Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries.
570 – 632 CE).
Muslims consider the Quran in Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God.
Religious practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, as well as following Islamic law (Sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
From a historical point of view, Islam originated in early 7th century CE in the Arabian Peninsula, in Mecca, and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in West to the Indus River in the east.
The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.
About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the most populous Muslim-majority country; 31% live in South Asia, the largest population of Muslims in the world; 20% in the Middle East–North Africa, where it is the dominant religion; and 15% in sub-Saharan Africa.
Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world.
See also: Muslims § Etymology
In Arabic, (Arabic: إسلام, "submission [to God]") is the verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M, which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, sincerity, safeness, and peace.
Islam is the verbal noun of of the root, and means "submission" or "total surrender".
In a religious context, it means "total surrender to the will of God".
The word Islam (submission) sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran.
In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whoever God wills to guide, He opens their heart to Islam."
Other verses connect Islam and religion (dīn) together:
Others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith.
The word silm (Arabic: سِلْم) in Arabic means both peace and also the religion of Islam.
A common linguistic phrase demonstrating its usage is "he entered into as-silm" (Arabic: دَخَلَ فِي السِّلْمِ) which means "he entered into Islam," with a connotation of finding peace by submitting one's will to the Will of God.
The word "Islam" can be used in a linguistic sense of submission or in a technical sense of the religion of Islam, which also is called as-silm which means peace.
Some authors, however, continue to use the term Mohammedanism as a for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system.
Articles of faith
Belief in these articles is necessary and obligatory upon all Muslims.
Concept of God
Main article: God in Islam
God is described in Chapter 112 of the Quran: Say, “He is God—One and Indivisible; God—the Sustainer ˹needed by all˺.
He has never had offspring, nor was He born.
In Islam, God is transcendent and maximally perfect so Muslims do not attribute human forms to God.
God is described and referred to by several names or attributes, the most common being Ar-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate," and Ar-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful."
which are mentioned before reciting every chapter of the Quran except chapter nine.
Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, and it is," and that the purpose of existence is to worship God without associating partners to Him.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him.
There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God, who states: "Your Lord has proclaimed, Call upon Me, I will respond to you."
Consciousness and awareness of God is referred to as Taqwa.
Main article: Angels in Islam
Belief in angels is fundamental to Islam.
The Quranic word for angel (Arabic: ملك malak) derives either from Malaka, meaning "he controlled", due to their power to govern different affairs assigned to them, or from the root ’-l-k, l-’-k or m-l-k with the broad meaning of a 'messenger', just as its counterpart in Hebrew (malʾákh).
Unlike the Hebrew word, however, the term is exclusively used for heavenly spirits of the divine world, as opposed to human messengers.
The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as rasul instead.
The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels.
In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomenon.
Angels play a significant role in literature about the Mi'raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.
In Islam, just as in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles.
The Quran describes "Angels ˹as His˺ messengers with wings—two, three, or four."
Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking.
Their lack of affinity to material desires is also expressed by their creation from light: angels of mercy are created from nūr ('light') in opposition to the angels of punishment created from nār ('fire').
Muslims do not generally share the perceptions of angelic pictorial depictions, such as those found in Western art.
See also: History of the Quran
The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets.
The Quran (lit.
The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics.
The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community.
The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values."
Muslim jurists consult the hadith ('accounts'), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation.
The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir.
Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran.
Prophets and sunnah
Muslims identify the 'prophets' (Arabic: أنبياء, anbiyāʾ) as those humans chosen by God at different times in the past, to convey his messages (warnings and glad tidings), teachings (way of personal life) and legislation (public life) to people while being in contact with God mostly through revelation.
According to the Quran, the prophets were instructed by God to bring the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations.
Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim.
Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God.
Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law-bearing prophet (Seal of the prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God).
In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah (literally 'trodden path').
Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran.
This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics.
Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God quoted by Muhammad that are not part of the Quran.
Scholar Muhammad al-Bukhari (810–870 AD) collected over 300,000 hadith and codified 2,602 of them, having passed veracity tests, as authentic into his Sahih al-Bukhari, a book considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran.
Another famous source of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference.
Resurrection and judgment
Main article: Islamic eschatology
It is believed that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man.
The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as: "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it.
And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it."
However, the Qurʼan makes it clear that God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he so wills.
Good deeds, such as charity, prayer, and compassion towards animals, will be rewarded with entry to heaven.
Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Qurʼanic references describing its features.
Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God.
Main article: Predestination in Islam
The concept of divine decree and destiny in Islam (Arabic: القضاء والقدر, al-qadāʾ wa l-qadar) means that every matter, good or bad, is believed to have been decreed by God and is in line with destiny.
Al-qadar meaning "power" derives from a root that means 'to measure' or 'calculating'.
Acts of worship
Main article: Five Pillars of Islam
There are five core beliefs and practices in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' (Arkān al-Islām) or 'Pillars of the Religion' (Arkān ad-din), which are considered obligatory for all believers.
The Qurʼan presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith: Three of the pillars are obligatory upon all Muslims, while Zakāt and Hajj are obligatory only upon able Muslims.
Apart from these, Muslims also perform other religious acts.
Main article: Shahada
The shahadah, which is the basic creed of Islam, must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "ʾašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh" (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله), or, "I testify that there is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God."
This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam.
Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed.
Main article: Salat
Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship.
Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances.
The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Quran.
The prayers are done in direction of the Ka'bah.
The act of supplicating is referred to as dua.
Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study.
Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets.
The means used to signal the prayer time is a vocal call called the adhan.
Main article: Zakat
See also: Sadaqah
Zakāt (Arabic: زكاة, zakāh, 'alms') is a means of welfare in a Muslim society, characterized by the giving of a fixed portion (2.5% annually) of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it in order to help the poor or needy, such as for freeing captives, those in debt, or for (stranded) travellers, and for those employed to collect zakat.
It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to supererogatory charity, known as Sadaqah) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty."
Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions.
Sadaqah means optional charity which is practiced as religious duty and out of generosity.
Both the Quran and the hadith have put much emphasis on spending money for the welfare of needy people, and have urged the Muslims to give more as an act of optional charity.
The Quran says: Those who spend their wealth in charity day and night, secretly and openly—their reward is with their Lord.
One of the early teachings of Muhammad was that God expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly.
Accumulating wealth without spending it to address the needs of the poor is generally prohibited and admonished.
Another kind of charity in Islam is waqf, meaning perpetual religious endowment.
Main article: Fasting during Ramadan
See also: Fasting in Islam
The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, develop self-control and restraint and think of the needy.
Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden.
For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts must be compensated for later.
Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime.
Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the footsteps of Abraham; then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah; then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil recounting Abraham's actions; then going to Mecca and walking seven times around the Kaaba which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham; then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, Hagar, while she was looking for water for her son Ishmael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement.
Another form of pilgrimage, umrah, is supererogatory and can be undertaken at any time of the year.
The Quran refers to Islamic Pilgrimage in various places often describing the rites and special rulings which apply when undertaking Hajj.
Quranic recitation and memorisation
Main article: Quran § Recitation
Muslims recite and memorize the whole or part of the Quran as acts of virtue.
Reciting the Quran with elocution (tajweed) has been described as an excellent act of worship.
Pious Muslims recite the whole Quran at the month of Ramadan.
In Muslim societies, any social program generally begins with the recitation of the Quran.
One who has memorized the whole Quran is called a hafiz ('memorizer') who, it is said, will be able to intercede for ten people on the Last Judgment Day.
Apart from this, almost every Muslim memorizes some portion of the Quran because they need to recite it during their prayers.
The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists.
Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will.
Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis).
Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law.
In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models.
While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws.
Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence.
The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world.
Main article: Ulama
Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacredotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people.
However, there are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam.
A scholar of jurisprudence is called a faqih (فقيه).
Someone who studies the science of hadith is called a muhaddith.
A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court.
Imam (إمام) is a leadership position, often used in the context of conducting Islamic worship services.
Schools of jurisprudence
Main article: Madhhab
Each differ in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh ('principles of jurisprudence').
The following of decisions by a religious expert without necessarily examining the decision's reasoning is called taqlid.
The practice of an individual interpreting law with independent reasoning is called ijtihad.
Main article: Islamic economics
Therefore, wealth is taxed through Zakat, but trade is not taxed.
Usury, which allows the rich to get richer without sharing in the risk, is forbidden in Islam.
Profit sharing and venture capital where the lender is also exposed to risk is acceptable.
Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged.
The taking of land belonging to others is also prohibited.
During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor.
Jihad means 'to strive or struggle [in the way of God]'.
In its broadest sense, it is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of ."
Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined.
Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection.
When used without any qualifier, jihad is understood in its military form.
Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants.
Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims.
Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare.
Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority.
For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization.
Main article: Sufism
See also: Sufi–Salafi relations
It is not a sect of Islam and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations.
Classical Sufi scholars defined Tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", through "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.
Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice.
Religiosity of early Sufi ascetics, such as Hasan al-Basri, emphasized fear to fail God's expectations of obedience, in contrast to later and more prominent Sufis, such as Mansur Al-Hallaj and Jalaluddin Rumi, whose religiosity is based on love towards God.
For that reason, some academic scholars refuse to refer to the former as Sufis.
Nevertheless, Hasan al-Basri is often portrayed as one of the earliest Sufis in Sufi traditions and his ideas were later developed by the influential theologian Al-Ghazali.
Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism as being based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of the prophet.
Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities.
Popular devotional practices such as veneration of Sufi saints have faced stiff opposition from followers of Wahhabism, who have sometimes physically attacked Sufis leading to deterioration in Sufi–Salafi relations.
In a Muslim family, the birth of a child is attended with some religious ceremonies.
Immediately after the birth, the words of Adhan is pronounced in the right ear of the child.
In the seventh day, the aqiqah ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor.
The head of the child is also shaved, and an amount of money equaling the weight of the child's hair is donated to the poor.
Apart from fulfilling the basic needs of food, shelter, and education, the parents or the elderly members of family also undertake the task of teaching moral qualities, religious knowledge, and religious practices to the children.
Marriage, which serves as the foundation of a Muslim family, is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses.
The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract.
Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous.
Polyandry, a practice wherein a woman takes on two or more husbands is prohibited in Islam.
A man does not need approval of his first wife for a second marriage as there is no evidence in the Qur'an or hadith to suggest this.
With Muslims coming from diverse backgrounds including 49 Muslim-majority countries, plus a strong presence as large minorities throughout the world there are many variations on Muslim weddings.
Generally in a Muslim family, a woman's sphere of operation is the home and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world.
However, in practice, this separation is not as rigid as it appears.
With regard to inheritance, a son's share is double that of a daughter's.
Certain religious rites are performed during and after the death of a Muslim.
Those near a dying man encourage him to pronounce the Shahada as Muslims want their last word to be their profession of faith.
After the death, the body is appropriately bathed by the members of the same gender and then enshrouded in a threefold white garment called kafan.
Placing the body on a bier, it is first taken to a mosque where funeral prayer is offered for the dead person, and then to the graveyard for burial.
Etiquette and diet
Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette.
Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health.
Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam.
Muslims are restricted in their diet.
All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself.
Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food.
Main article: Islam and humanity
In a Muslim society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community.
As these activities are instructed by Islamic canonical texts, a Muslim's religious life is seen incomplete if not attended by service to humanity.
In fact, In Islamic tradition, the idea of social welfare has been presented as one of its principal values.
Verse 2:177 of the Quran is often cited to encapsulate the Islamic idea of social welfare.
Similarly, duties to parents, neighbors, relatives, sick people, the old, and minorities have been defined in Islam.
Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age have been made a religious obligation.
A two-fold approach is generally prescribed with regard to duty to relatives: keeping good relations with them, and offering them financial help if necessary.
Severing ties with them has been admonished.
Regardless of a neighbor's religious identity, Islam teaches Muslims to treat neighboring people in the best possible manner and not to cause them any difficulty.
Concerning orphaned children, the Quran forbids harsh and oppressive treatment to them while urging kindness and justice towards them.
It also rebukes those who do not honor and feed orphaned children.
Main article: Morality in Islam
The Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, and religious life.
Proper moral conduct, good deeds, righteousness, and good character come within the sphere of the moral guidelines.
In Islam, the observance of moral virtues is always associated with religious significance because it elevates the religious status of a believer and is often seen as a supererogatory act of worshipping.
One typical Islamic teaching on morality is that imposing a penalty on an offender in proportion to their offense is permissible and just; but forgiving the offender is better.
To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded the highest excellence.
The Quran says: "Good and evil cannot be equal.
Respond ˹to evil˺ with what is best, then the one you are in enmity with will be like a close friend."
Thus, a Muslim is expected to act only in good manners as bad manners and deeds earn vices.
Other mostly insisted moral virtues include but not limited to charitable activities, fulfillment of promise, modesty (haya) and humility, decency in speech, tolerance, trustworthiness, patience, truthfulness, anger management, and sincerity of intention.
As a religion, Islam emphasizes the idea of having a good character as Muhammad said: "The best among you are those who have the best manners and character."
In Islam, justice is not only a moral virtue but also an obligation to be fulfilled under all circumstances.
The Quran and the hadith describe God as being kind and merciful to His creatures, and tell people to be kind likewise.
As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim practice.
About modesty, Muhammad is reported as saying: "Every religion has its characteristic, and the characteristic of Islam is modesty."
Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians.
Currently no government conforms to Islamic economic jurisprudence, but steps have been taken to implement some of its tenets.
Muhammad's revelations (610–632)
See also: Early social changes under Islam
Islamic tradition views Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) as the seal of the prophets, sent by God to the rest of mankind.
During the last 22 years of his life, beginning at age 40 in 610 CE, according to the earliest surviving biographies, Muhammad reported receiving revelations that he believed to be from God, conveyed to him through the archangel Gabriel while he was meditating in a cave.
Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers.
Many early converts to Islam were the poor, foreigners and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi who was black.
The Meccan élite felt that Muhammad was destabilising their social order by preaching about one God and about racial equality, and that in the process he gave ideas to the poor and to their slaves.
After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ('emigration') in AD 622 to the city of Yathrib (current-day Medina).
The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah.
The Constitution established:
- the security of the community
- religious freedoms
- the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons)
- the security of women
- stable tribal relations within Medina
- a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflict
- parameters for exogenous political alliances
- a system for granting protection of individuals
- a judicial system for resolving disputes where non-Muslims could also use their own laws and have their own judges.
All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves.
Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624—a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively.
The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627) besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam.
In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca two years later.
After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam.
At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control.
Caliphate and civil strife (632–750)
With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community.
Under Abu Bakr, Muslims put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy".
The Quran was compiled into a single volume at this time.
Abu Bakr's death in 634 about two years after he was elected which resulted in the succession of Umar ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali.
The first four caliphs are known in Sunni Islam as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs").
When Umar was assassinated by Persians in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition.
The standard copies of the Quran were also distributed throughout the Islamic State.
In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph.
This led to the first civil war (the "First Fitna") over who should be caliph.
Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661.
These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community.
The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders and became known as Sunnis.
A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia.
Mu'awiyah appointed his son, Yazid I, as successor and after Mu'awiyah's death in 680, the "Second Fitna" broke out, where Husayn ibn Ali was killed at the Battle of Karbala, a significant event in Shia Islam.
Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests.
The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented non-Arab converts (mawali), poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750.
The first Muslim states independent of a unified Islamic state emerged from the Berber Revolt (739/740-743).
Classical era (750–1258)
Al-Shafi'i codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.
During the early Abbasid era, the major Sunni hadith collections were compiled by scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim while major Shia hadith collections by scholars such as Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh were also compiled.
The four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i, while the Ja'fari jurisprudence was formed from the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq respectively.
In the 9th century, al-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law and introduced its first methods by a synthesis between proto-rationalism of Iraqi jurisprudence and the pragmatic approach of the Hejaz traditions, in his book ar-Risālah.
He also codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.
However, Islamic law would not be codified until 1869.
During its expansion through the Samanid Empire, Islam was shaped by the ethno-cultural and religious pluralism by the Sogdians, paving the way for a Persianized rather than Arabized understanding of Islam.
Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasised poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires.
In 930, the Ismaili group known as the Qarmatians unsuccessfully rebelled against the Abbassids, sacked Mecca and stole the Black Stone, which was eventually retrieved.
Many orthodox Muslims rejected mutazilite doctrines and condemned their idea of the creation of the Quran.
In inquisitions, ibn Hanbal refused to conform and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad prison cell for nearly thirty months.
Amongst his contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, and the introduction of clinical pharmacology.
Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America.
This era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age".
Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word, and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors.
Standards of experimental and quantification techniques, as well as the tradition of citation, were introduced.
The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today.
The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty established by Turkic slave-soldiers from another Islamic empire, the Samanid Empire.
They were later subdued by the Ottomans, who share the same origin and language.
The Seljuks played an important role for the revival of Sunnism, after which Shia increased its influences.
During this time, the Delhi Sultanate took over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam.
Pre-Modern era (1258–18th century)
In scholasticism, Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) worried about the integrity of Islam and tried to establish a theological doctrine to purify Islam from its alleged alterings.
Unlike his contemporary scholarship, who relied on traditions and historical narratives from early Islam, Ibn Taymiyya's methodology was a mixture of selective use of hadith and a literal understanding of the Quran.
He rejected most philosophical approaches of Islam and proposed a clear, simple and dogmatic theology instead.
Another major characteristic of his theological approach emphazises the significance of a Theocratic state: While the prevailing opinion held that religious wisdom was necessary for a state, Ibn Taymiyya regarded political power as necessary for religious excellence.
This not only including the invaders, but also the heretics among the Muslims, including Shias, Asharites and "philosophers", who were blamed by Ibn Taymiyya for the deterioration of Islam.
The Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1303) served as a significant turning point.
Nevertheless, his writings only played a marginal role during his lifetime.
He was repeatedly accused of blasphemy by anthropomorphizing God and his disciple Ibn Kathir distanced himself from his mentor and negated the anthropomorphizations, but simultaneously adhered to the same anti-rationalistic and hadith oriented methodology.
This probably influenced his exegesis on his Tafsir, which discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then.
The Timurid Renaissance was observed in the Timurid Empire based in Central Asia ruled by the Timurid dynasty, a phenomenal growth in the fields of arts and sciences, covering both eastern and western world.
Outstanding throughout the stages of the Renaissance were the inventions of numerous devices and the constructions of Islamic learning centre, mosques, necropolis and observatories.
Conversion to Islam, however, was not a sudden abandonment of old religious practices; rather, it was typically a matter of "assimilating Islamic rituals, cosmologies, and literatures into... local religious systems."
Throughout this expanse, Islam blended with local cultures everywhere, as illustrated when the prophet Muhammad appeared in Hindu epics and folklore.
The Turkish Muslims incorporated elements of Turkish Shamanism, which to this date differs Turkish synthesis of Islam from other Muslim societies, and became a part of a new Islamic interpretation, although Shamanistic influences already occurred during the Battle of Talas (752).
Strikingly, Shamans were never mentioned by Muslim Heresiographers.
One major change was the status of woman.
Unlike Arabic traditions, the Turkic traditions hold woman in higher regard in society.
The Turks must have also found striking similarities between Sufi rituals and Shaman practises.
As a result, many Shaman traditions were perceived as Islamic, with beliefs such as sacred nature, trees, animals and foreign nature spirits remaining today.
During the period of Ottoman growth, claims on caliphal authority were recognized in 1517 as Selim I, who through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in Mecca and Medina, and strengthening their claim to caliphate in the Muslim world.
Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe.
In Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims, and to ensure security and harmony within its borders in the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty.
Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Shiism by calling it the Jaafari Madh'hab.
In the Indian Subcontinent, during the rule of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji in Bengal, the Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam.
The Delhi Sultanate, founded by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, emerged as India's first Islamic power, well noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols and enthroning one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana.
The wealthy Islamic Bengal Sultanate was subsequently founded, a major global trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans to be the "richest country to trade with".
The reign of Shah Jahan observed the height of Indo-Islamic architecture, with notable monuments such as Taj Mahal and Jama Masjid, Delhi, while the reign of his son Aurangzeb saw the compilation of the Fatwa Alamgiri (most well organised fiqh manuscript) and witnessed the peak of the Islamic rule in India.
Mughal India surpassed Qing China to become the world's largest economy, worth 25% of world GDP, the Bengal Subah signalling the proto-industrialization and showing signs of the Industrial revolution.
After Mughal India's collapse, Tipu Sultan's Kingdom of Mysore based in South India, which witnessed partial establishment of sharia based economic and military policies i.e. Fathul Mujahidin, replaced Bengal ruled by the Nawabs of Bengal as South Asia's foremost economic territory.
Modern era (18th – 20th centuries)
The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially relative to the non-Muslim European powers.
This decline was evident culturally; while Taqi al-Din founded an observatory in Istanbul and the Jai Singh Observatory was built in the 18th century, there was not a single Muslim-majority country with a major observatory by the twentieth century.
By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the Mughal dynasty in India.
During the 18th century Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab founded a military movement opposing the Ottoman Sultanate as an illegitimate rule, advising his fellows to return to the principles of Islam based on the theology of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.
This revival movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam of what they see as later innovations.
Their ideology led to the desecration of shrines around the world, including that of Muhammad and his companions in Mecca and Medina.
At the end of the 19th century, Muslim luminaries such as Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Rida and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani sought to reconcile Islam with social and intellectual ideas of the Age of Enlightenment by purging Islam from alleged alterations and adhering to the basic tenets held during the Rashidun era.
Due to their adherence to the Salafs they called themselves Salafiyya.
However, they differ from the Salafi movement flourishing in the second half of the 20th century, which is rooted in the Wahhabi movement.
Instead, they are also often called Islamic modernists.
It grew from the writings of Ahmed Raza Khan, Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, Shah Ahmad Noorani and Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi in the backdrop of an intellectual and moral decline of Muslims in British India.
Ottoman Caliphate, the world's last widely recognized caliphate was no more and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the parliament of the newly formed Turkish Republic and the Directorate of Religious Affairs.
Postmodern times (20th century–present)
Further information: Islamic revival
Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration.
The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914.
Muslim immigrants began arriving, many as guest workers and largely from former colonies, in several Western European nations since the 1960s.
There are more and more new Muslim intellectuals who increasingly separate perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions.
Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights.
Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and they stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".
Women's issues receive significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam.
About half a million Muslims were killed in Cambodia by communists who, it is argued, viewed them as their primary enemy and wished to exterminate them since they stood out and worshipped their own god.
Religiosity appears to be deepening worldwide.
In many places, the prevalence of the hijab is growing increasingly common and the percentage of Muslims favoring Sharia has increased.
With religious guidance increasingly available electronically, Muslims are able to access views that are strict enough for them rather than rely on state clerics who are often seen as stooges.
It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "due to the young age and high fertility-rate of Muslims relative to other religious group."
While the religious conversion has no net impact on the Muslim population growth as "the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems to be roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith".
Perhaps as a sign of these changes, most experts agree that Islam is growing faster than any other faith in East and West Africa.
Main article: Islamic schools and branches
See also: Shia–Sunni relations
Main article: Sunni Islam
The largest denomination in Islam is Sunni Islam, which makes up 75–90% of all Muslims, and is arguably the world's largest religious denomination.
Sunni Muslims also go by the name Ahl as-Sunnah which means "people of the tradition [of Muhammad]".
Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him and those leaders were elected.
Further authorities regarding Sunnis believe that anyone who is righteous and just could be a caliph as long they act according to the teachings of Islam, the example of Muhammad.
Alternatively, Sunnis commonly accept the companions of Muhammad as reliable for interpretating Islamic affairs.
The Sunnis follow the Quran and the Hadith, which are recorded in Sunni traditions known as Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (six major books).
All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim may choose any one that he or she finds agreeable.
Sunni schools of theology encompass Asharism founded by Al-Ashʿarī (c. 874–936), Maturidi by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853–944 CE) and traditionalist theology under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE).
Traditionalist theology is characterized by its adherence to a literal understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, the belief in the Quran to be uncreated and eternal, and opposes reason (kalam) in religious and ethical matters.
On the other hand, Maturidism asserts, scripture is not needed for basic ethics and that good and evil can be understood by reason alone.
Maturidi's doctrine, based on Hanafi law, asserted man's capacity and will alongside the supremacy of God in man's acts, providing a doctrinal framework for more flexibility, adaptability and syncretism.
Maturidism especially flourished in Central-Asia.
Nevertheless, people would rely on revelation, because reason alone could not grasp the whole truth.
Asharism holds that ethics can just derive from divine revelation, but not from human reason.
However, Asharism accepts reason in regard of exegetical matters and combined Muʿtazila approaches with traditionalistic ideas.
Originally shaped by Hanbalism, many modern followers departed from any of the established four schools of law Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali.
Similarly, Ahl al-Hadith is a movement that deemphasized sources of jurisprudence outside the Quran and Hadith, such as informed opinion (ra'y).
His philosophy is based on Hanafi law and further incorporates elements of Sufism.
He emphasized the importance of salvation in both life and afterlife through education and freedom, the synthesis of Islam and science and democracy as the best form governance within the rule of law.
His notion of sharia is twofold: On one hand, sharia applies to the voluntary actions of human beings.
On the other hand, sharia denotes the set of laws of nature, but both ultimately derive from one source, which is God.
His works on the Quran in the Risale-i Nur were translated into almost all languages of Central Asia.
From Nurcu other movements such as the Gülen movement derived.
Main article: Shia Islam
See also: Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam
The Shia constitute 10–20% of Islam and are its second-largest branch.
While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could hold positions of power.
Different branches accept different descendants of Ali as Imams.
After the death of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq who is considered the sixth Imam by the Twelvers and the Ismaili's, the Ismailis recognized his son Isma'il ibn Jafar as his successor whereas the Twelver Shia's followed his other son Musa al-Kadhim as the seventh Imam.
Some Shia branches label other Shia branches that do not agree with their doctrine as Ghulat.
- Bektashi Alevism is a syncretic and heterodox local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenī) teachings of Ali and Haji Bektash Veli. Alevism incorporates Turkish beliefs present during the 14th century, such as Shamanism and Animism, mixed with Shias and Sufi beliefs, adopted by some Turkish tribes."
- The Ahmadiyya movement is an Islamic reform movement (with Sunni roots) founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad that began in India in 1889 and is practiced by 10 to 20 million Muslims around the world. Ahmad claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies concerning the arrival of the 'Imam Mahdi' and the 'Promised Messiah'. However, the movement is rejected by the majority of Muslims as heretical since it believes in ongoing prophethood after the death of Muhammad. Ahmadis have been subject to religious persecution and discrimination since the movement's inception in 1889.
- The Ibadi sect dates back to the early days of Islam and is a branch of Kharijite and is practiced by 1.45 million Muslims around the world. Ibadis make up a majority of the population in Oman. Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers.
- Mahdavia is an Islamic sect that believes in a 15th-century Mahdi, Muhammad Jaunpuri.
- The Quranists are Muslims who generally reject the Sunnah, and doubt the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith.
- The Nation of Islam is a sect that seeks to improve the condition of the Black man and Woman, particularly in America. They believe that the Mahdi and Allah came in the person of Wallace Fard Muhammad, something not recognized by other Muslims. It has about 20,000-50,000 members with various offshoots.
Main article: Non-denominational Muslim
Recent surveys report that large proportions of Muslims in some parts of the world self-identify as "just Muslim", although there is little published analysis available regarding the motivations underlying this response.
The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%.
At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identify in this way.
Some movements, such as the Druze (see Islam and Druze), Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam and whether each is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial.
A 2020 demographic study reported that 24.1% of the global population, or 1.8 billion people, are Muslims.
The number of Muslims worldwide increased from 200 million in 1900 to 551 million in 1970, and tripled to 1.6 billion by 2010.
Most estimates indicate that the China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population).
Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with between 2,454,000, according to Pew Forum, and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States.
Growth rates of Islam in Europe were due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates of Muslims in 2005.
Main article: Islamic culture
It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people.
Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims, sometimes referred to as "".
Main article: Islamic architecture
Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic architecture is that of the mosque.
Varying cultures have an effect on mosque architecture.
For example, North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan contain marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings, while mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles.
The Ottomans mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow.
Main article: Islamic art
While not condemned in the Quran, making images of human beings and animals is frowned on in many Islamic cultures and connected with laws against idolatry common to all Abrahamic religions, as Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood reported that Muhammad said, "Those who will be most severely punished by Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers" (reported by al-Bukhaari).
However, this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods, and there are examples of paintings of both animals and humans in Mughal, Persian, and Turkish art.
Main article: Islamic music
Main article: Islamic poetry
Main article: Islamic calendar
It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset.
The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage).
Main article: Criticism of Islam
Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages.
Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran, the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics.
Islamic salvation optimism and its carnality were criticized by Christian writers.
Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise led many Christians to conclude that Islam was not a spiritual religion.
Although sensual pleasure was also present in early Christianity, as seen in the writings of Irenaeus, the doctrines of the former Manichaean Augustine of Hippo led to the broad repudiation of bodily pleasure in both life and the afterlife.
Here, Muhammad appears in the eighth circle of hell, along with Ali.
Dante does not blame Islam as a whole but accuses Muhammad of schism, by establishing another religion after Christianity.
Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Muslim-majority countries, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice.
Both in his public and personal life, others objected the morality of Muhammad, therefore also the sunnah as a role model.
Main article: Outline of Islam
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam.