Industrial Revolution

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The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. Industrial Revolution_sentence_0

This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system. Industrial Revolution_sentence_1

The Industrial Revolution also led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_2

Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested. Industrial Revolution_sentence_3

The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. Industrial Revolution_sentence_4

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin. Industrial Revolution_sentence_5

By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with major military and political hegemony on the Indian subcontinent, particularly with the proto-industrialised Mughal Bengal, through the activities of the East India Company. Industrial Revolution_sentence_6

The development of trade and the rise of business were among the major causes of the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_7

The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. Industrial Revolution_sentence_8

In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_9

Some economists have said the most important effect of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population in the western world began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_10

GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Industrial Revolution_sentence_11

Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. Industrial Revolution_sentence_12

The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_13

Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not fully felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. Industrial Revolution_sentence_14 S. Ashton held that it occurred roughly between 1760 and 1830. Industrial Revolution_sentence_15

Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_16

Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles, iron and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and later textiles in France. Industrial Revolution_sentence_17

An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the Industrial Revolution's early innovations, such as mechanized spinning and weaving, slowed and their markets matured. Industrial Revolution_sentence_18

Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph, widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_19

Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_20

These innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_21

Etymology Industrial Revolution_section_0

The earliest recorded use of the term "Industrial Revolution" appears to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that France had entered the race to industrialise. Industrial Revolution_sentence_22

In his 1976 book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, and was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the [19th] century." Industrial Revolution_sentence_23

The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui's description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle. Industrial Revolution_sentence_24

Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". Industrial Revolution_sentence_25

However, although Engels wrote his book in the 1840s, it was not translated into English until the late 1800s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Industrial Revolution_sentence_26

Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose 1881 lectures gave a detailed account of the term. Industrial Revolution_sentence_27

Economic historians and authors such as Mendels, Pomeranz and Kridte argue that the proto-industrialization in parts of Europe, Islamic world, Mughal India, and China created the social and economic conditions that led to the Industrial Revolution, thus causing the Great Divergence. Industrial Revolution_sentence_28

Some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred gradually, and that the term revolution is a misnomer. Industrial Revolution_sentence_29

This is still a subject of debate among some historians. Industrial Revolution_sentence_30

Important technological developments Industrial Revolution_section_1

The commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_31

By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Industrial Revolution_sentence_32

Industrial Revolution_unordered_list_0

  • Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500. The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity also occurred in spinning and weaving of wool and linen, but they were not as great as in cotton.Industrial Revolution_item_0_0
  • Steam power – the efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel. The adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses. The high pressure engine had a high power to weight ratio, making it suitable for transportation. Steam power underwent a rapid expansion after 1800.Industrial Revolution_item_0_1
  • Iron making – the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost of pig iron and wrought iron production. Using coke also allowed larger blast furnaces, resulting in economies of scale. The steam engine began being used to pump water and to power blast air in the mid 1750s, enabling a large increase in iron production by overcoming the limitation of water power. The cast iron blowing cylinder was first used in 1760. It was later improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher blast furnace temperatures. The puddling process produced a structural grade iron at a lower cost than the finery forge. The rolling mill was fifteen times faster than hammering wrought iron. Hot blast (1828) greatly increased fuel efficiency in iron production in the following decades.Industrial Revolution_item_0_2
  • Invention of machine tools – The first machine tools were invented. These included the screw cutting lathe, cylinder boring machine and the milling machine. Machine tools made the economical manufacture of precision metal parts possible, although it took several decades to develop effective techniques.Industrial Revolution_item_0_3

Textile manufacture Industrial Revolution_section_2

Main article: Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_33

British textile industry statistics Industrial Revolution_section_3

In 1750 Britain imported 2.5 million pounds of raw cotton, most of which was spun and woven by cottage industry in Lancashire. Industrial Revolution_sentence_34

The work was done by hand in workers' homes or occasionally in shops of master weavers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_35

In 1787 raw cotton consumption was 22 million pounds, most of which was cleaned, carded and spun on machines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_36

The British textile industry used 52 million pounds of cotton in 1800, which increased to 588 million pounds in 1850. Industrial Revolution_sentence_37

The share of value added by the cotton textile industry in Britain was 2.6% in 1760, 17% in 1801 and 22.4% in 1831. Industrial Revolution_sentence_38

Value added by the British woollen industry was 14.1% in 1801. Industrial Revolution_sentence_39

Cotton factories in Britain numbered approximately 900 in 1797. Industrial Revolution_sentence_40

In 1760 approximately one-third of cotton cloth manufactured in Britain was exported, rising to two-thirds by 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_41

In 1781 cotton spun amounted to 5.1 million pounds, which increased to 56 million pounds by 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_42

In 1800 less than 0.1% of world cotton cloth was produced on machinery invented in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_43

In 1788 there were 50,000 spindles in Britain, rising to 7 million over the next 30 years. Industrial Revolution_sentence_44

Wages in Lancashire, a core region for cottage industry and later factory spinning and weaving, were about six times those in India in 1770, when overall productivity in Britain was about three times higher than in India. Industrial Revolution_sentence_45

Cotton Industrial Revolution_section_4

Parts of India, China, Central America, South America and the Middle-East have a long history of hand manufacturing cotton textiles, which became a major industry sometime after 1000 AD. Industrial Revolution_sentence_46

In tropical and subtropical regions where it was grown, most was grown by small farmers alongside their food crops and was spun and woven in households, largely for domestic consumption. Industrial Revolution_sentence_47

In the 15th century China began to require households to pay part of their taxes in cotton cloth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_48

By the 17th century almost all Chinese wore cotton clothing. Industrial Revolution_sentence_49

Almost everywhere cotton cloth could be used as a medium of exchange. Industrial Revolution_sentence_50

In India a significant amount of cotton textiles were manufactured for distant markets, often produced by professional weavers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_51

Some merchants also owned small weaving workshops. Industrial Revolution_sentence_52

India produced a variety of cotton cloth, some of exceptionally fine quality. Industrial Revolution_sentence_53

Cotton was a difficult raw material for Europe to obtain before it was grown on colonial plantations in the Americas. Industrial Revolution_sentence_54

The early Spanish explorers found Native Americans growing unknown species of excellent quality cotton: sea island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and upland green seeded cotton Gossypium hirsutum. Industrial Revolution_sentence_55

Sea island cotton grew in tropical areas and on barrier islands of Georgia and South Carolina, but did poorly inland. Industrial Revolution_sentence_56

Sea island cotton began being exported from Barbados in the 1650s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_57

Upland green seeded cotton grew well on inland areas of the southern U.S., but was not economical because of the difficulty of removing seed, a problem solved by the cotton gin. Industrial Revolution_sentence_58

A strain of cotton seed brought from Mexico to Natchez, Mississippi in 1806 became the parent genetic material for over 90% of world cotton production today; it produced bolls that were three to four times faster to pick. Industrial Revolution_sentence_59

Trade and textiles Industrial Revolution_section_5

The Age of Discovery was followed by a period of colonialism beginning around the 16th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_60

Following the discovery of a trade route to India around southern Africa by the Portuguese, the Dutch established the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (abbr. VOC) or Dutch East India Company, the world's first transnational corporation and the first multinational enterprise to issue shares of stock to the public. Industrial Revolution_sentence_61

The British later founded the East India Company, along with smaller companies of different nationalities which established trading posts and employed agents to engage in trade throughout the Indian Ocean region and between the Indian Ocean region and North Atlantic Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_62

One of the largest segments of this trade was in cotton textiles, which were purchased in India and sold in Southeast Asia, including the Indonesian archipelago, where spices were purchased for sale to Southeast Asia and Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_63

By the mid-1760s cloth was over three-quarters of the East India Company's exports. Industrial Revolution_sentence_64

Indian textiles were in demand in North Atlantic region of Europe where previously only wool and linen were available; however, the amount of cotton goods consumed in Western Europe was minor until the early 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_65

Pre-mechanized European textile production Industrial Revolution_section_6

By 1600 Flemish refugees began weaving cotton cloth in English towns where cottage spinning and weaving of wool and linen was well established; however, they were left alone by the guilds who did not consider cotton a threat. Industrial Revolution_sentence_66

Earlier European attempts at cotton spinning and weaving were in 12th-century Italy and 15th-century southern Germany, but these industries eventually ended when the supply of cotton was cut off. Industrial Revolution_sentence_67

The Moors in Spain grew, spun and wove cotton beginning around the 10th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_68

British cloth could not compete with Indian cloth because India's labour cost was approximately one-fifth to one-sixth that of Britain's. Industrial Revolution_sentence_69

In 1700 and 1721 the British government passed Calico Acts in order to protect the domestic woollen and linen industries from the increasing amounts of cotton fabric imported from India. Industrial Revolution_sentence_70

The demand for heavier fabric was met by a domestic industry based around Lancashire that produced fustian, a cloth with flax warp and cotton weft. Industrial Revolution_sentence_71

Flax was used for the warp because wheel-spun cotton did not have sufficient strength, but the resulting blend was not as soft as 100% cotton and was more difficult to sew. Industrial Revolution_sentence_72

On the eve of the Industrial Revolution, spinning and weaving were done in households, for domestic consumption and as a cottage industry under the putting-out system. Industrial Revolution_sentence_73

Occasionally the work was done in the workshop of a master weaver. Industrial Revolution_sentence_74

Under the putting-out system, home-based workers produced under contract to merchant sellers, who often supplied the raw materials. Industrial Revolution_sentence_75

In the off season the women, typically farmers' wives, did the spinning and the men did the weaving. Industrial Revolution_sentence_76

Using the spinning wheel, it took anywhere from four to eight spinners to supply one hand loom weaver. Industrial Revolution_sentence_77

Invention of textile machinery Industrial Revolution_section_7

The flying shuttle, patented in 1733 by John Kay, with a number of subsequent improvements including an important one in 1747, doubled the output of a weaver, worsening the imbalance between spinning and weaving. Industrial Revolution_sentence_78

It became widely used around Lancashire after 1760 when John's son, Robert, invented the drop box, which facilitated changing thread colors. Industrial Revolution_sentence_79

Lewis Paul patented the roller spinning frame and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness. Industrial Revolution_sentence_80

The technology was developed with the help of John Wyatt of Birmingham. Industrial Revolution_sentence_81

Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. Industrial Revolution_sentence_82

In 1743 a factory opened in Northampton with 50 spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_83

This operated until about 1764. Industrial Revolution_sentence_84

A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominster, but this burnt down. Industrial Revolution_sentence_85

Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in 1748. Industrial Revolution_sentence_86

Based on two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill. Industrial Revolution_sentence_87

Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule. Industrial Revolution_sentence_88

In 1764 in the village of Stanhill, Lancashire, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which he patented in 1770. Industrial Revolution_sentence_89

It was the first practical spinning frame with multiple spindles. Industrial Revolution_sentence_90

The jenny worked in a similar manner to the spinning wheel, by first clamping down on the fibres, then by drawing them out, followed by twisting. Industrial Revolution_sentence_91

It was a simple, wooden framed machine that only cost about £6 for a 40-spindle model in 1792, and was used mainly by home spinners. Industrial Revolution_sentence_92

The jenny produced a lightly twisted yarn only suitable for weft, not warp. Industrial Revolution_sentence_93

The spinning frame or water frame was developed by Richard Arkwright who, along with two partners, patented it in 1769. Industrial Revolution_sentence_94

The design was partly based on a spinning machine built for Thomas High by clockmaker John Kay, who was hired by Arkwright. Industrial Revolution_sentence_95

For each spindle the water frame used a series of four pairs of rollers, each operating at a successively higher rotating speed, to draw out the fibre, which was then twisted by the spindle. Industrial Revolution_sentence_96

The roller spacing was slightly longer than the fibre length. Industrial Revolution_sentence_97

Too close a spacing caused the fibres to break while too distant a spacing caused uneven thread. Industrial Revolution_sentence_98

The top rollers were leather-covered and loading on the rollers was applied by a weight. Industrial Revolution_sentence_99

The weights kept the twist from backing up before the rollers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_100

The bottom rollers were wood and metal, with fluting along the length. Industrial Revolution_sentence_101

The water frame was able to produce a hard, medium count thread suitable for warp, finally allowing 100% cotton cloth to be made in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_102

A horse powered the first factory to use the spinning frame. Industrial Revolution_sentence_103

Arkwright and his partners used water power at a factory in Cromford, Derbyshire in 1771, giving the invention its name. Industrial Revolution_sentence_104

Samuel Crompton's Spinning Mule was introduced in 1779. Industrial Revolution_sentence_105

Mule implies a hybrid because it was a combination of the spinning jenny and the water frame, in which the spindles were placed on a carriage, which went through an operational sequence during which the rollers stopped while the carriage moved away from the drawing roller to finish drawing out the fibres as the spindles started rotating. Industrial Revolution_sentence_106

Crompton's mule was able to produce finer thread than hand spinning and at a lower cost. Industrial Revolution_sentence_107

Mule spun thread was of suitable strength to be used as warp, and finally allowed Britain to produce highly competitive yarn in large quantities. Industrial Revolution_sentence_108

Realising that the expiration of the Arkwright patent would greatly increase the supply of spun cotton and led to a shortage of weavers, Edmund Cartwright developed a vertical power loom which he patented in 1785. Industrial Revolution_sentence_109

In 1776 he patented a two-man operated loom which was more conventional. Industrial Revolution_sentence_110

Cartwright built two factories; the first burned down and the second was sabotaged by his workers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_111

Cartwright's loom design had several flaws, the most serious being thread breakage. Industrial Revolution_sentence_112

Samuel Horrocks patented a fairly successful loom in 1813. Industrial Revolution_sentence_113

Horock's loom was improved by Richard Roberts in 1822 and these were produced in large numbers by Roberts, Hill & Co. Industrial Revolution_sentence_114

The demand for cotton presented an opportunity to planters in the Southern United States, who thought upland cotton would be a profitable crop if a better way could be found to remove the seed. Industrial Revolution_sentence_115

Eli Whitney responded to the challenge by inventing the inexpensive cotton gin. Industrial Revolution_sentence_116

A man using a cotton gin could remove seed from as much upland cotton in one day as would previously, working at the rate of one pound of cotton per day, have taken a woman two months to process. Industrial Revolution_sentence_117

These advances were capitalised on by entrepreneurs, of whom the best known is Richard Arkwright. Industrial Revolution_sentence_118

He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by such people as Thomas Highs and John Kay; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_119

He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power—first horse power and then water power—which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_120

Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling) so that the supply of yarn increased greatly. Industrial Revolution_sentence_121

Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. Industrial Revolution_sentence_122

Manchester acquired the nickname Cottonopolis during the early 19th century owing to its sprawl of textile factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_123

Although mechanization dramatically decreased the cost of cotton cloth, by the mid-19th century machine-woven cloth still could not equal the quality of hand-woven Indian cloth, in part due to the fineness of thread made possible by the type of cotton used in India, which allowed high thread counts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_124

However, the high productivity of British textile manufacturing allowed coarser grades of British cloth to undersell hand-spun and woven fabric in low-wage India, eventually destroying the industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_125

Wool Industrial Revolution_section_8

The earliest European attempts at mechanized spinning were with wool; however, wool spinning proved more difficult to mechanize than cotton. Industrial Revolution_sentence_126

Productivity improvement in wool spinning during the Industrial Revolution was significant but was far less than that of cotton. Industrial Revolution_sentence_127

Silk Industrial Revolution_section_9

Arguably the first highly mechanised factory was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721. Industrial Revolution_sentence_128

Lombe learned silk thread manufacturing by taking a job in Italy and acting as an industrial spy; however, because the Italian silk industry guarded its secrets closely, the state of the industry at that time is unknown. Industrial Revolution_sentence_129

Although Lombe's factory was technically successful, the supply of raw silk from Italy was cut off to eliminate competition. Industrial Revolution_sentence_130

In order to promote manufacturing the Crown paid for models of Lombe's machinery which were exhibited in the Tower of London. Industrial Revolution_sentence_131

Iron industry Industrial Revolution_section_10

UK iron production statistics Industrial Revolution_section_11

Bar iron was the commodity form of iron used as the raw material for making hardware goods such as nails, wire, hinges, horse shoes, wagon tires, chains, etc. and for structural shapes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_132

A small amount of bar iron was converted into steel. Industrial Revolution_sentence_133

Cast iron was used for pots, stoves and other items where its brittleness was tolerable. Industrial Revolution_sentence_134

Most cast iron was refined and converted to bar iron, with substantial losses. Industrial Revolution_sentence_135

Bar iron was also made by the bloomery process, which was the predominant iron smelting process until the late 18th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_136

In the UK in 1720 there were 20,500 tons of cast iron produced with charcoal and 400 tons with coke. Industrial Revolution_sentence_137

In 1750 charcoal iron production was 24,500 and coke iron was 2,500 tons. Industrial Revolution_sentence_138

In 1788 the production of charcoal cast iron was 14,000 tons while coke iron production was 54,000 tons. Industrial Revolution_sentence_139

In 1806 charcoal cast iron production was 7,800 tons and coke cast iron was 250,000 tons. Industrial Revolution_sentence_140

In 1750 the UK imported 31,200 tons of bar iron and either refined from cast iron or directly produced 18,800 tons of bar iron using charcoal and 100 tons using coke. Industrial Revolution_sentence_141

In 1796 the UK was making 125,000 tons of bar iron with coke and 6,400 tons with charcoal; imports were 38,000 tons and exports were 24,600 tons. Industrial Revolution_sentence_142

In 1806 the UK did not import bar iron but exported 31,500 tons. Industrial Revolution_sentence_143

Iron process innovations Industrial Revolution_section_12

A major change in the iron industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of wood and other bio-fuels with coal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_144

For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal, and coal was much more abundant than wood, supplies of which were becoming scarce before the enormous increase in iron production that took place in the late 18th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_145

By 1750 coke had generally replaced charcoal in smelting of copper and lead, and was in widespread use in making glass. Industrial Revolution_sentence_146

In the smelting and refining of iron, coal and coke produced inferior iron to that made with charcoal because of the coal's sulfur content. Industrial Revolution_sentence_147

Low sulfur coals were known, but they still contained harmful amounts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_148

Conversion of coal to coke only slightly reduces the sulfur content. Industrial Revolution_sentence_149

A minority of coals are coking. Industrial Revolution_sentence_150

Another factor limiting the iron industry before the Industrial Revolution was the scarcity of water power to power blast bellows. Industrial Revolution_sentence_151

This limitation was overcome by the steam engine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_152

Use of coal in iron smelting started somewhat before the Industrial Revolution, based on innovations by Sir Clement Clerke and others from 1678, using coal reverberatory furnaces known as cupolas. Industrial Revolution_sentence_153

These were operated by the flames playing on the ore and charcoal or coke mixture, reducing the oxide to metal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_154

This has the advantage that impurities (such as sulphur ash) in the coal do not migrate into the metal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_155

This technology was applied to lead from 1678 and to copper from 1687. Industrial Revolution_sentence_156

It was also applied to iron foundry work in the 1690s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace. Industrial Revolution_sentence_157

(The foundry cupola is a different, and later, innovation.) Industrial Revolution_sentence_158

By 1709 Abraham Darby made progress using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale. Industrial Revolution_sentence_159

However, the coke pig iron he made was not suitable for making wrought iron and was used mostly for the production of cast iron goods, such as pots and kettles. Industrial Revolution_sentence_160

He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_161

Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce wrought iron until 1755–56, when Darby's son Abraham Darby II built furnaces at Horsehay and Ketley where low sulfur coal was available (and not far from Coalbrookdale). Industrial Revolution_sentence_162

These new furnaces were equipped with water-powered bellows, the water being pumped by Newcomen steam engines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_163

The Newcomen engines were not attached directly to the blowing cylinders because the engines alone could not produce a steady air blast. Industrial Revolution_sentence_164

Abraham Darby III installed similar steam-pumped, water-powered blowing cylinders at the Dale Company when he took control in 1768. Industrial Revolution_sentence_165

The Dale Company used several Newcomen engines to drain its mines and made parts for engines which it sold throughout the country. Industrial Revolution_sentence_166

Steam engines made the use of higher-pressure and volume blast practical; however, the leather used in bellows was expensive to replace. Industrial Revolution_sentence_167

In 1757, iron master John Wilkinson patented a hydraulic powered blowing engine for blast furnaces. Industrial Revolution_sentence_168

The blowing cylinder for blast furnaces was introduced in 1760 and the first blowing cylinder made of cast iron is believed to be the one used at Carrington in 1768 that was designed by John Smeaton. Industrial Revolution_sentence_169

Cast iron cylinders for use with a piston were difficult to manufacture; the cylinders had to be free of holes and had to be machined smooth and straight to remove any warping. Industrial Revolution_sentence_170

James Watt had great difficulty trying to have a cylinder made for his first steam engine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_171

In 1774 John Wilkinson, who built a cast iron blowing cylinder for his iron works, invented a precision boring machine for boring cylinders. Industrial Revolution_sentence_172

After Wilkinson bored the first successful cylinder for a Boulton and Watt steam engine in 1776, he was given an exclusive contract for providing cylinders. Industrial Revolution_sentence_173

After Watt developed a rotary steam engine in 1782, they were widely applied to blowing, hammering, rolling and slitting. Industrial Revolution_sentence_174

The solutions to the sulfur problem were the addition of sufficient limestone to the furnace to force sulfur into the slag and the use of low sulfur coal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_175

Use of lime or limestone required higher furnace temperatures to form a free-flowing slag. Industrial Revolution_sentence_176

The increased furnace temperature made possible by improved blowing also increased the capacity of blast furnaces and allowed for increased furnace height. Industrial Revolution_sentence_177

In addition to lower cost and greater availability, coke had other important advantages over charcoal in that it was harder and made the column of materials (iron ore, fuel, slag) flowing down the blast furnace more porous and did not crush in the much taller furnaces of the late 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_178

As cast iron became cheaper and widely available, it began being a structural material for bridges and buildings. Industrial Revolution_sentence_179

A famous early example was the Iron Bridge built in 1778 with cast iron produced by Abraham Darby III. Industrial Revolution_sentence_180

However, most cast iron was converted to wrought iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_181

Europe relied on the bloomery for most of its wrought iron until the large scale production of cast iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_182

Conversion of cast iron was done in a finery forge, as it long had been. Industrial Revolution_sentence_183

An improved refining process known as potting and stamping was developed, but this was superseded by Henry Cort's puddling process. Industrial Revolution_sentence_184

Cort developed two significant iron manufacturing processes: rolling in 1783 and puddling in 1784. Industrial Revolution_sentence_185

Puddling produced a structural grade iron at a relatively low cost. Industrial Revolution_sentence_186

Puddling was a means of decarburizing molten pig iron by slow oxidation in a reverberatory furnace by manually stirring it with a long rod. Industrial Revolution_sentence_187

The decarburized iron, having a higher melting point than cast iron, was raked into globs by the puddler. Industrial Revolution_sentence_188

When the glob was large enough, the puddler would remove it. Industrial Revolution_sentence_189

Puddling was backbreaking and extremely hot work. Industrial Revolution_sentence_190

Few puddlers lived to be 40. Industrial Revolution_sentence_191

Because puddling was done in a reverberatory furnace, coal or coke could be used as fuel. Industrial Revolution_sentence_192

The puddling process continued to be used until the late 19th century when iron was being displaced by steel. Industrial Revolution_sentence_193

Because puddling required human skill in sensing the iron globs, it was never successfully mechanised. Industrial Revolution_sentence_194

Rolling was an important part of the puddling process because the grooved rollers expelled most of the molten slag and consolidated the mass of hot wrought iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_195

Rolling was 15 times faster at this than a trip hammer. Industrial Revolution_sentence_196

A different use of rolling, which was done at lower temperatures than that for expelling slag, was in the production of iron sheets, and later structural shapes such as beams, angles and rails. Industrial Revolution_sentence_197

The puddling process was improved in 1818 by Baldwyn Rogers, who replaced some of the sand lining on the reverberatory furnace bottom with iron oxide. Industrial Revolution_sentence_198

In 1838 John Hall patented the use of roasted tap cinder (iron silicate) for the furnace bottom, greatly reducing the loss of iron through increased slag caused by a sand lined bottom. Industrial Revolution_sentence_199

The tap cinder also tied up some phosphorus, but this was not understood at the time. Industrial Revolution_sentence_200

Hall's process also used iron scale or rust, which reacted with carbon in the molten iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_201

Hall's process, called wet puddling, reduced losses of iron with the slag from almost 50% to around 8%. Industrial Revolution_sentence_202

Puddling became widely used after 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_203

Up to that time British iron manufacturers had used considerable amounts of iron imported from Sweden and Russia to supplement domestic supplies. Industrial Revolution_sentence_204

Because of the increased British production, imports began to decline in 1785 and by the 1790s Britain eliminated imports and became a net exporter of bar iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_205

Hot blast, patented by James Beaumont Neilson in 1828, was the most important development of the 19th century for saving energy in making pig iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_206

By using preheated combustion air, the amount of fuel to make a unit of pig iron was reduced at first by between one-third using coke or two-thirds using coal; however, the efficiency gains continued as the technology improved. Industrial Revolution_sentence_207

Hot blast also raised the operating temperature of furnaces, increasing their capacity. Industrial Revolution_sentence_208

Using less coal or coke meant introducing fewer impurities into the pig iron. Industrial Revolution_sentence_209

This meant that lower quality coal or could be used in areas where coking coal was unavailable or too expensive; however, by the end of the 19th century transportation costs fell considerably. Industrial Revolution_sentence_210

Shortly before the Industrial Revolution an improvement was made in the production of steel, which was an expensive commodity and used only where iron would not do, such as for cutting edge tools and for springs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_211

Benjamin Huntsman developed his crucible steel technique in the 1740s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_212

The raw material for this was blister steel, made by the cementation process. Industrial Revolution_sentence_213

The supply of cheaper iron and steel aided a number of industries, such as those making nails, hinges, wire and other hardware items. Industrial Revolution_sentence_214

The development of machine tools allowed better working of iron, causing it to be increasingly used in the rapidly growing machinery and engine industries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_215

Steam power Industrial Revolution_section_13

Main article: Steam power during the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_216

The development of the stationary steam engine was an important element of the Industrial Revolution; however, during the early period of the Industrial Revolution, most industrial power was supplied by water and wind. Industrial Revolution_sentence_217

In Britain by 1800 an estimated 10,000 horsepower was being supplied by steam. Industrial Revolution_sentence_218

By 1815 steam power had grown to 210,000 hp. Industrial Revolution_sentence_219

The first commercially successful industrial use of steam power was due to Thomas Savery in 1698. Industrial Revolution_sentence_220

He constructed and patented in London a low-lift combined vacuum and pressure water pump, that generated about one horsepower (hp) and was used in numerous water works and in a few mines (hence its "brand name", The Miner's Friend). Industrial Revolution_sentence_221

Savery's pump was economical in small horsepower ranges, but was prone to boiler explosions in larger sizes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_222

Savery pumps continued to be produced until the late 18th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_223

The first successful piston steam engine was introduced by Thomas Newcomen before 1712. Industrial Revolution_sentence_224

A number of Newcomen engines were installed in Britain for draining hitherto unworkable deep mines, with the engine on the surface; these were large machines, requiring a significant amount of capital to build, and produced upwards of 5 hp (3.7 kW). Industrial Revolution_sentence_225

They were also used to power municipal water supply pumps. Industrial Revolution_sentence_226

They were extremely inefficient by modern standards, but when located where coal was cheap at pit heads, opened up a great expansion in coal mining by allowing mines to go deeper. Industrial Revolution_sentence_227

Despite their disadvantages, Newcomen engines were reliable and easy to maintain and continued to be used in the coalfields until the early decades of the 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_228

By 1729, when Newcomen died, his engines had spread (first) to Hungary in 1722, Germany, Austria, and Sweden. Industrial Revolution_sentence_229

A total of 110 are known to have been built by 1733 when the joint patent expired, of which 14 were abroad. Industrial Revolution_sentence_230

In the 1770s the engineer John Smeaton built some very large examples and introduced a number of improvements. Industrial Revolution_sentence_231

A total of 1,454 engines had been built by 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_232

A fundamental change in working principles was brought about by Scotsman James Watt. Industrial Revolution_sentence_233

With financial support from his business partner Englishman Matthew Boulton, he had succeeded by 1778 in perfecting his steam engine, which incorporated a series of radical improvements, notably the closing off of the upper part of the cylinder, thereby making the low-pressure steam drive the top of the piston instead of the atmosphere, use of a steam jacket and the celebrated separate steam condenser chamber. Industrial Revolution_sentence_234

The separate condenser did away with the cooling water that had been injected directly into the cylinder, which cooled the cylinder and wasted steam. Industrial Revolution_sentence_235

Likewise, the steam jacket kept steam from condensing in the cylinder, also improving efficiency. Industrial Revolution_sentence_236

These improvements increased engine efficiency so that Boulton and Watt's engines used only 20–25% as much coal per horsepower-hour as Newcomen's. Industrial Revolution_sentence_237

Boulton and Watt opened the Soho Foundry for the manufacture of such engines in 1795. Industrial Revolution_sentence_238

By 1783 the Watt steam engine had been fully developed into a double-acting rotative type, which meant that it could be used to directly drive the rotary machinery of a factory or mill. Industrial Revolution_sentence_239

Both of Watt's basic engine types were commercially very successful, and by 1800, the firm Boulton & Watt had constructed 496 engines, with 164 driving reciprocating pumps, 24 serving blast furnaces, and 308 powering mill machinery; most of the engines generated from 5 to 10 hp (3.7 to 7.5 kW). Industrial Revolution_sentence_240

Until about 1800 the most common pattern of steam engine was the beam engine, built as an integral part of a stone or brick engine-house, but soon various patterns of self-contained rotative engines (readily removable, but not on wheels) were developed, such as the table engine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_241

Around the start of the 19th century, at which time the Boulton and Watt patent expired, the Cornish engineer Richard Trevithick and the American Oliver Evans began to construct higher-pressure non-condensing steam engines, exhausting against the atmosphere. Industrial Revolution_sentence_242

High pressure yielded an engine and boiler compact enough to be used on mobile road and rail locomotives and steam boats. Industrial Revolution_sentence_243

The development of machine tools, such as the engine lathe, planing, milling and shaping machines powered by these engines, enabled all the metal parts of the engines to be easily and accurately cut and in turn made it possible to build larger and more powerful engines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_244

Small industrial power requirements continued to be provided by animal and human muscle until widespread electrification in the early 20th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_245

These included crank-powered, treadle-powered and horse-powered workshop and light industrial machinery. Industrial Revolution_sentence_246

Machine tools Industrial Revolution_section_14

Main article: Machine tool Industrial Revolution_sentence_247

See also: Interchangeable parts Industrial Revolution_sentence_248

Pre-industrial machinery was built by various craftsmen—millwrights built water and windmills, carpenters made wooden framing, and smiths and turners made metal parts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_249

Wooden components had the disadvantage of changing dimensions with temperature and humidity, and the various joints tended to rack (work loose) over time. Industrial Revolution_sentence_250

As the Industrial Revolution progressed, machines with metal parts and frames became more common. Industrial Revolution_sentence_251

Other important uses of metal parts were in firearms and threaded fasteners, such as machine screws, bolts and nuts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_252

There was also the need for precision in making parts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_253

Precision would allow better working machinery, interchangeability of parts and standardization of threaded fasteners. Industrial Revolution_sentence_254

The demand for metal parts led to the development of several machine tools. Industrial Revolution_sentence_255

They have their origins in the tools developed in the 18th century by makers of clocks and watches and scientific instrument makers to enable them to batch-produce small mechanisms. Industrial Revolution_sentence_256

Before the advent of machine tools, metal was worked manually using the basic hand tools of hammers, files, scrapers, saws and chisels. Industrial Revolution_sentence_257

Consequently, the use of metal machine parts was kept to a minimum. Industrial Revolution_sentence_258

Hand methods of production were very laborious and costly and precision was difficult to achieve. Industrial Revolution_sentence_259

The first large precision machine tool was the cylinder boring machine invented by John Wilkinson in 1774. Industrial Revolution_sentence_260

It was used for boring the large-diameter cylinders on early steam engines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_261

Wilkinson's boring machine differed from earlier cantilevered machines used for boring cannon in that the cutting tool was mounted on a beam that ran through the cylinder being bored and was supported outside on both ends. Industrial Revolution_sentence_262

The planing machine, the milling machine and the shaping machine were developed in the early decades of the 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_263

Although the milling machine was invented at this time, it was not developed as a serious workshop tool until somewhat later in the 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_264

Henry Maudslay, who trained a school of machine tool makers early in the 19th century, was a mechanic with superior ability who had been employed at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. Industrial Revolution_sentence_265

He worked as an apprentice in the Royal Gun Foundry of Jan Verbruggen. Industrial Revolution_sentence_266

In 1774 Jan Verbruggen had installed a horizontal boring machine in Woolwich which was the first industrial size lathe in the UK. Industrial Revolution_sentence_267

Maudslay was hired away by Joseph Bramah for the production of high-security metal locks that required precision craftsmanship. Industrial Revolution_sentence_268

Bramah patented a lathe that had similarities to the slide rest lathe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_269

Maudslay perfected the slide rest lathe, which could cut machine screws of different thread pitches by using changeable gears between the spindle and the lead screw. Industrial Revolution_sentence_270

Before its invention screws could not be cut to any precision using various earlier lathe designs, some of which copied from a template. Industrial Revolution_sentence_271

The slide rest lathe was called one of history's most important inventions. Industrial Revolution_sentence_272

Although it was not entirely Maudslay's idea, he was the first person to build a functional lathe using a combination of known innovations of the lead screw, slide rest and change gears. Industrial Revolution_sentence_273

Maudslay left Bramah's employment and set up his own shop. Industrial Revolution_sentence_274

He was engaged to build the machinery for making ships' pulley blocks for the Royal Navy in the Portsmouth Block Mills. Industrial Revolution_sentence_275

These machines were all-metal and were the first machines for mass production and making components with a degree of interchangeability. Industrial Revolution_sentence_276

The lessons Maudslay learned about the need for stability and precision he adapted to the development of machine tools, and in his workshops he trained a generation of men to build on his work, such as Richard Roberts, Joseph Clement and Joseph Whitworth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_277

James Fox of Derby had a healthy export trade in machine tools for the first third of the century, as did Matthew Murray of Leeds. Industrial Revolution_sentence_278

Roberts was a maker of high-quality machine tools and a pioneer of the use of jigs and gauges for precision workshop measurement. Industrial Revolution_sentence_279

The effect of machine tools during the Industrial Revolution was not that great because other than firearms, threaded fasteners and a few other industries there were few mass-produced metal parts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_280

The techniques to make mass-produced metal parts made with sufficient precision to be interchangeable is largely attributed to a program of the U.S. Department of War which perfected interchangeable parts for firearms in the early 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_281

In the half century following the invention of the fundamental machine tools the machine industry became the largest industrial sector of the U.S. economy, by value added. Industrial Revolution_sentence_282

Chemicals Industrial Revolution_section_15

The large-scale production of chemicals was an important development during the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_283

The first of these was the production of sulphuric acid by the lead chamber process invented by the Englishman John Roebuck (James Watt's first partner) in 1746. Industrial Revolution_sentence_284

He was able to greatly increase the scale of the manufacture by replacing the relatively expensive glass vessels formerly used with larger, less expensive chambers made of riveted sheets of lead. Industrial Revolution_sentence_285

Instead of making a small amount each time, he was able to make around 100 pounds (50 kg) in each of the chambers, at least a tenfold increase. Industrial Revolution_sentence_286

The production of an alkali on a large scale became an important goal as well, and Nicolas Leblanc succeeded in 1791 in introducing a method for the production of sodium carbonate. Industrial Revolution_sentence_287

The Leblanc process was a reaction of sulfuric acid with sodium chloride to give sodium sulfate and hydrochloric acid. Industrial Revolution_sentence_288

The sodium sulfate was heated with limestone (calcium carbonate) and coal to give a mixture of sodium carbonate and calcium sulfide. Industrial Revolution_sentence_289

Adding water separated the soluble sodium carbonate from the calcium sulfide. Industrial Revolution_sentence_290

The process produced a large amount of pollution (the hydrochloric acid was initially vented to the air, and calcium sulfide was a useless waste product). Industrial Revolution_sentence_291

Nonetheless, this synthetic soda ash proved economical compared to that from burning specific plants (barilla) or from kelp, which were the previously dominant sources of soda ash, and also to potash (potassium carbonate) produced from hardwood ashes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_292

These two chemicals were very important because they enabled the introduction of a host of other inventions, replacing many small-scale operations with more cost-effective and controllable processes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_293

Sodium carbonate had many uses in the glass, textile, soap, and paper industries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_294

Early uses for sulfuric acid included pickling (removing rust) iron and steel, and for bleaching cloth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_295

The development of bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) by Scottish chemist Charles Tennant in about 1800, based on the discoveries of French chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, revolutionised the bleaching processes in the textile industry by dramatically reducing the time required (from months to days) for the traditional process then in use, which required repeated exposure to the sun in bleach fields after soaking the textiles with alkali or sour milk. Industrial Revolution_sentence_296

Tennant's factory at St Rollox, North Glasgow, became the largest chemical plant in the world. Industrial Revolution_sentence_297

After 1860 the focus on chemical innovation was in dyestuffs, and Germany took world leadership, building a strong chemical industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_298

Aspiring chemists flocked to German universities in the 1860–1914 era to learn the latest techniques. Industrial Revolution_sentence_299

British scientists by contrast, lacked research universities and did not train advanced students; instead, the practice was to hire German-trained chemists. Industrial Revolution_sentence_300

Cement Industrial Revolution_section_16

In 1824 Joseph Aspdin, a British bricklayer turned builder, patented a chemical process for making portland cement which was an important advance in the building trades. Industrial Revolution_sentence_301

This process involves sintering a mixture of clay and limestone to about 1,400 °C (2,552 °F), then grinding it into a fine powder which is then mixed with water, sand and gravel to produce concrete. Industrial Revolution_sentence_302

Portland cement was used by the famous English engineer Marc Isambard Brunel several years later when constructing the Thames Tunnel. Industrial Revolution_sentence_303

Cement was used on a large scale in the construction of the London sewerage system a generation later. Industrial Revolution_sentence_304

Gas lighting Industrial Revolution_section_17

Main article: Gas lighting Industrial Revolution_sentence_305

Another major industry of the later Industrial Revolution was gas lighting. Industrial Revolution_sentence_306

Though others made a similar innovation elsewhere, the large-scale introduction of this was the work of William Murdoch, an employee of Boulton & Watt, the Birmingham steam engine pioneers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_307

The process consisted of the large-scale gasification of coal in furnaces, the purification of the gas (removal of sulphur, ammonia, and heavy hydrocarbons), and its storage and distribution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_308

The first gas lighting utilities were established in London between 1812 and 1820. Industrial Revolution_sentence_309

They soon became one of the major consumers of coal in the UK. Industrial Revolution_sentence_310

Gas lighting affected social and industrial organisation because it allowed factories and stores to remain open longer than with tallow candles or oil. Industrial Revolution_sentence_311

Its introduction allowed nightlife to flourish in cities and towns as interiors and streets could be lighted on a larger scale than before. Industrial Revolution_sentence_312

Glass making Industrial Revolution_section_18

Main article: Glass production Industrial Revolution_sentence_313

Glass was made in ancient Greece and Rome. Industrial Revolution_sentence_314

A new method of producing glass, known as the cylinder process, was developed in Europe during the early 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_315

In 1832 this process was used by the Chance Brothers to create sheet glass. Industrial Revolution_sentence_316

They became the leading producers of window and plate glass. Industrial Revolution_sentence_317

This advancement allowed for larger panes of glass to be created without interruption, thus freeing up the space planning in interiors as well as the fenestration of buildings. Industrial Revolution_sentence_318

The Crystal Palace is the supreme example of the use of sheet glass in a new and innovative structure. Industrial Revolution_sentence_319

Paper machine Industrial Revolution_section_19

Main article: Paper machine Industrial Revolution_sentence_320

A machine for making a continuous sheet of paper on a loop of wire fabric was patented in 1798 by Nicholas Louis Robert who worked for Saint-Léger Didot family in France. Industrial Revolution_sentence_321

The paper machine is known as a Fourdrinier after the financiers, brothers Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier, who were stationers in London. Industrial Revolution_sentence_322

Although greatly improved and with many variations, the Fourdriner machine is the predominant means of paper production today. Industrial Revolution_sentence_323

The method of continuous production demonstrated by the paper machine influenced the development of continuous rolling of iron and later steel and other continuous production processes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_324

Agriculture Industrial Revolution_section_20

Main article: British Agricultural Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_325

The British Agricultural Revolution is considered one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution because improved agricultural productivity freed up workers to work in other sectors of the economy. Industrial Revolution_sentence_326

However, per-capita food supply in Europe was stagnant or declining and did not improve in some parts of Europe until the late 18th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_327

Industrial technologies that affected farming included the seed drill, the Dutch plough, which contained iron parts, and the threshing machine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_328

The English lawyer Jethro Tull invented an improved seed drill in 1701. Industrial Revolution_sentence_329

It was a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds evenly across a plot of land and planted them at the correct depth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_330

This was important because the yield of seeds harvested to seeds planted at that time was around four or five. Industrial Revolution_sentence_331

Tull's seed drill was very expensive and not very reliable and therefore did not have much of an effect. Industrial Revolution_sentence_332

Good quality seed drills were not produced until the mid 18th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_333

Joseph Foljambe's Rotherham plough of 1730 was the first commercially successful iron plough. Industrial Revolution_sentence_334

The threshing machine, invented by the Scottish engineer Andrew Meikle in 1784, displaced hand threshing with a flail, a laborious job that took about one-quarter of agricultural labour. Industrial Revolution_sentence_335

It took several decades to diffuse and was the final straw for many farm labourers, who faced near starvation, leading to the 1830 agricultural rebellion of the Swing Riots. Industrial Revolution_sentence_336

Machine tools and metalworking techniques developed during the Industrial Revolution eventually resulted in precision manufacturing techniques in the late 19th century for mass-producing agricultural equipment, such as reapers, binders and combine harvesters. Industrial Revolution_sentence_337

Mining Industrial Revolution_section_21

Coal mining in Britain, particularly in South Wales, started early. Industrial Revolution_sentence_338

Before the steam engine, pits were often shallow bell pits following a seam of coal along the surface, which were abandoned as the coal was extracted. Industrial Revolution_sentence_339

In other cases, if the geology was favourable, the coal was mined by means of an adit or drift mine driven into the side of a hill. Industrial Revolution_sentence_340

Shaft mining was done in some areas, but the limiting factor was the problem of removing water. Industrial Revolution_sentence_341

It could be done by hauling buckets of water up the shaft or to a sough (a tunnel driven into a hill to drain a mine). Industrial Revolution_sentence_342

In either case, the water had to be discharged into a stream or ditch at a level where it could flow away by gravity. Industrial Revolution_sentence_343

The introduction of the steam pump by Thomas Savery in 1698 and the Newcomen steam engine in 1712 greatly facilitated the removal of water and enabled shafts to be made deeper, enabling more coal to be extracted. Industrial Revolution_sentence_344

These were developments that had begun before the Industrial Revolution, but the adoption of John Smeaton's improvements to the Newcomen engine followed by James Watt's more efficient steam engines from the 1770s reduced the fuel costs of engines, making mines more profitable. Industrial Revolution_sentence_345

The Cornish engine, developed in the 1810s, was much more efficient than the Watt steam engine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_346

Coal mining was very dangerous owing to the presence of firedamp in many coal seams. Industrial Revolution_sentence_347

Some degree of safety was provided by the safety lamp which was invented in 1816 by Sir Humphry Davy and independently by George Stephenson. Industrial Revolution_sentence_348

However, the lamps proved a false dawn because they became unsafe very quickly and provided a weak light. Industrial Revolution_sentence_349

Firedamp explosions continued, often setting off coal dust explosions, so casualties grew during the entire 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_350

Conditions of work were very poor, with a high casualty rate from rock falls. Industrial Revolution_sentence_351

Transportation Industrial Revolution_section_22

Main article: Transport during the British Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_352

See also: Productivity improving technologies (economic history) § Infrastructures Industrial Revolution_sentence_353

At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, inland transport was by navigable rivers and roads, with coastal vessels employed to move heavy goods by sea. Industrial Revolution_sentence_354

Wagonways were used for conveying coal to rivers for further shipment, but canals had not yet been widely constructed. Industrial Revolution_sentence_355

Animals supplied all of the motive power on land, with sails providing the motive power on the sea. Industrial Revolution_sentence_356

The first horse railways were introduced toward the end of the 18th century, with steam locomotives being introduced in the early decades of the 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_357

Improving sailing technologies boosted average sailing speed 50% between 1750 and 1830. Industrial Revolution_sentence_358

The Industrial Revolution improved Britain's transport infrastructure with a turnpike road network, a canal and waterway network, and a railway network. Industrial Revolution_sentence_359

Raw materials and finished products could be moved more quickly and cheaply than before. Industrial Revolution_sentence_360

Improved transportation also allowed new ideas to spread quickly. Industrial Revolution_sentence_361

Canals and improved waterways Industrial Revolution_section_23

Main article: History of the British canal system Industrial Revolution_sentence_362

Before and during the Industrial Revolution navigation on several British rivers was improved by removing obstructions, straightening curves, widening and deepening and building navigation locks. Industrial Revolution_sentence_363

Britain had over 1,000 miles of navigable rivers and streams by 1750. Industrial Revolution_sentence_364

Canals and waterways allowed bulk materials to be economically transported long distances inland. Industrial Revolution_sentence_365

This was because a horse could pull a barge with a load dozens of times larger than the load that could be drawn in a cart. Industrial Revolution_sentence_366

In the UK, canals began to be built in the late 18th century to link the major manufacturing centres across the country. Industrial Revolution_sentence_367

Known for its huge commercial success, the Bridgewater Canal in North West England, which opened in 1761 and was mostly funded by The 3rd Duke of Bridgewater. Industrial Revolution_sentence_368

From Worsley to the rapidly growing town of Manchester its construction cost £168,000 (£22,589,130 as of 2013), but its advantages over land and river transport meant that within a year of its opening in 1761, the price of coal in Manchester fell by about half. Industrial Revolution_sentence_369

This success helped inspire a period of intense canal building, known as Canal Mania. Industrial Revolution_sentence_370

New canals were hastily built in the aim of replicating the commercial success of the Bridgewater Canal, the most notable being the Leeds and Liverpool Canal and the Thames and Severn Canal which opened in 1774 and 1789 respectively. Industrial Revolution_sentence_371

By the 1820s a national network was in existence. Industrial Revolution_sentence_372

Canal construction served as a model for the organisation and methods later used to construct the railways. Industrial Revolution_sentence_373

They were eventually largely superseded as profitable commercial enterprises by the spread of the railways from the 1840s on. Industrial Revolution_sentence_374

The last major canal to be built in the United Kingdom was the Manchester Ship Canal, which upon opening in 1894 was the largest ship canal in the world, and opened Manchester as a port. Industrial Revolution_sentence_375

However it never achieved the commercial success its sponsors had hoped for and signalled canals as a dying mode of transport in an age dominated by railways, which were quicker and often cheaper. Industrial Revolution_sentence_376

Britain's canal network, together with its surviving mill buildings, is one of the most enduring features of the early Industrial Revolution to be seen in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_377

Roads Industrial Revolution_section_24

France was known for having an excellent system of roads at the time of the Industrial Revolution; however, most of the roads on the European Continent and in the U.K. were in bad condition and dangerously rutted. Industrial Revolution_sentence_378

Much of the original British road system was poorly maintained by thousands of local parishes, but from the 1720s (and occasionally earlier) turnpike trusts were set up to charge tolls and maintain some roads. Industrial Revolution_sentence_379

Increasing numbers of main roads were turnpiked from the 1750s to the extent that almost every main road in England and Wales was the responsibility of a turnpike trust. Industrial Revolution_sentence_380

New engineered roads were built by John Metcalf, Thomas Telford and most notably John McAdam, with the first 'macadamised' stretch of road being Marsh Road at Ashton Gate, Bristol in 1816. Industrial Revolution_sentence_381

The major turnpikes radiated from London and were the means by which the Royal Mail was able to reach the rest of the country. Industrial Revolution_sentence_382

Heavy goods transport on these roads was by means of slow, broad wheeled, carts hauled by teams of horses. Industrial Revolution_sentence_383

Lighter goods were conveyed by smaller carts or by teams of pack horse. Industrial Revolution_sentence_384

Stagecoaches carried the rich, and the less wealthy could pay to ride on carriers carts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_385

Railways Industrial Revolution_section_25

Main article: History of rail transport in Great Britain Industrial Revolution_sentence_386

Reducing friction was one of the major reasons for the success of railroads compared to wagons. Industrial Revolution_sentence_387

This was demonstrated on an iron plate covered wooden tramway in 1805 at Croydon, England. Industrial Revolution_sentence_388

Railways were made practical by the widespread introduction of inexpensive puddled iron after 1800, the rolling mill for making rails, and the development of the high-pressure steam engine also around 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_389

Wagonways for moving coal in the mining areas had started in the 17th century and were often associated with canal or river systems for the further movement of coal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_390

These were all horse drawn or relied on gravity, with a stationary steam engine to haul the wagons back to the top of the incline. Industrial Revolution_sentence_391

The first applications of the steam locomotive were on wagon or plate ways (as they were then often called from the cast-iron plates used). Industrial Revolution_sentence_392

Horse-drawn public railways did not begin until the early years of the 19th century when improvements to pig and wrought iron production were lowering costs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_393

Steam locomotives began being built after the introduction of high-pressure steam engines after the expiration of the Boulton and Watt patent in 1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_394

High-pressure engines exhausted used steam to the atmosphere, doing away with the condenser and cooling water. Industrial Revolution_sentence_395

They were also much lighter weight and smaller in size for a given horsepower than the stationary condensing engines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_396

A few of these early locomotives were used in mines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_397

Steam-hauled public railways began with the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. Industrial Revolution_sentence_398

The rapid introduction of railways followed the 1829 Rainhill Trials, which demonstrated Robert Stephenson's successful locomotive design and the 1828 development of hot blast, which dramatically reduced the fuel consumption of making iron and increased the capacity of the blast furnace. Industrial Revolution_sentence_399

On 15 September 1830, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was opened, the first inter-city railway in the world and was attended by Prime Minister, the Duke of Wellington. Industrial Revolution_sentence_400

The railway was engineered by Joseph Locke and George Stephenson, linked the rapidly expanding industrial town of Manchester with the port town of Liverpool. Industrial Revolution_sentence_401

The opening was marred by problems, due to the primitive nature of the technology being employed, however problems were gradually ironed out and the railway became highly successful, transporting passengers and freight. Industrial Revolution_sentence_402

The success of the inter-city railway, particularly in the transport of freight and commodities, led to Railway Mania. Industrial Revolution_sentence_403

Construction of major railways connecting the larger cities and towns began in the 1830s but only gained momentum at the very end of the first Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_404

After many of the workers had completed the railways, they did not return to their rural lifestyles but instead remained in the cities, providing additional workers for the factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_405

Other developments Industrial Revolution_section_26

Other developments included more efficient water wheels, based on experiments conducted by the British engineer John Smeaton, the beginnings of a machine industry and the rediscovery of concrete (based on hydraulic lime mortar) by John Smeaton, which had been lost for 1,300 years. Industrial Revolution_sentence_406

Social effects Industrial Revolution_section_27

Main article: Life in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_407

Factory system Industrial Revolution_section_28

Main article: Factory system Industrial Revolution_sentence_408

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, most of the workforce was employed in agriculture, either as self-employed farmers as landowners or tenants, or as landless agricultural labourers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_409

It was common for families in various parts of the world to spin yarn, weave cloth and make their own clothing. Industrial Revolution_sentence_410

Households also spun and wove for market production. Industrial Revolution_sentence_411

At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution India, China and regions of Iraq and elsewhere in Asia and the Middle East produced most of the world's cotton cloth while Europeans produced wool and linen goods. Industrial Revolution_sentence_412

In Britain by the 16th century the putting-out system, by which farmers and townspeople produced goods for market in their homes, often described as cottage industry, was being practiced. Industrial Revolution_sentence_413

Typical putting out system goods included spinning and weaving. Industrial Revolution_sentence_414

Merchant capitalists typically provided the raw materials, paid workers by the piece, and were responsible for the sale of the goods. Industrial Revolution_sentence_415

Embezzlement of supplies by workers and poor quality were common problems. Industrial Revolution_sentence_416

The logistical effort in procuring and distributing raw materials and picking up finished goods were also limitations of the putting out system. Industrial Revolution_sentence_417

Some early spinning and weaving machinery, such as a 40 spindle jenny for about six pounds in 1792, was affordable for cottagers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_418

Later machinery such as spinning frames, spinning mules and power looms were expensive (especially if water powered), giving rise to capitalist ownership of factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_419

The majority of textile factory workers during the Industrial Revolution were unmarried women and children, including many orphans. Industrial Revolution_sentence_420

They typically worked for 12 to 14 hours per day with only Sundays off. Industrial Revolution_sentence_421

It was common for women take factory jobs seasonally during slack periods of farm work. Industrial Revolution_sentence_422

Lack of adequate transportation, long hours and poor pay made it difficult to recruit and maintain workers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_423

Many workers, such as displaced farmers and agricultural workers, who had nothing but their labour to sell, became factory workers out of necessity. Industrial Revolution_sentence_424

(See: British Agricultural Revolution, Threshing machine) Industrial Revolution_sentence_425

The change in the social relationship of the factory worker compared to farmers and cottagers was viewed unfavourably by Karl Marx; however, he recognized the increase in productivity made possible by technology. Industrial Revolution_sentence_426

Standards of living Industrial Revolution_section_29

Some economists, such as Robert E. Lucas, Jr., say that the real effect of the Industrial Revolution was that "for the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth ... Industrial Revolution_sentence_427

Nothing remotely like this economic behaviour is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility." Industrial Revolution_sentence_428

Others, however, argue that while growth of the economy's overall productive powers was unprecedented during the Industrial Revolution, living standards for the majority of the population did not grow meaningfully until the late 19th and 20th centuries, and that in many ways workers' living standards declined under early capitalism: for instance, studies have shown that real wages in Britain only increased 15% between the 1780s and 1850s, and that life expectancy in Britain did not begin to dramatically increase until the 1870s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_429

Similarly, the average height of the population declined during the Industrial Revolution, implying that their nutritional status was also decreasing. Industrial Revolution_sentence_430

Real wages were not keeping up with the price of food. Industrial Revolution_sentence_431

During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically. Industrial Revolution_sentence_432

The percentage of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5% in 1730–1749 to 31.8% in 1810–1829. Industrial Revolution_sentence_433

The effects on living conditions of the industrial revolution have been very controversial, and were hotly debated by economic and social historians from the 1950s to the 1980s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_434

A series of 1950s essays by Henry Phelps Brown and Sheila V. Hopkins later set the academic consensus that the bulk of the population, that was at the bottom of the social ladder, suffered severe reductions in their living standards. Industrial Revolution_sentence_435

During 1813–1913, there was a significant increase in worker wages. Industrial Revolution_sentence_436

Food and nutrition Industrial Revolution_section_30

Main article: British Agricultural Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_437

Chronic hunger and malnutrition were the norm for the majority of the population of the world including Britain and France, until the late 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_438

Until about 1750, in large part due to malnutrition, life expectancy in France was about 35 years and about 40 years in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_439

The United States population of the time was adequately fed, much taller on average and had life expectancy of 45–50 years although U.S. life expectancy declined by a few years by the mid 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_440

Food consumption per capita also declined during an episode known as the Antebellum Puzzle. Industrial Revolution_sentence_441

Food supply in Great Britain was adversely affected by the Corn Laws (1815–1846). Industrial Revolution_sentence_442

The Corn Laws, which imposed tariffs on imported grain, were enacted to keep prices high in order to benefit domestic producers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_443

The Corn Laws were repealed in the early years of the Great Irish Famine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_444

The initial technologies of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized textiles, iron and coal, did little, if anything, to lower food prices. Industrial Revolution_sentence_445

In Britain and the Netherlands, food supply increased before the Industrial Revolution due to better agricultural practices; however, population grew too, as noted by Thomas Malthus. Industrial Revolution_sentence_446

This condition is called the Malthusian trap, and it finally started to be overcome by transportation improvements, such as canals, improved roads and steamships. Industrial Revolution_sentence_447

Railroads and steamships were introduced near the end of the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_448

Housing Industrial Revolution_section_31

The rapid population growth in the 19th century included the new industrial and manufacturing cities, as well as service centers such as Edinburgh and London. Industrial Revolution_sentence_449

The critical factor was financing, which was handled by building societies that dealt directly with large contracting firms. Industrial Revolution_sentence_450

Private renting from housing landlords was the dominant tenure. Industrial Revolution_sentence_451

P. Kemp says this was usually of advantage to tenants. Industrial Revolution_sentence_452

People moved in so rapidly there was not enough capital to build adequate housing for everyone, so low-income newcomers squeezed into increasingly overcrowded slums. Industrial Revolution_sentence_453

Clean water, sanitation, and public health facilities were inadequate; the death rate was high, especially infant mortality, and tuberculosis among young adults. Industrial Revolution_sentence_454

Cholera from polluted water and typhoid were endemic. Industrial Revolution_sentence_455

Unlike rural areas, there were no famines such as the one that devastated Ireland in the 1840s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_456

A large exposé literature grew up condemning the unhealthy conditions. Industrial Revolution_sentence_457

By far the most famous publication was by one of the founders of the Socialist movement, The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 Friedrich Engels described backstreet sections of Manchester and other mill towns, where people lived in crude shanties and shacks, some not completely enclosed, some with dirt floors. Industrial Revolution_sentence_458

These shanty towns had narrow walkways between irregularly shaped lots and dwellings. Industrial Revolution_sentence_459

There were no sanitary facilities. Industrial Revolution_sentence_460

Population density was extremely high. Industrial Revolution_sentence_461

However, not everyone lived in such poor conditions. Industrial Revolution_sentence_462

The Industrial Revolution also created a middle class of businessmen, clerks, foremen and engineers who lived in much better conditions. Industrial Revolution_sentence_463

Conditions improved over the course of the 19th century due to new public health acts regulating things such as sewage, hygiene and home construction. Industrial Revolution_sentence_464

In the introduction of his 1892 edition, Engels notes that most of the conditions he wrote about in 1844 had been greatly improved. Industrial Revolution_sentence_465

For example, the Public Health Act 1875 led to the more sanitary byelaw terraced house. Industrial Revolution_sentence_466

Sanitation Industrial Revolution_section_32

In The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 Friedrich Engels described how untreated sewage created awful odours and turned the rivers green in industrial cities. Industrial Revolution_sentence_467

In 1854 John Snow traced a cholera outbreak in Soho in London to faecal contamination of a public water well by a home cesspit. Industrial Revolution_sentence_468

Snow's findings that cholera could be spread by contaminated water took some years to be accepted, but his work led to fundamental changes in the design of public water and waste systems. Industrial Revolution_sentence_469

Water supply Industrial Revolution_section_33

Pre-industrial water supply relied on gravity systems and pumping of water was done by water wheels. Industrial Revolution_sentence_470

Pipes were typically made of wood. Industrial Revolution_sentence_471

Steam powered pumps and iron pipes allowed the widespread piping of water to horse watering troughs and households. Industrial Revolution_sentence_472

Literacy and industrialization Industrial Revolution_section_34

Further information: Literacy Industrial Revolution_sentence_473

Modern industrialization began in England and Scotland in the 18th century, where there were relatively high levels of literacy among farmers, especially in Scotland. Industrial Revolution_sentence_474

This permitted the recruitment of literate craftsman, skilled workers, foremen and managers who supervised the emerging textile factories and coal mines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_475

Much of a labor was unskilled, and especially in textile mills children as young as eight proved useful in handling chores and adding to the family income. Industrial Revolution_sentence_476

Indeed, children were taken out of school to work alongside their parents in the factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_477

However, by the mid-nineteenth century, unskilled labor forces were common in Western Europe, and British industry moved upscale, needing many more engineers and skilled workers who could handle technical instructions and handle complex situations. Industrial Revolution_sentence_478

Literacy was essential to be hired. Industrial Revolution_sentence_479

A senior government official told Parliament in 1870: Industrial Revolution_sentence_480

Industrial Revolution_description_list_1

  • Upon the speedy provision of elementary education depends are industrial prosperity. It is of no use trying to give technical teaching to our citizens without elementary education; uneducated labourers—and many of our labourers are utterly uneducated—are, for the most part, unskilled labourers, and if we leave our work–folk any longer unskilled, notwithstanding their strong sinews and determined energy, they will become overmatched in the competition of the world.Industrial Revolution_item_1_4

The invention of the paper machine and the application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and pamphlet publishing, which contributed to rising literacy and demands for mass political participation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_481

Clothing and consumer goods Industrial Revolution_section_35

Consumers benefited from falling prices for clothing and household articles such as cast iron cooking utensils, and in the following decades, stoves for cooking and space heating. Industrial Revolution_sentence_482

Coffee, tea, sugar, tobacco and chocolate became affordable to many in Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_483

Watches and household clocks became popular consumer items. Industrial Revolution_sentence_484

Meeting the demands of the consumer revolution and growth in wealth of the middle classes in Britain, potter and entrepreneur Josiah Wedgwood, founder of Wedgwood fine china and porcelain, created goods such as tableware, which was starting to become a common feature on dining tables. Industrial Revolution_sentence_485

A growing consumer culture also saw people start to spend more money on entertainment. Industrial Revolution_sentence_486

Increased literacy rates, industrialisation, and the invention of railway, created a new market for cheap popular literature for the masses and the ability for it to be circulated on a large scale. Industrial Revolution_sentence_487

Penny dreadfuls were created in the 1830s to meet this demand. Industrial Revolution_sentence_488

The Guardian described penny dreadfuls as "Britain's first taste of mass-produced popular culture for the young", and "the Victorian equivalent of video games". Industrial Revolution_sentence_489

More than one million boys' periodicals were sold per week. Industrial Revolution_sentence_490

In 1861, Welsh entrepreneur Pryce Pryce-Jones formed the first mail order business, an idea which would change the nature of retail. Industrial Revolution_sentence_491

Selling Welsh flannel, he created mail order catalogues, with customers able to order by mail for the first time—this following the Uniform Penny Post in 1840 and the invention of the postage stamp (Penny Black) where there was a charge of one penny for carriage and delivery between any two places in the United Kingdom irrespective of distance—and the goods were delivered throughout the UK via the newly created railway system. Industrial Revolution_sentence_492

As the railway network expanded overseas, so did his business. Industrial Revolution_sentence_493

Population increase Industrial Revolution_section_36

The Industrial Revolution was the first period in history during which there was a simultaneous increase in both population and per capita income. Industrial Revolution_sentence_494

According to Robert Hughes in The Fatal Shore, the population of England and Wales, which had remained steady at six million from 1700 to 1740, rose dramatically after 1740. Industrial Revolution_sentence_495

The population of England had more than doubled from 8.3 million in 1801 to 16.8 million in 1850 and, by 1901, had nearly doubled again to 30.5 million. Industrial Revolution_sentence_496

Improved conditions led to the population of Britain increasing from 10 million to 40 million in the 1800s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_497

Europe's population increased from about 100 million in 1700 to 400 million by 1900. Industrial Revolution_sentence_498

Urbanization Industrial Revolution_section_37

The growth of modern industry since the late 18th century led to massive urbanisation and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. Industrial Revolution_sentence_499

In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, compared to nearly 50% today (the beginning of the 21st century). Industrial Revolution_sentence_500

Manchester had a population of 10,000 in 1717, but by 1911 it had burgeoned to 2.3 million. Industrial Revolution_sentence_501

Effect on women and family life Industrial Revolution_section_38

Women's historians have debated the effect of the Industrial Revolution and capitalism generally on the status of women. Industrial Revolution_sentence_502

Taking a pessimistic side, Alice Clark argued that when capitalism arrived in 17th-century England, it lowered the status of women as they lost much of their economic importance. Industrial Revolution_sentence_503

Clark argues that in 16th-century England, women were engaged in many aspects of industry and agriculture. Industrial Revolution_sentence_504

The home was a central unit of production and women played a vital role in running farms, and in some trades and landed estates. Industrial Revolution_sentence_505

Their useful economic roles gave them a sort of equality with their husbands. Industrial Revolution_sentence_506

However, Clark argues, as capitalism expanded in the 17th century, there was more and more division of labour with the husband taking paid labour jobs outside the home, and the wife reduced to unpaid household work. Industrial Revolution_sentence_507

Middle- and upper-class women were confined to an idle domestic existence, supervising servants; lower-class women were forced to take poorly paid jobs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_508

Capitalism, therefore, had a negative effect on powerful women. Industrial Revolution_sentence_509

In a more positive interpretation, Ivy Pinchbeck argues that capitalism created the conditions for women's emancipation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_510

Tilly and Scott have emphasised the continuity in the status of women, finding three stages in English history. Industrial Revolution_sentence_511

In the pre-industrial era, production was mostly for home use and women produce much of the needs of the households. Industrial Revolution_sentence_512

The second stage was the "family wage economy" of early industrialisation; the entire family depended on the collective wages of its members, including husband, wife and older children. Industrial Revolution_sentence_513

The third or modern stage is the "family consumer economy," in which the family is the site of consumption, and women are employed in large numbers in retail and clerical jobs to support rising standards of consumption. Industrial Revolution_sentence_514

Ideas of thrift and hard work characterized middle-class families as the Industrial Revolution swept Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_515

These values were displayed in Samuel Smiles' book Self-Help, in which he states that the misery of the poorer classes was "voluntary and self-imposed – the results of idleness, thriftlessness, intemperance, and misconduct." Industrial Revolution_sentence_516

Labour conditions Industrial Revolution_section_39

Social structure and working conditions Industrial Revolution_section_40

In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of a middle class of industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_517

Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines. Industrial Revolution_sentence_518

As late as the year 1900, most industrial workers in the United States still worked a 10-hour day (12 hours in the steel industry), yet earned from 20% to 40% less than the minimum deemed necessary for a decent life; however, most workers in textiles, which was by far the leading industry in terms of employment, were women and children. Industrial Revolution_sentence_519

For workers of the labouring classes, industrial life "was a stony desert, which they had to make habitable by their own efforts." Industrial Revolution_sentence_520

Also, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. Industrial Revolution_sentence_521

Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel – child labour, dirty living conditions, and long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_522

Factories and urbanisation Industrial Revolution_section_41

Main article: Factory system Industrial Revolution_sentence_523

Industrialisation led to the creation of the factory. Industrial Revolution_sentence_524

The factory system contributed to the growth of urban areas, as large numbers of workers migrated into the cities in search of work in the factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_525

Nowhere was this better illustrated than the mills and associated industries of Manchester, nicknamed "Cottonopolis", and the world's first industrial city. Industrial Revolution_sentence_526

Manchester experienced a six-times increase in its population between 1771 and 1831. Industrial Revolution_sentence_527

Bradford grew by 50% every ten years between 1811 and 1851 and by 1851 only 50% of the population of Bradford was actually born there. Industrial Revolution_sentence_528

In addition, between 1815 and 1939, 20 percent of Europe's population left home, pushed by poverty, a rapidly growing population, and the displacement of peasant farming and artisan manufacturing. Industrial Revolution_sentence_529

They were pulled abroad by the enormous demand for labour overseas, the ready availability of land, and cheap transportation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_530

Still, many did not find a satisfactory life in their new homes, leading 7 million of them to return to Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_531

This mass migration had large demographic effects: in 1800, less than one percent of the world population consisted of overseas Europeans and their descendants; by 1930, they represented 11 percent. Industrial Revolution_sentence_532

The Americas felt the brunt of this huge emigration, largely concentrated in the United States. Industrial Revolution_sentence_533

For much of the 19th century, production was done in small mills, which were typically water-powered and built to serve local needs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_534

Later, each factory would have its own steam engine and a chimney to give an efficient draft through its boiler. Industrial Revolution_sentence_535

In other industries, the transition to factory production was not so divisive. Industrial Revolution_sentence_536

Some industrialists themselves tried to improve factory and living conditions for their workers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_537

One of the earliest such reformers was Robert Owen, known for his pioneering efforts in improving conditions for workers at the New Lanark mills, and often regarded as one of the key thinkers of the early socialist movement. Industrial Revolution_sentence_538

By 1746 an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Industrial Revolution_sentence_539

Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods. Industrial Revolution_sentence_540

Housing was provided for workers on site. Industrial Revolution_sentence_541

Josiah Wedgwood and Matthew Boulton (whose Soho Manufactory was completed in 1766) were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system. Industrial Revolution_sentence_542

Child labour Industrial Revolution_section_42

See also: Child labour § The Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_543

The Industrial Revolution led to a population increase but the chances of surviving childhood did not improve throughout the Industrial Revolution, although infant mortality rates were reduced markedly. Industrial Revolution_sentence_544

There was still limited opportunity for education and children were expected to work. Industrial Revolution_sentence_545

Employers could pay a child less than an adult even though their productivity was comparable; there was no need for strength to operate an industrial machine, and since the industrial system was completely new, there were no experienced adult labourers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_546

This made child labour the labour of choice for manufacturing in the early phases of the Industrial Revolution between the 18th and 19th centuries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_547

In England and Scotland in 1788, two-thirds of the workers in 143 water-powered cotton mills were described as children. Industrial Revolution_sentence_548

Child labour existed before the Industrial Revolution but with the increase in population and education it became more visible. Industrial Revolution_sentence_549

Many children were forced to work in relatively bad conditions for much lower pay than their elders, 10–20% of an adult male's wage. Industrial Revolution_sentence_550

Reports were written detailing some of the abuses, particularly in the coal mines and textile factories, and these helped to popularise the children's plight. Industrial Revolution_sentence_551

The public outcry, especially among the upper and middle classes, helped stir change in the young workers' welfare. Industrial Revolution_sentence_552

Politicians and the government tried to limit child labour by law but factory owners resisted; some felt that they were aiding the poor by giving their children money to buy food to avoid starvation, and others simply welcomed the cheap labour. Industrial Revolution_sentence_553

In 1833 and 1844, the first general laws against child labour, the Factory Acts, were passed in Britain: Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, children were not permitted to work at night, and the work day of youth under the age of 18 was limited to twelve hours. Industrial Revolution_sentence_554

Factory inspectors supervised the execution of the law, however, their scarcity made enforcement difficult. Industrial Revolution_sentence_555

About ten years later, the employment of children and women in mining was forbidden. Industrial Revolution_sentence_556

Although laws such as these decreased the number of child labourers, child labour remained significantly present in Europe and the United States until the 20th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_557

Organisation of labour Industrial Revolution_section_43

See also: Trade union § History Industrial Revolution_sentence_558

The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation of combinations or trade unions to help advance the interests of working people. Industrial Revolution_sentence_559

The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Industrial Revolution_sentence_560

Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffering the cost of the lost production. Industrial Revolution_sentence_561

Skilled workers were hard to replace, and these were the first groups to successfully advance their conditions through this kind of bargaining. Industrial Revolution_sentence_562

The main method the unions used to effect change was strike action. Industrial Revolution_sentence_563

Many strikes were painful events for both sides, the unions and the management. Industrial Revolution_sentence_564

In Britain, the Combination Act 1799 forbade workers to form any kind of trade union until its repeal in 1824. Industrial Revolution_sentence_565

Even after this, unions were still severely restricted. Industrial Revolution_sentence_566

One British newspaper in 1834 described unions as "the most dangerous institutions that were ever permitted to take root, under shelter of law, in any country..." Industrial Revolution_sentence_567

In 1832, the Reform Act extended the vote in Britain but did not grant universal suffrage. Industrial Revolution_sentence_568

That year six men from Tolpuddle in Dorset founded the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers to protest against the gradual lowering of wages in the 1830s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_569

They refused to work for less than ten shillings a week, although by this time wages had been reduced to seven shillings a week and were due to be further reduced to six. Industrial Revolution_sentence_570

In 1834 James Frampton, a local landowner, wrote to the Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, to complain about the union, invoking an obscure law from 1797 prohibiting people from swearing oaths to each other, which the members of the Friendly Society had done. Industrial Revolution_sentence_571

James Brine, James Hammett, George Loveless, George's brother James Loveless, George's brother in-law Thomas Standfield, and Thomas's son John Standfield were arrested, found guilty, and transported to Australia. Industrial Revolution_sentence_572

They became known as the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_573

In the 1830s and 1840s, the Chartist movement was the first large-scale organised working class political movement which campaigned for political equality and social justice. Industrial Revolution_sentence_574

Its Charter of reforms received over three million signatures but was rejected by Parliament without consideration. Industrial Revolution_sentence_575

Working people also formed friendly societies and co-operative societies as mutual support groups against times of economic hardship. Industrial Revolution_sentence_576

Enlightened industrialists, such as Robert Owen also supported these organisations to improve the conditions of the working class. Industrial Revolution_sentence_577

Unions slowly overcame the legal restrictions on the right to strike. Industrial Revolution_sentence_578

In 1842, a general strike involving cotton workers and colliers was organised through the Chartist movement which stopped production across Great Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_579

Eventually, effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to become the British Labour Party. Industrial Revolution_sentence_580

Luddites Industrial Revolution_section_44

Main article: Luddite Industrial Revolution_sentence_581

The rapid industrialisation of the English economy cost many craft workers their jobs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_582

The movement started first with lace and hosiery workers near Nottingham and spread to other areas of the textile industry owing to early industrialisation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_583

Many weavers also found themselves suddenly unemployed since they could no longer compete with machines which only required relatively limited (and unskilled) labour to produce more cloth than a single weaver. Industrial Revolution_sentence_584

Many such unemployed workers, weavers, and others, turned their animosity towards the machines that had taken their jobs and began destroying factories and machinery. Industrial Revolution_sentence_585

These attackers became known as Luddites, supposedly followers of Ned Ludd, a folklore figure. Industrial Revolution_sentence_586

The first attacks of the Luddite movement began in 1811. Industrial Revolution_sentence_587

The Luddites rapidly gained popularity, and the British government took drastic measures, using the militia or army to protect industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_588

Those rioters who were caught were tried and hanged, or transported for life. Industrial Revolution_sentence_589

Unrest continued in other sectors as they industrialised, such as with agricultural labourers in the 1830s when large parts of southern Britain were affected by the Captain Swing disturbances. Industrial Revolution_sentence_590

Threshing machines were a particular target, and hayrick burning was a popular activity. Industrial Revolution_sentence_591

However, the riots led to the first formation of trade unions, and further pressure for reform. Industrial Revolution_sentence_592

Shift in production's center of gravity Industrial Revolution_section_45

The traditional centers of hand textile production such as India, parts of the Middle East and later China could not withstand the competition from machine-made textiles, which over a period of decades destroyed the hand made textile industries and left millions of people without work, many of whom starved. Industrial Revolution_sentence_593

The Industrial Revolution also generated an enormous and unprecedented economic division in the world, as measured by the share of manufacturing output. Industrial Revolution_sentence_594

Industrial Revolution_table_general_0

Share of Total World Manufacturing Output (Percentage)Industrial Revolution_table_caption_0
Industrial Revolution_header_cell_0_0_0 1750Industrial Revolution_header_cell_0_0_1 1800Industrial Revolution_header_cell_0_0_2 1860Industrial Revolution_header_cell_0_0_3 1880Industrial Revolution_header_cell_0_0_4 1900Industrial Revolution_header_cell_0_0_5
EuropeIndustrial Revolution_cell_0_1_0 23.2Industrial Revolution_cell_0_1_1 28.1Industrial Revolution_cell_0_1_2 53.2Industrial Revolution_cell_0_1_3 61.3Industrial Revolution_cell_0_1_4 62.0Industrial Revolution_cell_0_1_5
United StatesIndustrial Revolution_cell_0_2_0 0.1Industrial Revolution_cell_0_2_1 0.8Industrial Revolution_cell_0_2_2 7.2Industrial Revolution_cell_0_2_3 14.7Industrial Revolution_cell_0_2_4 23.6Industrial Revolution_cell_0_2_5
JapanIndustrial Revolution_cell_0_3_0 3.8Industrial Revolution_cell_0_3_1 3.5Industrial Revolution_cell_0_3_2 2.6Industrial Revolution_cell_0_3_3 2.4Industrial Revolution_cell_0_3_4 2.4Industrial Revolution_cell_0_3_5
The Rest of the WorldIndustrial Revolution_cell_0_4_0 73.0Industrial Revolution_cell_0_4_1 67.7Industrial Revolution_cell_0_4_2 36.6Industrial Revolution_cell_0_4_3 20.9Industrial Revolution_cell_0_4_4 11.0Industrial Revolution_cell_0_4_5

Effect on cotton production and expansion of slavery Industrial Revolution_section_46

Cheap cotton textiles increased the demand for raw cotton; previously, it had primarily been consumed in subtropical regions where it was grown, with little raw cotton available for export. Industrial Revolution_sentence_595

Consequently, prices of raw cotton rose. Industrial Revolution_sentence_596

Some cotton had been grown in the West Indies, particularly in Hispaniola, but Haitian cotton production was halted by the Haitian Revolution in 1791. Industrial Revolution_sentence_597

The invention of the cotton gin in 1792 allowed Georgia green seeded cotton to be profitable, leading to the widespread growth of cotton plantations in the United States and Brazil. Industrial Revolution_sentence_598

In 1791 world cotton production was estimated to be 490,000,000 pounds with U.S. production accounting to 2,000,000 pounds. Industrial Revolution_sentence_599

By 1800, U.S. production was 35,000,000 pounds, of which 17,790,000 were exported. Industrial Revolution_sentence_600

In 1945 the U.S. produced seven-eights of the 1,169,600,000 pounds of world production. Industrial Revolution_sentence_601

The Americas, particularly the U.S., had labour shortages and high priced labour, which made slavery attractive. Industrial Revolution_sentence_602

America's cotton plantations were highly efficient and profitable, and able to keep up with demand. Industrial Revolution_sentence_603

The U.S. Civil War created a "cotton famine" that led to increased production in other areas of the world, including new colonies in Africa. Industrial Revolution_sentence_604

Effect on environment Industrial Revolution_section_47

The origins of the environmental movement lay in the response to increasing levels of smoke pollution in the atmosphere during the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_605

The emergence of great factories and the concomitant immense growth in coal consumption gave rise to an unprecedented level of air pollution in industrial centers; after 1900 the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Industrial Revolution_sentence_606

The first large-scale, modern environmental laws came in the form of Britain's Alkali Acts, passed in 1863, to regulate the deleterious air pollution (gaseous hydrochloric acid) given off by the Leblanc process, used to produce soda ash. Industrial Revolution_sentence_607

An Alkali inspector and four sub-inspectors were appointed to curb this pollution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_608

The responsibilities of the inspectorate were gradually expanded, culminating in the Alkali Order 1958 which placed all major heavy industries that emitted smoke, grit, dust and fumes under supervision. Industrial Revolution_sentence_609

The manufactured gas industry began in British cities in 1812–1820. Industrial Revolution_sentence_610

The technique used produced highly toxic effluent that was dumped into sewers and rivers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_611

The gas companies were repeatedly sued in nuisance lawsuits. Industrial Revolution_sentence_612

They usually lost and modified the worst practices. Industrial Revolution_sentence_613

The City of London repeatedly indicted gas companies in the 1820s for polluting the Thames and poisoning its fish. Industrial Revolution_sentence_614

Finally, Parliament wrote company charters to regulate toxicity. Industrial Revolution_sentence_615

The industry reached the US around 1850 causing pollution and lawsuits. Industrial Revolution_sentence_616

In industrial cities local experts and reformers, especially after 1890, took the lead in identifying environmental degradation and pollution, and initiating grass-roots movements to demand and achieve reforms. Industrial Revolution_sentence_617

Typically the highest priority went to water and air pollution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_618

The Coal Smoke Abatement Society was formed in Britain in 1898 making it one of the oldest environmental NGOs. Industrial Revolution_sentence_619

It was founded by artist Sir William Blake Richmond, frustrated with the pall cast by coal smoke. Industrial Revolution_sentence_620

Although there were earlier pieces of legislation, the Public Health Act 1875 required all furnaces and fireplaces to consume their own smoke. Industrial Revolution_sentence_621

It also provided for sanctions against factories that emitted large amounts of black smoke. Industrial Revolution_sentence_622

The provisions of this law were extended in 1926 with the Smoke Abatement Act to include other emissions, such as soot, ash, and gritty particles and to empower local authorities to impose their own regulations. Industrial Revolution_sentence_623

Nations and nationalism Industrial Revolution_section_48

In his 1983 book Nations and Nationalism, philosopher Ernest Gellner argues that the industrial revolution and economic modernization spurred the creation of nations. Industrial Revolution_sentence_624

Industrialisation beyond the United Kingdom Industrial Revolution_section_49

Continental Europe Industrial Revolution_section_50

The Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe came a little later than in Great Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_625

In many industries, this involved the application of technology developed in Britain in new places, starting with Belgium. Industrial Revolution_sentence_626

Often the technology was purchased from Britain or British engineers and entrepreneurs moved abroad in search of new opportunities. Industrial Revolution_sentence_627

By 1809, part of the Ruhr Valley in Westphalia was called 'Miniature England' because of its similarities to the industrial areas of England. Industrial Revolution_sentence_628

The German, Belgian and many other European governments all provided state funding to the new industries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_629

In some cases (such as iron), the different availability of resources locally meant that only some aspects of the British technology were adopted. Industrial Revolution_sentence_630

Belgium Industrial Revolution_section_51

Belgium was the second country, after Britain, in which the Industrial Revolution took place and the first in continental Europe: Wallonia (French-speaking southern Belgium) was the first region to follow the British model successfully. Industrial Revolution_sentence_631

Starting in the middle of the 1820s, and especially after Belgium became an independent nation in 1830, numerous works comprising coke blast furnaces as well as puddling and rolling mills were built in the coal mining areas around Liège and Charleroi. Industrial Revolution_sentence_632

The leader was a transplanted Englishman John Cockerill. Industrial Revolution_sentence_633

His factories at Seraing integrated all stages of production, from engineering to the supply of raw materials, as early as 1825. Industrial Revolution_sentence_634

Wallonia exemplified the radical evolution of industrial expansion. Industrial Revolution_sentence_635

Thanks to coal (the French word "houille" was coined in Wallonia), the region geared up to become the 2nd industrial power in the world after Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_636

But it is also pointed out by many researchers, with its Sillon industriel, 'Especially in the Haine, Sambre and Meuse valleys, between the Borinage and Liège, [...] there was a huge industrial development based on coal-mining and iron-making...'. Industrial Revolution_sentence_637

Philippe Raxhon wrote about the period after 1830: "It was not propaganda but a reality the Walloon regions were becoming the second industrial power all over the world after Britain." Industrial Revolution_sentence_638

"The sole industrial centre outside the collieries and blast furnaces of Walloon was the old cloth-making town of Ghent." Industrial Revolution_sentence_639

Michel De Coster, Professor at the Université de Liège wrote also: "The historians and the economists say that Belgium was the second industrial power of the world, in proportion to its population and its territory [...] But this rank is the one of Wallonia where the coal-mines, the blast furnaces, the iron and zinc factories, the wool industry, the glass industry, the weapons industry... were concentrated." Industrial Revolution_sentence_640

Demographic effects Industrial Revolution_section_52

Wallonia was also the birthplace of a strong Socialist party and strong trade-unions in a particular sociological landscape. Industrial Revolution_sentence_641

At the left, the Sillon industriel, which runs from Mons in the west, to Verviers in the east (except part of North Flanders, in another period of the industrial revolution, after 1920). Industrial Revolution_sentence_642

Even if Belgium is the second industrial country after Britain, the effect of the industrial revolution there was very different. Industrial Revolution_sentence_643

In 'Breaking stereotypes', Muriel Neven and Isabelle Devious say: Industrial Revolution_sentence_644

France Industrial Revolution_section_53

Main article: Economic history of France Industrial Revolution_sentence_645

The industrial revolution in France followed a particular course as it did not correspond to the main model followed by other countries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_646

Notably, most French historians argue France did not go through a clear take-off. Industrial Revolution_sentence_647

Instead, France's economic growth and industrialisation process was slow and steady through the 18th and 19th centuries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_648

However, some stages were identified by Maurice Lévy-Leboyer: Industrial Revolution_sentence_649

Industrial Revolution_unordered_list_2

  • French Revolution and Napoleonic wars (1789–1815),Industrial Revolution_item_2_5
  • industrialisation, along with Britain (1815–1860),Industrial Revolution_item_2_6
  • economic slowdown (1860–1905),Industrial Revolution_item_2_7
  • renewal of the growth after 1905.Industrial Revolution_item_2_8

Germany Industrial Revolution_section_54

Main article: Economic history of Germany Industrial Revolution_sentence_650

Based on its leadership in chemical research in the universities and industrial laboratories, Germany, which was unified in 1871, became dominant in the world's chemical industry in the late 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_651

At first the production of dyes based on aniline was critical. Industrial Revolution_sentence_652

Germany's political disunity—with three dozen states—and a pervasive conservatism made it difficult to build railways in the 1830s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_653

However, by the 1840s, trunk lines linked the major cities; each German state was responsible for the lines within its own borders. Industrial Revolution_sentence_654

Lacking a technological base at first, the Germans imported their engineering and hardware from Britain, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways. Industrial Revolution_sentence_655

In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by 1850, Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_656

Observers found that even as late as 1890, their engineering was inferior to Britain's. Industrial Revolution_sentence_657

However, German unification in 1870 stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth. Industrial Revolution_sentence_658

Unlike the situation in France, the goal was support of industrialisation, and so heavy lines crisscrossed the Ruhr and other industrial districts, and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. Industrial Revolution_sentence_659

By 1880, Germany had 9,400 locomotives pulling 43,000 passengers and 30,000 tons of freight, and pulled ahead of France. Industrial Revolution_sentence_660

Sweden Industrial Revolution_section_55

Main article: Economic history of Sweden Industrial Revolution_sentence_661

During the period 1790–1815 Sweden experienced two parallel economic movements: an agricultural revolution with larger agricultural estates, new crops and farming tools and a commercialisation of farming, and a protoindustrialisation, with small industries being established in the countryside and with workers switching between agricultural work in summer and industrial production in winter. Industrial Revolution_sentence_662

This led to economic growth benefiting large sections of the population and leading up to a consumption revolution starting in the 1820s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_663

Between 1815 and 1850, the protoindustries developed into more specialised and larger industries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_664

This period witnessed increasing regional specialisation with mining in Bergslagen, textile mills in Sjuhäradsbygden and forestry in Norrland. Industrial Revolution_sentence_665

Several important institutional changes took place in this period, such as free and mandatory schooling introduced in 1842 (as the first country in the world), the abolition of the national monopoly on trade in handicrafts in 1846, and a stock company law in 1848. Industrial Revolution_sentence_666

From 1850 to 1890, Sweden experienced its "first" Industrial Revolution with a veritable explosion in export, dominated by crops, wood and steel. Industrial Revolution_sentence_667

Sweden abolished most tariffs and other barriers to free trade in the 1850s and joined the gold standard in 1873. Industrial Revolution_sentence_668

Large infrastructural investments were made during this period, mainly in the expanding rail road network, which was financed in part by the government and in part by private enterprises. Industrial Revolution_sentence_669

From 1890 to 1930, new industries developed with their focus on the domestic market: mechanical engineering, power utilities, papermaking and textile. Industrial Revolution_sentence_670

Japan Industrial Revolution_section_56

Main articles: Meiji Restoration and Economic history of Japan Industrial Revolution_sentence_671

The industrial revolution began about 1870 as Meiji period leaders decided to catch up with the West. Industrial Revolution_sentence_672

The government built railroads, improved roads, and inaugurated a land reform programme to prepare the country for further development. Industrial Revolution_sentence_673

It inaugurated a new Western-based education system for all young people, sent thousands of students to the United States and Europe, and hired more than 3,000 Westerners to teach modern science, mathematics, technology, and foreign languages in Japan (Foreign government advisors in Meiji Japan). Industrial Revolution_sentence_674

In 1871, a group of Japanese politicians known as the Iwakura Mission toured Europe and the United States to learn western ways. Industrial Revolution_sentence_675

The result was a deliberate state-led industrialisation policy to enable Japan to quickly catch up. Industrial Revolution_sentence_676

The Bank of Japan, founded in 1882, used taxes to fund model steel and textile factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_677

Education was expanded and Japanese students were sent to study in the west. Industrial Revolution_sentence_678

Modern industry first appeared in textiles, including cotton and especially silk, which was based in home workshops in rural areas. Industrial Revolution_sentence_679

United States Industrial Revolution_section_57

Main articles: American system of manufacturing, Interchangeable parts, Economic history of the United States, Technological and industrial history of the United States, and Industrial Revolution in the United States Industrial Revolution_sentence_680

See also: History of Lowell, Massachusetts Industrial Revolution_sentence_681

During the late 18th and early 19th centuries when the UK and parts of Western Europe began to industrialise, the US was primarily an agricultural and natural resource producing and processing economy. Industrial Revolution_sentence_682

The building of roads and canals, the introduction of steamboats and the building of railroads were important for handling agricultural and natural resource products in the large and sparsely populated country of the period. Industrial Revolution_sentence_683

Important American technological contributions during the period of the Industrial Revolution were the cotton gin and the development of a system for making interchangeable parts, the latter aided by the development of the milling machine in the US. Industrial Revolution_sentence_684

The development of machine tools and the system of interchangeable parts were the basis for the rise of the US as the world's leading industrial nation in the late 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_685

Oliver Evans invented an automated flour mill in the mid-1780s that used control mechanisms and conveyors so that no labour was needed from the time grain was loaded into the elevator buckets until flour was discharged into a wagon. Industrial Revolution_sentence_686

This is considered to be the first modern materials handling system an important advance in the progress toward mass production. Industrial Revolution_sentence_687

The United States originally used horse-powered machinery for small scale applications such as grain milling, but eventually switched to water power after textile factories began being built in the 1790s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_688

As a result, industrialisation was concentrated in New England and the Northeastern United States, which has fast-moving rivers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_689

The newer water-powered production lines proved more economical than horse-drawn production. Industrial Revolution_sentence_690

In the late 19th century steam-powered manufacturing overtook water-powered manufacturing, allowing the industry to spread to the Midwest. Industrial Revolution_sentence_691

Thomas Somers and the Cabot Brothers founded the Beverly Cotton Manufactory in 1787, the first cotton mill in America, the largest cotton mill of its era, and a significant milestone in the research and development of cotton mills in the future. Industrial Revolution_sentence_692

This mill was designed to use horse power, but the operators quickly learned that the horse-drawn platform was economically unstable, and had economic losses for years. Industrial Revolution_sentence_693

Despite the losses, the Manufactory served as a playground of innovation, both in turning a large amount of cotton, but also developing the water-powered milling structure used in Slater's Mill. Industrial Revolution_sentence_694

In 1793, Samuel Slater (1768–1835) founded the Slater Mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Industrial Revolution_sentence_695

He had learned of the new textile technologies as a boy apprentice in Derbyshire, England, and defied laws against the emigration of skilled workers by leaving for New York in 1789, hoping to make money with his knowledge. Industrial Revolution_sentence_696

After founding Slater's Mill, he went on to own 13 textile mills. Industrial Revolution_sentence_697

Daniel Day established a wool carding mill in the Blackstone Valley at Uxbridge, Massachusetts in 1809, the third woollen mill established in the US (The first was in Hartford, Connecticut, and the second at Watertown, Massachusetts.) Industrial Revolution_sentence_698

The John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor retraces the history of "America's Hardest-Working River', the Blackstone. Industrial Revolution_sentence_699

The Blackstone River and its tributaries, which cover more than 45 miles (72 km) from Worcester, Massachusetts to Providence, Rhode Island, was the birthplace of America's Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_700

At its peak over 1,100 mills operated in this valley, including Slater's mill, and with it the earliest beginnings of America's Industrial and Technological Development. Industrial Revolution_sentence_701

Merchant Francis Cabot Lowell from Newburyport, Massachusetts memorised the design of textile machines on his tour of British factories in 1810. Industrial Revolution_sentence_702

Realising that the War of 1812 had ruined his import business but that a demand for domestic finished cloth was emerging in America, on his return to the United States, he set up the Boston Manufacturing Company. Industrial Revolution_sentence_703

Lowell and his partners built America's second cotton-to-cloth textile mill at Waltham, Massachusetts, second to the Beverly Cotton Manufactory. Industrial Revolution_sentence_704

After his death in 1817, his associates built America's first planned factory town, which they named after him. Industrial Revolution_sentence_705

This enterprise was capitalised in a public stock offering, one of the first uses of it in the United States. Industrial Revolution_sentence_706

Lowell, Massachusetts, using 5.6 miles (9.0 km) of canals and 10,000 horsepower delivered by the Merrimack River, is considered by some as a major contributor to the success of the American Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_707

The short-lived utopia-like Waltham-Lowell system was formed, as a direct response to the poor working conditions in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_708

However, by 1850, especially following the Great Famine of Ireland, the system had been replaced by poor immigrant labour. Industrial Revolution_sentence_709

A major U.S. contribution to industrialisation was the development of techniques to make interchangeable parts from metal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_710

Precision metal machining techniques were developed by the U.S. Department of War to make interchangeable parts for small firearms. Industrial Revolution_sentence_711

The development work took place at the Federal Arsenals at Springfield Armory and Harpers Ferry Armory. Industrial Revolution_sentence_712

Techniques for precision machining using machine tools included using fixtures to hold the parts in proper position, jigs to guide the cutting tools and precision blocks and gauges to measure the accuracy. Industrial Revolution_sentence_713

The milling machine, a fundamental machine tool, is believed to have been invented by Eli Whitney, who was a government contractor who built firearms as part of this program. Industrial Revolution_sentence_714

Another important invention was the Blanchard lathe, invented by Thomas Blanchard. Industrial Revolution_sentence_715

The Blanchard lathe, or pattern tracing lathe, was actually a shaper that could produce copies of wooden gun stocks. Industrial Revolution_sentence_716

The use of machinery and the techniques for producing standardised and interchangeable parts became known as the American system of manufacturing. Industrial Revolution_sentence_717

Precision manufacturing techniques made it possible to build machines that mechanised the shoe industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_718

and the watch industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_719

The industrialisation of the watch industry started 1854 also in Waltham, Massachusetts, at the Waltham Watch Company, with the development of machine tools, gauges and assembling methods adapted to the micro precision required for watches. Industrial Revolution_sentence_720

Second Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_section_58

Main article: Second Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution_sentence_721

Steel is often cited as the first of several new areas for industrial mass-production, which are said to characterise a "Second Industrial Revolution", beginning around 1850, although a method for mass manufacture of steel was not invented until the 1860s, when Sir Henry Bessemer invented a new furnace which could convert molten pig iron into steel in large quantities. Industrial Revolution_sentence_722

However, it only became widely available in the 1870s after the process was modified to produce more uniform quality. Industrial Revolution_sentence_723

Bessemer steel was being displaced by the open hearth furnace near the end of the 19th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_724

This Second Industrial Revolution gradually grew to include chemicals, mainly the chemical industries, petroleum (refining and distribution), and, in the 20th century, the automotive industry, and was marked by a transition of technological leadership from Britain to the United States and Germany. Industrial Revolution_sentence_725

The increasing availability of economical petroleum products also reduced the importance of coal and further widened the potential for industrialisation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_726

A new revolution began with electricity and electrification in the electrical industries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_727

The introduction of hydroelectric power generation in the Alps enabled the rapid industrialisation of coal-deprived northern Italy, beginning in the 1890s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_728

By the 1890s, industrialisation in these areas had created the first giant industrial corporations with burgeoning global interests, as companies like U.S. Industrial Revolution_sentence_729 Steel, General Electric, Standard Oil and Bayer AG joined the railroad and ship companies on the world's stock markets. Industrial Revolution_sentence_730

Causes Industrial Revolution_section_59

The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complicated and remain a topic for debate. Industrial Revolution_sentence_731

Geographic factors include Britain's vast mineral resources. Industrial Revolution_sentence_732

In addition to metal ores, Britain had the highest quality coal reserves known at the time. Industrial Revolution_sentence_733

Britain also had abundant water power and highly productive agriculture. Industrial Revolution_sentence_734

Britain also had numerous seaports and navigable waterways. Industrial Revolution_sentence_735

Some historians believe the Industrial Revolution was an outgrowth of social and institutional changes brought by the end of feudalism in Britain after the English Civil War in the 17th century, although feudalism began to break down after the Black Death of the mid 14th century, followed by other epidemics, until the population reached a low in the 14th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_736

This created labour shortages and led to falling food prices and a peak in real wages around 1500, after which population growth began reducing wages. Industrial Revolution_sentence_737

Inflation caused by coinage debasement after 1540 followed by precious metals supply increasing from the Americas caused land rents (often long-term leases that transferred to heirs on death) to fall in real terms. Industrial Revolution_sentence_738

The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labour-intensive, forcing the farmers who could no longer be self-sufficient in agriculture into cottage industry, for example weaving, and in the longer term into the cities and the newly developed factories. Industrial Revolution_sentence_739

The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital are also cited as factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Industrial Revolution_sentence_740

A change in marrying patterns to getting married later made people able to accumulate more human capital during their youth, thereby encouraging economic development. Industrial Revolution_sentence_741

Until the 1980s, it was universally believed by academic historians that technological innovation was the heart of the Industrial Revolution and the key enabling technology was the invention and improvement of the steam engine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_742

However, recent research into the Marketing Era has challenged the traditional, supply-oriented interpretation of the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_743

Lewis Mumford has proposed that the Industrial Revolution had its origins in the Early Middle Ages, much earlier than most estimates. Industrial Revolution_sentence_744

He explains that the model for standardised mass production was the printing press and that "the archetypal model for the industrial era was the clock". Industrial Revolution_sentence_745

He also cites the monastic emphasis on order and time-keeping, as well as the fact that medieval cities had at their centre a church with bell ringing at regular intervals as being necessary precursors to a greater synchronisation necessary for later, more physical, manifestations such as the steam engine. Industrial Revolution_sentence_746

The presence of a large domestic market should also be considered an important driver of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_747

In other nations, such as France, markets were split up by local regions, which often imposed tolls and tariffs on goods traded among them. Industrial Revolution_sentence_748

Internal tariffs were abolished by Henry VIII of England, they survived in Russia until 1753, 1789 in France and 1839 in Spain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_749

Governments' grant of limited monopolies to inventors under a developing patent system (the Statute of Monopolies in 1623) is considered an influential factor. Industrial Revolution_sentence_750

The effects of patents, both good and ill, on the development of industrialisation are clearly illustrated in the history of the steam engine, the key enabling technology. Industrial Revolution_sentence_751

In return for publicly revealing the workings of an invention the patent system rewarded inventors such as James Watt by allowing them to monopolise the production of the first steam engines, thereby rewarding inventors and increasing the pace of technological development. Industrial Revolution_sentence_752

However, monopolies bring with them their own inefficiencies which may counterbalance, or even overbalance, the beneficial effects of publicising ingenuity and rewarding inventors. Industrial Revolution_sentence_753

Watt's monopoly prevented other inventors, such as Richard Trevithick, William Murdoch, or Jonathan Hornblower, whom Boulton and Watt sued, from introducing improved steam engines, thereby retarding the spread of steam power. Industrial Revolution_sentence_754

Causes in Europe Industrial Revolution_section_60

Main article: Great Divergence Industrial Revolution_sentence_755

One question of active interest to historians is why the Industrial Revolution occurred in Europe and not in other parts of the world in the 18th century, particularly China, India, and the Middle East (which pioneered in shipbuilding, textile production, water mills, and much more in the period between 750 and 1100), or at other times like in Classical Antiquity or the Middle Ages. Industrial Revolution_sentence_756

A recent account argued that Europeans have been characterized for thousands of years by a freedom-loving culture originating from the aristocratic societies of early Indo-European invaders. Industrial Revolution_sentence_757

Many historians, however, have challenged this explanation as being not only Eurocentric, but also ignoring historical context. Industrial Revolution_sentence_758

In fact, before the Industrial Revolution, "there existed something of a global economic parity between the most advanced regions in the world economy." Industrial Revolution_sentence_759

These historians have suggested a number of other factors, including education, technological changes (see Scientific Revolution in Europe), "modern" government, "modern" work attitudes, ecology, and culture. Industrial Revolution_sentence_760

China was the world's most technologically advanced country for many centuries; however, China stagnated economically and technologically and was surpassed by Western Europe before the Age of Discovery, by which time China banned imports and denied entry to foreigners. Industrial Revolution_sentence_761

China was also a totalitarian society. Industrial Revolution_sentence_762

China also heavily taxed transported goods. Industrial Revolution_sentence_763

Modern estimates of per capita income in Western Europe in the late 18th century are of roughly 1,500 dollars in purchasing power parity (and Britain had a per capita income of nearly 2,000 dollars) whereas China, by comparison, had only 450 dollars. Industrial Revolution_sentence_764

India was essentially feudal, politically fragmented and not as economically advanced as Western Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_765

Historians such as David Landes and sociologists Max Weber and Rodney Stark credit the different belief systems in Asia and Europe with dictating where the revolution occurred. Industrial Revolution_sentence_766

The religion and beliefs of Europe were largely products of Judaeo-Christianity and Greek thought. Industrial Revolution_sentence_767

Conversely, Chinese society was founded on men like Confucius, Mencius, Han Feizi (Legalism), Lao Tzu (Taoism), and Buddha (Buddhism), resulting in very different worldviews. Industrial Revolution_sentence_768

Other factors include the considerable distance of China's coal deposits, though large, from its cities as well as the then unnavigable Yellow River that connects these deposits to the sea. Industrial Revolution_sentence_769

Regarding India, the Marxist historian Rajani Palme Dutt said: "The capital to finance the Industrial Revolution in India instead went into financing the Industrial Revolution in Britain." Industrial Revolution_sentence_770

In contrast to China, India was split up into many competing kingdoms after the decline of the Mughal Empire, with the major ones in its aftermath including the Marathas, Sikhs, Bengal Subah, and Kingdom of Mysore. Industrial Revolution_sentence_771

In addition, the economy was highly dependent on two sectors—agriculture of subsistence and cotton, and there appears to have been little technical innovation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_772

It is believed that the vast amounts of wealth were largely stored away in palace treasuries by monarchs prior to the British take over. Industrial Revolution_sentence_773

Economic historian Joel Mokyr argued that political fragmentation (the presence of a large number of European states) made it possible for heterodox ideas to thrive, as entrepreneurs, innovators, ideologues and heretics could easily flee to a neighboring state in the event that the one state would try to suppress their ideas and activities. Industrial Revolution_sentence_774

This is what set Europe apart from the technologically advanced, large unitary empires such as China and India by providing "an insurance against economic and technological stagnation". Industrial Revolution_sentence_775

China had both a printing press and movable type, and India had similar levels scientific and technological achievement as Europe in 1700, yet the Industrial Revolution would occur in Europe, not China or India. Industrial Revolution_sentence_776

In Europe, political fragmentation was coupled with an "integrated market for ideas" where Europe's intellectuals used the lingua franca of Latin, had a shared intellectual basis in Europe's classical heritage and the pan-European institution of the Republic of Letters. Industrial Revolution_sentence_777

In addition, Europe's monarchs desperately needed revenue, pushing them into alliances with their merchant classes. Industrial Revolution_sentence_778

Small groups of merchants were granted monopolies and tax-collecting responsibilities in exchange for payments to the state. Industrial Revolution_sentence_779

Located in a region "at the hub of the largest and most varied network of exchange in history," Europe advanced as the leader of the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_780

In the Americas, Europeans found a windfall of silver, timber, fish, and maize, leading historian Peter Stearns to conclude that "Europe's Industrial Revolution stemmed in great part from Europe's ability to draw disproportionately on world resources." Industrial Revolution_sentence_781

Modern capitalism originated in the Italian city-states around the end of the first millennium. Industrial Revolution_sentence_782

The city-states were prosperous cities that were independent from feudal lords. Industrial Revolution_sentence_783

They were largely republics whose governments were typically composed of merchants, manufacturers, members of guilds, bankers and financiers. Industrial Revolution_sentence_784

The Italian city-states built a network of branch banks in leading western European cities and introduced double entry bookkeeping. Industrial Revolution_sentence_785

Italian commerce was supported by schools that taught numeracy in financial calculations through abacus schools. Industrial Revolution_sentence_786

Causes in Britain Industrial Revolution_section_61

Great Britain provided the legal and cultural foundations that enabled entrepreneurs to pioneer the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_787

Key factors fostering this environment were: Industrial Revolution_sentence_788

Industrial Revolution_unordered_list_3

  • The period of peace and stability which followed the unification of England and ScotlandIndustrial Revolution_item_3_9
  • There were no internal trade barriers, including between England and Scotland, or feudal tolls and tariffs, making Britain the "largest coherent market in Europe"Industrial Revolution_item_3_10
  • The rule of law (enforcing property rights and respecting the sanctity of contracts)Industrial Revolution_item_3_11
  • A straightforward legal system that allowed the formation of joint-stock companies (corporations)Industrial Revolution_item_3_12
  • Free market (capitalism)Industrial Revolution_item_3_13
  • Geographical and natural resource advantages of Great Britain were the fact that it had extensive coastlines and many navigable rivers in an age where water was the easiest means of transportation and Britain had the highest quality coal in Europe. Britain also had a large number of sites for water power.Industrial Revolution_item_3_14

There were two main values that really drove the Industrial Revolution in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_789

These values were self-interest and an entrepreneurial spirit. Industrial Revolution_sentence_790

Because of these interests, many industrial advances were made that resulted in a huge increase in personal wealth and a consumer revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_791

These advancements also greatly benefitted the British society as a whole. Industrial Revolution_sentence_792

Countries around the world started to recognise the changes and advancements in Britain and use them as an example to begin their own Industrial Revolutions. Industrial Revolution_sentence_793

The debate about the start of the Industrial Revolution also concerns the massive lead that Great Britain had over other countries. Industrial Revolution_sentence_794

Some have stressed the importance of natural or financial resources that Britain received from its many overseas colonies or that profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean helped fuel industrial investment. Industrial Revolution_sentence_795

However, it has been pointed out that slave trade and West Indian plantations provided only 5% of the British national income during the years of the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_796

Even though slavery accounted for so little, Caribbean-based demand accounted for 12% of Britain's industrial output. Industrial Revolution_sentence_797

Instead, the greater liberalisation of trade from a large merchant base may have allowed Britain to produce and use emerging scientific and technological developments more effectively than countries with stronger monarchies, particularly China and Russia. Industrial Revolution_sentence_798

Britain emerged from the Napoleonic Wars as the only European nation not ravaged by financial plunder and economic collapse, and having the only merchant fleet of any useful size (European merchant fleets were destroyed during the war by the Royal Navy). Industrial Revolution_sentence_799

Britain's extensive exporting cottage industries also ensured markets were already available for many early forms of manufactured goods. Industrial Revolution_sentence_800

The conflict resulted in most British warfare being conducted overseas, reducing the devastating effects of territorial conquest that affected much of Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_801

This was further aided by Britain's geographical position—an island separated from the rest of mainland Europe. Industrial Revolution_sentence_802

Another theory is that Britain was able to succeed in the Industrial Revolution due to the availability of key resources it possessed. Industrial Revolution_sentence_803

It had a dense population for its small geographical size. Industrial Revolution_sentence_804

Enclosure of common land and the related agricultural revolution made a supply of this labour readily available. Industrial Revolution_sentence_805

There was also a local coincidence of natural resources in the North of England, the English Midlands, South Wales and the Scottish Lowlands. Industrial Revolution_sentence_806

Local supplies of coal, iron, lead, copper, tin, limestone and water power resulted in excellent conditions for the development and expansion of industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_807

Also, the damp, mild weather conditions of the North West of England provided ideal conditions for the spinning of cotton, providing a natural starting point for the birth of the textiles industry. Industrial Revolution_sentence_808

The stable political situation in Britain from around 1688 following the Glorious Revolution, and British society's greater receptiveness to change (compared with other European countries) can also be said to be factors favouring the Industrial Revolution. Industrial Revolution_sentence_809

Peasant resistance to industrialisation was largely eliminated by the Enclosure movement, and the landed upper classes developed commercial interests that made them pioneers in removing obstacles to the growth of capitalism. Industrial Revolution_sentence_810

(This point is also made in Hilaire Belloc's The Servile State.) Industrial Revolution_sentence_811

The French philosopher Voltaire wrote about capitalism and religious tolerance in his book on English society, Letters on the English (1733), noting why England at that time was more prosperous in comparison to the country's less religiously tolerant European neighbours. Industrial Revolution_sentence_812

"Take a view of the Royal Exchange in London, a place more venerable than many courts of justice, where the representatives of all nations meet for the benefit of mankind. Industrial Revolution_sentence_813

There the Jew, the Mahometan [Muslim], and the Christian transact together, as though they all professed the same religion, and give the name of infidel to none but bankrupts. Industrial Revolution_sentence_814

There the Presbyterian confides in the Anabaptist, and the Churchman depends on the Quaker's word. Industrial Revolution_sentence_815

If one religion only were allowed in England, the Government would very possibly become arbitrary; if there were but two, the people would cut one another's throats; but as there are such a multitude, they all live happy and in peace." Industrial Revolution_sentence_816

Britain's population grew 280% 1550–1820, while the rest of Western Europe grew 50–80%. Industrial Revolution_sentence_817

Seventy percent of European urbanisation happened in Britain 1750–1800. Industrial Revolution_sentence_818

By 1800, only the Netherlands was more urbanised than Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_819

This was only possible because coal, coke, imported cotton, brick and slate had replaced wood, charcoal, flax, peat and thatch. Industrial Revolution_sentence_820

The latter compete with land grown to feed people while mined materials do not. Industrial Revolution_sentence_821

Yet more land would be freed when chemical fertilisers replaced manure and horse's work was mechanised. Industrial Revolution_sentence_822

A workhorse needs 3 to 5 acres (1.21 to 2.02 ha) for fodder while even early steam engines produced four times more mechanical energy. Industrial Revolution_sentence_823

In 1700, 5/6 of coal mined worldwide was in Britain, while the Netherlands had none; so despite having Europe's best transport, most urbanised, well paid, literate people and lowest taxes, it failed to industrialise. Industrial Revolution_sentence_824

In the 18th century, it was the only European country whose cities and population shrank. Industrial Revolution_sentence_825

Without coal, Britain would have run out of suitable river sites for mills by the 1830s. Industrial Revolution_sentence_826

Based on science and experimentation from the continent, the steam engine was developed specifically for pumping water out of mines, many of which in Britain had been mined to below the water table. Industrial Revolution_sentence_827

Although extremely inefficient they were economical because they used unsaleable coal. Industrial Revolution_sentence_828

Iron rails were developed to transport coal, which was a major economic sector in Britain. Industrial Revolution_sentence_829

Economic historian Robert Allen has argued that high wages, cheap capital and very cheap energy in Britain made it the ideal place for the industrial revolution to occur. Industrial Revolution_sentence_830

These factors made it vastly more profitable to invest in research and development, and to put technology to use in Britain than other societies. Industrial Revolution_sentence_831

However, two 2018 studies in The Economic History Review showed that wages were not particularly high in the British spinning sector or the construction sector, casting doubt on Allen's explanation. Industrial Revolution_sentence_832

Transfer of knowledge Industrial Revolution_section_62

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Revolution.