International Union for Conservation of Nature

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International Union for Conservation of Nature_table_infobox_0

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN)International Union for Conservation of Nature_table_caption_0
MottoInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_0_0 United for Life and LivelihoodsInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_0_1
FoundedInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_1_0 5 October 1948; 72 years ago (1948-10-05)

Fontainebleau, FranceInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_1_1

TypeInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_2_0 International organizationInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_2_1
FocusInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_3_0 Nature conservation, biodiversityInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_3_1
LocationInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_4_0 International Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_4_1
Area servedInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_5_0 WorldwideInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_5_1
MembersInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_6_0 1,400International Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_6_1
Key peopleInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_7_0 Dr Bruno Oberle (Director General)

Zhang Xinsheng (President)International Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_7_1

RevenueInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_8_0 CHF 140.7 million / US$ 148 million (2019)International Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_8_1
EmployeesInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_9_0 Over 900 (worldwide)International Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_9_1
WebsiteInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_10_0 iucn.orgInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_10_1
Formerly calledInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_header_cell_0_11_0 International Union for the Protection of NatureInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_cell_0_11_1

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_0

It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, and education. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_1

IUCN's mission is to "influence, encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_2

Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_3

IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_4

It tries to influence the actions of governments, business and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through building partnerships. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_5

The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_6

IUCN has a membership of over 1,400 governmental and non-governmental organizations. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_7

Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_8

It employs approximately 1,000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_9

Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_10

IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations and plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_11

It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_12

In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_13

In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_14

IUCN was established in 1948. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_15

It was previously called the International Union for the Protection of Nature (1948–1956) and the World Conservation Union (1990–2008). International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_16

History International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_0

Establishment International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_1

IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, France, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations spurred by UNESCO signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN). International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_17

The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_18

At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation (an international organisation for the protection of birds, now BirdLife International, had been established in 1922.) International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_19

Early years: 1948–1956 International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_2

IUPN started out with 65 members in Brussels and was closely associated to UNESCO. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_20

They jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature (Lake Success, USA and drafted the first list of Gravely endangered species. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_21

In the early years of its existence IUCN depended almost entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_22

IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_23

This was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_24

In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_25

Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_3

During this period, the IUCN expanded its relations with UN-agencies and established links with the Council of Europe. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_26

IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_27

IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_28

Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_29

IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which severely restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_30

The IUCN also suffered from restricted financing in its early years. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_31

For this reason, Tracy Philipps, Secretary-General from 1955–1958, did not draw a salary during his period in office. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_32

To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund (1961) (now the World Wide Fund for Nature WWF) to work on fundraising to cover part of the operational costs of IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_33

Also in 1961, the IUCN headquarters moved from Belgium to Morges in Switzerland. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_34

Consolidating its position in the international environmental movement: 1966–1975 International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_4

During the 1960s, IUCN lobbied the UN General Assembly to create a new status for NGOs. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_35

Resolution 1296, adopted in 1968, granted 'consultative' status to NGOs. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_36

IUCN itself was eventually accredited with six UN organizations. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_37

IUCN was one of the few environmental organisations formally involved in the preparations of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972). International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_38

The Stockholm Conference eventually led to three new international conventions, with IUCN involved in their drafting and implementation: International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_39

International Union for Conservation of Nature_unordered_list_0

  • Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972). IUCN co-drafted the World Heritage Convention with UNESCO and has been involved as the official Advisory Body on nature from the onset.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_0_0
  • - the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (1974) IUCN is a signatory party and the CITES secretariat was originally lodged with IUCN.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_0_1
  • Ramsar Convention – Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (1975). The secretariat is still administered from IUCN's headquarters.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_0_2

IUCN entered into an agreement with the United Nations Environment Programme UNEP to provide regular reviews of world conservation. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_40

The income this generated, combined with growing revenue via WWF, put the organisation on relatively sound financial footing for the first time since 1948. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_41

This period saw the beginning of a gradual change in IUCN's approach to conservation in which it tried to become more appealing to the developing world. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_42

The World Conservation Strategy 1975–1985 International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_5

In 1975 IUCN started work on the World Conservation Strategy. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_43

The drafting process – and the discussions with the UN agencies involved – led to an evolution in thinking within IUCN and growing acceptance of the fact that conservation of nature by banning human presence no longer worked. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_44

The Strategy was followed in 1982 by the World Charter for Nature, which was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly, after preparation by IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_45

In 1980, IUCN and WWF moved into shared new offices in Gland, Switzerland. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_46

This marked a phase of closer cooperation with WWF, but the close ties between IUCN and WWF were severed in 1985 when WWF decided to take control of its own field projects, which so far had been run by IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_47

Sustainable development and regionalisation: 1985 to present day In 1982, IUCN set up a Conservation for Development Centre within its secretariat. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_48

The Centre undertook projects to ensure that nature conservation was integrated in development aid and in the economic policies of developing countries. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_49

Over the years, it supported the development of national conservation strategies in 30 countries. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_50

Several European countries began to channel considerable amounts of bilateral aid via IUCN's projects. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_51

Management of these projects was primarily done by IUCN staff, often working from the new regional and country offices IUCN set up around the world. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_52

This marked a shift within the organisation. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_53

Previously, the volunteer Commissions had been very influential, now the Secretariat and its staff began to play a more dominant role. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_54

In 1989, IUCN moved into a separate building in Gland, close to the offices it had shared with WWF. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_55

Initially, the focus of power was still with the Headquarters in Gland but the regional offices and regional members’ groups gradually got a bigger say in operations. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_56

In 1991, IUCN (together with UNEP and WWF) published Caring for the Earth, a successor to the World Conservation Strategy. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_57

Social aspects of conservation were now integrated in IUCN's work; at the General Assembly in 1994 the IUCN mission was redrafted to its current wording to include the equitable and ecologically use of natural resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_58

Closer to business: 2000 to present day Since the creation of IUCN in 1948, IUCN Members have passed more than 300 resolutions that include or focus on business related activities. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_59

The increased attention on sustainable development as a means to protect nature brought IUCN closer to the corporate sector. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_60

The members decided against this, but IUCN did forge a partnership with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_61

IUCN renewed a multi-year MOU with them with WBCSD in December 2015. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_62

In 1996, after decades of seeking to address specific business issues, IUCN's Members asked for a comprehensive approach to engaging the business sector. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_63

Resolution 1.81 of the IUCN World Conservation Congress held that year "urged IUCN Members and the Director General, based on the need to influence private sector policies in support of the Mission of IUCN, to expand dialogue and productive relationships with the private sector and find new ways to interact with members of the business community". International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_64

The IUCN Global Business and Biodiversity Program (BBP) was established in 2003 to influence and support private partners in addressing environmental and social issues. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_65

In 2004, the first IUCN Private Sector Engagement Strategy was developed (in response to Council Decision C/58/41). International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_66

Most prominent in the Business and Biodiversity Program is the five-year collaboration IUCN started with the energy company Shell International in 2007. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_67

Today, the Business and Biodiversity Programme continues to set the strategic direction, coordinate IUCN's overall approach and provide institutional quality assurance in all business engagements. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_68

The Programme ensures that the Business Engagement Strategy is implemented through IUCN's global thematic and regional programmes as well as helps guide the work of IUCN's six Commissions. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_69

Championing Nature-based Solutions: 2009 to present day International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_6

Nature-based solutions (NbS) use ecosystems and the services they provide to address societal challenges such as climate change, food security or natural disasters. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_70

The emergence of the NbS concept in environmental sciences and nature conservation contexts came as international organisations, such as IUCN and the World Bank, searched for solutions to work with ecosystems rather than relying on conventional engineering interventions (such as seawalls), to adapt to and mitigate climate change effects, while improving sustainable livelihoods and protecting natural ecosystems and biodiversity. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_71

At the IUCN World Conservation Congress 2016, IUCN Members agreed on a definition of nature-based solutions. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_72

Members also called for governments to include nature-based solutions in strategies to combat climate change. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_73

Timeline International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_7

IUCN Programme 2017–2020 International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_8

According to its website, IUCN works on the following themes: business, climate change, economics, ecosystems, environmental law, forest conservation, gender, global policy, marine and polar, protected areas, science and knowledge, social policy, species, water and world heritage. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_74

IUCN works on the basis of four-year programs, determined by the membership. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_75

In the IUCN Programme for 2017–2020 conserving nature and biodiversity is linked to sustainable development and poverty reduction. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_76

IUCN states that it aims to have a solid factual base for its work and takes into account the knowledge held by indigenous groups and other traditional users of natural resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_77

The IUCN Programme 2017–2020 identifies three priority areas: International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_78

International Union for Conservation of Nature_ordered_list_1

  1. Valuing and conserving nature.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_1_3
  2. Promoting and supporting effective and equitable governance of natural resourcesInternational Union for Conservation of Nature_item_1_4
  3. Deploying Nature Based Solutions to address societal challenges including climate change, food security and economic and social development.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_1_5

IUCN does not itself aim to directly mobilize the general public. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_79

Education has been part of IUCN's work program since the early days but the focus is on stakeholder involvement and strategic communication rather than mass-campaigns. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_80

Habitats and species International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_9

IUCN runs field projects for habitat and species conservation around the world. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_81

It produces the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_82

The IUCN Red List of Ecosystems is applicable at local, national, regional and global levels. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_83

IUCN' stated goal is to expand the global network of national parks and other protected areas and promote good management of such areas. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_84

In particular, it focuses on greater protection of the oceans and marine habitats. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_85

Business partnerships International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_10

IUCN has a growing program of partnerships with the corporate sector on a regional, national, and international level to promote sustainable use of natural resources. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_86

National and international policy International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_11

On the national level, IUCN helps governments prepare national biodiversity policies. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_87

Internationally, IUCN provides advice to environmental conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, and the Framework Convention on Climate Change. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_88

It advises UNESCO on natural world heritage. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_89

It has a formally accredited permanent observer mission to the United Nations. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_90

IUCN has official relations with the multiple other international bodies. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_91

Organizational structure International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_12

As an organization, IUCN has three components: the member organizations, the six scientific commissions, and the secretariat. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_92

Members International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_13

IUCN Members are states (making IUCN a supranational GONGO), government agencies, international nongovernmental organizations, national nongovernmental organizations, and indigenous peoples’ organisations. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_93

In 2017, IUCN had 1400 members. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_94

The members can organize themselves in national or regional committees to promote cooperation. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_95

In 2016, there were 62 national committees and 7 regional committees. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_96

Commissions International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_14

The six IUCN Commissions involve volunteer experts from a range of disciplines. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_97

They 'assess the state of the world's natural resources and provide the Union with sound know-how and policy advice on conservation issues'. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_98

International Union for Conservation of Nature_unordered_list_2

  • Commission on Education and Communication (CEC): communication, learning and knowledge management in IUCN and the wider conservation community.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_2_6
  • Commission on Environmental, Economic, and Social Policy (CEESP): economic and social factors for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_2_7
  • World Commission on Environmental Law (WCEL): developing new legal concepts and instruments, and building the capacity of societies to employ environmental law for conservation and sustainable development.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_2_8
  • Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM): integrated ecosystem approaches to the management of natural and modified ecosystems.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_2_9
  • Species Survival Commission (SSC): technical aspects of species conservation and action for species that are threatened with extinction.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_2_10
  • World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA): establishment and effective management of a network of terrestrial and marine protected areas.International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_2_11

Secretariat International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_15

The IUCN head office is in Gland, Switzerland. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_99

Eight regional offices headed by a director implement IUCN's program in their respective territories. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_100

Since 1980, IUCN has established offices in more than 50 countries. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_101

Governance and funding International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_16

Governance International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_17

The World Conservation Congress (Members’ Assembly) is IUCN's highest decision-making body. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_102

The Congress convenes every four years. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_103

It elects the council, including the President, and approves IUCN's workprogram for the next four years, and budget. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_104

The IUCN Council is the principal governing body of IUCN. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_105

The Council provides strategic direction for the activities of the Union, discusses specific policy issues and provides guidance on finance and the membership development of the Union. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_106

The council is composed of the President, four Vice Presidents (elected by the council from among its members), the Treasurer, the Chairs of IUCN's six Commissions, three Regional Councillors from each of IUCN's eight Statutory Regions and a Councillor from the State in which IUCN has its seat (Switzerland). International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_107

IUCN's current President is Zhang Xinsheng. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_108

The Council appoints a Director General, who is responsible for the overall management of IUCN and the running of the Secretariat. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_109

The current IUCN Director General is Bruno Oberle, as of July 2020. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_110

He succeeded Inger Andersen. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_111

International Union for Conservation of Nature_unordered_list_3

  • International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_3_12
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_3_13
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_3_14
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_3_15
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature_item_3_16

Funding International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_18

IUCN's total income in 2012 was 114 million CHF, equaling approximately 95 million Euro or 116 million US dollar. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_112

IUCN's funding mainly comes from Official Development Assistance budgets of bilateral and multilateral agencies. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_113

This represented 61% of its income in 2012. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_114

Additional sources of income are the membership fees, as well as grants and project funding from foundations, institutions and corporations. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_115

Influence and criticism International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_19

Influence International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_20

IUCN is considered one of the most influential conservation organisations and, together with World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the World Resources Institute (WRI), is seen as a driving force behind the rise of the influence of environmental organisations at the UN and around the world. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_116

It has established a worldwide network of governmental and non-governmental organisations, involves experts in the IUCN Commissions, has formal ties to international agreements and intergovernmental organisations and increasingly also partnerships with international business. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_117

The World Conservation Congress and the World Parks Congress events organised by IUCN are the largest gatherings of organisations and individuals involved in conservation worldwide. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_118

According to some, IUCN has considerable influence in defining what nature conservation actually is. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_119

The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems determine which species and natural areas merit protection. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_120

Through the Green List of Protected and Conserved Areas and the system of IUCN protected area categories IUCN influences how protected areas are managed. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_121

Criticism International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_21

It has been claimed that the IUCN puts the needs of nature above those of humans, disregarding economic considerations and the interests of indigenous peoples and other traditional users of the land. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_122

Until the 1980s IUCN favored the "Yellowstone Model’ of conservation which called for the removal of humans from protected areas. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_123

The expulsion of the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area is perhaps the best known example of this approach. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_124

This is linked to another criticism that has been directed at IUCN, namely that throughout its history it has mainly been ‘Northern focused’, i.e. had a West-European or North-American perspective on global conservation. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_125

Some critics point to the fact that many individuals involved in the establishment of IUCN had been leading figures in the British Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of Empire, which wanted to protect species against the impact of ‘native’ hunting pressure in order to safeguard hunting by Europeans. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_126

The fact that, at least until the 1990s, most of IUCN staff, the chairs of the Commissions and the IUCN President came from western countries has also led to criticism. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_127

More recently, activist environmental groups have argued that IUCN is too closely associated with governmental organisations and with the commercial sector. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_128

IUCN's cooperation with Shell came in for criticism, also from its own membership. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_129

IUCN's close partnership with Coca-Cola in Vietnam – where they have together been launching Coca-Cola-focused community centers – has also drawn some criticism and allegations of greenwashing. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_130

Its decision to hold the 2012 World Conservation Congress on Jeju Island, South Korea, where the local community and international environmental activists were protesting against the construction of a navy base also led to controversy. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_131

Publications International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_22

IUCN has a wide range of publications, reports, guidelines and databases related to conservation and sustainable development. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_132

It publishes or co-authors more than 100 books and major assessments every year, along with hundreds of reports, documents and guidelines. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_133

In 2015, 76 IUCN articles were published in peer reviewed scientific journals. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_134

A report, released at the IUCN World Parks Congress in Sydney on 12 November 2014 showed that the 209,000 conservation reserves around the world now cover 15.4 per cent of the total land area. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_135

This is a step towards protecting 17 percent of land and 10 percent of ocean environments on Earth by 2020 since an agreement between the world's nations at the Convention on Biological Diversity, held in Japan in 2010. International Union for Conservation of Nature_sentence_136

See also International Union for Conservation of Nature_section_23

International Union for Conservation of Nature_unordered_list_4


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International Union for Conservation of Nature.