Institute for Advanced Study

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This article is about the institute in Princeton, New Jersey. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_0

For other institutions with the same or similar names, see Institute for Advanced Study (disambiguation). Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_1

Institute for Advanced Study_table_infobox_0

Institute for Advanced StudyInstitute for Advanced Study_table_caption_0
MottoInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_0_0 Truth and BeautyInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_0_0_1
TypeInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_1_0 PrivateInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_0_1_1
EstablishedInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_2_0 1930Institute for Advanced Study_cell_0_2_1
FounderInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_3_0 Abraham FlexnerInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_0_3_1
EndowmentInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_4_0 $741 million (2014)Institute for Advanced Study_cell_0_4_1
DirectorInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_5_0 Robbert DijkgraafInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_0_5_1
StudentsInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_6_0 NoneInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_0_6_1
LocationInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_7_0 Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.Institute for Advanced Study_cell_0_7_1
CampusInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_8_0 SuburbanInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_0_8_1
WebsiteInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_0_9_0 Institute for Advanced Study_cell_0_9_1

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), located in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_2

It has served as the academic home of internationally preeminent scholars, including Albert Einstein, J. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_3 Robert Oppenheimer, Hermann Weyl, John von Neumann, and Kurt Gödel, after they immigrated to the United States. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_4

It was founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_5

Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton University, Rutgers University, and other nearby institutions, it is independent and does not charge tuition or fees. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_6

Flexner's guiding principle in founding the institute was the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_7

The faculty have no classes to teach. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_8

There are no degree programs or experimental facilities at the institute. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_9

Research is never contracted or directed. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_10

It is left to each individual researcher to pursue their own goals. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_11

Established during the rise of Fascism in Europe, the institute played a key role in the transfer of intellectual capital from Europe to America. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_12

It quickly earned its reputation as the pinnacle of academic and scientific life—a reputation it has retained. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_13

The institute consists of four schools: Historical Studies, Mathematics, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_14

The institute also has a program in theoretical biology. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_15

It is supported entirely by endowments, grants, and gifts. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_16

It is one of eight American mathematics institutes funded by the National Science Foundation. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_17

It is the model for the other eight members of the consortium Some Institutes for Advanced Study. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_18

History Institute for Advanced Study_section_0

Founding Institute for Advanced Study_section_1

The Institute was founded in 1930 by Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_19

Flexner was interested in education generally and as early as 1890 he had founded an experimental school which had no formal curriculum, exams, or grades. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_20

It was a great success at preparing students for prestigious colleges and this same philosophy would later guide him in the founding of the Institute for Advanced Study. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_21

Flexner's study of medical schools, the 1910 Flexner Report, played a major role in the reform of medical education. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_22

Flexner had studied European schools such as Heidelberg University, All Souls College, Oxford, and the Collège de France–and he wanted to establish a similar advanced research center in the United States. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_23

In his autobiography Abraham Flexner reports a phone call which he received in the fall of 1929 from representatives of the Bamberger siblings that led to their partnership and the eventual founding of the IAS: Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_24

The Bamberger siblings wanted to use the proceeds from the sale of their Bamberger’s department store in Newark, New Jersey, to fund a dental school as an expression of gratitude to the state of New Jersey. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_25

Flexner convinced them to put their money in the service of more abstract research. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_26

(There was a brush with near-disaster when the Bambergers pulled their money out of the market just before the Crash of 1929.) Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_27

The eminent topologist Oswald Veblen at Princeton University, who had long been trying to found a high-level research institute in mathematics, urged Flexner to locate the new institute near Princeton where it would be close to an existing center of learning and a world-class library. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_28

In 1932 Veblen resigned from Princeton and became the first professor in the new Institute for Advanced Study. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_29

He selected most of the original faculty and also helped the Institute acquire land in Princeton for both the original facility and future expansion. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_30

Flexner and Veblen set out to recruit the best mathematicians and physicists they could find. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_31

The rise of fascism and the associated anti-semitism forced many prominent mathematicians to flee Europe and some, such as Einstein and Hermann Weyl (whose wife was Jewish), found a home at the new institute. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_32

Weyl as a condition of accepting insisted that the Institute also appoint the thirty-year-old Austrian-Hungarian polymath John von Neumann. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_33

Indeed, the IAS became the key lifeline for scholars fleeing Europe. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_34

Einstein was Flexner's first coup and shortly after that he was followed by Veblen's brilliant student James Alexander and the wunderkind of logic Kurt Gödel. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_35

Flexner was fortunate in the luminaries he directly recruited but also in the people that they brought along with them. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_36

Thus, by 1934 the fledgeling institute was led by six of the most prominent mathematicians in the world. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_37

In 1935 quantum physics pioneer Wolfgang Pauli became a faculty member. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_38

With the opening of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton replaced Göttingen as the leading center for mathematics in the twentieth century. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_39

Early years Institute for Advanced Study_section_2

For the 6 years from its opening in 1933, until Fuld Hall was finished and opened in 1939, the Institute was housed within Princeton University—in Fine Hall, which housed Princeton's mathematics department. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_40

Princeton University's science departments are less than two miles away and informal ties and collaboration between the two institutions occurred from the beginning. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_41

This helped start an incorrect impression that it was part of the University, one that has never been completely eradicated. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_42

On June 4, 1930, the Bambergers wrote as follows to the Institute's Trustees: Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_43

Bamberger's policy did not prevent racial discrimination by Princeton. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_44

When African American mathematician William S. Claytor applied to the IAS in 1937, Princeton University said they "would not permit any colored person to go to the Institute for Advanced Study." Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_45

It was not until 1939, when the institute had moved into its own building, that Veblen was able to offer Claytor a position; but this time Claytor turned it down on principle. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_46

Flexner had successfully assembled a faculty of unrivaled prestige in the School of Mathematics which officially opened in 1933. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_47

He sought to equal this success in the founding of schools of economics and humanities but this proved to be more difficult. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_48

The School of Humanistic Studies and the School of Economics and Politics were established in 1935. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_49

All three schools along with the office of the Director moved into the newly built Fuld Hall in 1939. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_50

(Ultimately the schools of Humanistic Studies and Economics and Politics were merged into the present day School of Historical Studies established in 1949.) Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_51

In the beginning, the School of Mathematics included physicists as well as mathematicians. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_52

A separate School of Natural Sciences was not established until 1966. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_53

The School of Social Science was founded in 1973. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_54

Mission Institute for Advanced Study_section_3

In a 1939 essay Flexner emphasized how James Clerk Maxwell, driven only by a desire to know, did abstruse calculations in the field of magnetism and electricity and that these investigations led in a direct line to the entire electrical development of modern times. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_55

Citing Maxwell and other theoretical scientists such as Gauss, Faraday, Ehrlich and Einstein, Flexner said, "Throughout the whole history of science most of the really great discoveries which have ultimately proved to be beneficial to mankind have been made by men and women who were driven not by the desire to be useful but merely the desire to satisfy their curiosity." Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_56

The IAS Bluebook says: Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_57

This was the belief to which Flexner clung passionately, and which continues to inspire the institute today. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_58

Impact Institute for Advanced Study_section_4

From the day it opened the IAS had a major impact on mathematics, physics, economic theory, and world affairs. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_59

In mathematics forty-two out of sixty-one Fields Medalists have been affiliated with the Institute. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_60

Thirty-four Nobel Laureates have been working at the IAS. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_61

Of the sixteen Abel Prizes awarded since the establishment of that award in 2003, nine were garnered by Institute professors or visiting scholars. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_62

Of the fifty-six Cole Prizes awarded since the establishment of that award in 1928, thirty-nine have gone to scholars associated with the IAS at some point in their career. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_63

IAS people have won 20 Wolf Prizes in mathematics and physics. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_64

Its more than 6,000 former members hold positions of intellectual and scientific leadership throughout the academic world. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_65

Pioneering work on the theory of the stored-program computer as laid down by Alan Turing was done at the IAS by John von Neumann, and the IAS machine built in the basement of the Fuld Hall from 1942 to 1951 under von Neumann's direction introduced the basic architecture of all modern digital computers. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_66

The IAS is the leading center of research in string theory and its generalization M-theory introduced by Edward Witten at the IAS in 1995. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_67

The Langlands program, a far-reaching approach which unites parts of geometry, mathematical analysis, and number theory was introduced by Robert Langlands, the mathematician who now occupies Albert Einstein's old office at the institute. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_68

Langlands was inspired by the work of Hermann Weyl, André Weil, and Harish-Chandra, all scholars with wide-ranging ties to the Institute, and the IAS maintains the key repository for the papers of Langlands and the Langlands program. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_69

The IAS is a main center of research for homotopy type theory, a modern approach to the foundations of mathematics which is not based on classical set theory. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_70

A special year organized by Institute professor Vladimir Voevodsky and others resulted in a benchmark book in the subject which was published by the Institute in 2013. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_71

The Institute is or has been the academic home of many of the best minds of their generation. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_72

Among them are James Waddell Alexander II, Michael Atiyah, Enrico Bombieri, Shiing-Shen Chern, Pierre Deligne, Freeman J. Dyson, Albert Einstein, Clifford Geertz, Kurt Gödel, Albert Hirschman, George F. Kennan, Tsung-Dao Lee, J. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_73 Robert Oppenheimer, Erwin Panofsky, Atle Selberg, John von Neumann, André Weil, Hermann Weyl, Frank Wilczek, Edward Witten, Chen-Ning Yang and Shing-Tung Yau. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_74

Special Year Programs Institute for Advanced Study_section_5

Flexner's vision of the kind of results that can emerge in an institution devoted to the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is illustrated by the "Special Year" programs sponsored by the IAS School of Mathematics. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_75

For example, in 2012–13 researchers at the IAS school of mathematics held A Special Year on Univalent Foundations of Mathematics. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_76

Intuitionistic type theory was created by the Swedish logician Per Martin-Löf's in 1972 to serve as an alternative to set theory as a foundation for mathematics. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_77

The special year brought together researchers in topology, computer science, category theory, and mathematical logic with the goal of formalizing and extending this theory of foundations. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_78

The program was organized by Steve Awodey, Thierry Coquand and Vladimir Voevodsky, and resulted in a book being published in homotopy type theory. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_79

The authors—more than 30 researchers ultimately contributed to the project—noted the essential contribution of the IAS saying, Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_80

One of the researchers, Andrej Bauer said, Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_81

The book, informally known as The HoTT book, is freely available online. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_82

Criticism Institute for Advanced Study_section_6

The Institute's founding premise, that individuals with lifetime tenure and no assigned duties will produce the most outstanding scholarship, is not universally shared. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_83

One critic was Richard Feynman, who argued that the IAS does not offer real activity or challenge: Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_84

Other Institutes for Advanced Study Institute for Advanced Study_section_7

The IAS in Princeton is widely recognized as the world's first Institute for Advanced Study. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_85

Despite later imitators of the Institute's model, it took years before any similar institutions were founded. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_86

The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford was the first such spinoff in 1954. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_87

This was followed by the National Humanities Center founded in North Carolina in 1978. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_88

These two institutions eventually became the core of a consortium known as Some Institutes for Advanced Study (SIAS). Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_89

The SIAS consortium includes the original institute in Princeton and nine other institutes founded explicitly to emulate the model of the original IAS. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_90

These ten Institutes for Advanced Study are: Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_91

In recent years there have been other institutes loosely based on the Princeton original, in some cases established with help from IAS professors. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_92

In 1997 IAS professor Chen-Ning Yang helped the Chinese set up the Institute for Advanced Study at Tsinghua University in Beijing. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_93

The Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies in Freiburg, Germany was founded in 2007, with IAS director at the time Peter Goddard giving the inaugural address. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_94

Princeton IAS professors André Weil and Armand Borel helped to establish close contacts with the Ramanujan Institute for Advanced Study in Mathematics, founded in 1967 as part of the University of Madras in India.There is also a De-Font Institute for Advanced Studies in Taichung, Taiwan, established by Chang De-Font during the Japanese occupation period of Taiwan. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_95

The prestigious Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) founded in 1958 just south of Paris is universally acknowledged to be the French counterpart of the IAS in Princeton. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_96

Princeton Institute director Robert Oppenheimer had a close relationship with IHÉS founder Léon Motchane and played a major role in helping to get it established. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_97

Neither the Princeton IAS nor SIAS is connected with, and should not be confused with, the Consortium of Institutes of Advanced Studies which comprises some twenty research institutes located throughout Great Britain and Ireland. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_98

The name Institute for Advanced Study, along with the acronym IAS, is also used by various other independent institutions throughout the world, some having little to do with the Princeton model. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_99

See Institute for Advanced Study (disambiguation) for a complete list. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_100

Directors, faculty and members Institute for Advanced Study_section_8

Main article: List of faculty members at the Institute for Advanced Study Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_101

At any given time, the IAS has a Faculty consisting of twenty-eight eminent academics who are appointed for life. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_102

Although the faculty do not teach classes (because there are none), they often do give lectures at their own initiative and have the title Professor along with the prestige associated with that title. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_103

Furthermore, they direct research and serve as the nucleus of a larger and generally younger group of scholars, whom they have the power to select and invite. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_104

Each year fellowships are awarded to about 190 visiting members from over 100 universities and research institutions who come to the Institute for periods from one term to a few years. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_105

Individuals must apply to become Members at the Institute, and each of the Schools has its own application procedures and deadlines. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_106

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Directors of the IASInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_1_0_0
NameInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_1_1_0 TermInstitute for Advanced Study_header_cell_1_1_1
Abraham FlexnerInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_2_0 1930–1939Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_2_1
Frank AydelotteInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_3_0 1939–1947Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_3_1
J. Robert OppenheimerInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_4_0 1947–1966Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_4_1
Carl KaysenInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_5_0 1966–1976Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_5_1
Harry WoolfInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_6_0 1976–1987Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_6_1
Marvin Leonard GoldbergerInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_7_0 1987–1991Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_7_1
Phillip GriffithsInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_8_0 1991–2003Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_8_1
Peter GoddardInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_9_0 2004–2012Institute for Advanced Study_cell_1_9_1
Robbert DijkgraafInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_10_0 2012–presentInstitute for Advanced Study_cell_1_10_1

Campus, Lands, Olden Farm and Olden Manor Institute for Advanced Study_section_9

The IAS owns over 600 acres of land, most of which was acquired between 1936 and 1945. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_107

Since 1997 the Institute has preserved 589 acres of acres of woods, wetlands, and farmland. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_108

By 1936, for total of $290,000, the founding trustees of the IAS had purchased 256 acres, including the two-hundred-acre Olden Farm with Olden Manor, which was the former home of William Olden. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_109

Olden Manor, with its extensive gardens, has been, since 1940, the residence of the Institute’s Director. Institute for Advanced Study_sentence_110

See also Institute for Advanced Study_section_10

Institute for Advanced Study_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: for Advanced Study.