International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

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The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_0

It was formerly called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 as part of the Melbourne Code which replaced the Vienna Code of 2005. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_1

The current version of the code is the Shenzhen Code adopted by the International Botanical Congress held in Shenzhen, China, in July 2017. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_2

As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on 29 July 2017), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not published until 26 June 2018. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_3

The name of the Code is partly capitalized and partly not. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_4

The lower-case for "algae, fungi, and plants" indicates that these terms are not formal names of clades, but indicate groups of organisms that were historically known by these names and traditionally studied by phycologists, mycologists, and botanists. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_5

This includes blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria); fungi, including chytrids, oomycetes, and slime moulds; photosynthetic protists and taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_6

There are special provisions in the ICN for some of these groups, as there are for fossils. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_7

The ICN can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress (IBC), with the International Association for Plant Taxonomy providing the supporting infrastructure. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_8

Each new edition supersedes the earlier editions and is retroactive back to 1753, except where different starting dates are specified. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_9

For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, which gives rules and recommendations that supplement the ICN. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_10

Principles International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_section_0

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_unordered_list_0

  • Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological, bacteriological, and viral nomenclature (see Nomenclature codes).International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_0_0
  • A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a type. This is almost invariably dried plant material and is usually deposited and preserved in a herbarium, although it may also be an image or a preserved culture. Some type collections can be viewed online at the websites of the herbaria in question.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_0_1
  • A guiding principle in botanical nomenclature is priority, the first publication of a name for a taxon. The formal starting date for purposes of priority is 1 May 1753, the publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus. However, to avoid undesirable (destabilizing) effects of strict enforcement of priority, conservation of family, genus, and species names is possible.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_0_2
  • The intent of the Code is that each taxonomic group ("taxon", plural "taxa") of plants has only one correct name that is accepted worldwide, provided that it has the same circumscription, position and rank. The value of a scientific name is that it is an identifier; it is not necessarily of descriptive value.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_0_3
  • Names of taxa are treated as Latin.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_0_4
  • The rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless there is an explicit statement that this does not apply.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_0_5

History International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_section_1

Main article: International Botanical Congress International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_11

The rules governing botanical nomenclature have a long and tumultuous history, dating back to dissatisfaction with rules that were established in 1843 to govern zoological nomenclature. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_12

The first set of international rules was the Lois de la nomenclature botanique ("Laws of botanical nomenclature") that was adopted as the "best guide to follow for botanical nomenclature" at an "International Botanical Congress" convened in Paris in 1867. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_13

Unlike modern Codes, it contained recommendations for naming to serve as the basis for discussions on the controversial points of nomenclature, rather than obligatory rules for validly published and legitimate names within the Code. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_14

It was organized as six sections with 68 articles in total. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_15

Multiple attempts to bring more "expedient" or more equitable practice to botanical nomenclature resulted in several competing codes, which finally reached a compromise with the 1930 congress. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_16

In the meantime, the second edition of the international rules followed the Vienna congress in 1905. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_17

These rules were published as the Règles internationales de la Nomenclature botanique adoptées par le Congrès International de Botanique de Vienne 1905 (or in English, International rules of Botanical Nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical Conference of Vienna 1905). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_18

Informally they are referred to as the Vienna Rules (not to be confused with the Vienna Code of 2006). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_19

Some but not all subsequent meetings of the International Botanical Congress have produced revised versions of these Rules, later called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, and then International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_20

The Nomenclature Section of the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia (2011) made major changes: International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_21

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_unordered_list_1

  • The Code now permits electronic-only publication of names of new taxa; no longer will it be a requirement to deposit some paper copies in libraries.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_1_6
  • The requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name (Article 39).International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_1_7
  • "One fungus, one name" and "one fossil, one name" are important changes; the concepts of anamorph and teleomorph (for fungi) and morphotaxa (for fossils) have been eliminated.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_1_8
  • As an experiment with "registration of names", new fungal descriptions require the use of an identifier from "a recognized repository"; there are two recognized repositories so far, Index Fungorum and MycoBank.International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_item_1_9

Versions International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_section_2

Some important versions are listed below. International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_22

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_table_general_0

Year of adoptionInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_header_cell_0_0_0 Informal nameInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_header_cell_0_0_1
1867International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_1_0 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_1_1
1905International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_2_0 Vienna Rules ()International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_2_1
1935International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_3_0 Cambridge RulesInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_3_1
1952International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_4_0 Stockholm CodeInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_4_1
1969International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_5_0 Seattle CodeInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_5_1
1975International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_6_0 Leningrad CodeInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_6_1
1981International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_7_0 Sydney CodeInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_7_1
1987International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_8_0 Berlin CodeInternational Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_8_1
1993International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_9_0 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_9_1
1999International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_10_0 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_10_1
2005International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_11_0 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_11_1
2011International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_12_0 International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_12_1
2017International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_13_0 (current, blue cover)International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_cell_0_13_1

See also International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_section_3

Specific to botany International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_23

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_unordered_list_2

More general International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_sentence_24

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.