International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

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International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_table_infobox_0

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated PlantsInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_table_caption_0
EditorsInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_0_0 Christopher D. Brickell, Crinan Alexander, Janet J. Cubey, John C. David, Marco H.A. Hoffman, Alan C. Leslie, Valéry Malécot, Xiaobai Jin, et al.International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_0_1
CountryInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_1_0 The NetherlandsInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_1_1
LanguageInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_2_0 EnglishInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_2_1
Release numberInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_3_0 9International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_3_1
SubjectInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_4_0 Cultivated plant taxonomyInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_4_1
PublishedInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_5_0 International Society for Horticultural Science (June 2016)International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_5_1
Media typeInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_6_0 PrintInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_6_1
PagesInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_7_0 190International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_7_1
ISBNInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_8_0 978-94-6261-116-0 (9th ed.)International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_8_1
Preceded byInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_9_0 8th edition (October 2009)International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_9_1
WebsiteInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_header_cell_0_10_0 International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_cell_0_10_1

The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigens, plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_0

Cultigens under the purview of the ICNCP include cultivars, Groups (cultivar groups), and grexes. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_1

All organisms traditionally considered to be plants (including algae and fungi) are included. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_2

Taxa that receive a name under the ICNCP will also be included within taxa named under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, for example, a cultivar is a member of a species. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_3

Brief history International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_section_0

Main article: Cultivated plant taxonomy International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_4

The first edition of the ICNCP, which was agreed in 1952 in Wageningen and published in 1953, has been followed by seven subsequent editions – in 1958 (Utrecht), 1961 (update of 1958), 1969 (Edinburgh), 1980 (Seattle), 1995 (Edinburgh), 2004 (Toronto) and 2009 (Wageningen). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_5

The ninth (most recent) edition was published in 2016 (Beijing). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_6

William Stearn has outlined the origins of ICNCP, tracing it back to the International Horticultural Congress of Brussels in 1864, when a letter from Alphonse de Candolle to Edouard Morren was tabled. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_7

This set out de Candolle's view that Latin names should be reserved for species and varieties found in the wild, with non-Latin or "fancy" names used for garden forms. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_8

Karl Koch supported this position at the 1865 International Botanical and Horticultural Congress and at the 1866 International Botanical Congress, where he suggested that future congresses should deal with nomenclatural matters. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_9

De Candolle, who had a legal background, drew up the Lois de la Nomenclature botanique (rules of botanical nomenclature). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_10

When adopted by the International Botanical Congress of Paris in 1867, this became the first version of today's International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_11

Article 40 of the Lois de la Nomenclature botanique dealt with the names of plants of horticultural origin: International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_12

This Article survived redrafting of the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature until 1935 and its core sentiments remain in the present-day ICNCP of 2009. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_13

The first version (1953) was published by the Royal Horticultural Society as a 29-page booklet, edited by William Stearn. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_14

Following the structure of the Botanical Code, the ICNCP is set out in the form of an initial set of Principles followed by Rules and Recommendations that are subdivided into Articles. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_15

Amendments to the ICNCP are prompted by international symposia for cultivated plant taxonomy which allow for rulings made by the International Commission on the Nomenclature of Cultivated Plants. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_16

Each new version includes a summary of the changes made to the previous version; the changes have also been summarised for the period 1953 to 1995. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_17

Name examples International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_section_1

Further information: Cultigen, Cultivar, Group, and Grex (horticulture) International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_18

The ICNCP operates within the framework of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants which regulates the scientific names of plants. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_19

The following are some examples of names governed by the ICNCP: International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_20

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_unordered_list_0

  • Clematis alpina 'Ruby': a cultivar within a species; the cultivar epithet is in single quotes and capitalized.International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_item_0_0
  • Magnolia 'Elizabeth': a selected clone (cultivar) among a pool of hybrid between two species, Magnolia acuminata (cucumbertree) and Magnolia denudata (Yulan magnolia).International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_item_0_1
  • Rhododendron boothii Mishmiense Group: a cultivar group name; both the name of the cultivar group and the word "Group" are capitalized and not enclosed in quotes.International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_item_0_2
  • Paphiopedilum Maudiae 'The Queen': a combination of grex name and cultivar name; the name of the grex is capitalized, and may be followed by a clonal (cultivar) name such as 'The Queen' in this case. Paphiopedilum Maudiae is a hybrid between Paphiopedilum callosum and Paphiopedilum lawrenceanum. 'The Queen' is a selected clone (cultivar).International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_item_0_3
  • Apple 'Jonathan': permitted use of an unambiguous common name with a cultivar epithet.International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_item_0_4
  • +Crataegomespilus: a graft-chimera of Crataegus and MespilusInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_item_0_5

Note that the ICNCP does not regulate trademarks for plants: trademarks are regulated by the law of the land involved. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_21

Nor does the ICNCP regulate the naming of plant varieties in the legal sense of that term. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_22

Trade designations International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_section_2

Many plants have "selling names" or "marketing names" as well as a cultivar name; the ICNCP refers to these as "trade designations". International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_23

Only the cultivar name is governed by the ICNCP. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_24

It is required to be unique; in accordance with the principle of priority, it will be the first name that is published or that is registered by the discoverer or breeder of the cultivar. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_25

Trade designations are not regulated by the ICNCP; they may be different in different countries. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_26

Thus the German rose breeder Reimer Kordes registered a white rose in 1958 as the cultivar 'KORbin'. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_27

This is sold in the United Kingdom under the selling name "Iceberg", in France as "Fée des Neiges" and in Germany as "Schneewittchen". International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_28

Trade designations are not enclosed in single quotes. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_29

The ICNCP states that "trade designations must always be distinguished typographically from cultivar, Group and grex epithets." International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_30

It uses small capitals for this purpose, thus Syringa vulgaris Ludwig Spaeth (trade designation) is distinguished from S. vulgaris 'Andenken an Ludwig Späth' (cultivar name). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_31

Other sources, including the Royal Horticultural Society, instead use a different font for selling names, e.g. Rosa Iceberg 'KORbin'. International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_sentence_32

See also International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_section_3

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants_unordered_list_1


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.