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For the 2010 film, see Inuk (film). Inuit_sentence_0

For other uses of Inuit, see Inuit (disambiguation). Inuit_sentence_1

Not to be confused with the Innu, a First Nations people in eastern Quebec and Labrador. Inuit_sentence_2


Total populationInuit_header_cell_0_0_0
Regions with significant populationsInuit_header_cell_0_1_0
CanadaInuit_header_cell_0_2_0 65,025 (2016)Inuit_cell_0_2_1
Denmark properInuit_header_cell_0_3_0 16,470 (2018)Inuit_cell_0_3_1
GreenlandInuit_header_cell_0_4_0 50,787 (2017)Inuit_cell_0_4_1
United StatesInuit_header_cell_0_5_0 16,581 (2010)Inuit_cell_0_5_1
Related ethnic groupsInuit_header_cell_0_8_0

Inuit (/ˈɪnjuɪt/; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, ᐃᓄᒃ, dual: Inuuk, ᐃᓅᒃ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). Inuit_sentence_3

The Inuit languages are part of the Inuit-Yupik-Unangan family. Inuit_sentence_4

Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut. Inuit_sentence_5

Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec, Nunatsiavut and NunatuKavut in Labrador and in various parts of the Northwest Territories, particularly around the Arctic Ocean, in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Inuit_sentence_6

With the exception of NunatuKavut these areas are known, primarily by Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, as Inuit Nunangat. Inuit_sentence_7

In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classify Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis. Inuit_sentence_8

The Greenlandic Inuit are descendants of Thule migrations from Canada by 1100 AD. Inuit_sentence_9

Inuit of Greenland are Danish citizens, although not the citizens of the European Union. Inuit_sentence_10

In the United States, the Alaskan Iñupiat are traditionally located in the Northwest Arctic Borough, on the Alaska North Slope, and on Little Diomede Island. Inuit_sentence_11

In both Canada, the United States and Denmark, the term "Eskimo" was once commonly used to describe Inuit and Siberia and Alaska's Yupik, Iñupiat, and Chukchi peoples. Inuit_sentence_12

"Inuit" is not accepted as a term for the Yupik and Chukchi; "Eskimo" is the only term that applies across the Yupik, Chukchi, Iñupiat, and Inuit peoples. Inuit_sentence_13

Since the late 20th century, indigenous people in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit have widely considered "Eskimo" to be an offensive term, and they more frequently identify as "Inuit" for an autonym. Inuit_sentence_14

"eaters of raw meat" in Algonquian languages common to people along the Atlantic coast. Inuit_sentence_15

History Inuit_section_0

Pre-contact history Inuit_section_1

For earlier pre-contact history, see Indigenous peoples in Canada § Paleo-Indians period. Inuit_sentence_16

Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE. Inuit_sentence_17

They had split from the related Aleut group about 4000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants. Inuit_sentence_18

They spread eastwards across the Arctic. Inuit_sentence_19

They displaced the related Dorset culture, called the Tuniit in Inuktitut, which was the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture. Inuit_sentence_20

Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than Inuit. Inuit_sentence_21

Less frequently, the legends refer to the Dorset as "dwarfs". Inuit_sentence_22

Researchers believe that Inuit society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, and developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture. Inuit_sentence_23

By 1100 CE, Inuit migrants had reached west Greenland, where they settled. Inuit_sentence_24

During the 12th century, they also settled in East Greenland. Inuit_sentence_25

Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan-speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit gradually receded. Inuit_sentence_26

The Tuniit were thought to have become completely extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500 CE. Inuit_sentence_27

But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut were likely the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit. Inuit_sentence_28

The Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans led to their extinction as a people. Inuit_sentence_29

In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples. Inuit_sentence_30

It also provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands between the Dorset and Thule transition. Inuit_sentence_31

In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies. Inuit_sentence_32

In Canada and Greenland, Inuit circulated almost exclusively north of the "arctic tree line", the effective southern border of Inuit society. Inuit_sentence_33

The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit community in the world is Rigolet in Nunatsiavut. Inuit_sentence_34

South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in NunatuKavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s. Inuit_sentence_35

The Nunatukavummuit people usually moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. Inuit_sentence_36

They did not establish stationary communities. Inuit_sentence_37

In other areas south of the tree line, non-Inuit indigenous cultures were well established. Inuit_sentence_38

The culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbours. Inuit_sentence_39

Inuit had trade relations with more southern cultures; boundary disputes were common and gave rise to aggressive actions. Inuit_sentence_40

Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit groups with sufficient population density. Inuit_sentence_41

Inuit such as the Nunamiut (Uummarmiut), who inhabited the Mackenzie River delta area, often engaged in warfare. Inuit_sentence_42

The more sparsely settled Inuit in the Central Arctic, however, did so less often. Inuit_sentence_43

Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast. Inuit_sentence_44

The sagas recorded meeting skrælingar, probably an undifferentiated label for all the indigenous peoples whom the Norse encountered, whether Tuniit, Inuit, or Beothuk. Inuit_sentence_45

After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age. Inuit_sentence_46

During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities. Inuit_sentence_47

But, in the high Arctic, Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada and Greenland. Inuit_sentence_48

These Inuit had to subsist on a much poorer diet, and lost access to the essential raw materials for their tools and architecture which they had previously derived from whaling. Inuit_sentence_49

The changing climate forced Inuit to work their way south, pushing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line. Inuit_sentence_50

These were areas First Nations had not occupied or where they were weak enough for Inuit to live near them. Inuit_sentence_51

Researchers have difficulty defining when Inuit stopped this territorial expansion. Inuit_sentence_52

There is evidence that the Inuit were still moving into new territory in southern Labrador when they first began to interact with European colonists in the 17th century. Inuit_sentence_53

Post-contact history Inuit_section_2

Canada Inuit_section_3

Early contact with Europeans Inuit_section_4

The lives of Paleo-Eskimos of the far north were largely unaffected by the arrival of visiting Norsemen except for mutual trade. Inuit_sentence_54

The Labrador Inuit have had the longest continuous contact with Europeans. Inuit_sentence_55

After the disappearance of the Norse colonies in Greenland, Inuit had no contact with Europeans for at least a century. Inuit_sentence_56

By the mid-16th century, Basque whalers and fishermen were already working the Labrador coast and had established whaling stations on land, such as the one that has been excavated at Red Bay, Labrador. Inuit_sentence_57

Inuit do not appear to have interfered with their operations, but the Natives raided the stations in winter, taking tools and items made of worked iron, which they adapted to their own needs. Inuit_sentence_58

Martin Frobisher's 1576 search for the Northwest Passage was the first well-documented contact between Europeans and Inuit. Inuit_sentence_59

Frobisher's expedition landed in Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, not far from the settlement now called the City of Iqaluit. Inuit_sentence_60

Frobisher encountered Inuit on Resolution Island where five sailors left the ship, under orders from Frobisher. Inuit_sentence_61

They became part of Inuit mythology. Inuit_sentence_62

The homesick sailors, tired of their adventure, attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Inuit_sentence_63

Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England, possibly the first Inuk ever to visit Europe. Inuit_sentence_64

In contrast, Inuit oral tradition recounts the natives helping Frobisher's crewmen, whom they believed had been abandoned. Inuit_sentence_65

The semi-nomadic eco-centred Inuit were fishers and hunters harvesting lakes, seas, ice platforms and tundra. Inuit_sentence_66

While there are some allegations that Inuit were hostile to early French and English explorers, fishers and whalers, more recent research suggests that the early relations with whaling stations along the Labrador coast and later James Bay were based on a mutual interest in trade. Inuit_sentence_67

In the final years of the 18th century, the Moravian Church began missionary activities in Labrador, supported by the British who were tired of the raids on their whaling stations. Inuit_sentence_68

The Moravian missionaries could easily provide Inuit with the iron and basic materials they had been stealing from whaling outposts, materials whose real cost to Europeans was almost nothing, but whose value to Inuit was enormous. Inuit_sentence_69

From then on, contacts between the national groups in Labrador were far more peaceful. Inuit_sentence_70

The exchanges that accompanied the arrival and colonization by the Europeans greatly damaged Inuit way of life. Inuit_sentence_71

Mass death was caused by the new infectious diseases carried by whalers and explorers, to which the Indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity. Inuit_sentence_72

The high mortality rate contributed to the enormous social disruptions caused by the distorting effect of Europeans' material wealth and introduction of different materials. Inuit_sentence_73

Nonetheless, Inuit society in the higher latitudes largely remained in isolation during the 19th century. Inuit_sentence_74

The Hudson's Bay Company opened trading posts such as Great Whale River (1820), today the site of the twin villages of Whapmagoostui and Kuujjuarapik, where whale products of the commercial whale hunt were processed and furs traded. Inuit_sentence_75

The British Naval Expedition of 1821–23 led by Admiral William Edward Parry twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin. Inuit_sentence_76

It provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of Inuit. Inuit_sentence_77

Parry stayed in what is now Igloolik over the second winter. Inuit_sentence_78

Parry's writings, with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life, and those of George Francis Lyon were widely read after they were both published in 1824. Inuit_sentence_79

Captain George Comer's Inuit wife Shoofly, known for her sewing skills and elegant attire, was influential in convincing him to acquire more sewing accessories and beads for trade with Inuit. Inuit_sentence_80

Early 20th century Inuit_section_5

During the early 20th century a few traders and missionaries circulated among the more accessible bands. Inuit_sentence_81

After 1904, they were accompanied by a handful of North West Mounted Police (NWMP). Inuit_sentence_82

Unlike most Aboriginal peoples in Canada, however, Inuit did not occupy lands that were coveted by European settlers. Inuit_sentence_83

Used to more temperate climates and conditions, most Europeans considered the homeland of Inuit to be a hostile hinterland. Inuit_sentence_84

Southerners enjoyed lucrative careers as bureaucrats and service providers to the peoples of the North, but very few ever chose to visit there. Inuit_sentence_85

Once its more hospitable lands were largely settled, the government of Canada and entrepreneurs began to take a greater interest in its more peripheral territories, especially the fur and mineral-rich hinterlands. Inuit_sentence_86

By the late 1920s, there were no longer any Inuit who had not been contacted by traders, missionaries or government agents. Inuit_sentence_87

In 1939, the Supreme Court of Canada found, in a decision known as Re Eskimos, that Inuit should be considered Indians and were thus under the jurisdiction of the federal government. Inuit_sentence_88

Native customs were worn down by the actions of the RCMP, who enforced Canadian criminal law on Inuit. Inuit_sentence_89

People such as Kikkik often did not understand the rules of the alien society with which they had to interact. Inuit_sentence_90

In addition, the generally Protestant missionaries of the British preached a moral code very different from the one Inuit had as part of their tradition. Inuit_sentence_91

Many of Inuit were systematically converted to Christianity in the 19th and 20th centuries, through rituals such as the Siqqitiq. Inuit_sentence_92

The Second World War to the 1960s Inuit_section_6

World War II and the Cold War made Arctic Canada strategically important to the great powers for the first time. Inuit_sentence_93

Thanks to the development of modern long-distance aircraft, these areas became accessible year-round. Inuit_sentence_94

The construction of air bases and the Distant Early Warning Line in the 1940s and 1950s brought more intensive contacts with European society, particularly in the form of public education for children. Inuit_sentence_95

The traditionalists complained that Canadian education promoted foreign values that were disdainful of the traditional structure and culture of Inuit society. Inuit_sentence_96

In the 1950s, the Government of Canada undertook what was called the High Arctic relocation for several reasons. Inuit_sentence_97

These were to include protecting Canada's sovereignty in the Arctic, alleviating hunger (as the area currently occupied had been over-hunted), and attempting to solve the "Eskimo problem", by seeking assimilation of the people and the end of their traditional Inuit culture. Inuit_sentence_98

One of the more notable relocations was undertaken in 1953, when 17 families were moved from Port Harrison (now Inukjuak, Quebec) to Resolute and Grise Fiord. Inuit_sentence_99

They were dropped off in early September when winter had already arrived. Inuit_sentence_100

The land they were sent to was very different from that in the Inukjuak area; it was barren, with only a couple of months when the temperature rose above freezing, and several months of polar night. Inuit_sentence_101

The families were told by the RCMP they would be able to return to their home territory within two years if conditions were not right. Inuit_sentence_102

However, two years later more Inuit families were relocated to the High Arctic. Inuit_sentence_103

Thirty years passed before they were able to visit Inukjuak. Inuit_sentence_104

By 1953, Canada's prime minister Louis St. Laurent publicly admitted, "Apparently we have administered the vast territories of the north in an almost continuing absence of mind." Inuit_sentence_105

The government began to establish about forty permanent administrative centres to provide education, health, and economic development services. Inuit_sentence_106

Inuit from hundreds of smaller camps scattered across the north, began to congregate in these hamlets. Inuit_sentence_107

Regular visits from doctors, and access to modern medical care raised the birth rate and decreased the death rate, causing a marked natural increase in the population that made it more difficult for them to survive by traditional means. Inuit_sentence_108

In the 1950s, the Canadian government began to actively settle Inuit into permanent villages and cities, occasionally against their will (such as in Nuntak and Hebron). Inuit_sentence_109

In 2005 the Canadian government acknowledged the abuses inherent in these forced resettlements. Inuit_sentence_110

By the mid-1960s, encouraged first by missionaries, then by the prospect of paid jobs and government services, and finally forced by hunger and required by police, most Canadian Inuit lived year-round in permanent settlements. Inuit_sentence_111

The nomadic migrations that were the central feature of Arctic life had become a much smaller part of life in the North. Inuit_sentence_112

The Inuit, a once self-sufficient people in an extremely harsh environment were, in the span of perhaps two generations, transformed into a small, impoverished minority, lacking skills or resources to sell to the larger economy, but increasingly dependent on it for survival. Inuit_sentence_113

Although anthropologists like Diamond Jenness (1964) were quick to predict that Inuit culture was facing extinction, Inuit political activism was already emerging. Inuit_sentence_114

Cultural renewal Inuit_section_7

In the 1960s, the Canadian government funded the establishment of secular, government-operated high schools in the Northwest Territories (including what is now Nunavut) and Inuit areas in Quebec and Labrador along with the residential school system. Inuit_sentence_115

The Inuit population was not large enough to support a full high school in every community, so this meant only a few schools were built, and students from across the territories were boarded there. Inuit_sentence_116

These schools, in Aklavik, Iqaluit, Yellowknife, Inuvik and Kuujjuaq, brought together young Inuit from across the Arctic in one place for the first time, and exposed them to the rhetoric of civil and human rights that prevailed in Canada in the 1960s. Inuit_sentence_117

This was a real wake-up call for the Inuit, and it stimulated the emergence of a new generation of young Inuit activists in the late 1960s who came forward and pushed for respect for the Inuit and their territories. Inuit_sentence_118

The Inuit began to emerge as a political force in the late 1960s and early 1970s, shortly after the first graduates returned home. Inuit_sentence_119

They formed new politically active associations in the early 1970s, starting with the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (Inuit Brotherhood and today known as Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami), an outgrowth of the Indian and Eskimo Association of the '60s, in 1971, and more region specific organizations shortly afterwards, including the Committee for the Original People's Entitlement (representing the Inuvialuit), the Northern Quebec Inuit Association (Makivik Corporation) and the Labrador Inuit Association (LIA) representing Northern Labrador Inuit. Inuit_sentence_120

Since the mid-1980s the Southern Labrador Inuit of NunatuKavut began organizing politically after being geographically cut out of the LIA, however, for political expediency the organization was erroneously called the Labrador Métis Nation. Inuit_sentence_121

These various activist movements began to change the direction of Inuit society in 1975 with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. Inuit_sentence_122

This comprehensive land claims settlement for Quebec Inuit, along with a large cash settlement and substantial administrative autonomy in the new region of Nunavik, set the precedent for the settlements to follow. Inuit_sentence_123

The northern Labrador Inuit submitted their land claim in 1977, although they had to wait until 2005 to have a signed land settlement establishing Nunatsiavut. Inuit_sentence_124

Southern Labrador Inuit of NunatuKavut are currently in the process of establishing landclaims and title rights that would allow them to negotiate with the Newfoundland Government. Inuit_sentence_125

Canada's 1982 Constitution Act recognized the Inuit as Aboriginal peoples in Canada, but not First Nations. Inuit_sentence_126

In the same year, the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut (TFN) was incorporated, in order to take over negotiations for land claims on behalf of the Inuit living in the eastern Northwest Territories, that would later become Nunavut, from the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, which became a joint association of the Inuit of Quebec, Labrador, and the Northwest Territories. Inuit_sentence_127

Inuit cabinet members at the federal level Inuit_section_8

On October 30, 2008, Leona Aglukkaq was appointed as Minister of Health, "[becoming] the first Inuk to hold a senior cabinet position, although she is not the first Inuk to be in cabinet altogether." Inuit_sentence_128

Jack Anawak and Nancy Karetak-Lindell were both parliamentary secretaries respectively from 1993 to 1996 and in 2003. Inuit_sentence_129

Genocide in the 20th and 21st centuries Inuit_section_9

In 2019, the final report, Reclaiming Power and Place, by the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls concluded that Canada was involved in "race-based genocide of indigenous peoples", resulting in more than 1,000 women killed since 1980. Inuit_sentence_130

Nomenclature Inuit_section_10

See also: Eskimo § Nomenclature Inuit_sentence_131

The term "Eskimo" is still sometimes used for the purpose of grouping the Inuit and Yupik peoples together while distinguishing them from American Indians in the United States. Inuit_sentence_132

The Yupik do not speak an Inuit language nor consider themselves to be Inuit. Inuit_sentence_133

However, the term is probably a Montagnais exonym as well as being widely used in folk etymology as meaning "eater of raw meat" in the Cree language. Inuit_sentence_134

However, the word is widely considered pejorative or even a racial slur, particularly amongst the Canadian and English-speaking Greenlandic Inuit. Inuit_sentence_135

In Canada and Greenland, "Inuit" is preferred. Inuit_sentence_136

Inuit is the Eastern Canadian Inuit (Inuktitut) and West Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) word for "the people". Inuit_sentence_137

Since Inuktitut and Kalaallisut are the prestige dialects in Canada and Greenland, respectively, their version has become dominant, although every Inuit dialect uses cognates from the Proto-Eskimo *ińuɣ – for example, "people" is inughuit in North Greenlandic and iivit in East Greenlandic. Inuit_sentence_138

Cultural history Inuit_section_11

Main article: Inuit culture Inuit_sentence_139

Languages Inuit_section_12

Main article: Inuit languages Inuit_sentence_140

Inuit speak Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Greenlandic languages, which belong to the Inuit-Inupiaq branch of the Inuit-Yupik-Unangan language family. Inuit_sentence_141

The Greenlandic languages are divided into: Kalaallisut (Western), Inuktun (Northern), and Tunumiit (Eastern). Inuit_sentence_142

Inuktitut is spoken in Canada and along with Inuinnaqtun is one of the official languages of Nunavut; they are known collectively as the Inuit Language. Inuit_sentence_143

In the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun and Inuktitut are all official languages. Inuit_sentence_144

Kalaallisut is the official language of Greenland. Inuit_sentence_145

As Inuktitut was the language of the Eastern Canadian Inuit and Kalaallisut is the language of the Western Greenlandic Inuit, they are related more closely than most other dialects. Inuit_sentence_146

Inuit in Alaska and Northern Canada also typically speak English. Inuit_sentence_147

In Greenland, Inuit also speak Danish and learn English in school. Inuit_sentence_148

Canadian Inuit may also speak Québécois French. Inuit_sentence_149

Finally, Deaf Inuit speak Inuit Sign Language, which is a language isolate and almost extinct as only around 50 people still speak it. Inuit_sentence_150

Diet Inuit_section_13

Main article: Inuit diet Inuit_sentence_151

The Inuit have traditionally been fishers and hunters. Inuit_sentence_152

They still hunt whales (esp. Inuit_sentence_153

bowhead whale), seal, polar bears, muskoxen, birds, and fish and at times other less commonly eaten animals such as the Arctic fox. Inuit_sentence_154

The typical Inuit diet is high in protein and very high in fat – in their traditional diets, Inuit consumed an average of 75% of their daily energy intake from fat. Inuit_sentence_155

While it is not possible to cultivate plants for food in the Arctic, the Inuit have traditionally gathered those that are naturally available. Inuit_sentence_156

Grasses, tubers, roots, stems, berries, and seaweed (kuanniq or edible seaweed) were collected and preserved depending on the season and the location. Inuit_sentence_157

There is a vast array of different hunting technologies that the Inuit used to gather their food. Inuit_sentence_158

In the 1920s, anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson lived with and studied a group of Inuit. Inuit_sentence_159

The study focused on the fact that the Inuit's low-carbohydrate diet had no adverse effects on their health, nor indeed, Stefansson's own health. Inuit_sentence_160

Stefansson (1946) also observed that the Inuit were able to get the necessary vitamins they needed from their traditional winter diet, which did not contain any plant matter. Inuit_sentence_161

In particular, he found that adequate vitamin C could be obtained from items in their traditional diet of raw meat such as ringed seal liver and whale skin (muktuk). Inuit_sentence_162

While there was considerable skepticism when he reported these findings, they have been borne out in recent studies and analyses. Inuit_sentence_163

However, the Inuit have lifespans 12 to 15 years shorter than the average Canadian's, which is thought to be a result of limited access to medical services. Inuit_sentence_164

The life expectancy gap is not closing. Inuit_sentence_165

Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes. Inuit_sentence_166

Transport, navigation, and dogs Inuit_section_14

The Inuit peoples hunted sea animals from single-passenger, covered seal-skin boats called qajaq (Inuktitut syllabics: ᖃᔭᖅ) which were extraordinarily buoyant, and could easily be righted by a seated person, even if completely overturned. Inuit_sentence_167

Because of this property, the design was copied by Europeans and Americans who still produce them under the Inuit name kayak. Inuit_sentence_168

Inuit also made umiaq ("woman's boat"), larger open boats made of wood frames covered with animal skins, for transporting people, goods, and dogs. Inuit_sentence_169

They were 6–12 m (20–39 ft) long and had a flat bottom so that the boats could come close to shore. Inuit_sentence_170

In the winter, Inuit would also hunt sea mammals by patiently watching an aglu (breathing hole) in the ice and waiting for the air-breathing seals to use them. Inuit_sentence_171

This technique is also used by the polar bear, who hunts by seeking holes in the ice and waiting nearby. Inuit_sentence_172

In winter, both on land and on sea ice, the Inuit used dog sleds (qamutik) for transportation. Inuit_sentence_173

The husky dog breed comes from the Siberian Husky. Inuit_sentence_174

These dogs were bred from wolves, for transportation. Inuit_sentence_175

A team of dogs in either a tandem/side-by-side or fan formation would pull a sled made of wood, animal bones, or the baleen from a whale's mouth and even frozen fish, over the snow and ice. Inuit_sentence_176

The Inuit used stars to navigate at sea and landmarks to navigate on land; they possessed a comprehensive native system of toponymy. Inuit_sentence_177

Where natural landmarks were insufficient, the Inuit would erect an inukshuk. Inuit_sentence_178

Also, Greenland Inuit created Ammassalik wooden maps, which are tactile devices that represent the coast line. Inuit_sentence_179

Dogs played an integral role in the annual routine of the Inuit. Inuit_sentence_180

During the summer they became pack animals, sometimes dragging up to 20 kg (44 lb) of baggage and in the winter they pulled the sled. Inuit_sentence_181

Yearlong they assisted with hunting by sniffing out seals' holes and pestering polar bears. Inuit_sentence_182

They also protected the Inuit villages by barking at bears and strangers. Inuit_sentence_183

The Inuit generally favored, and tried to breed, the most striking and handsome of dogs, especially ones with bright eyes and a healthy coat. Inuit_sentence_184

Common husky dog breeds used by the Inuit were the Canadian Eskimo Dog, the official animal of Nunavut, (Qimmiq; Inuktitut for dog), the Greenland Dog, the Siberian Husky and the Alaskan Malamute. Inuit_sentence_185

The Inuit would perform rituals over the newborn pup to give it favorable qualities; the legs were pulled to make them grow strong and the nose was poked with a pin to enhance the sense of smell. Inuit_sentence_186

Industry, art, and clothing Inuit_section_15

Main articles: Inuit art and Inuit clothing Inuit_sentence_187

Inuit industry relied almost exclusively on animal hides, driftwood, and bones, although some tools were also made out of worked stones, particularly the readily worked soapstone. Inuit_sentence_188

Walrus ivory was a particularly essential material, used to make knives. Inuit_sentence_189

Art played a big part in Inuit society and continues to do so today. Inuit_sentence_190

Small sculptures of animals and human figures, usually depicting everyday activities such as hunting and whaling, were carved from ivory and bone. Inuit_sentence_191

In modern times prints and figurative works carved in relatively soft stone such as soapstone, serpentinite, or argillite have also become popular. Inuit_sentence_192

Traditional Inuit clothing and footwear is made from animal skins, sewn together using needles made from animal bones and threads made from other animal products, such as sinew. Inuit_sentence_193

The anorak (parka) is made in a similar fashion by Arctic peoples from Europe through Asia and the Americas, including the Inuit. Inuit_sentence_194

The hood of an amauti, (women's parka, plural amautiit) was traditionally made extra large with a separate compartment below the hood to allow the mother to carry a baby against her back and protect it from the harsh wind. Inuit_sentence_195

Styles vary from region to region, from the shape of the hood to the length of the tails. Inuit_sentence_196

Boots (mukluk or kamik), could be made of caribou or seal skin, and designed for men and women. Inuit_sentence_197

During the winter, certain Inuit lived in a temporary shelter made from snow called an igloo, and during the few months of the year when temperatures were above freezing, they lived in tents, known as tupiq, made of animal skins supported by a frame of bones or wood. Inuit_sentence_198

Some, such as the Siglit, used driftwood, while others built sod houses. Inuit_sentence_199

Gender roles, marriage, birth, and community Inuit_section_16

See also: Eskimo kinship and Inuit women Inuit_sentence_200

The division of labor in traditional Inuit society had a strong gender component, but it was not absolute. Inuit_sentence_201

The men were traditionally hunters and fishermen and the women took care of the children, cleaned the home, sewed, processed food, and cooked. Inuit_sentence_202

However, there are numerous examples of women who hunted, out of necessity or as a personal choice. Inuit_sentence_203

At the same time men, who could be away from camp for several days at a time, would be expected to know how to sew and cook. Inuit_sentence_204

The marital customs among the Inuit were not strictly monogamous: many Inuit relationships were implicitly or explicitly sexual. Inuit_sentence_205

Open marriages, polygamy, divorce, and remarriage were known. Inuit_sentence_206

Among some Inuit groups, if there were children, divorce required the approval of the community and particularly the agreement of the elders. Inuit_sentence_207

Marriages were often arranged, sometimes in infancy, and occasionally forced on the couple by the community. Inuit_sentence_208

Marriage was common for women at puberty and for men when they became productive hunters. Inuit_sentence_209

Family structure was flexible: a household might consist of a man and his wife (or wives) and children; it might include his parents or his wife's parents as well as adopted children; it might be a larger formation of several siblings with their parents, wives and children; or even more than one family sharing dwellings and resources. Inuit_sentence_210

Every household had its head, an elder or a particularly respected man. Inuit_sentence_211

There was also a larger notion of community as, generally, several families shared a place where they wintered. Inuit_sentence_212

Goods were shared within a household, and also, to a significant extent, within a whole community. Inuit_sentence_213

The Inuit were hunter–gatherers, and have been referred to as nomadic. Inuit_sentence_214

One of the customs following the birth of an infant was for an Angakkuq (shaman) to place a tiny ivory carving of a whale into the baby's mouth, in hopes this would make the child good at hunting. Inuit_sentence_215

Loud singing and drumming were also customary after a birth. Inuit_sentence_216

Raiding Inuit_section_17

Virtually all Inuit cultures have oral traditions of raids by other indigenous peoples, including fellow Inuit, and of taking vengeance on them in return, such as the Bloody Falls massacre. Inuit_sentence_217

Western observers often regarded these tales as generally not entirely accurate historical accounts, but more as self-serving myths. Inuit_sentence_218

However, evidence shows that Inuit cultures had quite accurate methods of teaching historical accounts to each new generation. Inuit_sentence_219

In northern Canada, historically there were ethnic feuds between the Dene and the Inuit, as witnessed by Samuel Hearne in 1771. Inuit_sentence_220

In 1996, Dene and Inuit representatives participated in a healing ceremony to reconcile the centuries-old grievances. Inuit_sentence_221

The historic accounts of violence against outsiders does make clear that there was a history of hostile contact within the Inuit cultures and with other cultures. Inuit_sentence_222

It also makes it clear that Inuit nations existed through history, as well as confederations of such nations. Inuit_sentence_223

The known confederations were usually formed to defend against a more prosperous, and thus stronger, nation. Inuit_sentence_224

Alternately, people who lived in less productive geographical areas tended to be less warlike, as they had to spend more time producing food. Inuit_sentence_225

Justice within Inuit culture was moderated by the form of governance that gave significant power to the elders. Inuit_sentence_226

As in most cultures around the world, justice could be harsh and often included capital punishment for serious crimes against the community or the individual. Inuit_sentence_227

During raids against other peoples, the Inuit, like their non-Inuit neighbors, tended to be merciless. Inuit_sentence_228

Suicide, murder, and death Inuit_section_18

Further information: Suicide in Greenland and Suicide among Canadian aboriginal people Inuit_sentence_229

A pervasive European myth about Inuit is that they killed elderly (senicide) and "unproductive people", but this is not generally true. Inuit_sentence_230

In a culture with an oral history, elders are the keepers of communal knowledge, effectively the community library. Inuit_sentence_231

Because they are of extreme value as the repository of knowledge, there are cultural taboos against sacrificing elders. Inuit_sentence_232

In Antoon A. Leenaars' book Suicide in Canada he states that "Rasmussen found that the death of elders by suicide was a commonplace among the Iglulik Inuit". Inuit_sentence_233

According to Franz Boas, suicide was "not of rare occurrence" and was generally accomplished through hanging. Inuit_sentence_234

Writing of the Labrador Inuit, Hawkes (1916) was considerably more explicit on the subject of suicide and the burden of the elderly: Inuit_sentence_235

When food is not sufficient, the elderly are the least likely to survive. Inuit_sentence_236

In the extreme case of famine, the Inuit fully understood that, if there was to be any hope of obtaining more food, a hunter was necessarily the one to feed on whatever food was left. Inuit_sentence_237

However, a common response to desperate conditions and the threat of starvation was infanticide. Inuit_sentence_238

A mother abandoned an infant in hopes that someone less desperate might find and adopt the child before the cold or animals killed it. Inuit_sentence_239

The belief that the Inuit regularly resorted to infanticide may be due in part to studies done by Asen Balikci, Milton Freeman and David Riches among the Netsilik, along with the trial of Kikkik. Inuit_sentence_240

Other recent research has noted that "While there is little disagreement that there were examples of infanticide in Inuit communities, it is presently not known the depth and breadth of these incidents. Inuit_sentence_241

The research is neither complete nor conclusive to allow for a determination of whether infanticide was a rare or a widely practiced event." Inuit_sentence_242

There is no agreement about the actual estimates of the frequency of newborn female infanticide in the Inuit population. Inuit_sentence_243

Carmel Schrire mentions diverse studies ranging from 15–50% to 80%. Inuit_sentence_244

Anthropologists believed that Inuit cultures routinely killed children born with physical defects because of the demands of the extreme climate. Inuit_sentence_245

These views were changed by late 20th century discoveries of burials at an archaeological site. Inuit_sentence_246

Between 1982 and 1994, a storm with high winds caused ocean waves to erode part of the bluffs near Barrow, Alaska, and a body was discovered to have been washed out of the mud. Inuit_sentence_247

Unfortunately the storm claimed the body, which was not recovered. Inuit_sentence_248

But examination of the eroded bank indicated that an ancient house, perhaps with other remains, was likely to be claimed by the next storm. Inuit_sentence_249

The site, known as the "Ukkuqsi archaeological site", was excavated. Inuit_sentence_250

Several frozen bodies (now known as the "frozen family") were recovered, autopsies were performed, and they were re-interred as the first burials in the then-new Imaiqsaun Cemetery south of Barrow. Inuit_sentence_251

Years later another body was washed out of the bluff. Inuit_sentence_252

It was a female child, approximately 9 years old, who had clearly been born with a congenital birth defect. Inuit_sentence_253

This child had never been able to walk, but must have been cared for by family throughout her life. Inuit_sentence_254

She was the best preserved body ever recovered in Alaska, and radiocarbon dating of grave goods and of a strand of her hair all place her back to about 1200 CE. Inuit_sentence_255

Health Inuit_section_19

See also: Indian hospital Inuit_sentence_256

During the 19th century, the Western Arctic suffered a population decline of close to 90%, resulting from exposure to new diseases, including tuberculosis, measles, influenza, and smallpox. Inuit_sentence_257

Autopsies near Greenland reveal that, more commonly pneumonia, kidney diseases, trichinosis, malnutrition, and degenerative disorders may have contributed to mass deaths among different Inuit tribes. Inuit_sentence_258

The Inuit believed that the causes of the disease were of a spiritual origin. Inuit_sentence_259

Canadian churches and, eventually, the federal government, ran the earliest health facilities for the Inuit population, whether fully segregated hospitals or "annexes" and wards attached to settler hospitals. Inuit_sentence_260

These "Indian hospitals" were focused on treating people for tuberculosis, though diagnosis was difficult and treatment involved forced removal of individuals from their communities for in-patient confinement in other parts of the country. Inuit_sentence_261

"In October (2017) the federal Minister of Indigenous Services, Jane Philpott, announced that in 2015 tuberculosis ... Was 270 times ... More common among the Canadian Inuit than it is among non-indigenous southern Canadians." Inuit_sentence_262

The Canadian Medical Association Journal published in 2013 that "tuberculosis among Canadian Inuit has dramatically increased since 1997. Inuit_sentence_263

In 2010 the incidence in Nunavut ... Was 304 per 100,000 — more than 66 times the rate seen in the general population". Inuit_sentence_264

Traditional law Inuit_section_20

Main article: Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit Inuit_sentence_265

Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western law concepts. Inuit_sentence_266

Customary law was thought non-existent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. Inuit_sentence_267

Hoebel, in 1954, concluded that only "rudimentary law" existed amongst the Inuit. Inuit_sentence_268

No known Western observer before 1970 was aware that any form of governance existed among any Inuit, however, there was a set way of doing things that had to be followed: Inuit_sentence_269


  • maligait refers to what has to be followedInuit_item_0_0
  • piqujait refers to what has to be doneInuit_item_0_1
  • tirigusuusiit refers to what has to be avoidedInuit_item_0_2

If an individual's actions went against the tirigusuusiit, maligait or piqujait, the angakkuq (shaman) might have to intervene, lest the consequences be dire to the individual or the community. Inuit_sentence_270

Traditional beliefs Inuit_section_21

See also: Inuit mythology and Shamanism among Eskimo peoples Inuit_sentence_271

The environment in which the Inuit lived inspired a mythology filled with adventure tales of whale and walrus hunts. Inuit_sentence_272

Long winter months of waiting for caribou herds or sitting near breathing holes hunting seals gave birth to stories of mysterious and sudden appearance of ghosts and fantastic creatures. Inuit_sentence_273

Some Inuit looked into the aurora borealis, or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life. Inuit_sentence_274

However, some Inuit believed that the lights were more sinister and if you whistled at them, they would come down and cut off your head. Inuit_sentence_275

This tale is still told to children today. Inuit_sentence_276

For others they were invisible giants, the souls of animals, a guide to hunting and as a spirit for the angakkuq to help with healing. Inuit_sentence_277

They relied upon the angakkuq (shaman) for spiritual interpretation. Inuit_sentence_278

The nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman (Sedna), who lived beneath the sea. Inuit_sentence_279

The waters, a central food source, were believed to contain great gods. Inuit_sentence_280

The Inuit practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles. Inuit_sentence_281

They believed that all things had a form of spirit, including humans, and that to some extent these spirits could be influenced by a pantheon of supernatural entities that could be appeased when one required some animal or inanimate thing to act in a certain way. Inuit_sentence_282

The angakkuq of a community of Inuit was not the leader, but rather a sort of healer and psychotherapist, who tended wounds and offered advice, as well as invoking the spirits to assist people in their lives. Inuit_sentence_283

Their role was to see, interpret and exhort the subtle and unseen. Inuit_sentence_284

Angakkuit were not trained; they were held to be born with the ability and recognized by the community as they approached adulthood. Inuit_sentence_285

Inuit religion was closely tied to a system of rituals integrated into the daily life of the people. Inuit_sentence_286

These rituals were simple but held to be necessary. Inuit_sentence_287

According to a customary Inuit saying, Inuit_sentence_288

By believing that all things, including animals, have souls like those of humans, any hunt that failed to show appropriate respect and customary supplication would only give the liberated spirits cause to avenge themselves. Inuit_sentence_289

The harshness and unpredictability of life in the Arctic ensured that Inuit lived with concern for the uncontrollable, where a streak of bad luck could destroy an entire community. Inuit_sentence_290

To offend a spirit was to risk its interference with an already marginal existence. Inuit_sentence_291

The Inuit understood that they had to work in harmony with supernatural powers to provide the necessities of day-to-day life. Inuit_sentence_292

Demographics Inuit_section_22

In total there are about 148,000 Inuit living in four countries, Canada, Greenland, Denmark, and the United States. Inuit_sentence_293

Canada Inuit_section_23

Although the 50,480 Inuit listed in the 2006 Canada Census can be found throughout Canada the majority, 44,470, live in four regions. Inuit_sentence_294

As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 4,715 Inuit living in Newfoundland and Labrador and about 2,160 live in Nunatsiavut. Inuit_sentence_295

There are also about 6,000 NunatuKavut people (Labrador Metis or Inuit-metis) living in southern Labrador in what is called NunatuKavut. Inuit_sentence_296

As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 4,165 Inuit living in the Northwest Territories. Inuit_sentence_297

The majority, about 3,115, live in the six communities of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Inuit_sentence_298

As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 24,640 Inuit living in Nunavut. Inuit_sentence_299

In Nunavut the Inuit population forms a majority in all communities and is the only jurisdiction of Canada where Aboriginal peoples form a majority. Inuit_sentence_300

As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 10,950 Inuit living in Quebec. Inuit_sentence_301

The majority, about 9,565, live in Nunavik. Inuit_sentence_302

Greenland Inuit_section_24

Main article: Greenlandic Inuit Inuit_sentence_303

According to the 2018 edition of The World Factbook, published by the Central Intelligence Agency, the Inuit population of Greenland is 88% (50,787) out of a total of 57,713 people. Inuit_sentence_304

Like Nunavut the population lives throughout the region. Inuit_sentence_305

Denmark Inuit_section_25

The population size of Greenlandic people in Denmark varies from source to source between 15,000 and 20,000. Inuit_sentence_306

According to 2015 figures from Statistics Denmark there are 15,815 people residing in Denmark of Greenlandic Inuit ancestry. Inuit_sentence_307

Most travel to Denmark for educational purposes, and many remain after finishing their education, which results in the population being mostly concentrated in the big 4 educational cities of Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, and Aalborg, which all have vibrant Greenlandic communities and cultural centers (Kalaallit Illuutaat). Inuit_sentence_308

United States Inuit_section_26

According to the 2000 United States Census there were a total of 16,581 Inuit/Inupiat living throughout the country. Inuit_sentence_309

The majority, about 14,718, live in the state of Alaska. Inuit_sentence_310

Governance Inuit_section_27

The Inuit Circumpolar Council is a United Nations-recognized non-governmental organization (NGO), which defines its constituency as Canada's Inuit and Inuvialuit, Greenland's Kalaallit Inuit, Alaska's Inupiat and Yup'ik, and Russia's Siberian Yupik, despite the last two neither speaking an Inuit dialect or considering themselves "Inuit". Inuit_sentence_311

Nonetheless, it has come together with other circumpolar cultural and political groups to promote the Inuit and other northern people in their fight against ecological problems such as climate change which disproportionately affects the Inuit population. Inuit_sentence_312

The Inuit Circumpolar Council is one of the six group of Arctic indigenous peoples that have a seat as a so-called "Permanent Participant" on the Arctic Council, an international high level forum in which the eight Arctic Countries (USA, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland) discuss Arctic policy. Inuit_sentence_313

On 12 May 2011, Greenland's Prime Minister Kuupik Kleist hosted the ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council, an event for which the American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton came to Nuuk, as did many other high-ranking officials such as Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt and Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre. Inuit_sentence_314

At that event they signed the Nuuk Declaration. Inuit_sentence_315

Canada Inuit_section_28

See also: NunatuKavut, Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, and Nunangit Inuit_sentence_316

While Inuit Nunangat is within Canada, and the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami oversees only the four official regions, there remains NunatuKavut in southern Labrador. Inuit_sentence_317

NunatuKavummuit retain a treaty with the Crown since 1765, and the NunatuKavut Community Council (NCC) oversees governance in this region. Inuit_sentence_318

The Inuvialuit are western Canadian Inuit who remained in the Northwest Territories when Nunavut split off. Inuit_sentence_319

They live primarily in the Mackenzie River delta, on Banks Island, and parts of Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories. Inuit_sentence_320

They are officially represented by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and, in 1984, received a comprehensive land claims settlement, the first in Northern Canada, with the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. Inuit_sentence_321

The TFN worked for ten years and, in September 1992, came to a final agreement with the Government of Canada. Inuit_sentence_322

This agreement called for the separation of the Northwest Territories into an eastern territory whose Aboriginal population would be predominately Inuit, the future Nunavut, and a rump Northwest Territories in the west. Inuit_sentence_323

It was the largest land claim agreement in Canadian history. Inuit_sentence_324

In November 1992, the Nunavut Final Agreement was approved by nearly 85% of the Inuit of what would become Nunavut. Inuit_sentence_325

As the final step in this long process, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement was signed on May 25, 1993, in Iqaluit by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and by Paul Quassa, the president of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, which replaced the TFN with the ratification of the Nunavut Final Agreement. Inuit_sentence_326

The Canadian Parliament passed the supporting legislation in June of the same year, enabling the 1999 establishment of Nunavut as a territorial entity. Inuit_sentence_327

Greenland Inuit_section_29

See also: Kalaallit and History of Greenland Inuit_sentence_328

In 1953, Denmark put an end to the colonial status of Greenland and granted home rule in 1979 and in 2008 a self-government referendum was passed with 75% approval. Inuit_sentence_329

Although still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark (along with Denmark proper and the Faroe Islands), Greenland, known as Kalaallit Nunaat in the Greenlandic language, maintains much autonomy today. Inuit_sentence_330

Of a population of 56,000, 80% of Greenlanders identify as Inuit. Inuit_sentence_331

Their economy is based on fishing and shrimping. Inuit_sentence_332

The Thule people arrived in Greenland in the 13th century. Inuit_sentence_333

There they encountered the Norsemen, who had established colonies there since the late 10th century, as well as a later wave of the Dorset people. Inuit_sentence_334

Because most of Greenland is covered in ice, the Greenland Inuit (or Kalaallit) only live in coastal settlements, particularly the northern polar coast, the eastern Amassalik coast and the central coasts of western Greenland. Inuit_sentence_335

Alaska Inuit_section_30

See also: Alaska Native Regional Corporations, Russian America, Alaska Statehood Act, and List of Alaska Native tribal entities Inuit_sentence_336

Alaska is governed as a state with very limited autonomy for Alaska Native peoples. Inuit_sentence_337

European colonization of Alaska started in the 18th century by Russia. Inuit_sentence_338

By the 1860s, the Russian government was considering ridding itself of its Russian America colony. Inuit_sentence_339

Alaska was officially incorporated to United States on January 3, 1959. Inuit_sentence_340

The Inuit of Alaska are the Iñupiat who live in the Northwest Arctic Borough, the North Slope Borough and the Bering Strait region. Inuit_sentence_341

Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States, is in the Inupiat region. Inuit_sentence_342

Their language is Iñupiaq. Inuit_sentence_343

Genetics Inuit_section_31

See also: Saqqaq culture § Genetics, Dorset culture § Genetics, Birnirk culture § Genetics, Thule people § Genetics, and Sadlermiut § Genetics Inuit_sentence_344

A genetic study published in Science in August 2014 examined a large number of remains from the Dorset culture, Birnirk culture and the Thule people. Inuit_sentence_345

Genetic contuinity was observed between the Inuit, Thule and Birnirk, who overwhelmingly carried the maternal haplogroup A2a and were genetically very different from the Dorset. Inuit_sentence_346

The evidence suggested that the Inuit descend from the Birnirk of Siberia, who through the Thule culture expanded into northern Canada and Greenland, where they genetically and culturally completely replaced the indigenous Dorset people some time after 1300 AD. Inuit_sentence_347

Modern culture Inuit_section_32

Inuit art, carving, print making, textiles and Inuit throat singing, are very popular, not only in Canada but globally, and Inuit artists are widely known. Inuit_sentence_348

Canada has adopted some of the Inuit culture as national symbols, using Inuit cultural icons like the inukshuk in unlikely places, such as its use as a symbol at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Inuit_sentence_349

Respected art galleries display Inuit art, the largest collection of which is at the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Inuit_sentence_350

Their traditional New Year is called Quviasukvik. Inuit_sentence_351

Some Inuit languages, such as Inuktitut, appears to have a more secure future in Quebec and Nunavut. Inuit_sentence_352

There are a surprising number of Inuit, even those who now live in urban centres such as Ottawa, Montreal and Winnipeg, who have experienced living on the land in the traditional life style. Inuit_sentence_353

People such as Legislative Assembly of Nunavut member, Levinia Brown and former Commissioner of Nunavut and the NWT, Helen Maksagak were born and lived the early part of their life "on the land". Inuit_sentence_354

Inuit culture is alive and vibrant today in spite of the negative impacts of recent history. Inuit_sentence_355

An important biennial event, the Arctic Winter Games, is held in communities across the northern regions of the world, featuring traditional Inuit and northern sports as part of the events. Inuit_sentence_356

A cultural event is also held. Inuit_sentence_357

The games were first held in 1970, and while rotated usually among Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories, they have also been held in Schefferville, Quebec, in 1976, in Slave Lake, Alberta, and a joint Iqaluit, Nunavut-Nuuk, Greenland staging in 2002. Inuit_sentence_358

In other sporting events, Jordin Tootoo became the first Inuk to play in the National Hockey League in the 2003–04 season, playing for the Nashville Predators. Inuit_sentence_359

Although Inuit life has changed significantly over the past century, many traditions continue. Inuit_sentence_360

Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit, or traditional knowledge, such as storytelling, mythology, music, and dancing remain important parts of the culture. Inuit_sentence_361

Family and community are very important. Inuit_sentence_362

The Inuktitut language is still spoken in many areas of the Arctic and is common on radio and in television programming. Inuit_sentence_363

Well-known Inuit politicians include Premier of Nunavut, Peter Taptuna, Nancy Karetak-Lindell, former MP for the riding of Nunavut, and Kuupik Kleist, Prime Minister of Greenland. Inuit_sentence_364

Leona Aglukkaq, current MP, was the first Inuk to be sworn into the Canadian Federal Cabinet as Health Minister in 2008. Inuit_sentence_365

In May 2011 after being re-elected for her second term, Ms. Aglukkaq was given the additional portfolio of Minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency. Inuit_sentence_366

In July 2013 she was sworn in as the Minister of the Environment. Inuit_sentence_367

Visual and performing arts are strong features of Inuit culture. Inuit_sentence_368

In 2002 the first feature film in Inuktitut, Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner, was released worldwide to great critical and popular acclaim. Inuit_sentence_369

It was directed by Zacharias Kunuk, and written, filmed, produced, directed, and acted almost entirely by the Inuit of Igloolik. Inuit_sentence_370

In 2009, the film Le Voyage D'Inuk, a Greenlandic-language feature film, was directed by Mike Magidson and co-written by Magidson and French film producer Jean-Michel Huctin. Inuit_sentence_371

One of the most famous Inuit artists is Pitseolak Ashoona. Inuit_sentence_372

Susan Aglukark is a popular singer. Inuit_sentence_373

Mitiarjuk Attasie Nappaaluk worked at preserving Inuktitut and wrote one of the first novels ever published in that language. Inuit_sentence_374

In 2006, Cape Dorset was hailed as Canada's most artistic city, with 23% of the labor force employed in the arts. Inuit_sentence_375

Inuit art such as soapstone carvings is one of Nunavut's most important industries. Inuit_sentence_376

Recently, there has been an identity struggle among the younger generations of Inuit, between their traditional heritage and the modern society which their cultures have been forced to assimilate into in order to maintain a livelihood. Inuit_sentence_377

With current dependence on modern society for necessities, (including governmental jobs, food, aid, medicine, etc.), the Inuit have had much interaction with and exposure to the societal norms outside their previous cultural boundaries. Inuit_sentence_378

The stressors regarding the identity crisis among teenagers have led to disturbingly high numbers of suicide. Inuit_sentence_379

A series of authors has focused upon the increasing myopia in the youngest generations of Inuit. Inuit_sentence_380

Myopia was almost unknown prior to the Inuit adoption of western culture. Inuit_sentence_381

Principal theories are the change to a western style diet with more refined foods, and extended education. Inuit_sentence_382

David Pisurayak Kootook was awarded the Meritorious Service Cross, posthumously, for his heroic efforts in a 1972 plane crash. Inuit_sentence_383

Other notable Inuk people include the freelance journalist Ossie Michelin, whose iconic photograph of the activist Amanda Polchies went viral after the 2013 anti-fracking protests at Elsipogtog First Nation. Inuit_sentence_384

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: