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This article is about the worldwide computer network. Internet_sentence_0

For the global system of pages accessed via URLs, see World Wide Web. Internet_sentence_1

The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. Internet_sentence_2

It is a network of networks that consists of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless, and optical networking technologies. Internet_sentence_3

The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and . Internet_sentence_4

The origins of the Internet date back to the development of packet switching and research commissioned by the United States Department of Defense in the 1960s to enable time-sharing of computers. Internet_sentence_5

The primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1970s. Internet_sentence_6

The funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. Internet_sentence_7

The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, and generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional, personal, and mobile computers were connected to the network. Internet_sentence_8

Although the Internet was widely used by academia in the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into virtually every aspect of modern life. Internet_sentence_9

Most traditional communication media, including telephony, radio, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or even bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, and video streaming websites. Internet_sentence_10

Newspaper, book, and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. Internet_sentence_11

The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking services. Internet_sentence_12

Online shopping has grown exponentially for major retailers, small businesses, and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or even sell goods and services entirely online. Internet_sentence_13

Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. Internet_sentence_14

The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Internet_sentence_15

The overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address (IP address) space and the Domain Name System (DNS), are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Internet_sentence_16

The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. Internet_sentence_17

In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders. Internet_sentence_18

Terminology Internet_section_0

Further information: Capitalization of "Internet" Internet_sentence_19

The word internetted was used as early as 1849, meaning interconnected or interwoven. Internet_sentence_20

Today, the term Internet most commonly refers to the global system of interconnected computer networks, though it may also refer to any group of smaller networks. Internet_sentence_21

When it came into common use, most publications treated the word as a capitalized proper noun; this has become less common. Internet_sentence_22

This reflects the tendency in English to capitalize new terms and move to lowercase as they become familiar. Internet_sentence_23

It is sometimes still capitalized to distinguish the global internet from smaller networks, though many publications, including the AP Stylebook, recommend the lowercase form in every case. Internet_sentence_24

In 2016, the Oxford English Dictionary found that, based on a study of around 2.5 billion printed and online sources, "Internet" was capitalized in 54% of cases. Internet_sentence_25

The terms internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably; it is common to speak of "going on the Internet" when using a web browser to view web pages. Internet_sentence_26

However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services, a collection of documents (web pages) and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. Internet_sentence_27

History Internet_section_1

Main articles: History of the Internet and History of the World Wide Web Internet_sentence_28

In the 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense funded research into time-sharing of computers. Internet_sentence_29

Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the work of Paul Baran in the early 1960s and, independently, Donald Davies in 1965. Internet_sentence_30

After the Symposium on Operating Systems Principles in 1967, packet switching from the proposed NPL network was incorporated into the design for the ARPANET and other resource sharing networks such as the Merit Network and CYCLADES, which were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Internet_sentence_31

ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, and the NLS system at SRI International (SRI) by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969. Internet_sentence_32

The third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. Internet_sentence_33

In a sign of future growth, 15 sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. Internet_sentence_34

These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing. Internet_sentence_35

Early international collaborations for the ARPANET were rare. Internet_sentence_36

Connections were made in 1973 to the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) via a satellite station in Tanum, Sweden, and to Peter Kirstein's research group at University College London which provided a gateway to British academic networks. Internet_sentence_37

The ARPA projects and international working groups led to the development of various protocols and standards by which multiple separate networks could become a single network or "a network of networks". Internet_sentence_38

In 1974, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn used the term internet as a shorthand for internetwork in RFC , and later RFCs repeated this use. Internet_sentence_39

Cerf and Khan credit Louis Pouzin with important influences on TCP/IP design. Internet_sentence_40

Commercial PTT providers were concerned with developing X.25 public data networks. Internet_sentence_41

Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). Internet_sentence_42

In 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks. Internet_sentence_43

TCP/IP network access expanded again in 1986 when the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet) provided access to supercomputer sites in the United States for researchers, first at speeds of 56 kbit/s and later at 1.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s. Internet_sentence_44

The NSFNet expanded into academic and research organizations in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan in 1988–89. Internet_sentence_45

Although other network protocols such as UUCP had global reach well before this time, this marked the beginning of the Internet as an intercontinental network. Internet_sentence_46

Commercial Internet service providers (ISPs) emerged in 1989 in the United States and Australia. Internet_sentence_47

The ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990. Internet_sentence_48

Steady advances in semiconductor technology and optical networking created new economic opportunities for commercial involvement in the expansion of the network in its core and for delivering services to the public. Internet_sentence_49

In mid-1989, MCI Mail and Compuserve established connections to the Internet, delivering email and public access products to the half million users of the Internet. Internet_sentence_50

Just months later, on 1 January 1990, PSInet launched an alternate Internet backbone for commercial use; one of the networks that added to the core of the commercial Internet of later years. Internet_sentence_51

In March 1990, the first high-speed T1 (1.5 Mbit/s) link between the NSFNET and Europe was installed between Cornell University and CERN, allowing much more robust communications than were capable with satellites. Internet_sentence_52

Six months later Tim Berners-Lee would begin writing WorldWideWeb, the first web browser, after two years of lobbying CERN management. Internet_sentence_53

By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a working Web: the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) 0.9, the HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the first Web browser (which was also a HTML editor and could access Usenet newsgroups and FTP files), the first HTTP server software (later known as CERN httpd), the first web server, and the first Web pages that described the project itself. Internet_sentence_54

In 1991 the Commercial Internet eXchange was founded, allowing PSInet to communicate with the other commercial networks CERFnet and Alternet. Internet_sentence_55

Stanford Federal Credit Union was the first financial institution to offer online Internet banking services to all of its members in October 1994. Internet_sentence_56

In 1996, OP Financial Group, also a cooperative bank, became the second online bank in the world and the first in Europe. Internet_sentence_57

By 1995, the Internet was fully commercialized in the U.S. when the NSFNet was decommissioned, removing the last restrictions on use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic. Internet_sentence_58


Worldwide Internet usersInternet_table_caption_0
Internet_cell_0_0_0 2005Internet_cell_0_0_1 2010Internet_cell_0_0_2 2017Internet_cell_0_0_3 2019Internet_cell_0_0_4
World populationInternet_cell_0_1_0 6.5 billionInternet_cell_0_1_1 6.9 billionInternet_cell_0_1_2 7.4 billionInternet_cell_0_1_3 7.75 billionInternet_cell_0_1_4
Users worldwideInternet_cell_0_2_0 16%Internet_cell_0_2_1 30%Internet_cell_0_2_2 48%Internet_cell_0_2_3 53.6%Internet_cell_0_2_4
Users in the developing worldInternet_cell_0_3_0 8%Internet_cell_0_3_1 21%Internet_cell_0_3_2 41.3%Internet_cell_0_3_3 47%Internet_cell_0_3_4
Users in the developed worldInternet_cell_0_4_0 51%Internet_cell_0_4_1 67%Internet_cell_0_4_2 81%Internet_cell_0_4_3 86.6%Internet_cell_0_4_4

As technology advanced and commercial opportunities fueled reciprocal growth, the volume of Internet traffic started experiencing similar characteristics as that of the scaling of MOS transistors, exemplified by Moore's law, doubling every 18 months. Internet_sentence_59

This growth, formalized as Edholm's law, was catalyzed by advances in MOS technology, laser lightwave systems, and noise performance. Internet_sentence_60

Since 1995, the Internet has tremendously impacted culture and commerce, including the rise of near instant communication by email, instant messaging, telephony (Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP), two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking services, and online shopping sites. Internet_sentence_61

Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. Internet_sentence_62

The Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information and knowledge, commerce, entertainment and social networking services. Internet_sentence_63

During the late 1990s, it was estimated that traffic on the public Internet grew by 100 percent per year, while the mean annual growth in the number of Internet users was thought to be between 20% and 50%. Internet_sentence_64

This growth is often attributed to the lack of central administration, which allows organic growth of the network, as well as the non-proprietary nature of the Internet protocols, which encourages vendor interoperability and prevents any one company from exerting too much control over the network. Internet_sentence_65

As of 31 March 2011, the estimated total number of Internet users was 2.095 billion (30.2% of world population). Internet_sentence_66

It is estimated that in 1993 the Internet carried only 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunication. Internet_sentence_67

By 2000 this figure had grown to 51%, and by 2007 more than 97% of all telecommunicated information was carried over the Internet. Internet_sentence_68

Governance Internet_section_2

Main article: Internet governance Internet_sentence_69

The Internet is a global network that comprises many voluntarily interconnected autonomous networks. Internet_sentence_70

It operates without a central governing body. Internet_sentence_71

The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. Internet_sentence_72

To maintain interoperability, the principal name spaces of the Internet are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Internet_sentence_73

ICANN is governed by an international board of directors drawn from across the Internet technical, business, academic, and other non-commercial communities. Internet_sentence_74

ICANN coordinates the assignment of unique identifiers for use on the Internet, including domain names, IP addresses, application port numbers in the transport protocols, and many other parameters. Internet_sentence_75

Globally unified name spaces are essential for maintaining the global reach of the Internet. Internet_sentence_76

This role of ICANN distinguishes it as perhaps the only central coordinating body for the global Internet. Internet_sentence_77

Regional Internet registries (RIRs) were established for five regions of the world. Internet_sentence_78

The African Network Information Center (AfriNIC) for Africa, the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) for North America, the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) for Asia and the Pacific region, the Latin American and Caribbean Internet Addresses Registry (LACNIC) for Latin America and the Caribbean region, and the Réseaux IP Européens – Network Coordination Centre (RIPE NCC) for Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia were delegated to assign IP address blocks and other Internet parameters to local registries, such as Internet service providers, from a designated pool of addresses set aside for each region. Internet_sentence_79

The National Telecommunications and Information Administration, an agency of the United States Department of Commerce, had final approval over changes to the DNS root zone until the IANA stewardship transition on 1 October 2016. Internet_sentence_80

The Internet Society (ISOC) was founded in 1992 with a mission to "assure the open development, evolution and use of the Internet for the benefit of all people throughout the world". Internet_sentence_81

Its members include individuals (anyone may join) as well as corporations, organizations, governments, and universities. Internet_sentence_82

Among other activities ISOC provides an administrative home for a number of less formally organized groups that are involved in developing and managing the Internet, including: the IETF, Internet Architecture Board (IAB), Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG), Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), and Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG). Internet_sentence_83

On 16 November 2005, the United Nations-sponsored World Summit on the Information Society in Tunis established the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) to discuss Internet-related issues. Internet_sentence_84

Infrastructure Internet_section_3

See also: List of countries by number of Internet users and List of countries by Internet connection speeds Internet_sentence_85

The communications infrastructure of the Internet consists of its hardware components and a system of software layers that control various aspects of the architecture. Internet_sentence_86

As with any computer network, the Internet physically consists of routers, media (such as cabling and radio links), repeaters, modems etc. Internet_sentence_87

However, as an example of internetworking, many of the network nodes are not necessarily internet equipment per se, the internet packets are carried by other full-fledged networking protocols with the Internet acting as a homogeneous networking standard, running across heterogeneous hardware, with the packets guided to their destinations by IP routers. Internet_sentence_88

Service tiers Internet_section_4

Internet service providers (ISPs) establish the worldwide connectivity between individual networks at various levels of scope. Internet_sentence_89

End-users who only access the Internet when needed to perform a function or obtain information, represent the bottom of the routing hierarchy. Internet_sentence_90

At the top of the routing hierarchy are the tier 1 networks, large telecommunication companies that exchange traffic directly with each other via very high speed fibre optic cables and governed by peering agreements. Internet_sentence_91

Tier 2 and lower level networks buy Internet transit from other providers to reach at least some parties on the global Internet, though they may also engage in peering. Internet_sentence_92

An ISP may use a single upstream provider for connectivity, or implement multihoming to achieve redundancy and load balancing. Internet_sentence_93

Internet exchange points are major traffic exchanges with physical connections to multiple ISPs. Internet_sentence_94

Large organizations, such as academic institutions, large enterprises, and governments, may perform the same function as ISPs, engaging in peering and purchasing transit on behalf of their internal networks. Internet_sentence_95

Research networks tend to interconnect with large subnetworks such as GEANT, GLORIAD, Internet2, and the UK's national research and education network, JANET. Internet_sentence_96

Access Internet_section_5

Common methods of Internet access by users include dial-up with a computer modem via telephone circuits, broadband over coaxial cable, fiber optics or copper wires, Wi-Fi, satellite, and cellular telephone technology (e.g. 3G, 4G). Internet_sentence_97

The Internet may often be accessed from computers in libraries and Internet cafes. Internet_sentence_98

Internet access points exist in many public places such as airport halls and coffee shops. Internet_sentence_99

Various terms are used, such as public Internet kiosk, public access terminal, and Web payphone. Internet_sentence_100

Many hotels also have public terminals that are usually fee-based. Internet_sentence_101

These terminals are widely accessed for various usages, such as ticket booking, bank deposit, or online payment. Internet_sentence_102

Wi-Fi provides wireless access to the Internet via local computer networks. Internet_sentence_103

Hotspots providing such access include Wi-Fi cafes, where users need to bring their own wireless devices such as a laptop or PDA. Internet_sentence_104

These services may be free to all, free to customers only, or fee-based. Internet_sentence_105

Grassroots efforts have led to wireless community networks. Internet_sentence_106

Commercial Wi-Fi services that cover large areas are available in many cities, such as New York, London, Vienna, Toronto, San Francisco, Philadelphia, Chicago and Pittsburgh, where the Internet can then be accessed from places such as a park bench. Internet_sentence_107

Experiments have also been conducted with proprietary mobile wireless networks like Ricochet, various high-speed data services over cellular networks, and fixed wireless services. Internet_sentence_108

Modern smartphones can also access the Internet through the cellular carrier network. Internet_sentence_109

For Web browsing, these devices provide applications such as Google Chrome, Safari, and Firefox and a wide variety of other Internet software may be installed from app-stores. Internet_sentence_110

Internet usage by mobile and tablet devices exceeded desktop worldwide for the first time in October 2016. Internet_sentence_111

Mobile communication Internet_section_6

[[File:Number_of_mobile_cellular_subscriptions_2012-2016.svg|thumb|215x215px|Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016, The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) estimated that, by the end of 2017, 48% of individual users regularly connect to the Internet, up from 34% in 2012. Internet_sentence_112

Mobile Internet connectivity has played an important role in expanding access in recent years especially in Asia and the Pacific and in Africa. Internet_sentence_113

The number of unique mobile cellular subscriptions increased from 3.89 billion in 2012 to 4.83 billion in 2016, two-thirds of the world's population, with more than half of subscriptions located in Asia and the Pacific. Internet_sentence_114

The number of subscriptions is predicted to rise to 5.69 billion users in 2020. Internet_sentence_115

As of 2016, almost 60% of the world's population had access to a 4G broadband cellular network, up from almost 50% in 2015 and 11% in 2012. Internet_sentence_116

The limits that users face on accessing information via mobile applications coincide with a broader process of fragmentation of the Internet. Internet_sentence_117

Fragmentation restricts access to media content and tends to affect poorest users the most. Internet_sentence_118

Zero-rating, the practice of Internet service providers allowing users free connectivity to access specific content or applications without cost, has offered opportunities to surmount economic hurdles, but has also been accused by its critics as creating a two-tiered Internet. Internet_sentence_119

To address the issues with zero-rating, an alternative model has emerged in the concept of 'equal rating' and is being tested in experiments by Mozilla and Orange in Africa. Internet_sentence_120

Equal rating prevents prioritization of one type of content and zero-rates all content up to a specified data cap. Internet_sentence_121

A study published by Chatham House, 15 out of 19 countries researched in Latin America had some kind of hybrid or zero-rated product offered. Internet_sentence_122

Some countries in the region had a handful of plans to choose from (across all mobile network operators) while others, such as Colombia, offered as many as 30 pre-paid and 34 post-paid plans. Internet_sentence_123

A study of eight countries in the Global South found that zero-rated data plans exist in every country, although there is a great range in the frequency with which they are offered and actually used in each. Internet_sentence_124

The study looked at the top three to five carriers by market share in Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Peru and Philippines. Internet_sentence_125

Across the 181 plans examined, 13 per cent were offering zero-rated services. Internet_sentence_126

Another study, covering Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa, found Facebook's Free Basics and Wikipedia Zero to be the most commonly zero-rated content. Internet_sentence_127

Internet Protocol Suite Internet_section_7

The Internet standards describe a framework known as the Internet protocol suite (also called TCP/IP, based on the first two components.) Internet_sentence_128

This is a suite of protocols that are ordered into a set of four conceptional layers by the scope of their operation, originally documented in RFC  and RFC . Internet_sentence_129

At the top is the application layer, where communication is described in terms of the objects or data structures most appropriate for each application. Internet_sentence_130

For example, a web browser operates in a client-server application model and exchanges information with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and an application-germane data structure, such as the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). Internet_sentence_131

Below this top layer, the transport layer connects applications on different hosts with a logical channel through the network. Internet_sentence_132

It provides this service with a variety of possible characteristics, such ordered, reliable delivery (TCP), and an unreliable datagram service (UDP). Internet_sentence_133

Underlying these layers are the networking technologies that interconnect networks at their borders and exchange traffic across them. Internet_sentence_134

The Internet layer implements the Internet Protocol (IP) which enables computers to identify and locate each other by IP address, and route their traffic via intermediate (transit) networks. Internet_sentence_135

The internet protocol layer code is independent of the type of network that it is physically running over. Internet_sentence_136

At the bottom of the architecture is the link layer, which connects nodes on the same physical link, and contains protocols that do not require routers for traversal to other links. Internet_sentence_137

The protocol suite does not explicitly specify hardware methods to transfer bits, or protocols to manage such hardware, but assumes that appropriate technology is available. Internet_sentence_138

Examples of that technology include Wi-Fi, Ethernet, and DSL. Internet_sentence_139

Internet protocol Internet_section_8

The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol (IP). Internet_sentence_140

IP enables internetworking and, in essence, establishes the Internet itself. Internet_sentence_141

Two versions of the Internet Protocol exist, IPV4 and IPV6. Internet_sentence_142

IP Addresses Internet_section_9

For locating individual computers on the network, the Internet provides IP addresses. Internet_sentence_143

IP addresses are used by the Internet infrastructure to direct internet packets to their destinations. Internet_sentence_144

They consist of fixed-length numbers, which are found within the packet. Internet_sentence_145

IP addresses are generally assigned to equipment either automatically via DHCP, or are configured. Internet_sentence_146

However the network also supports other addressing systems. Internet_sentence_147

Users generally enter domain names (e.g. "") instead of IP addresses because they are easier to remember, they are converted by the Domain Name System (DNS) into IP addresses which are more efficient for routing purposes. Internet_sentence_148

IPv4 Internet_section_10

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bit number. Internet_sentence_149

IPv4 is the initial version used on the first generation of the Internet and is still in dominant use. Internet_sentence_150

It was designed to address up to ≈4.3 billion (10) hosts. Internet_sentence_151

However, the explosive growth of the Internet has led to IPv4 address exhaustion, which entered its final stage in 2011, when the global IPv4 address allocation pool was exhausted. Internet_sentence_152

IPv6 Internet_section_11

Because of the growth of the Internet and the depletion of available IPv4 addresses, a new version of IP IPv6, was developed in the mid-1990s, which provides vastly larger addressing capabilities and more efficient routing of Internet traffic. Internet_sentence_153

IPv6 uses 128 bits for the IP address and was standardized in 1998. Internet_sentence_154

IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s and is currently in growing deployment around the world, since Internet address registries (RIRs) began to urge all resource managers to plan rapid adoption and conversion. Internet_sentence_155

IPv6 is not directly interoperable by design with IPv4. Internet_sentence_156

In essence, it establishes a parallel version of the Internet not directly accessible with IPv4 software. Internet_sentence_157

Thus, translation facilities must exist for internetworking or nodes must have duplicate networking software for both networks. Internet_sentence_158

Essentially all modern computer operating systems support both versions of the Internet Protocol. Internet_sentence_159

Network infrastructure, however, has been lagging in this development. Internet_sentence_160

Aside from the complex array of physical connections that make up its infrastructure, the Internet is facilitated by bi- or multi-lateral commercial contracts, e.g., peering agreements, and by technical specifications or protocols that describe the exchange of data over the network. Internet_sentence_161

Indeed, the Internet is defined by its interconnections and routing policies. Internet_sentence_162

Subnetwork Internet_section_12

A subnetwork or subnet is a logical subdivision of an IP network. Internet_sentence_163

The practice of dividing a network into two or more networks is called subnetting. Internet_sentence_164

Computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with an identical most-significant bit-group in their IP addresses. Internet_sentence_165

This results in the logical division of an IP address into two fields, the network number or routing prefix and the rest field or host identifier. Internet_sentence_166

The rest field is an identifier for a specific host or network interface. Internet_sentence_167

The routing prefix may be expressed in Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) notation written as the first address of a network, followed by a slash character (/), and ending with the bit-length of the prefix. Internet_sentence_168

For example, is the prefix of the Internet Protocol version 4 network starting at the given address, having 24 bits allocated for the network prefix, and the remaining 8 bits reserved for host addressing. Internet_sentence_169

Addresses in the range to belong to this network. Internet_sentence_170

The IPv6 address specification 2001:db8::/32 is a large address block with 2 addresses, having a 32-bit routing prefix. Internet_sentence_171

For IPv4, a network may also be characterized by its subnet mask or netmask, which is the bitmask that when applied by a bitwise AND operation to any IP address in the network, yields the routing prefix. Internet_sentence_172

Subnet masks are also expressed in dot-decimal notation like an address. Internet_sentence_173

For example, is the subnet mask for the prefix Internet_sentence_174

Traffic is exchanged between subnetworks through routers when the routing prefixes of the source address and the destination address differ. Internet_sentence_175

A router serves as a logical or physical boundary between the subnets. Internet_sentence_176

The benefits of subnetting an existing network vary with each deployment scenario. Internet_sentence_177

In the address allocation architecture of the Internet using CIDR and in large organizations, it is necessary to allocate address space efficiently. Internet_sentence_178

Subnetting may also enhance routing efficiency, or have advantages in network management when subnetworks are administratively controlled by different entities in a larger organization. Internet_sentence_179

Subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning an organization's network address space into a tree-like routing structure. Internet_sentence_180

Routing Internet_section_13

Computers and routers use routing tables in their operating system to direct IP packets to reach a node on a different subnetwork. Internet_sentence_181

Routing tables are maintained by manual configuration or automatically by routing protocols. Internet_sentence_182

End-nodes typically use a default route that points toward an ISP providing transit, while ISP routers use the Border Gateway Protocol to establish the most efficient routing across the complex connections of the global Internet. Internet_sentence_183

The default gateway is the node that serves as the forwarding host (router) to other networks when no other route specification matches the destination IP address of a packet. Internet_sentence_184

IETF Internet_section_14

While the hardware components in the Internet infrastructure can often be used to support other software systems, it is the design and the standardization process of the software that characterizes the Internet and provides the foundation for its scalability and success. Internet_sentence_185

The responsibility for the architectural design of the Internet software systems has been assumed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Internet_sentence_186

The IETF conducts standard-setting work groups, open to any individual, about the various aspects of Internet architecture. Internet_sentence_187

Resulting contributions and standards are published as Request for Comments (RFC) documents on the IETF web site. Internet_sentence_188

The principal methods of networking that enable the Internet are contained in specially designated RFCs that constitute the Internet Standards. Internet_sentence_189

Other less rigorous documents are simply informative, experimental, or historical, or document the best current practices (BCP) when implementing Internet technologies. Internet_sentence_190

Applications and services Internet_section_15

The Internet carries many applications and services, most prominently the World Wide Web, including social media, electronic mail, mobile applications, multiplayer online games, Internet telephony, , and streaming media services. Internet_sentence_191

Most servers that provide these services are today hosted in data centers, and content is often accessed through high-performance content delivery networks. Internet_sentence_192

World Wide Web Internet_section_16

Main article: World Wide Web Internet_sentence_193

[[File:First Web Server.jpg|thumb|This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.]] Internet_sentence_194

The World Wide Web is a global collection of documents, images, multimedia, applications, and other resources, logically interrelated by hyperlinks and referenced with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), which provide a global system of named references. Internet_sentence_195

URIs symbolically identify services, web servers, databases, and the documents and resources that they can provide. Internet_sentence_196

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the main access protocol of the World Wide Web. Internet_sentence_197

Web services also use HTTP for communication between software systems for information transfer, sharing and exchanging business data and logistic and is one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet. Internet_sentence_198

World Wide Web browser software, such as Microsoft's Internet Explorer/Edge, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Apple's Safari, and Google Chrome, lets users navigate from one web page to another via the hyperlinks embedded in the documents. Internet_sentence_199

These documents may also contain any combination of computer data, including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page. Internet_sentence_200

Client-side software can include animations, games, office applications and scientific demonstrations. Internet_sentence_201

Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! Internet_sentence_202 , Bing and Google, users worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Internet_sentence_203

Compared to printed media, books, encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale. Internet_sentence_204

The Web has enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay. Internet_sentence_205

Publishing a web page, a blog, or building a website involves little initial cost and many cost-free services are available. Internet_sentence_206

However, publishing and maintaining large, professional web sites with attractive, diverse and up-to-date information is still a difficult and expensive proposition. Internet_sentence_207

Many individuals and some companies and groups use web logs or blogs, which are largely used as easily updatable online diaries. Internet_sentence_208

Some commercial organizations encourage staff to communicate advice in their areas of specialization in the hope that visitors will be impressed by the expert knowledge and free information, and be attracted to the corporation as a result. Internet_sentence_209

Advertising on popular web pages can be lucrative, and e-commerce, which is the sale of products and services directly via the Web, continues to grow. Internet_sentence_210

Online advertising is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Internet_sentence_211

It includes email marketing, search engine marketing (SEM), social media marketing, many types of display advertising (including web banner advertising), and mobile advertising. Internet_sentence_212

In 2011, Internet advertising revenues in the United States surpassed those of cable television and nearly exceeded those of broadcast television. Internet_sentence_213

Many common online advertising practices are controversial and increasingly subject to regulation. Internet_sentence_214

When the Web developed in the 1990s, a typical web page was stored in completed form on a web server, formatted in HTML, complete for transmission to a web browser in response to a request. Internet_sentence_215

Over time, the process of creating and serving web pages has become dynamic, creating a flexible design, layout, and content. Internet_sentence_216

Websites are often created using content management software with, initially, very little content. Internet_sentence_217

Contributors to these systems, who may be paid staff, members of an organization or the public, fill underlying databases with content using editing pages designed for that purpose while casual visitors view and read this content in HTML form. Internet_sentence_218

There may or may not be editorial, approval and security systems built into the process of taking newly entered content and making it available to the target visitors. Internet_sentence_219

Communication Internet_section_17

Email is an important communications service available via the Internet. Internet_sentence_220

The concept of sending electronic text messages between parties, analogous to mailing letters or memos, predates the creation of the Internet. Internet_sentence_221

Pictures, documents, and other files are sent as email attachments. Internet_sentence_222

Email messages can be cc-ed to multiple email addresses. Internet_sentence_223

Internet telephony is a common communications service realized with the Internet. Internet_sentence_224

The name of the principle internetworking protocol, the Internet Protocol, lends its name to voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Internet_sentence_225

The idea began in the early 1990s with walkie-talkie-like voice applications for personal computers. Internet_sentence_226

VoIP systems now dominate many markets, and are as easy to use and as convenient as a traditional telephone. Internet_sentence_227

The benefit has been in substantial cost savings over traditional telephone calls, especially over long distances. Internet_sentence_228

Cable, ADSL, and mobile data networks provide Internet access in customer premises and inexpensive VoIP network adapters provide the connection for traditional analog telephone sets. Internet_sentence_229

The voice quality of VoIP often exceeds that of traditional calls. Internet_sentence_230

Remaining problems for VoIP include the situation that emergency services may not be universally available, and that devices rely on a local power supply, while older traditional phones are powered from the local loop, and typically operate during a power failure. Internet_sentence_231

Data transfer Internet_section_18

is an example of transferring large amounts of data across the Internet. Internet_sentence_232

A can be emailed to customers, colleagues and friends as an attachment. Internet_sentence_233

It can be uploaded to a website or (FTP) server for easy download by others. Internet_sentence_234

It can be put into a "shared location" or onto a for instant use by colleagues. Internet_sentence_235

The load of bulk downloads to many users can be eased by the use of "mirror" servers or peer-to-peer networks. Internet_sentence_236

In any of these cases, access to the file may be controlled by user authentication, the transit of the file over the Internet may be obscured by encryption, and money may change hands for access to the file. Internet_sentence_237

The price can be paid by the remote charging of funds from, for example, a credit card whose details are also passed—usually fully encrypted—across the Internet. Internet_sentence_238

The origin and authenticity of the file received may be checked by digital signatures or by MD5 or other message digests. Internet_sentence_239

These simple features of the Internet, over a worldwide basis, are changing the production, sale, and distribution of anything that can be reduced to a computer file for transmission. Internet_sentence_240

This includes all manner of print publications, software products, news, music, film, video, photography, graphics and the other arts. Internet_sentence_241

This in turn has caused seismic shifts in each of the existing industries that previously controlled the production and distribution of these products. Internet_sentence_242

Streaming media is the real-time delivery of digital media for the immediate consumption or enjoyment by end users. Internet_sentence_243

Many radio and television broadcasters provide Internet feeds of their live audio and video productions. Internet_sentence_244

They may also allow time-shift viewing or listening such as Preview, Classic Clips and Listen Again features. Internet_sentence_245

These providers have been joined by a range of pure Internet "broadcasters" who never had on-air licenses. Internet_sentence_246

This means that an Internet-connected device, such as a computer or something more specific, can be used to access on-line media in much the same way as was previously possible only with a television or radio receiver. Internet_sentence_247

The range of available types of content is much wider, from specialized technical webcasts to on-demand popular multimedia services. Internet_sentence_248

Podcasting is a variation on this theme, where—usually audio—material is downloaded and played back on a computer or shifted to a portable media player to be listened to on the move. Internet_sentence_249

These techniques using simple equipment allow anybody, with little censorship or licensing control, to broadcast audio-visual material worldwide. Internet_sentence_250

Digital media streaming increases the demand for network bandwidth. Internet_sentence_251

For example, standard image quality needs 1 Mbit/s link speed for SD 480p, HD 720p quality requires 2.5 Mbit/s, and the top-of-the-line HDX quality needs 4.5 Mbit/s for 1080p. Internet_sentence_252

Webcams are a low-cost extension of this phenomenon. Internet_sentence_253

While some webcams can give full-frame-rate video, the picture either is usually small or updates slowly. Internet_sentence_254

Internet users can watch animals around an African waterhole, ships in the Panama Canal, traffic at a local roundabout or monitor their own premises, live and in real time. Internet_sentence_255

Video chat rooms and video conferencing are also popular with many uses being found for personal webcams, with and without two-way sound. Internet_sentence_256

YouTube was founded on 15 February 2005 and is now the leading website for free streaming video with more than two billion users. Internet_sentence_257

It uses an HTML5 based web player by default to stream and show video files. Internet_sentence_258

Registered users may upload an unlimited amount of video and build their own personal profile. Internet_sentence_259

YouTube claims that its users watch hundreds of millions, and upload hundreds of thousands of videos daily. Internet_sentence_260

Social impact Internet_section_19

The Internet has enabled new forms of social interaction, activities, and social associations. Internet_sentence_261

This phenomenon has given rise to the scholarly study of the sociology of the Internet. Internet_sentence_262

Users Internet_section_20

See also: Global Internet usage, English in computing, and Languages used on the Internet Internet_sentence_263

From 2000 to 2009, the number of Internet users globally rose from 394 million to 1.858 billion. Internet_sentence_264

By 2010, 22 percent of the world's population had access to computers with 1 billion Google searches every day, 300 million Internet users reading blogs, and 2 billion videos viewed daily on YouTube. Internet_sentence_265

In 2014 the world's Internet users surpassed 3 billion or 43.6 percent of world population, but two-thirds of the users came from richest countries, with 78.0 percent of Europe countries population using the Internet, followed by 57.4 percent of the Americas. Internet_sentence_266

However, by 2018, Asia alone accounted for 51% of all Internet users, with 2.2 billion out of the 4.3 billion Internet users in the world coming from that region. Internet_sentence_267

The number of China's Internet users surpassed a major milestone in 2018, when the country's Internet regulatory authority, China Internet Network Information Centre, announced that China had 802 million Internet users. Internet_sentence_268

By 2019, China was the world's leading country in terms of Internet users, with more than 800 million users, followed closely by India, with some 700 million users, with the United States a distant third with 275 million users. Internet_sentence_269

However, in terms of penetration, China has a 38.4% penetration rate compared to India's 40% and the United States's 80%. Internet_sentence_270

As of 2020, it was estimated that 4.5 billion people use the Internet. Internet_sentence_271

The prevalent language for communication via the Internet has always been English. Internet_sentence_272

This may be a result of the origin of the Internet, as well as the language's role as a lingua franca and as a world language. Internet_sentence_273

Early computer systems were limited to the characters in the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), a subset of the Latin alphabet. Internet_sentence_274

After English (27%), the most requested languages on the World Wide Web are Chinese (25%), Spanish (8%), Japanese (5%), Portuguese and German (4% each), Arabic, French and Russian (3% each), and Korean (2%). Internet_sentence_275

By region, 42% of the world's Internet users are based in Asia, 24% in Europe, 14% in North America, 10% in Latin America and the Caribbean taken together, 6% in Africa, 3% in the Middle East and 1% in Australia/Oceania. Internet_sentence_276

The Internet's technologies have developed enough in recent years, especially in the use of Unicode, that good facilities are available for development and communication in the world's widely used languages. Internet_sentence_277

However, some glitches such as mojibake (incorrect display of some languages' characters) still remain. Internet_sentence_278

In an American study in 2005, the percentage of men using the Internet was very slightly ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference reversed in those under 30. Internet_sentence_279

Men logged on more often, spent more time online, and were more likely to be broadband users, whereas women tended to make more use of opportunities to communicate (such as email). Internet_sentence_280

Men were more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. Internet_sentence_281

Men and women were equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking. Internet_sentence_282

More recent studies indicate that in 2008, women significantly outnumbered men on most social networking services, such as Facebook and Myspace, although the ratios varied with age. Internet_sentence_283

In addition, women watched more streaming content, whereas men downloaded more. Internet_sentence_284

In terms of blogs, men were more likely to blog in the first place; among those who blog, men were more likely to have a professional blog, whereas women were more likely to have a personal blog. Internet_sentence_285

Splitting by country, in 2012 Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Denmark had the highest Internet penetration by the number of users, with 93% or more of the population with access. Internet_sentence_286

Several neologisms exist that refer to Internet users: Netizen (as in "citizen of the net") refers to those actively involved in improving online communities, the Internet in general or surrounding political affairs and rights such as free speech, Internaut refers to operators or technically highly capable users of the Internet, digital citizen refers to a person using the Internet in order to engage in society, politics, and government participation. Internet_sentence_287


  • Internet_item_0_0
  • Internet_item_0_1

Usage Internet_section_21

Main articles: Global digital divide and Digital divide Internet_sentence_288

The Internet allows greater flexibility in working hours and location, especially with the spread of unmetered high-speed connections. Internet_sentence_289

The Internet can be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means, including through mobile Internet devices. Internet_sentence_290

Mobile phones, datacards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers allow users to connect to the Internet wirelessly. Internet_sentence_291

Within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, the services of the Internet, including email and the web, may be available. Internet_sentence_292

Service providers may restrict the services offered and mobile data charges may be significantly higher than other access methods. Internet_sentence_293

Educational material at all levels from pre-school to post-doctoral is available from websites. Internet_sentence_294

Examples range from CBeebies, through school and high-school revision guides and virtual universities, to access to top-end scholarly literature through the likes of Google Scholar. Internet_sentence_295

For distance education, help with homework and other assignments, self-guided learning, whiling away spare time or just looking up more detail on an interesting fact, it has never been easier for people to access educational information at any level from anywhere. Internet_sentence_296

The Internet in general and the World Wide Web in particular are important enablers of both formal and informal education. Internet_sentence_297

Further, the Internet allows universities, in particular, researchers from the social and behavioral sciences, to conduct research remotely via virtual laboratories, with profound changes in reach and generalizability of findings as well as in communication between scientists and in the publication of results. Internet_sentence_298

The low cost and nearly instantaneous sharing of ideas, knowledge, and skills have made collaborative work dramatically easier, with the help of collaborative software. Internet_sentence_299

Not only can a group cheaply communicate and share ideas but the wide reach of the Internet allows such groups more easily to form. Internet_sentence_300

An example of this is the free software movement, which has produced, among other things, Linux, Mozilla Firefox, and (later forked into LibreOffice). Internet_sentence_301

Internet chat, whether using an IRC chat room, an instant messaging system, or a social networking service, allows colleagues to stay in touch in a very convenient way while working at their computers during the day. Internet_sentence_302

Messages can be exchanged even more quickly and conveniently than via email. Internet_sentence_303

These systems may allow files to be exchanged, drawings and images to be shared, or voice and video contact between team members. Internet_sentence_304

Content management systems allow collaborating teams to work on shared sets of documents simultaneously without accidentally destroying each other's work. Internet_sentence_305

Business and project teams can share calendars as well as documents and other information. Internet_sentence_306

Such collaboration occurs in a wide variety of areas including scientific research, software development, conference planning, political activism and creative writing. Internet_sentence_307

Social and political collaboration is also becoming more widespread as both Internet access and computer literacy spread. Internet_sentence_308

The Internet allows computer users to remotely access other computers and information stores easily from any access point. Internet_sentence_309

Access may be with computer security, i.e. authentication and encryption technologies, depending on the requirements. Internet_sentence_310

This is encouraging new ways of working from home, collaboration and information sharing in many industries. Internet_sentence_311

An accountant sitting at home can audit the books of a company based in another country, on a server situated in a third country that is remotely maintained by IT specialists in a fourth. Internet_sentence_312

These accounts could have been created by home-working bookkeepers, in other remote locations, based on information emailed to them from offices all over the world. Internet_sentence_313

Some of these things were possible before the widespread use of the Internet, but the cost of private leased lines would have made many of them infeasible in practice. Internet_sentence_314

An office worker away from their desk, perhaps on the other side of the world on a business trip or a holiday, can access their emails, access their data using cloud computing, or open a remote desktop session into their office PC using a secure virtual private network (VPN) connection on the Internet. Internet_sentence_315

This can give the worker complete access to all of their normal files and data, including email and other applications, while away from the office. Internet_sentence_316

It has been referred to among system administrators as the Virtual Private Nightmare, because it extends the secure perimeter of a corporate network into remote locations and its employees' homes. Internet_sentence_317

By late 2010s Internet has been described as "the main source of scientific information "for the majority of the global North population". Internet_sentence_318

Social networking and entertainment Internet_section_22

See also: Social networking service § Social impact Internet_sentence_319

Many people use the World Wide Web to access news, weather and sports reports, to plan and book vacations and to pursue their personal interests. Internet_sentence_320

People use chat, messaging and email to make and stay in touch with friends worldwide, sometimes in the same way as some previously had pen pals. Internet_sentence_321

Social networking services such as Facebook have created new ways to socialize and interact. Internet_sentence_322

Users of these sites are able to add a wide variety of information to pages, to pursue common interests, and to connect with others. Internet_sentence_323

It is also possible to find existing acquaintances, to allow communication among existing groups of people. Internet_sentence_324

Sites like LinkedIn foster commercial and business connections. Internet_sentence_325

YouTube and Flickr specialize in users' videos and photographs. Internet_sentence_326

Social networking services are also widely used by businesses and other organizations to promote their brands, to market to their customers and to encourage posts to "go viral". Internet_sentence_327

"Black hat" social media techniques are also employed by some organizations, such as spam accounts and astroturfing. Internet_sentence_328

A risk for both individuals and organizations writing posts (especially public posts) on social networking services, is that especially foolish or controversial posts occasionally lead to an unexpected and possibly large-scale backlash on social media from other Internet users. Internet_sentence_329

This is also a risk in relation to controversial offline behavior, if it is widely made known. Internet_sentence_330

The nature of this backlash can range widely from counter-arguments and public mockery, through insults and hate speech, to, in extreme cases, rape and death threats. Internet_sentence_331

The online disinhibition effect describes the tendency of many individuals to behave more stridently or offensively online than they would in person. Internet_sentence_332

A significant number of feminist women have been the target of various forms of harassment in response to posts they have made on social media, and Twitter in particular has been criticised in the past for not doing enough to aid victims of online abuse. Internet_sentence_333

For organizations, such a backlash can cause overall brand damage, especially if reported by the media. Internet_sentence_334

However, this is not always the case, as any brand damage in the eyes of people with an opposing opinion to that presented by the organization could sometimes be outweighed by strengthening the brand in the eyes of others. Internet_sentence_335

Furthermore, if an organization or individual gives in to demands that others perceive as wrong-headed, that can then provoke a counter-backlash. Internet_sentence_336

Some websites, such as Reddit, have rules forbidding the posting of personal information of individuals (also known as doxxing), due to concerns about such postings leading to mobs of large numbers of Internet users directing harassment at the specific individuals thereby identified. Internet_sentence_337

In particular, the Reddit rule forbidding the posting of personal information is widely understood to imply that all identifying photos and names must be censored in Facebook screenshots posted to Reddit. Internet_sentence_338

However, the interpretation of this rule in relation to public Twitter posts is less clear, and in any case, like-minded people online have many other ways they can use to direct each other's attention to public social media posts they disagree with. Internet_sentence_339

Children also face dangers online such as cyberbullying and approaches by sexual predators, who sometimes pose as children themselves. Internet_sentence_340

Children may also encounter material which they may find upsetting, or material which their parents consider to be not age-appropriate. Internet_sentence_341

Due to naivety, they may also post personal information about themselves online, which could put them or their families at risk unless warned not to do so. Internet_sentence_342

Many parents choose to enable Internet filtering, and/or supervise their children's online activities, in an attempt to protect their children from inappropriate material on the Internet. Internet_sentence_343

The most popular social networking services, such as Facebook and Twitter, commonly forbid users under the age of 13. Internet_sentence_344

However, these policies are typically trivial to circumvent by registering an account with a false birth date, and a significant number of children aged under 13 join such sites anyway. Internet_sentence_345

Social networking services for younger children, which claim to provide better levels of protection for children, also exist. Internet_sentence_346

The Internet has been a major outlet for leisure activity since its inception, with entertaining social experiments such as MUDs and MOOs being conducted on university servers, and humor-related Usenet groups receiving much traffic. Internet_sentence_347

Many Internet forums have sections devoted to games and funny videos. Internet_sentence_348

The Internet pornography and online gambling industries have taken advantage of the World Wide Web. Internet_sentence_349

Although many governments have attempted to restrict both industries' use of the Internet, in general, this has failed to stop their widespread popularity. Internet_sentence_350

Another area of leisure activity on the Internet is multiplayer gaming. Internet_sentence_351

This form of recreation creates communities, where people of all ages and origins enjoy the fast-paced world of multiplayer games. Internet_sentence_352

These range from MMORPG to first-person shooters, from role-playing video games to online gambling. Internet_sentence_353

While online gaming has been around since the 1970s, modern modes of online gaming began with subscription services such as GameSpy and MPlayer. Internet_sentence_354

Non-subscribers were limited to certain types of game play or certain games. Internet_sentence_355

Many people use the Internet to access and download music, movies and other works for their enjoyment and relaxation. Internet_sentence_356

Free and fee-based services exist for all of these activities, using centralized servers and distributed peer-to-peer technologies. Internet_sentence_357

Some of these sources exercise more care with respect to the original artists' copyrights than others. Internet_sentence_358

Internet usage has been correlated to users' loneliness. Internet_sentence_359

Lonely people tend to use the Internet as an outlet for their feelings and to share their stories with others, such as in the "I am lonely will anyone speak to me" thread. Internet_sentence_360

A 2017 book claimed that the Internet consolidates most aspects of human endeavor into singular arenas of which all of humanity are potential members and competitors, with fundamentally negative impacts on mental health as a result. Internet_sentence_361

While successes in each field of activity are pervasively visible and trumpeted, they are reserved for an extremely thin sliver of the world's most exceptional, leaving everyone else behind. Internet_sentence_362

Whereas, before the Internet, expectations of success in any field were supported by reasonable probabilities of achievement at the village, suburb, city or even state level, the same expectations in the Internet world are virtually certain to bring disappointment today: there is always someone else, somewhere on the planet, who can do better and take the now one-and-only top spot. Internet_sentence_363

Cybersectarianism is a new organizational form which involves: "highly dispersed small groups of practitioners that may remain largely anonymous within the larger social context and operate in relative secrecy, while still linked remotely to a larger network of believers who share a set of practices and texts, and often a common devotion to a particular leader. Internet_sentence_364

Overseas supporters provide funding and support; domestic practitioners distribute tracts, participate in acts of resistance, and share information on the internal situation with outsiders. Internet_sentence_365

Collectively, members and practitioners of such sects construct viable virtual communities of faith, exchanging personal testimonies and engaging in the collective study via email, on-line chat rooms, and web-based message boards." Internet_sentence_366

In particular, the British government has raised concerns about the prospect of young British Muslims being indoctrinated into Islamic extremism by material on the Internet, being persuaded to join terrorist groups such as the so-called "Islamic State", and then potentially committing acts of terrorism on returning to Britain after fighting in Syria or Iraq. Internet_sentence_367

Cyberslacking can become a drain on corporate resources; the average UK employee spent 57 minutes a day surfing the Web while at work, according to a 2003 study by Peninsula Business Services. Internet_sentence_368

Internet addiction disorder is excessive computer use that interferes with daily life. Internet_sentence_369

Nicholas G. Carr believes that Internet use has other effects on individuals, for instance improving skills of scan-reading and interfering with the deep thinking that leads to true creativity. Internet_sentence_370

Electronic business Internet_section_23

Electronic business (e-business) encompasses business processes spanning the entire value chain: purchasing, supply chain management, marketing, sales, customer service, and business relationship. Internet_sentence_371

E-commerce seeks to add revenue streams using the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners. Internet_sentence_372

According to International Data Corporation, the size of worldwide e-commerce, when global business-to-business and -consumer transactions are combined, equate to $16 trillion for 2013. Internet_sentence_373

A report by Oxford Economics added those two together to estimate the total size of the digital economy at $20.4 trillion, equivalent to roughly 13.8% of global sales. Internet_sentence_374

While much has been written of the economic advantages of Internet-enabled commerce, there is also evidence that some aspects of the Internet such as maps and location-aware services may serve to reinforce economic inequality and the digital divide. Internet_sentence_375

Electronic commerce may be responsible for consolidation and the decline of mom-and-pop, brick and mortar businesses resulting in increases in income inequality. Internet_sentence_376

Author Andrew Keen, a long-time critic of the social transformations caused by the Internet, has focused on the economic effects of consolidation from Internet businesses. Internet_sentence_377

Keen cites a 2013 Institute for Local Self-Reliance report saying brick-and-mortar retailers employ 47 people for every $10 million in sales while Amazon employs only 14. Internet_sentence_378

Similarly, the 700-employee room rental start-up Airbnb was valued at $10 billion in 2014, about half as much as Hilton Worldwide, which employs 152,000 people. Internet_sentence_379

At that time, Uber employed 1,000 full-time employees and was valued at $18.2 billion, about the same valuation as Avis Rent a Car and The Hertz Corporation combined, which together employed almost 60,000 people. Internet_sentence_380

Telecommuting Internet_section_24

Telecommuting is the performance within a traditional worker and employer relationship when it is facilitated by tools such as groupware, virtual private networks, conference calling, videoconferencing, and VoIP so that work may be performed from any location, most conveniently the worker's home. Internet_sentence_381

It can be efficient and useful for companies as it allows workers to communicate over long distances, saving significant amounts of travel time and cost. Internet_sentence_382

As broadband Internet connections become commonplace, more workers have adequate bandwidth at home to use these tools to link their home to their corporate intranet and internal communication networks. Internet_sentence_383

Collaborative publishing Internet_section_25

Wikis have also been used in the academic community for sharing and dissemination of information across institutional and international boundaries. Internet_sentence_384

In those settings, they have been found useful for collaboration on grant writing, strategic planning, departmental documentation, and committee work. Internet_sentence_385

The United States Patent and Trademark Office uses a wiki to allow the public to collaborate on finding prior art relevant to examination of pending patent applications. Internet_sentence_386

Queens, New York has used a wiki to allow citizens to collaborate on the design and planning of a local park. Internet_sentence_387

The English Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide Web and ranks in the top 10 among all Web sites in terms of traffic. Internet_sentence_388

Politics and political revolutions Internet_section_26

See also: Internet censorship, Mass surveillance, and Social media use in politics Internet_sentence_389

The Internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool. Internet_sentence_390

The presidential campaign of Howard Dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the Internet. Internet_sentence_391

Many political groups use the Internet to achieve a new method of organizing for carrying out their mission, having given rise to Internet activism, most notably practiced by rebels in the Arab Spring. Internet_sentence_392

The New York Times suggested that social media websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, helped people organize the political revolutions in Egypt, by helping activists organize protests, communicate grievances, and disseminate information. Internet_sentence_393

Many have understood the Internet as an extension of the Habermasian notion of the public sphere, observing how network communication technologies provide something like a global civic forum. Internet_sentence_394

However, incidents of politically motivated Internet censorship have now been recorded in many countries, including western democracies. Internet_sentence_395

Philanthropy Internet_section_27

The spread of low-cost Internet access in developing countries has opened up new possibilities for peer-to-peer charities, which allow individuals to contribute small amounts to charitable projects for other individuals. Internet_sentence_396

Websites, such as DonorsChoose and GlobalGiving, allow small-scale donors to direct funds to individual projects of their choice. Internet_sentence_397

A popular twist on Internet-based philanthropy is the use of peer-to-peer lending for charitable purposes. Internet_sentence_398

Kiva pioneered this concept in 2005, offering the first web-based service to publish individual loan profiles for funding. Internet_sentence_399

Kiva raises funds for local intermediary microfinance organizations which post stories and updates on behalf of the borrowers. Internet_sentence_400

Lenders can contribute as little as $25 to loans of their choice, and receive their money back as borrowers repay. Internet_sentence_401

Kiva falls short of being a pure peer-to-peer charity, in that loans are disbursed before being funded by lenders and borrowers do not communicate with lenders themselves. Internet_sentence_402

Security Internet_section_28

Main article: Internet security Internet_sentence_403

Internet resources, hardware, and software components are the target of criminal or malicious attempts to gain unauthorized control to cause interruptions, commit fraud, engage in blackmail or access private information. Internet_sentence_404

Malware Internet_section_29

Malware is malicious software used and distributed via the Internet. Internet_sentence_405

It includes computer viruses which are copied with the help of humans, computer worms which copy themselves automatically, software for denial of service attacks, ransomware, botnets, and spyware that reports on the activity and typing of users. Internet_sentence_406

Usually, these activities constitute cybercrime. Internet_sentence_407

Defense theorists have also speculated about the possibilities of hackers using cyber warfare using similar methods on a large scale. Internet_sentence_408

Surveillance Internet_section_30

Main article: Computer and network surveillance Internet_sentence_409

See also: Signals intelligence and Mass surveillance Internet_sentence_410

The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. Internet_sentence_411

In the United States for example, under the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act, all phone calls and broadband Internet traffic (emails, web traffic, instant messaging, etc.) are required to be available for unimpeded real-time monitoring by Federal law enforcement agencies. Internet_sentence_412

Packet capture is the monitoring of data traffic on a computer network. Internet_sentence_413

Computers communicate over the Internet by breaking up messages (emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc.) into small chunks called "packets", which are routed through a network of computers, until they reach their destination, where they are assembled back into a complete "message" again. Internet_sentence_414

Packet Capture Appliance intercepts these packets as they are traveling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs. Internet_sentence_415

A packet capture is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. Internet_sentence_416

That is it gathers "messages" but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean. Internet_sentence_417

Other programs are needed to perform traffic analysis and sift through intercepted data looking for important/useful information. Internet_sentence_418

Under the Communications Assistance For Law Enforcement Act all U.S. telecommunications providers are required to install packet sniffing technology to allow Federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies to intercept all of their customers' broadband Internet and VoIP traffic. Internet_sentence_419

The large amount of data gathered from packet capturing requires surveillance software that filters and reports relevant information, such as the use of certain words or phrases, the access of certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with certain parties. Internet_sentence_420

Agencies, such as the Information Awareness Office, NSA, GCHQ and the FBI, spend billions of dollars per year to develop, purchase, implement, and operate systems for interception and analysis of data. Internet_sentence_421

Similar systems are operated by Iranian secret police to identify and suppress dissidents. Internet_sentence_422

The required hardware and software was allegedly installed by German Siemens AG and Finnish Nokia. Internet_sentence_423

Censorship Internet_section_31

Main articles: Internet censorship and Internet freedom Internet_sentence_424

See also: Culture of fear and Great Firewall Internet_sentence_425

Some governments, such as those of Burma, Iran, North Korea, Mainland China, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, restrict access to content on the Internet within their territories, especially to political and religious content, with domain name and keyword filters. Internet_sentence_426

In Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities. Internet_sentence_427

While this list of forbidden resources is supposed to contain only known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret. Internet_sentence_428

Many countries, including the United States, have enacted laws against the possession or distribution of certain material, such as child pornography, via the Internet, but do not mandate filter software. Internet_sentence_429

Many free or commercially available software programs, called content-control software are available to users to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit access by children to pornographic material or depiction of violence. Internet_sentence_430

Performance Internet_section_32

As the Internet is a heterogeneous network, the physical characteristics, including for example the data transfer rates of connections, vary widely. Internet_sentence_431

It exhibits emergent phenomena that depend on its large-scale organization. Internet_sentence_432

Traffic volume Internet_section_33

The volume of Internet traffic is difficult to measure, because no single point of measurement exists in the multi-tiered, non-hierarchical topology. Internet_sentence_433

Traffic data may be estimated from the aggregate volume through the peering points of the Tier 1 network providers, but traffic that stays local in large provider networks may not be accounted for. Internet_sentence_434

Outages Internet_section_34

An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signalling interruptions. Internet_sentence_435

Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the 2008 submarine cable disruption. Internet_sentence_436

Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. Internet_sentence_437

Land cables are also vulnerable, as in 2011 when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia. Internet_sentence_438

Internet blackouts affecting almost entire countries can be achieved by governments as a form of Internet censorship, as in the blockage of the Internet in Egypt, whereby approximately 93% of networks were without access in 2011 in an attempt to stop mobilization for anti-government protests. Internet_sentence_439

Energy use Internet_section_35

Estimates of the Internet's electricity usage have been the subject of controversy, according to a 2014 peer-reviewed research paper that found claims differing by a factor of 20,000 published in the literature during the preceding decade, ranging from 0.0064 kilowatt hours per gigabyte transferred (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. Internet_sentence_440

The researchers attributed these discrepancies mainly to the year of reference (i.e. whether efficiency gains over time had been taken into account) and to whether "end devices such as personal computers and servers are included" in the analysis. Internet_sentence_441

In 2011, academic researchers estimated the overall energy used by the Internet to be between 170 and 307 GW, less than two percent of the energy used by humanity. Internet_sentence_442

This estimate included the energy needed to build, operate, and periodically replace the estimated 750 million laptops, a billion smart phones and 100 million servers worldwide as well as the energy that routers, cell towers, optical switches, Wi-Fi transmitters and cloud storage devices use when transmitting Internet traffic. Internet_sentence_443

According to a non-peer reviewed study published in 2018 by The Shift Project (a French think tank funded by corporate sponsors), nearly 4% of global CO2 emissions could be attributed to global data transfer and the necessary infrastructure. Internet_sentence_444

The study also said that online video streaming alone accounted for 60% of this data transfer and therefore contributed to over 300 million tons of CO2 emission per year, and argued for new "digital sobriety" regulations restricting the use and size of video files. Internet_sentence_445

See also Internet_section_36

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