Indonesia_sentence_73

It is the largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5,120 kilometres (3,181 mi) from east to west and 1,760 kilometres (1,094 mi) from north to south. Indonesia_sentence_74

The country's Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs says Indonesia has 17,504 islands (with 16,056 registered at the UN) scattered over both sides of the equator, around 6,000 of which are inhabited. Indonesia_sentence_75

The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea). Indonesia_sentence_76

Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia. Indonesia_sentence_77

At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). Indonesia_sentence_78

Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guinea and include Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik and Mahakam. Indonesia_sentence_79

They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements. Indonesia_sentence_80

Climate Indonesia_section_6

Main article: Climate of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_81

Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round. Indonesia_sentence_82

Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter. Indonesia_sentence_83

For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between May and October with the wet season between November and April. Indonesia_sentence_84

Indonesia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every large island of Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_85

More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level. Indonesia_sentence_86

The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. Indonesia_sentence_87

In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season. Indonesia_sentence_88

Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season, and floods in the wet. Indonesia_sentence_89

Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tend to be dry. Indonesia_sentence_90

The almost uniformly warm waters that constitute 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that temperatures on land remain relatively constant. Indonesia_sentence_91

Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%. Indonesia_sentence_92

Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October, and from the northwest in November through March. Indonesia_sentence_93

Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners; significant dangers come from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits. Indonesia_sentence_94

Geology Indonesia_section_7

Main article: Geology of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_95

See also: Volcanoes of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_96

Tectonically, Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia_sentence_97

It lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire where the Indo-Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate where they melt at about 100 kilometres (62 miles) deep. Indonesia_sentence_98

A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and then to the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi. Indonesia_sentence_99

Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active. Indonesia_sentence_100

Between 1972 and 1991, there were 29 volcanic eruptions, mostly on Java. Indonesia_sentence_101

Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas. Indonesia_sentence_102

However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali. Indonesia_sentence_103

A massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BCE. Indonesia_sentence_104

It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate, and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate. Indonesia_sentence_105

The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. Indonesia_sentence_106

The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash which spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago, and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in 1816. Indonesia_sentence_107

The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event. Indonesia_sentence_108

Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake. Indonesia_sentence_109

Biodiversity Indonesia_section_8

Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_110

Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity. Indonesia_sentence_111

Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. Indonesia_sentence_112

The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia, and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Indonesia_sentence_113

Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Indonesia_sentence_114

Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna. Indonesia_sentence_115

Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species. Indonesia_sentence_116

Forests cover approximately 70% of the country. Indonesia_sentence_117

However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Indonesia_sentence_118

Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic. Indonesia_sentence_119

Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometres (50,000 miles) of coastline. Indonesia_sentence_120

The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems. Indonesia_sentence_121

Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only. Indonesia_sentence_122

British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line (Wallace Line) between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species. Indonesia_sentence_123

It runs roughly north-south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. Indonesia_sentence_124

Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. Indonesia_sentence_125

In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area. Indonesia_sentence_126

The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea. Indonesia_sentence_127

Environment Indonesia_section_9

Main article: Environment of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_128

Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues. Indonesia_sentence_129

They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. Indonesia_sentence_130

Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation (causing extensive haze across parts of Southeast Asia), over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services. Indonesia_sentence_131

These issues contribute to Indonesia's low ranking (number 116 out of 180 countries) in the 2020 Environmental Performance Index. Indonesia_sentence_132

The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context. Indonesia_sentence_133

Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation. Indonesia_sentence_134

While it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems. Indonesia_sentence_135

This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases. Indonesia_sentence_136

It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. Indonesia_sentence_137

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened, and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling, Sumatran orangutan, and Javan rhinoceros. Indonesia_sentence_138

Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change. Indonesia_sentence_139

These include unreduced emissions resulting in an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century. Indonesia_sentence_140

It would raise the frequency of drought and food shortages (with an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, and thus Indonesia's agriculture system) as well as numerous diseases and wildfires. Indonesia_sentence_141

Rising sea levels would also threaten the majority of Indonesia's population who lives in low-lying coastal areas. Indonesia_sentence_142

Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change. Indonesia_sentence_143

Government and politics Indonesia_section_10

Main article: Politics of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_144

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Indonesia_sentence_145

Following the fall of the New Order in 1998, political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Indonesia_sentence_146

Chief among them is the delegation of power and authority to various regional entities while remaining a unitary state. Indonesia_sentence_147

The President of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. Indonesia_sentence_148

The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. Indonesia_sentence_149

The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR). Indonesia_sentence_150

Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. Indonesia_sentence_151

The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), with 575 members, and the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), with 136. Indonesia_sentence_152

The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Indonesia_sentence_153

Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased its role in national governance, while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. Indonesia_sentence_154

Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). Indonesia_sentence_155

The Supreme Court of Indonesia (Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Indonesia_sentence_156

Other courts include the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) that listens to constitutional and political matters and the Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) that deals with codified Islamic Law (sharia) cases. Indonesia_sentence_157

Additionally, the Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) monitors the performance of judges. Indonesia_sentence_158

Parties and elections Indonesia_section_11

Main articles: List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_159

Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. Indonesia_sentence_160

In all legislative elections since the fall of the New Order, no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats. Indonesia_sentence_161

The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), which secured the most votes in the 2019 elections, is the party of the incumbent president, Joko Widodo. Indonesia_sentence_162

Other notable parties include the Party of the Functional Groups (Golkar), the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), the Democratic Party, and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). Indonesia_sentence_163

The 2019 elections resulted in nine political parties in the DPR, with a parliamentary threshold of 4% of the national vote. Indonesia_sentence_164

The first general election was held in 1955 to elect members of the DPR and the Constitutional Assembly (Konstituante). Indonesia_sentence_165

At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until 2004. Indonesia_sentence_166

Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD. Indonesia_sentence_167

Beginning with 2015 local elections, elections for governors and mayors have occurred on the same date. Indonesia_sentence_168

In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that legislative and presidential elections are to be held simultaneously, starting in 2019. Indonesia_sentence_169

Administrative divisions Indonesia_section_12

Main article: Subdivisions of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_170

Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions. Indonesia_sentence_171

The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. Indonesia_sentence_172

Each has a legislature (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) and an elected governor. Indonesia_sentence_173

This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in 2012. Indonesia_sentence_174

The second level is that of the regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), led by regents (bupati) and mayors (walikota) respectively and a legislature (DPRD Kabupaten/Kota). Indonesia_sentence_175

The third level is that of the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Papua, or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta), and the fourth is of the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh). Indonesia_sentence_176

The village is the lowest level of government administration. Indonesia_sentence_177

It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). Indonesia_sentence_178

In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Indonesia_sentence_179

Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. Indonesia_sentence_180

The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village head (lurah or kepala desa). Indonesia_sentence_181

Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. Indonesia_sentence_182

A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia. Indonesia_sentence_183

Yogyakarta is the only pre-colonial monarchy legally recognised in Indonesia, with the positions of governor and vice governor being prioritised for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Paku Alam, respectively. Indonesia_sentence_184

Papua and West Papua are the only provinces where the indigenous people have privileges in their local government. Indonesia_sentence_185

Jakarta is the only city granted a provincial government due to its position as the capital of Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_186

Foreign relations Indonesia_section_13

Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_187

Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies. Indonesia_sentence_188

The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries. Indonesia_sentence_189

Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Indonesia_sentence_190

Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union, and China to some degree, culminated in the 1965 coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy. Indonesia_sentence_191

Quiet alignment with the Western world while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then. Indonesia_sentence_192

Today, it maintains close relations with its neighbours and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the East Asia Summit. Indonesia_sentence_193

In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine. Indonesia_sentence_194

However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly. Indonesia_sentence_195

Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Indonesia_sentence_196

Indonesia is a signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the World Trade Organization (WTO), and an occasional member of OPEC. Indonesia_sentence_197

During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Indonesia withdrew from the UN due to the latter's election to the United Nations Security Council, although it returned 18 months later. Indonesia_sentence_198

It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal. Indonesia_sentence_199

Indonesia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1966, and recently, the country established its first overseas aid program in late 2019. Indonesia_sentence_200

Military Indonesia_section_14

Main articles: Indonesian National Armed Forces and Military history of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_201

Indonesia's Armed Forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes Marine Corps), and Air Force (TNI–AU). Indonesia_sentence_202

The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Indonesia_sentence_203

Defence spending in the national budget was 0.7% of GDP in 2018, with controversial involvement of military-owned commercial interests and foundations. Indonesia_sentence_204

The Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia. Indonesia_sentence_205

Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats. Indonesia_sentence_206

The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which peaked during the New Order. Indonesia_sentence_207

Political reforms in 1998 included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature. Indonesia_sentence_208

Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level. Indonesia_sentence_209

Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements. Indonesia_sentence_210

Some, notably in Aceh and Papua, have led to an armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides. Indonesia_sentence_211

The former was resolved peacefully in 2005, while the latter continues, amid a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses since 2004. Indonesia_sentence_212

Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Konfrontasi to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the mass killings of PKI, and the invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation. Indonesia_sentence_213

Economy Indonesia_section_15

Main articles: Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_214

Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles. Indonesia_sentence_215

As the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia, the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. Indonesia_sentence_216

As of 2019, it is the world's 16th largest economy by nominal GDP and 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.100 trillion and US$3.740 trillion respectively. Indonesia_sentence_217

Per capita GDP in PPP is US$14,020, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,120. Indonesia_sentence_218

The debt ratio to GDP is 29.2%. Indonesia_sentence_219

The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%). Indonesia_sentence_220

Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%). Indonesia_sentence_221

Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably. Indonesia_sentence_222

Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency. Indonesia_sentence_223

A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports. Indonesia_sentence_224

This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. Indonesia_sentence_225

As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%. Indonesia_sentence_226

Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. Indonesia_sentence_227

The growth ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis that had a severe impact on the economy, including a 13.1% real GDP contraction in 1998 and inflation reaching 78%. Indonesia_sentence_228

The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth. Indonesia_sentence_229

Relatively steady inflation and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. Indonesia_sentence_230

From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption, helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession, and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997. Indonesia_sentence_231

As of 2019, 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%. Indonesia_sentence_232

However, in late 2020, Indonesia fell into its first recession in 22 years due to the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Indonesia_sentence_233

Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. Indonesia_sentence_234

These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. Indonesia_sentence_235

In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. Indonesia_sentence_236

China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners. Indonesia_sentence_237

Transport Indonesia_section_16

Main article: Transport in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_238

Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java. Indonesia_sentence_239

All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. Indonesia_sentence_240

In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP. Indonesia_sentence_241

The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 542,310 kilometres (336,980 miles) as of 2018. Indonesia_sentence_242

Jakarta has the most extended bus rapid transit system in the world, boasting some 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes. Indonesia_sentence_243

Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country. Indonesia_sentence_244

Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. Indonesia_sentence_245

In the late 2010s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future. Indonesia_sentence_246

In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia. Indonesia_sentence_247

Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Indonesia_sentence_248

Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second-and third-busiest airport respectively. Indonesia_sentence_249

Garuda Indonesia, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Indonesia_sentence_250

Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port, handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic. Indonesia_sentence_251

Energy Indonesia_section_17

Main article: Energy in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_252

In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4,200 terawatt-hours (14.2 quadrillion British thermal units), and the 15th largest energy consumer, with 2,100 terawatt-hours (7.1 quadrillion British thermal units). Indonesia_sentence_253

The country has substantial energy resources, including 22 billion barrels (3.5 billion cubic metres) of conventional oil and gas reserves (of which about 4 billion barrels are recoverable), 8 billion barrels of oil-equivalent of coal-based methane (CBM) resources, and 28 billion tonnes of recoverable coal. Indonesia_sentence_254

While reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased, Indonesia has seen progress in renewable energy with hydropower being the most abundant source. Indonesia_sentence_255

Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy. Indonesia_sentence_256

Indonesia has set out to achieve 23% use of renewable energy by 2025 and 31% by 2050. Indonesia_sentence_257

As of 2015, Indonesia's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 55,528.51 MW. Indonesia_sentence_258

The country's largest dam, Jatiluhur, has several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. Indonesia_sentence_259

The earth-fill dam is 105 m (344 ft) high and withholds a reservoir of 3.0 billion m (2.4 million acre⋅ft). Indonesia_sentence_260

It helps to supply water to Jakarta and to irrigate 240,000 ha (590,000 acres) of rice fields and has an installed capacity of 186.5 MW which feeds into the Java grid managed by the State Electricity Company (Perusahaan Listrik Negara, PLN). Indonesia_sentence_261

Science and technology Indonesia_section_18

Main article: Science and technology in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_262

Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0.1% of GDP (2017). Indonesia_sentence_263

Historical examples of scientific and technological developments include the paddy cultivation technique terasering, which is common in Southeast Asia, and the pinisi boats by the Bugis and Makassar people. Indonesia_sentence_264

In the 1980s, Indonesian engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption. Indonesia_sentence_265

It later became widely used in several countries. Indonesia_sentence_266

The country is also an active producer of passenger trains and freight wagons with its state-owned company, the Indonesian Railway Industry (INKA), and has exported trains abroad. Indonesia_sentence_267

Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft. Indonesia_sentence_268

With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Indonesia_sentence_269

Dirgantara Indonesia), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. Indonesia_sentence_270

The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries. Indonesia_sentence_271

Former President B. Indonesia_sentence_272 J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement. Indonesia_sentence_273

Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X. Indonesia_sentence_274

Indonesia has a space programme and space agency, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, LAPAN). Indonesia_sentence_275

In the 1970s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate a satellite system called Palapa, a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo. Indonesia_sentence_276

The first satellite, PALAPA A1 was launched on 8 July 1976 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States. Indonesia_sentence_277

As of 2019, Indonesia has launched 18 satellites for various purposes, and LAPAN has expressed a desire to put satellites in orbit with native launch vehicles by 2040. Indonesia_sentence_278

Tourism Indonesia_section_19

Main article: Tourism in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_279

Tourism contributed around US$19.7 billion to GDP in 2019. Indonesia_sentence_280

In 2018, Indonesia received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US$967. Indonesia_sentence_281

China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_282

Since 2011, Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism. Indonesia_sentence_283

Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. Indonesia_sentence_284

The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. Indonesia_sentence_285

Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rain forests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres). Indonesia_sentence_286

Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. Indonesia_sentence_287

Moreover, Indonesia has one of the world's longest coastlines, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi). Indonesia_sentence_288

The ancient Borobudur and Prambanan temples as well as Toraja and Bali, with its traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism. Indonesia_sentence_289

Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands. Indonesia_sentence_290

Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang, and the royal palaces of Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta. Indonesia_sentence_291

Demographics Indonesia_section_20

Main articles: Demographics of Indonesia and Indonesians Indonesia_sentence_292

See also: List of Indonesian cities by population and List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_293

The 2010 census recorded Indonesia's population as 237.6 million, the fourth largest in the world, with high population growth at 1.9%. Indonesia_sentence_294

Java is the world's most populous island, where 58% of the country's population lives. Indonesia_sentence_295

The population density is 138 people per km (357 per sq mi), ranking 88th in the world, although Java has a population density of 1,067 people per km (2,435 per sq mi). Indonesia_sentence_296

In 1961, the first post-colonial census recorded a total of 97 million people. Indonesia_sentence_297

It is expected to grow to around 295 million by 2030 and 321 million by 2050. Indonesia_sentence_298

The country currently possesses a relatively young population, with a median age of 30.2 years (2017 estimate). Indonesia_sentence_299

The spread of the population is uneven throughout the archipelago with a varying habitat and level of development, ranging from the megacity of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua. Indonesia_sentence_300

As of 2017, about 54.7% of the population lives in urban areas. Indonesia_sentence_301

Jakarta is the country's primate city and the second-most populous urban area in the world with over 34 million residents. Indonesia_sentence_302

About 8 million Indonesians live overseas; most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia. Indonesia_sentence_303

Ethnic groups and languages Indonesia_section_21

Main articles: Ethnic groups in Indonesia, Native Indonesians, and Languages of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_304

Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around 600 distinct native ethnic groups. Indonesia_sentence_305

Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian peoples whose languages had origins in Proto-Austronesian, which possibly originated in what is now Taiwan. Indonesia_sentence_306

Another major grouping is the Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia (the Maluku Islands and Western New Guinea). Indonesia_sentence_307

The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting 40.2% of the population, and are politically dominant. Indonesia_sentence_308

They are predominantly located in the central to eastern parts of Java and also sizable numbers in most provinces. Indonesia_sentence_309

The Sundanese, Malay, Batak, Madurese, Minangkabau and Buginese are the next largest groups in the country. Indonesia_sentence_310

A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities. Indonesia_sentence_311

The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago. Indonesia_sentence_312

It was promoted by nationalists in the 1920s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in 1945. Indonesia_sentence_313

As a result of centuries-long contact with other languages, it is rich in local and foreign influences, including from Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, Hindi, Sanskrit, Chinese, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese and English. Indonesia_sentence_314

Nearly every Indonesian speaks the language due to its widespread use in education, academics, communications, business, politics, and mass media. Indonesia_sentence_315

Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than 700 local languages, often as their first language. Indonesia_sentence_316

Most belong to the Austronesian language family, while there are over 270 Papuan languages spoken in eastern Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_317

Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken. Indonesia_sentence_318

In 1930, Dutch and other Europeans (Totok), Eurasians, and derivative people like the Indos, numbered 240,000 or 0.4% of the total population. Indonesia_sentence_319

Historically, they constituted only a tiny fraction of the native population and remain so today. Indonesia_sentence_320

Despite the Dutch presence for almost 350 years, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status. Indonesia_sentence_321

The small minorities that can speak it or Dutch-based creole languages fluently are the aforementioned ethnic groups and descendants of Dutch colonisers. Indonesia_sentence_322

Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals, as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch. Indonesia_sentence_323

Religion Indonesia_section_22

Main article: Religion in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_324

While the constitution stipulates religious freedom, the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism; with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged. Indonesia_sentence_325

Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country with 227 million adherents in 2017, with the majority being Sunnis (99%). Indonesia_sentence_326

The Shias and Ahmadis respectively constitute 1% (1–3 million) and 0.2% (200,000–400,000) of the Muslim population. Indonesia_sentence_327

Almost 11% of Indonesians are Christians, while the rest are Hindus, Buddhists, and others. Indonesia_sentence_328

Most Hindus are Balinese, and most Buddhists are Chinese Indonesians. Indonesia_sentence_329

The natives of the Indonesian archipelago originally practised indigenous animism and dynamism, beliefs that are common to Austronesian people. Indonesia_sentence_330

They worshipped and revered ancestral spirit, and believed that supernatural spirits (hyang) might inhabit certain places such as large trees, stones, forests, mountains, or sacred sites. Indonesia_sentence_331

Examples of Indonesian native belief systems include the Sundanese Sunda Wiwitan, Dayak's Kaharingan, and the Javanese Kejawèn. Indonesia_sentence_332

They have had a significant impact on how other faiths are practised, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practising a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion. Indonesia_sentence_333

Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. Indonesia_sentence_334

The Sundanese Kingdom of Salakanagara in western Java around 130 was the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in the archipelago. Indonesia_sentence_335

Buddhism arrived around the 6th century, and its history in Indonesia is closely related to that of Hinduism, as some empires based on Buddhism had its roots around the same period. Indonesia_sentence_336

The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit, Sailendra, Srivijaya, and Mataram. Indonesia_sentence_337

Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain to have a substantial influence on Indonesian culture. Indonesia_sentence_338

Islam was introduced by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i fiqh, as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula as early as the 8th century CE. Indonesia_sentence_339

For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences that resulted in a distinct form of Islam. Indonesia_sentence_340

Trade, missionary works such as by the Wali Sanga and Chinese explorer Zheng He, and military campaigns by several sultanates helped accelerate the spread of the religion. Indonesia_sentence_341

By the end of the 16th century, Islam had supplanted Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of Java and Sumatra. Indonesia_sentence_342

Catholicism was brought by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier, who visited and baptised several thousand locals. Indonesia_sentence_343

Its spread faced difficulty due to the VOC policy of banning the religion and the Dutch hostility due to the Eighty Years' War against Catholic Spain's rule. Indonesia_sentence_344

Protestantism is mostly a result of Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era. Indonesia_sentence_345

Although they are the most common branch, there is a multitude of other denominations elsewhere in the country. Indonesia_sentence_346

There was a sizable Jewish presence in the archipelago until 1945, mostly Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews. Indonesia_sentence_347

Since most have left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mostly in Jakarta and Surabaya. Indonesia_sentence_348

At the national and local level, Indonesia's political leadership and civil society groups have played a crucial role in interfaith relations, both positively and negatively. Indonesia_sentence_349

The invocation of the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila (the belief in the one and only God) often serves as a reminder of religious tolerance, though instances of intolerance have occurred. Indonesia_sentence_350

An overwhelming majority of Indonesians consider religion to be essential, and its role is present in almost all aspects of society, including politics, education, marriage, and public holidays. Indonesia_sentence_351

Education and health Indonesia_section_23

Main articles: Education in Indonesia and Health in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_352

Education is compulsory for 12 years. Indonesia_sentence_353

Parents can choose between state-run, non-sectarian schools or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools, supervised by the ministries of Education and Religion, respectively. Indonesia_sentence_354

Private international schools that do not follow the national curriculum are also available. Indonesia_sentence_355

The enrolment rate is 93% for primary education, 79% for secondary education, and 36% for tertiary education (2018). Indonesia_sentence_356

The literacy rate is 96% (2018), and the government spends about 3.6% of GDP (2015) on education. Indonesia_sentence_357

In 2018, there were more than 4,500 higher educational institutions in Indonesia, with the top universities (the University of Indonesia, Bandung Institute of Technology and Gadjah Mada University) and most others located in Java. Indonesia_sentence_358

Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3.3% of GDP in 2016. Indonesia_sentence_359

As part of an attempt to achieve universal health care, the government launched the National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, JKN) in 2014. Indonesia_sentence_360

It includes coverage for a range of services from the public and also private firms that have opted to join the scheme. Indonesia_sentence_361

In recent decades, there have been remarkable improvements such as rising life expectancy (from 62.3 years in 1990 to 71.7 years in 2019) and declining child mortality (from 84 deaths per 1,000 births in 1990 to 25.4 deaths in 2017). Indonesia_sentence_362

Nevertheless, Indonesia continues to face challenges that include maternal and child health, low air quality, malnutrition, high rate of smoking, and infectious diseases. Indonesia_sentence_363

Issues Indonesia_section_24

Main article: Human rights in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_364

Nearly 80% of Indonesia's population lives in the western parts of the archipelago, but they are growing at a slower pace than the rest of the country. Indonesia_sentence_365

This situation creates a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres (such as Sumatra and Java) and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas (such as Maluku and Papua). Indonesia_sentence_366

Numerous cases of racism and discrimination, especially against Chinese Indonesians and Papuans, have been well documented; the latter has to do with an ongoing, decades-long separatist movement. Indonesia_sentence_367

LGBT issues in Indonesia has been relatively obscure. Indonesia_sentence_368

However, in the 2010s (especially after 2016), a wave of anti-LGBT rhetoric has surged rapidly, putting LGBT Indonesians into a frequent subject of intimidation, discrimination, and even violence. Indonesia_sentence_369

Culture Indonesia_section_25

Main article: Culture of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_370

See also: Public holidays in Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_371

The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Indonesia_sentence_372

Influences from the Indian subcontinent, mainland China, the Middle East, Europe, and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious makeup of the archipelago. Indonesia_sentence_373

As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures. Indonesia_sentence_374

Indonesia currently holds ten items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage, including a wayang puppet theatre, kris, batik, pencak silat, angklung, and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance. Indonesia_sentence_375

Art and architecture Indonesia_section_26

Main articles: Indonesian art and Architecture of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_376

Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and a recently developed contemporary art. Indonesia_sentence_377

Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India, the Arab world, China and Europe, as a result of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade. Indonesia_sentence_378

Painting is an established and developed art in Bali, where its people are famed for their artistry. Indonesia_sentence_379

Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on candi bas reliefs in eastern Java. Indonesia_sentence_380

There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_381

Subsequently, tribal art has flourished within the culture of Nias, Batak, Asmat, Dayak and Toraja. Indonesia_sentence_382

Wood and stone are common materials used as the media for sculpting among these tribes. Indonesia_sentence_383

Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation. Indonesia_sentence_384

The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. Indonesia_sentence_385

As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques. Indonesia_sentence_386

The most dominant has traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant. Indonesia_sentence_387

Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' (rumah adat) styles that have been developed. Indonesia_sentence_388

The traditional houses and settlements in the country vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history. Indonesia_sentence_389

Examples include Toraja's Tongkonan, Minangkabau's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak's longhouses, various Malay houses, Balinese houses and temples, and also different forms of rice barns (lumbung). Indonesia_sentence_390

Music, dance and clothing Indonesia_section_27

Main articles: Music of Indonesia, Dance in Indonesia, and National costume of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_391

The music of Indonesia predates historical records. Indonesia_sentence_392

Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals. Indonesia_sentence_393

Angklung, kacapi suling, gong, gamelan, talempong, kulintang, and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments. Indonesia_sentence_394

The diverse world of Indonesian music genres is the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences. Indonesia_sentence_395

These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East, keroncong from Portugal, and dangdut—one of the most popular music genres in Indonesia—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras. Indonesia_sentence_396

Today, the Indonesian music industry enjoys both nationwide and regional popularity in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, due to common culture and intelligible languages between Indonesian and Malay. Indonesia_sentence_397

Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3,000 original dances. Indonesia_sentence_398

Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship. Indonesia_sentence_399

Examples include war dances, a dance of witch doctors, and dance to call for rain or any agricultural rituals such as Hudoq. Indonesia_sentence_400

Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods. Indonesia_sentence_401

Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture, as well as those of Japan and South Korea to some extent. Indonesia_sentence_402

Various traditional dances, however, including those of Java, Bali and Dayak continue to be a living and dynamic tradition. Indonesia_sentence_403

Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history. Indonesia_sentence_404

The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. Indonesia_sentence_405

The Javanese Batik and Kebaya are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, though they have Sundanese and Balinese origins as well. Indonesia_sentence_406

Each province has a representation of traditional attire and dress, such as Ulos of Batak from North Sumatra; Songket of Malay and Minangkabau from Sumatra; and Ikat of Sasak from Lombok. Indonesia_sentence_407

People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, and they vary from traditional to modern attire. Indonesia_sentence_408

Theatre and cinema Indonesia_section_28

Main article: Cinema of Indonesia Indonesia_sentence_409

Wayang, the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata. Indonesia_sentence_410

Other forms of local drama include the Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, the Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong, and various Balinese dance drama. Indonesia_sentence_411

They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances. Indonesia_sentence_412

Some theatre traditions also include music, dancing and the silat martial art such as Randai from Minangkabau people of West Sumatra. Indonesia_sentence_413

It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story. Indonesia_sentence_414

Modern performing art also developed in Indonesia with their distinct style of drama. Indonesia_sentence_415

Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society. Indonesia_sentence_416

The first film produced in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng, a silent film by Dutch director L. Heuveldorp. Indonesia_sentence_417

The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in 1949 rising to 58 in 1955. Indonesia_sentence_418

Usmar Ismail, who made significant imprints in the 1950s and 1960s, is generally considered to be the pioneer of Indonesian films. Indonesia_sentence_419

The latter part of the Sukarno era saw the use of cinema for nationalistic, anti-Western purposes, and foreign films were subsequently banned, while the New Order utilised a censorship code that aimed to maintain social order. Indonesia_sentence_420

Production of films peaked during the 1980s, although it declined significantly in the next decade. Indonesia_sentence_421

Notable films in this period include Pengabdi Setan (1980), Nagabonar (1987), Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1988), Catatan Si Boy (1989), and Warkop's comedy films. Indonesia_sentence_422

Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since 1998, where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love. Indonesia_sentence_423

Between 2000 and 2005, the number of films released each year steadily increased. Indonesia_sentence_424

Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana were among the new generation of filmmakers who co-directed Kuldesak (1999), Petualangan Sherina (2000), Ada Apa dengan Cinta? Indonesia_sentence_425

(2002), and Laskar Pelangi (2008). Indonesia_sentence_426

In 2016, Warkop DKI Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6.8 million tickets sold. Indonesia_sentence_427

Indonesia has held annual film festivals and awards, including the Indonesian Film Festival (Festival Film Indonesia) that has been held intermittently since 1955. Indonesia_sentence_428

It hands out the Citra Award, the film industry's most prestigious award. Indonesia_sentence_429

From 1973 to 1992, the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in 2004. Indonesia_sentence_430

Mass media and literature Indonesia_section_29

Main articles: Mass media in Indonesia and Indonesian literature Indonesia_sentence_431

Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media. Indonesia_sentence_432

The television market includes several national commercial networks and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI, which held a monopoly on TV broadcasting from 1962 to 1989. Indonesia_sentence_433

By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels. Indonesia_sentence_434

Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes. Indonesia_sentence_435

The number of printed publications has increased significantly since 1998. Indonesia_sentence_436

Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early 1990s. Indonesia_sentence_437

Its first commercial Internet service provider, PT. Indonesia_sentence_438

Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in 1994. Indonesia_sentence_439

The country had 171 million Internet users in 2018, with a penetration rate that keeps increasing annually. Indonesia_sentence_440

Most are between the ages of 15 and 19 and depend primarily on mobile phones for access, outnumbering both laptops and computers. Indonesia_sentence_441

The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Indonesia_sentence_442

Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Indonesia_sentence_443

In written poetry and prose, several traditional forms dominate, mainly syair, pantun, gurindam, hikayat and babad. Indonesia_sentence_444

Examples of these forms include Syair Abdul Muluk, Hikayat Hang Tuah, Sulalatus Salatin, and Babad Tanah Jawi. Indonesia_sentence_445

Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition. Indonesia_sentence_446

Literature and poetry flourished during the decades leading up to and after independence. Indonesia_sentence_447

Balai Pustaka, the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in 1917 to promote the development of indigenous literature. Indonesia_sentence_448

Many scholars consider the 1950s and 1960s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. Indonesia_sentence_449

The style and characteristics of modern Indonesian literature vary according to the dynamics of the country's political and social landscape, most notably the war of independence in the second half of the 1940s and the anti-communist mass killings in the mid-1960s. Indonesia_sentence_450

Notable literary figures of the modern era include Multatuli, Chairil Anwar, Mohammad Yamin, Merari Siregar, Marah Roesli, Pramoedya Ananta Toer, and Ayu Utami. Indonesia_sentence_451

Cuisine Indonesia_section_30

Main article: Indonesian cuisine Indonesia_sentence_452

Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour. Indonesia_sentence_453

Many regional cuisines exist, often based upon indigenous culture and foreign influences such as Chinese, European, Middle Eastern, and Indian precedents. Indonesia_sentence_454

Rice is the leading staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Indonesia_sentence_455

Spices (notably chilli), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Indonesia_sentence_456

Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng, gado-gado, sate, and soto are ubiquitous and considered as national dishes. Indonesia_sentence_457

The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in 2014, describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions. Indonesia_sentence_458

Other popular dishes include rendang, one of the many Padang cuisines along with dendeng and gulai. Indonesia_sentence_459

Another fermented food is oncom, similar in some ways to tempeh but uses a variety of bases (not only soy), created by different fungi, and is prevalent in West Java. Indonesia_sentence_460

Sports Indonesia_section_31

Main articles: Sport in Indonesia and Indonesian martial arts Indonesia_sentence_461

Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesia_sentence_462

Badminton and football are the most popular sports. Indonesia_sentence_463

Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup, the world team championship of men's and women's badminton. Indonesia_sentence_464

Along with weightlifting, it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally. Indonesia_sentence_465

Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. Indonesia_sentence_466

On the international stage, Indonesia was the first Asian team to participate at the FIFA World Cup in 1938 as the Dutch East Indies. Indonesia_sentence_467

On a regional level, Indonesia won a bronze medal at the 1958 Asian Games as well as two gold medals at the 1987 and 1991 Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games). Indonesia_sentence_468

Indonesia's first appearance at the AFC Asian Cup was in 1996 and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments, although they never make the knockout phase. Indonesia_sentence_469

Other popular sports include boxing and basketball, which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games (Pekan Olahraga Nasional, PON) in 1948. Indonesia_sentence_470

Some of the famous Indonesian boxers include Ellyas Pical, three times IBF Super flyweight champion; Nico Thomas, Muhammad Rachman, and Chris John. Indonesia_sentence_471

In motorsport, Rio Haryanto became the first Indonesian to compete in Formula One in 2016. Indonesia_sentence_472

Sepak takraw and karapan sapi (bull racing) in Madura are some examples of traditional sports in Indonesia. Indonesia_sentence_473

In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba. Indonesia_sentence_474

Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in 1987, became one of the sporting events in the SEA Games, with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors. Indonesia_sentence_475

In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the SEA Games ten times since 1977, most recently in 2011. Indonesia_sentence_476

See also Indonesia_section_32

Indonesia_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indonesia.