From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Islam (/ˈɪslɑːm/; Arabic: اَلْإِسْلَامُ‎, romanized: al-’Islām, [ɪsˈlaːm (listen) "submission [to God]") is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a messenger of God. Islam_sentence_0

It is the world's second-largest religion with 1.8 billion followers or 24.1% of the world's population, known as Muslims. Islam_sentence_1

Muslims make up a majority of the population in 49 countries. Islam_sentence_2

Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided humanity through prophets, revealed scriptures, and natural signs. Islam_sentence_3

The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, believed to be the word of God, as well as the teachings and actions (called the Sunnah, composed of accounts called Hadith) of Muhammad (c. Islam_sentence_4

570 – 632 CE). Islam_sentence_5

Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets, including Adam, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Islam_sentence_6

Muslims consider the Quran in Arabic to be the unaltered and final revelation of God. Islam_sentence_7

Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam also teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded in paradise and the unrighteous punished in hell. Islam_sentence_8

Religious practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, as well as following Islamic law (Sharia), which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment. Islam_sentence_9

The cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Islam_sentence_10

From a historical point of view, Islam originated in early 7th century CE in the Arabian Peninsula, in Mecca, and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate extended from Iberia in West to the Indus River in the east. Islam_sentence_11

The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the historically Muslim world was experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing. Islam_sentence_12

The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and states such as the Ottoman Empire, trade, and conversion to Islam by missionary activities (Dawah). Islam_sentence_13

Most Muslims are of one of two denominations: Sunni (75–90%) or Shia (10–20%). Islam_sentence_14

Sunni and Shia differences arose from disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. Islam_sentence_15

About 13% of Muslims live in Indonesia, the most populous Muslim-majority country; 31% live in South Asia, the largest population of Muslims in the world; 20% in the Middle East–North Africa, where it is the dominant religion; and 15% in sub-Saharan Africa. Islam_sentence_16

Sizable Muslim communities can also be found in the Americas, China, and Europe. Islam_sentence_17

Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam_sentence_18

Etymology Islam_section_0

See also: Muslims § Etymology Islam_sentence_19

In Arabic, (Arabic: إسلام‎, "submission [to God]") is the verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M, which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission, sincerity, safeness, and peace. Islam_sentence_20

Islam is the verbal noun of of the root, and means "submission" or "total surrender". Islam_sentence_21

In a religious context, it means "total surrender to the will of God". Islam_sentence_22

A Muslim (Arabic: مُسْلِم‎‎), the word for a follower of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, and means "submitter (to God)" or "one who surrenders (to God)." Islam_sentence_23

The word Islam (submission) sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. Islam_sentence_24

In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whoever God wills to guide, He opens their heart to Islam." Islam_sentence_25

Other verses connect Islam and religion (dīn) together: Islam_sentence_26

Others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. Islam_sentence_27

In the Hadith of Gabriel, Islam is presented as one part of a triad that also includes imān (faith), and ihsān (excellence). Islam_sentence_28

The word silm (Arabic: سِلْم‎) in Arabic means both peace and also the religion of Islam. Islam_sentence_29

A common linguistic phrase demonstrating its usage is "he entered into as-silm" (Arabic: دَخَلَ فِي السِّلْمِ‎) which means "he entered into Islam," with a connotation of finding peace by submitting one's will to the Will of God. Islam_sentence_30

The word "Islam" can be used in a linguistic sense of submission or in a technical sense of the religion of Islam, which also is called as-silm which means peace. Islam_sentence_31

Islam was historically itself called Mohammedanism in the English-speaking world. Islam_sentence_32

This term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive, as it suggests that a human being, rather than God, is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism. Islam_sentence_33

Some authors, however, continue to use the term Mohammedanism as a for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Islam_sentence_34

Articles of faith Islam_section_1

Main articles: Aqidah and Iman Islam_sentence_35

Faith (iman) in the Islamic creed (aqidah) is often represented as the six articles of faith, notably mentioned in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam_sentence_36

Belief in these articles is necessary and obligatory upon all Muslims. Islam_sentence_37

Concept of God Islam_section_2

Main article: God in Islam Islam_sentence_38

The central concept of Islam is a precise monotheism, called tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد‎). Islam_sentence_39

God is described in Chapter 112 of the Quran: Say, “He is God—One and Indivisible; God—the Sustainer ˹needed by all˺. Islam_sentence_40

He has never had offspring, nor was He born. Islam_sentence_41

And there is none comparable to Him.” Islam rejects polytheism and idolatry (shirk), as well as the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. Islam_sentence_42

In Islam, God is transcendent and maximally perfect so Muslims do not attribute human forms to God. Islam_sentence_43

God is described and referred to by several names or attributes, the most common being Ar-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate," and Ar-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful." Islam_sentence_44

which are mentioned before reciting every chapter of the Quran except chapter nine. Islam_sentence_45

Islam teaches that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's command as expressed by the wording, "Be, and it is," and that the purpose of existence is to worship God without associating partners to Him. Islam_sentence_46

He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in need or distress calls him. Islam_sentence_47

There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God, who states: "Your Lord has proclaimed, Call upon Me, I will respond to you." Islam_sentence_48

Consciousness and awareness of God is referred to as Taqwa. Islam_sentence_49

Allāh is traditionally seen as the personal name of God, a term with no plural or gender being ascribed. Islam_sentence_50

It is used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews in reference to God, whereas ʾilāh (Arabic: إله‎) is a term used for a deity or a god in general. Islam_sentence_51

Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Islam_sentence_52

Angels Islam_section_3

Main article: Angels in Islam Islam_sentence_53

Belief in angels is fundamental to Islam. Islam_sentence_54

The Quranic word for angel (Arabic: ملك‎ malak) derives either from Malaka, meaning "he controlled", due to their power to govern different affairs assigned to them, or from the root ’-l-k, l-’-k or m-l-k with the broad meaning of a 'messenger', just as its counterpart in Hebrew (malʾákh). Islam_sentence_55

Unlike the Hebrew word, however, the term is exclusively used for heavenly spirits of the divine world, as opposed to human messengers. Islam_sentence_56

The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as rasul instead. Islam_sentence_57

The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels. Islam_sentence_58

Some of them, such as Gabriel and Michael, are mentioned by name in the Quran, others are only referred to by their function. Islam_sentence_59

In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomenon. Islam_sentence_60

Angels play a significant role in literature about the Mi'raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens. Islam_sentence_61

Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, theology and philosophy. Islam_sentence_62

Duties assigned to angels include, for example, communicating revelations from God, glorifying God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. Islam_sentence_63

In Islam, just as in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles. Islam_sentence_64

The Quran describes "Angels ˹as His˺ messengers with wings—two, three, or four." Islam_sentence_65

Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking. Islam_sentence_66

Their lack of affinity to material desires is also expressed by their creation from light: angels of mercy are created from nūr ('light') in opposition to the angels of punishment created from nār ('fire'). Islam_sentence_67

Muslims do not generally share the perceptions of angelic pictorial depictions, such as those found in Western art. Islam_sentence_68

Revelations Islam_section_4

Main articles: Quran, Wahy, and Islamic holy books Islam_sentence_69

See also: History of the Quran Islam_sentence_70

The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Islam_sentence_71

Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospel), had become distorted—either in interpretation, in text, or both. Islam_sentence_72

The Quran (lit. Islam_sentence_73

"Recitation") is viewed by Muslims as the final revelation and literal word of God and is widely regarded as the finest literary work in the classical Arabic language. Islam_sentence_74

Muslims believe that the verses of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad by God through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrīl) on many occasions between 610 CE until his death in 632. Islam_sentence_75

While Muhammad was alive, all of these revelations were written down by his companions (sahabah), although the prime method of transmission was orally through memorization. Islam_sentence_76

The Quran is divided into 114 chapters (suras) which combined, contain 6,236 verses (āyāt). Islam_sentence_77

The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca, are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. Islam_sentence_78

The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community. Islam_sentence_79

The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values." Islam_sentence_80

Muslim jurists consult the hadith ('accounts'), or the written record of Prophet Muhammad's life, to both supplement the Quran and assist with its interpretation. Islam_sentence_81

The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir. Islam_sentence_82

The set of rules governing proper elocution of recitation is called tajwid. Islam_sentence_83

Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran. Islam_sentence_84

Prophets and sunnah Islam_section_5

Main articles: Prophets and messengers in Islam, Sunnah, and Hadith Islam_sentence_85

Muslims identify the 'prophets' (Arabic: أنبياء‎, anbiyāʾ) as those humans chosen by God at different times in the past, to convey his messages (warnings and glad tidings), teachings (way of personal life) and legislation (public life) to people while being in contact with God mostly through revelation. Islam_sentence_86

According to the Quran, the prophets were instructed by God to bring the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Islam_sentence_87

Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islam_sentence_88

Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. Islam_sentence_89

The Quran mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, among others. Islam_sentence_90

Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law-bearing prophet (Seal of the prophets) to convey the divine message to the whole world (to sum up and to finalize the word of God). Islam_sentence_91

In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah (literally 'trodden path'). Islam_sentence_92

Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran. Islam_sentence_93

This example is preserved in traditions known as hadith, which recount his words, his actions, and his personal characteristics. Islam_sentence_94

Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God quoted by Muhammad that are not part of the Quran. Islam_sentence_95

A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad, and the actual wording, called matn. Islam_sentence_96

Hadiths can be classified, by studying the narration as: 'authentic' or 'correct' (صَحِيْح‎, ṣaḥīḥ); 'good', hasan (حَسَن‎, ḥasan); or 'weak' (ضَعِيْف‎, ḍaʻīf), among others. Islam_sentence_97

Scholar Muhammad al-Bukhari (810–870 AD) collected over 300,000 hadith and codified 2,602 of them, having passed veracity tests, as authentic into his Sahih al-Bukhari, a book considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran. Islam_sentence_98

Another famous source of hadiths is known as The Four Books, which Shias consider as the most authentic hadith reference. Islam_sentence_99

Resurrection and judgment Islam_section_6

Main article: Islamic eschatology Islam_sentence_100

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection" or Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة‎), is also crucial for Muslims. Islam_sentence_101

It is believed that the time of Qiyāmah is preordained by God but unknown to man. Islam_sentence_102

The trials and tribulations preceding and during the Qiyāmah are described in the Quran and the hadith, as well as in the commentaries of scholars. Islam_sentence_103

The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrection, a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. Islam_sentence_104

On Yawm al-Qiyāmah, Muslims believe all humankind will be judged by their good and bad deeds and consigned to Jannah (paradise) or Jahannam (hell). Islam_sentence_105

The Qurʼan in Surat al-Zalzalah describes this as: "So whoever does an atom's weight of good will see it. Islam_sentence_106

And whoever does an atom's weight of evil will see it." Islam_sentence_107

The Qurʼan lists several sins that can condemn a person to hell, such as disbelief in God (كفر‎, kufr), and dishonesty. Islam_sentence_108

However, the Qurʼan makes it clear that God will forgive the sins of those who repent if he so wills. Islam_sentence_109

Good deeds, such as charity, prayer, and compassion towards animals, will be rewarded with entry to heaven. Islam_sentence_110

Muslims view heaven as a place of joy and blessings, with Qurʼanic references describing its features. Islam_sentence_111

Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God. Islam_sentence_112

Yawm al-Qiyāmah is also identified in the Quran as Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين‎, Day of Religion); as-Sāʿah (الساعة‎, 'the Last Hour'); and al-Qāriʿah (القارعة‎, 'The Clatterer'). Islam_sentence_113

Divine Destiny Islam_section_7

Main article: Predestination in Islam Islam_sentence_114

The concept of divine decree and destiny in Islam (Arabic: القضاء والقدر‎, al-qadāʾ wa l-qadar) means that every matter, good or bad, is believed to have been decreed by God and is in line with destiny. Islam_sentence_115

Al-qadar meaning "power" derives from a root that means 'to measure' or 'calculating'. Islam_sentence_116

The Quran emphasises that nothing occurs outside of His divine decree: 'Say, “Nothing will ever befall us except what God has destined for us.' Islam_sentence_117

Muslims often express this belief in divine destiny with the phrase 'Insha-Allah' meaning "if God wills" when speaking on future events. Islam_sentence_118

Acts of worship Islam_section_8

Main article: Five Pillars of Islam Islam_sentence_119

There are five core beliefs and practices in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' (Arkān al-Islām) or 'Pillars of the Religion' (Arkān ad-din), which are considered obligatory for all believers. Islam_sentence_120

The Qurʼan presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith: Three of the pillars are obligatory upon all Muslims, while Zakāt and Hajj are obligatory only upon able Muslims. Islam_sentence_121

Both Sunni and Shi'a sects agree on the essential details for the performance of these acts. Islam_sentence_122

Apart from these, Muslims also perform other religious acts. Islam_sentence_123

Notable among them are voluntary charity (Sadaqah) and recitation of the Qurʼan. Islam_sentence_124

Testimony Islam_section_9

Main article: Shahada Islam_sentence_125

The shahadah, which is the basic creed of Islam, must be recited under oath with the specific statement: "ʾašhadu ʾal-lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu wa ʾašhadu ʾanna muħammadan rasūlu-llāh" (أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أن محمداً رسول الله‎), or, "I testify that there is no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God." Islam_sentence_126

This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Islam_sentence_127

Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed. Islam_sentence_128

Prayer Islam_section_10

Main article: Salat Islam_sentence_129

See also: Mosque and Jumu'ah Islam_sentence_130

The five daily ritual prayers are called ṣalāh or ṣalāt (Arabic: ). Islam_sentence_131

Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Islam_sentence_132

Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. Islam_sentence_133

The prayers are recited in the Arabic language, and consist of verses from the Quran. Islam_sentence_134

The prayers are done in direction of the Ka'bah. Islam_sentence_135

The act of supplicating is referred to as dua. Islam_sentence_136

A mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. Islam_sentence_137

A large mosque for gathering for Friday prayers or Eid prayers are called masjid jāmi (مَسْجِد جَامِع‎‎, 'congregational mosque'). Islam_sentence_138

Although the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer, it is also important to the Muslim community as a place to meet and study. Islam_sentence_139

The Masjid an-Nabawi ('Prophetic Mosque') in Medina, Saudi Arabia, was also a place of refuge for the poor. Islam_sentence_140

Modern mosques have evolved greatly from the early designs of the 7th century, and contain a variety of architectural elements such as minarets. Islam_sentence_141

The means used to signal the prayer time is a vocal call called the adhan. Islam_sentence_142

Charity Islam_section_11

Main article: Zakat Islam_sentence_143

See also: Sadaqah Islam_sentence_144

Zakāt (Arabic: زكاة‎, zakāh, 'alms') is a means of welfare in a Muslim society, characterized by the giving of a fixed portion (2.5% annually) of accumulated wealth by those who can afford it in order to help the poor or needy, such as for freeing captives, those in debt, or for (stranded) travellers, and for those employed to collect zakat. Islam_sentence_145

It is considered a religious obligation (as opposed to supererogatory charity, known as Sadaqah) that the well-off owe to the needy because their wealth is seen as a "trust from God's bounty." Islam_sentence_146

Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions. Islam_sentence_147

The first Caliph, Abu Bakr, distributed zakat as one of the first examples of a guaranteed minimum income, with each man, woman and child getting 10 to 20 dirhams annually. Islam_sentence_148

Sadaqah means optional charity which is practiced as religious duty and out of generosity. Islam_sentence_149

Both the Quran and the hadith have put much emphasis on spending money for the welfare of needy people, and have urged the Muslims to give more as an act of optional charity. Islam_sentence_150

The Quran says: Those who spend their wealth in charity day and night, secretly and openly—their reward is with their Lord. Islam_sentence_151

One of the early teachings of Muhammad was that God expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly. Islam_sentence_152

Accumulating wealth without spending it to address the needs of the poor is generally prohibited and admonished. Islam_sentence_153

Another kind of charity in Islam is waqf, meaning perpetual religious endowment. Islam_sentence_154

Fasting Islam_section_12

Main article: Fasting during Ramadan Islam_sentence_155

See also: Fasting in Islam Islam_sentence_156

Fasting (Arabic: صوم‎‎, ṣawm) from food and drink, among other things, must be performed from dawn to after sunset during the month of Ramadan. Islam_sentence_157

The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, develop self-control and restraint and think of the needy. Islam_sentence_158

Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. Islam_sentence_159

For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts must be compensated for later. Islam_sentence_160

Pilgrimage Islam_section_13

Main articles: Hajj and Umrah Islam_sentence_161

The obligatory Islamic pilgrimage, called the ḥajj (Arabic: حج‎), has to be performed during the first weeks of the twelfth Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the city of Mecca. Islam_sentence_162

Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime. Islam_sentence_163

Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the footsteps of Abraham; then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah; then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil recounting Abraham's actions; then going to Mecca and walking seven times around the Kaaba which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham; then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, Hagar, while she was looking for water for her son Ishmael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement. Islam_sentence_164

Another form of pilgrimage, umrah, is supererogatory and can be undertaken at any time of the year. Islam_sentence_165

The Quran refers to Islamic Pilgrimage in various places often describing the rites and special rulings which apply when undertaking Hajj. Islam_sentence_166

Quranic recitation and memorisation Islam_section_14

Main article: Quran § Recitation Islam_sentence_167

Muslims recite and memorize the whole or part of the Quran as acts of virtue. Islam_sentence_168

Reciting the Quran with elocution (tajweed) has been described as an excellent act of worship. Islam_sentence_169

Pious Muslims recite the whole Quran at the month of Ramadan. Islam_sentence_170

In Muslim societies, any social program generally begins with the recitation of the Quran. Islam_sentence_171

One who has memorized the whole Quran is called a hafiz ('memorizer') who, it is said, will be able to intercede for ten people on the Last Judgment Day. Islam_sentence_172

Apart from this, almost every Muslim memorizes some portion of the Quran because they need to recite it during their prayers. Islam_sentence_173

Law Islam_section_15

Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh Islam_sentence_174

See also: Logic in Islamic philosophy § Islamic law and theology Islam_sentence_175

Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. Islam_sentence_176

It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. Islam_sentence_177

In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its scholarly interpretations. Islam_sentence_178

The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim traditionalists and reformists. Islam_sentence_179

Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia: the Quran, sunnah (Hadith and Sira), qiyas (analogical reasoning), and ijma (juridical consensus). Islam_sentence_180

Different legal schools developed methodologies for deriving sharia rulings from scriptural sources using a process known as ijtihad. Islam_sentence_181

Traditional jurisprudence distinguishes two principal branches of law,ʿibādāt (rituals) and muʿāmalāt (social relations), which together comprise a wide range of topics. Islam_sentence_182

Its rulings assign actions to one of five categories: mandatory (Fard), recommended (mustahabb), permitted (Mubah), abhorred (Makruh), and prohibited (haram). Islam_sentence_183

Thus, some areas of sharia overlap with the Western notion of law while others correspond more broadly to living life in accordance with God's will. Islam_sentence_184

Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists (muftis). Islam_sentence_185

Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law. Islam_sentence_186

In the modern era, sharia-based criminal laws were widely replaced by statutes inspired by European models. Islam_sentence_187

The Ottoman Empire's 19th-century Tanzimat reforms lead to the Mecelle civil code and represented the first attempt to codify Sharia. Islam_sentence_188

While the constitutions of most Muslim-majority states contain references to sharia, its classical rules were largely retained only in personal status (family) laws. Islam_sentence_189

Legislative bodies which codified these laws sought to modernize them without abandoning their foundations in traditional jurisprudence. Islam_sentence_190

The Islamic revival of the late 20th century brought along calls by Islamist movements for complete implementation of sharia. Islam_sentence_191

The role of sharia has become a contested topic around the world. Islam_sentence_192

There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights. Islam_sentence_193

Scholars Islam_section_16

Main article: Ulama Islam_sentence_194

Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacredotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people. Islam_sentence_195

However, there are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam. Islam_sentence_196

In the broadest sense, the term ulema (Arabic: علماء‎) is used to describe the body of Muslim scholars who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences. Islam_sentence_197

A jurist who interprets Islamic law is called a mufti (مفتي‎) and often issues legal opinions, called fatwas. Islam_sentence_198

A scholar of jurisprudence is called a faqih (فقيه‎‎). Islam_sentence_199

Someone who studies the science of hadith is called a muhaddith. Islam_sentence_200

A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court. Islam_sentence_201

Honorific titles given to scholars include sheikh, mullah, and mawlawi. Islam_sentence_202

Imam (إمام‎‎) is a leadership position, often used in the context of conducting Islamic worship services. Islam_sentence_203

Schools of jurisprudence Islam_section_17

Main article: Madhhab Islam_sentence_204

A school of jurisprudence is referred to as a madhhab (Arabic: مذهب‎). Islam_sentence_205

The four major Sunni schools are the Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali madhahs while the three major Shia schools are the Ja'fari, Zaidi and Isma'ili madhahib. Islam_sentence_206

Each differ in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh ('principles of jurisprudence'). Islam_sentence_207

The following of decisions by a religious expert without necessarily examining the decision's reasoning is called taqlid. Islam_sentence_208

The term ghair muqallid literally refers to those who do not use taqlid and by extension do not have a madhhab. Islam_sentence_209

The practice of an individual interpreting law with independent reasoning is called ijtihad. Islam_sentence_210

Economics Islam_section_18

Main article: Islamic economics Islam_sentence_211

To reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, Islamic economic jurisprudence encourages trade, discourages the hoarding of wealth and outlaws interest-bearing loans (i.e. usury; Arabic: riba). Islam_sentence_212

Therefore, wealth is taxed through Zakat, but trade is not taxed. Islam_sentence_213

Usury, which allows the rich to get richer without sharing in the risk, is forbidden in Islam. Islam_sentence_214

Profit sharing and venture capital where the lender is also exposed to risk is acceptable. Islam_sentence_215

Hoarding of food for speculation is also discouraged. Islam_sentence_216

The taking of land belonging to others is also prohibited. Islam_sentence_217

The prohibition of usury and the revival of interest-based economies has resulted in the development of Islamic banking. Islam_sentence_218

During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor. Islam_sentence_219

Then, in AD 634, Umar formally established the welfare state Bayt al-Mal ("House of Wealth"), which was for the Muslim and Non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled. Islam_sentence_220

The Bayt al-Maal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century, continuing through the Umayyad period, and well into the Abbasid era. Islam_sentence_221

Umar also introduced child support and pensions. Islam_sentence_222

Jihad Islam_section_19

Main articles: Jihad, Islamic military jurisprudence, and List of expeditions of Muhammad Islam_sentence_223

Jihad means 'to strive or struggle [in the way of God]'. Islam_sentence_224

In its broadest sense, it is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of ." Islam_sentence_225

Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil, and aspects of one's own self (such as sinful desires), different categories of jihad are defined. Islam_sentence_226

Jihad also refers to one's striving to attain religious and moral perfection. Islam_sentence_227

When used without any qualifier, jihad is understood in its military form. Islam_sentence_228

Some Muslim authorities, especially among the Shi'a and Sufis, distinguish between the "greater jihad," which pertains to spiritual self-perfection, and the "lesser jihad", defined as warfare. Islam_sentence_229

Within Islamic jurisprudence, jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants. Islam_sentence_230

Jihad is the only form of warfare permissible in Islamic law and may be declared against illegal works, terrorists, criminal groups, rebels, apostates, and leaders or states who oppress Muslims. Islam_sentence_231

Most Muslims today interpret Jihad as only a defensive form of warfare. Islam_sentence_232

Jihad only becomes an individual duty for those vested with authority. Islam_sentence_233

For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization. Islam_sentence_234

For most Twelver Shias, offensive jihad can only be declared by a divinely appointed leader of the Muslim community, and as such, is suspended since Muhammad al-Mahdi's occultation in 868 AD. Islam_sentence_235

Mysticism Islam_section_20

Main article: Sufism Islam_sentence_236

See also: Sufi–Salafi relations Islam_sentence_237

Sufism (Arabic: تصوف‎, tasawwuf), is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam that seeks to find a direct personal experience of God. Islam_sentence_238

It is not a sect of Islam and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations. Islam_sentence_239

Classical Sufi scholars defined Tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", through "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use. Islam_sentence_240

Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice. Islam_sentence_241

Religiosity of early Sufi ascetics, such as Hasan al-Basri, emphasized fear to fail God's expectations of obedience, in contrast to later and more prominent Sufis, such as Mansur Al-Hallaj and Jalaluddin Rumi, whose religiosity is based on love towards God. Islam_sentence_242

For that reason, some academic scholars refuse to refer to the former as Sufis. Islam_sentence_243

Nevertheless, Hasan al-Basri is often portrayed as one of the earliest Sufis in Sufi traditions and his ideas were later developed by the influential theologian Al-Ghazali. Islam_sentence_244

Traditional Sufis, such as Bayazid Bastami, Jalaluddin Rumi, Haji Bektash Veli, Junaid Baghdadi, and Al-Ghazali, argued for Sufism as being based upon the tenets of Islam and the teachings of the prophet. Islam_sentence_245

Sufis played an important role in the formation of Muslim societies through their missionary and educational activities. Islam_sentence_246

Popular devotional practices such as veneration of Sufi saints have faced stiff opposition from followers of Wahhabism, who have sometimes physically attacked Sufis leading to deterioration in Sufi–Salafi relations. Islam_sentence_247

Sufism enjoyed a strong revival in Central Asia and South Asia; the Barelvi movement is Sufi influenced Sunni Islam with over 200 million followers, largely in South Asia. Islam_sentence_248

Sufism is also prominent is Central Asia, where different orders are the main religious sources, as well as in African countries such as Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Senegal, Chad and Niger. Islam_sentence_249

Mystical interpretations of Islam have also been developed by Ismaili Shias, as well as by the Illuminationist and Isfahan schools of Islamic philosophy. Islam_sentence_250

Society Islam_section_21

Family life Islam_section_22

See also: Islam and children, Women in Islam, Marriage in Islam, and Polygyny in Islam Islam_sentence_251

In a Muslim family, the birth of a child is attended with some religious ceremonies. Islam_sentence_252

Immediately after the birth, the words of Adhan is pronounced in the right ear of the child. Islam_sentence_253

In the seventh day, the aqiqah ceremony is performed, in which an animal is sacrificed and its meat is distributed among the poor. Islam_sentence_254

The head of the child is also shaved, and an amount of money equaling the weight of the child's hair is donated to the poor. Islam_sentence_255

Apart from fulfilling the basic needs of food, shelter, and education, the parents or the elderly members of family also undertake the task of teaching moral qualities, religious knowledge, and religious practices to the children. Islam_sentence_256

Marriage, which serves as the foundation of a Muslim family, is a civil contract which consists of an offer and acceptance between two qualified parties in the presence of two witnesses. Islam_sentence_257

The groom is required to pay a bridal gift (mahr) to the bride, as stipulated in the contract. Islam_sentence_258

Most families in the Islamic world are monogamous. Islam_sentence_259

Polyandry, a practice wherein a woman takes on two or more husbands is prohibited in Islam. Islam_sentence_260

However, Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny, that is, they can have more than one wife at the same time, up to a total of four, per Surah 4 Verse 3. Islam_sentence_261

A man does not need approval of his first wife for a second marriage as there is no evidence in the Qur'an or hadith to suggest this. Islam_sentence_262

With Muslims coming from diverse backgrounds including 49 Muslim-majority countries, plus a strong presence as large minorities throughout the world there are many variations on Muslim weddings. Islam_sentence_263

Generally in a Muslim family, a woman's sphere of operation is the home and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world. Islam_sentence_264

However, in practice, this separation is not as rigid as it appears. Islam_sentence_265

With regard to inheritance, a son's share is double that of a daughter's. Islam_sentence_266

Certain religious rites are performed during and after the death of a Muslim. Islam_sentence_267

Those near a dying man encourage him to pronounce the Shahada as Muslims want their last word to be their profession of faith. Islam_sentence_268

After the death, the body is appropriately bathed by the members of the same gender and then enshrouded in a threefold white garment called kafan. Islam_sentence_269

Placing the body on a bier, it is first taken to a mosque where funeral prayer is offered for the dead person, and then to the graveyard for burial. Islam_sentence_270

Etiquette and diet Islam_section_23

Main articles: Adab (Islam) and Islamic dietary laws Islam_sentence_271

Many practices fall in the category of adab, or Islamic etiquette. Islam_sentence_272

This includes greeting others with "as-salamu 'alaykum" ('peace be unto you'), saying bismillah ('in the name of God') before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking. Islam_sentence_273

Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Islam_sentence_274

Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islam_sentence_275

Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah ("funeral prayer") over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Islam_sentence_276

Muslims are restricted in their diet. Islam_sentence_277

Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion, and alcohol. Islam_sentence_278

All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Islam_sentence_279

Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food. Islam_sentence_280

Social responsibilities Islam_section_24

Main article: Islam and humanity Islam_sentence_281

In a Muslim society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community. Islam_sentence_282

As these activities are instructed by Islamic canonical texts, a Muslim's religious life is seen incomplete if not attended by service to humanity. Islam_sentence_283

In fact, In Islamic tradition, the idea of social welfare has been presented as one of its principal values. Islam_sentence_284

Verse 2:177 of the Quran is often cited to encapsulate the Islamic idea of social welfare. Islam_sentence_285

Similarly, duties to parents, neighbors, relatives, sick people, the old, and minorities have been defined in Islam. Islam_sentence_286

Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age have been made a religious obligation. Islam_sentence_287

A two-fold approach is generally prescribed with regard to duty to relatives: keeping good relations with them, and offering them financial help if necessary. Islam_sentence_288

Severing ties with them has been admonished. Islam_sentence_289

Regardless of a neighbor's religious identity, Islam teaches Muslims to treat neighboring people in the best possible manner and not to cause them any difficulty. Islam_sentence_290

Concerning orphaned children, the Quran forbids harsh and oppressive treatment to them while urging kindness and justice towards them. Islam_sentence_291

It also rebukes those who do not honor and feed orphaned children. Islam_sentence_292

Character Islam_section_25

Main article: Morality in Islam Islam_sentence_293

The Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, and religious life. Islam_sentence_294

Proper moral conduct, good deeds, righteousness, and good character come within the sphere of the moral guidelines. Islam_sentence_295

In Islam, the observance of moral virtues is always associated with religious significance because it elevates the religious status of a believer and is often seen as a supererogatory act of worshipping. Islam_sentence_296

One typical Islamic teaching on morality is that imposing a penalty on an offender in proportion to their offense is permissible and just; but forgiving the offender is better. Islam_sentence_297

To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded the highest excellence. Islam_sentence_298

The Quran says: "Good and evil cannot be equal. Islam_sentence_299

Respond ˹to evil˺ with what is best, then the one you are in enmity with will be like a close friend." Islam_sentence_300

Thus, a Muslim is expected to act only in good manners as bad manners and deeds earn vices. Islam_sentence_301

The fundamental moral qualities in Islam are justice, forgiveness, righteousness, kindness, honesty, and piety. Islam_sentence_302

Other mostly insisted moral virtues include but not limited to charitable activities, fulfillment of promise, modesty (haya) and humility, decency in speech, tolerance, trustworthiness, patience, truthfulness, anger management, and sincerity of intention. Islam_sentence_303

As a religion, Islam emphasizes the idea of having a good character as Muhammad said: "The best among you are those who have the best manners and character." Islam_sentence_304

In Islam, justice is not only a moral virtue but also an obligation to be fulfilled under all circumstances. Islam_sentence_305

The Quran and the hadith describe God as being kind and merciful to His creatures, and tell people to be kind likewise. Islam_sentence_306

As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim practice. Islam_sentence_307

About modesty, Muhammad is reported as saying: "Every religion has its characteristic, and the characteristic of Islam is modesty." Islam_sentence_308

Government Islam_section_26

Main articles: Political aspects of Islam, Islamic state, Islam and secularism, Islam and democracy, Sultan, Khanate, Imamate, Emirate, Mansa (title), and Caliphate Islam_sentence_309

Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians. Islam_sentence_310

Currently no government conforms to Islamic economic jurisprudence, but steps have been taken to implement some of its tenets. Islam_sentence_311

Sunni and Shia sectarian divide also effects intergovernmental Muslim relations such as between Saudi Arabia and Iran. Islam_sentence_312

History Islam_section_27

Main articles: History of Islam and Spread of Islam Islam_sentence_313

Muhammad's revelations (610–632) Islam_section_28

Main articles: Muhammad and Muhammad in Islam Islam_sentence_314

See also: Early social changes under Islam Islam_sentence_315

Islamic tradition views Muhammad (c. 570 – June 8, 632) as the seal of the prophets, sent by God to the rest of mankind. Islam_sentence_316

During the last 22 years of his life, beginning at age 40 in 610 CE, according to the earliest surviving biographies, Muhammad reported receiving revelations that he believed to be from God, conveyed to him through the archangel Gabriel while he was meditating in a cave. Islam_sentence_317

Muhammad's companions memorized and recorded the content of these revelations, known as the Quran. Islam_sentence_318

During this time, Muhammad, while in Mecca, preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Islam_sentence_319

Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers. Islam_sentence_320

This resulted in the Migration to Abyssinia of some Muslims (to the Aksumite Empire). Islam_sentence_321

Many early converts to Islam were the poor, foreigners and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi who was black. Islam_sentence_322

The Meccan élite felt that Muhammad was destabilising their social order by preaching about one God and about racial equality, and that in the process he gave ideas to the poor and to their slaves. Islam_sentence_323

After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites, Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra ('emigration') in AD 622 to the city of Yathrib (current-day Medina). Islam_sentence_324

There, with the Medinan converts (the Ansar) and the Meccan migrants (the Muhajirun), Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority. Islam_sentence_325

The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah. Islam_sentence_326

The Constitution established: Islam_sentence_327


  • the security of the communityIslam_item_0_0
  • religious freedomsIslam_item_0_1
  • the role of Medina as a sacred place (barring all violence and weapons)Islam_item_0_2
  • the security of womenIslam_item_0_3
  • stable tribal relations within MedinaIslam_item_0_4
  • a tax system for supporting the community in time of conflictIslam_item_0_5
  • parameters for exogenous political alliancesIslam_item_0_6
  • a system for granting protection of individualsIslam_item_0_7
  • a judicial system for resolving disputes where non-Muslims could also use their own laws and have their own judges.Islam_item_0_8

All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves. Islam_sentence_328

Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in 624—a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud, which ended inconclusively. Islam_sentence_329

The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench (March–April 627) besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam. Islam_sentence_330

In 628, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca two years later. Islam_sentence_331

After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam. Islam_sentence_332

At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control. Islam_sentence_333

By 629 Muhammad was victorious in the nearly bloodless conquest of Mecca, and by the time of his death in 632 (at the age of 62) he had united the tribes of Arabia into a single religious polity. Islam_sentence_334

The earliest three generations of Muslims are known as the Salaf, with the companions of Muhammad being known as the Sahaba. Islam_sentence_335

Many of them, such as the largest narrator of hadith Abu Hureyrah, recorded and compiled what would constitute the sunnah. Islam_sentence_336

Caliphate and civil strife (632–750) Islam_section_29

Further information: Succession to Muhammad, The event of Ghadir Khumm, Saqifa, Muslim conquests, First Fitna, and Second Fitna Islam_sentence_337

With Muhammad's death in 632, disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Islam_sentence_338

Abu Bakr, a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. Islam_sentence_339

Under Abu Bakr, Muslims put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an episode known as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy". Islam_sentence_340

The Quran was compiled into a single volume at this time. Islam_sentence_341

Abu Bakr's death in 634 about two years after he was elected which resulted in the succession of Umar ibn al-Khattab as the caliph, followed by Uthman ibn al-Affan, Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hasan ibn Ali. Islam_sentence_342

The first four caliphs are known in Sunni Islam as al-khulafā' ar-rāshidūn ("Rightly Guided Caliphs"). Islam_sentence_343

Under the caliphs, the territory under Muslim rule expanded deeply into parts of the Persian and Byzantine territories. Islam_sentence_344

When Umar was assassinated by Persians in 644, the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. Islam_sentence_345

The standard copies of the Quran were also distributed throughout the Islamic State. Islam_sentence_346

In 656, Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. Islam_sentence_347

This led to the first civil war (the "First Fitna") over who should be caliph. Islam_sentence_348

Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in 661. Islam_sentence_349

To avoid further fighting, the new caliph Hasan ibn Ali signed a peace treaty, abdicating to Mu'awiyah, beginning the Umayyad dynasty, in return that he not name his own successor. Islam_sentence_350

These disputes over religious and political leadership would give rise to schism in the Muslim community. Islam_sentence_351

The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders and became known as Sunnis. Islam_sentence_352

A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia. Islam_sentence_353

Mu'awiyah appointed his son, Yazid I, as successor and after Mu'awiyah's death in 680, the "Second Fitna" broke out, where Husayn ibn Ali was killed at the Battle of Karbala, a significant event in Shia Islam. Islam_sentence_354

Sunni Islam and Shia Islam thus differ in some respects. Islam_sentence_355

The Umayyad dynasty conquered the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Narbonnese Gaul and Sindh. Islam_sentence_356

Local populations of Jews and indigenous Christians, persecuted as religious minorities and taxed heavily to finance the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars, often aided Muslims to take over their lands from the Byzantines and Persians, resulting in exceptionally speedy conquests. Islam_sentence_357

The generation after the death of Muhammad but contemporaries of his companions are known as the Tabi'un, followed by the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in. Islam_sentence_358

The Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz set up the influential committee, "The Seven Fuqaha of Medina", headed by Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr. Islam_sentence_359

Malik ibn Anas wrote one of the earliest books on Islamic jurisprudence, the Muwatta, as a consensus of the opinion of those jurists. Islam_sentence_360

The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented non-Arab converts (mawali), poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in 750. Islam_sentence_361

The first Muslim states independent of a unified Islamic state emerged from the Berber Revolt (739/740-743). Islam_sentence_362

Classical era (750–1258) Islam_section_30

Further information: Islamic Golden Age, Hadith studies, and Islamic philosophy Islam_sentence_363

See also: Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe and Turco-Persian tradition Islam_sentence_364

Al-Shafi'i codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith. Islam_sentence_365

During the early Abbasid era, the major Sunni hadith collections were compiled by scholars such as Bukhari and Muslim while major Shia hadith collections by scholars such as Al-Kulayni and Ibn Babawayh were also compiled. Islam_sentence_366

The four Sunni Madh'habs, the Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i, were established around the teachings of Abū Ḥanīfa, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Malik ibn Anas and al-Shafi'i, while the Ja'fari jurisprudence was formed from the teachings of Ja'far al-Sadiq respectively. Islam_sentence_367

In the 9th century, al-Shafi'i provided a theoretical basis for Islamic law and introduced its first methods by a synthesis between proto-rationalism of Iraqi jurisprudence and the pragmatic approach of the Hejaz traditions, in his book ar-Risālah. Islam_sentence_368

He also codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith. Islam_sentence_369

However, Islamic law would not be codified until 1869. Islam_sentence_370

In the 9th century Al-Tabari completed the first commentary of the Quran, that became one of the most cited commentaries in Sunni Islam, the Tafsir al-Tabari. Islam_sentence_371

During its expansion through the Samanid Empire, Islam was shaped by the ethno-cultural and religious pluralism by the Sogdians, paving the way for a Persianized rather than Arabized understanding of Islam. Islam_sentence_372

Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasised poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Islam_sentence_373

Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Tasawwuf or Sufism. Islam_sentence_374

By the end of the 9th century, Ismaili Shias spread in Iran, whereupon the city of Multan became a target of activistic Sunni politics. Islam_sentence_375

In 930, the Ismaili group known as the Qarmatians unsuccessfully rebelled against the Abbassids, sacked Mecca and stole the Black Stone, which was eventually retrieved. Islam_sentence_376

Abbasid Caliphs such as Mamun al Rashid and Al-Mu'tasim made the mutazilite philosophy an official creed and imposed it upon Muslims to follow. Islam_sentence_377

Mu'tazila was a Greek influenced school of Sunni scholastic theology called kalam, which refers to dialectic. Islam_sentence_378

Many orthodox Muslims rejected mutazilite doctrines and condemned their idea of the creation of the Quran. Islam_sentence_379

In inquisitions, ibn Hanbal refused to conform and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad prison cell for nearly thirty months. Islam_sentence_380

Other branches of kalam were the Ash'ari school founded by Al-Ash'ari and Maturidi founded by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi. Islam_sentence_381

With the expansion of the Abbasid Caliphate into the Sasanian Empire, Islam adapted many Hellenistic and Persian concepts, imported by thinkers of Iranian or Turkic origin. Islam_sentence_382

Philosophers such as Al-Farabi and Avicenna sought to incorporate Greek principles into Islamic theology, while others like Al-Ghazali argued against such syncretism and ultimately prevailed. Islam_sentence_383

Avicenna pioneered the science of experimental medicine, and was the first physician to conduct clinical trials. Islam_sentence_384

His two most notable works, The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine, were used as standard medicinal texts in the Islamic world and later in Europe. Islam_sentence_385

Amongst his contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, and the introduction of clinical pharmacology. Islam_sentence_386

In mathematics, the mathematician Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi gave his name to the concept of the algorithm, while the term algebra is derived from al-jabr. Islam_sentence_387

The Persian poet Ferdowsi wrote his epic poem Shahnameh. Islam_sentence_388

Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America. Islam_sentence_389

Legal institutions introduced include the trust and charitable trust (Waqf). Islam_sentence_390

This era is sometimes called the "Islamic Golden Age". Islam_sentence_391

Public hospitals established during this time (called Bimaristan hospitals), are considered "the first hospitals" in the modern sense of the word, and issued the first medical diplomas to license doctors. Islam_sentence_392

The Guinness World Records recognizes the University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859, as the world's oldest degree-granting university. Islam_sentence_393

The doctorate is argued to date back to the licenses to teach in Islamic law schools. Islam_sentence_394

Standards of experimental and quantification techniques, as well as the tradition of citation, were introduced. Islam_sentence_395

An important pioneer in this, Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist". Islam_sentence_396

The government paid scientists the equivalent salary of professional athletes today. Islam_sentence_397

It is argued that the data used by Copernicus for his heliocentric conclusions was gathered and that Al-Jahiz proposed a theory of natural selection. Islam_sentence_398

While the Abbasid Caliphate suffered a decline since the reign of Al-Wathiq (842–847) and Al-Mu'tadid (892–902), the Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty in 1258. Islam_sentence_399

During its decline, the Abbasid Caliphate disintegrated into minor states and dynasties, such as the Tulunid and the Ghaznavid dynasty. Islam_sentence_400

The Ghaznavid dynasty was a Muslim dynasty established by Turkic slave-soldiers from another Islamic empire, the Samanid Empire. Islam_sentence_401

Two Turkish tribes, the Karahanids and the Seljuks, converted to Islam during the 10th century. Islam_sentence_402

They were later subdued by the Ottomans, who share the same origin and language. Islam_sentence_403

The Seljuks played an important role for the revival of Sunnism, after which Shia increased its influences. Islam_sentence_404

The Seljuk military leader Alp Arslan financially supported sciences and literature and established the Nezamiyeh university in Baghdad. Islam_sentence_405

During this time, the Delhi Sultanate took over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Islam_sentence_406

Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam. Islam_sentence_407

Many Muslims also went to China to trade, virtually dominating the import and export industry of the Song dynasty. Islam_sentence_408

Pre-Modern era (1258–18th century) Islam_section_31

In scholasticism, Ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328) worried about the integrity of Islam and tried to establish a theological doctrine to purify Islam from its alleged alterings. Islam_sentence_409

Unlike his contemporary scholarship, who relied on traditions and historical narratives from early Islam, Ibn Taymiyya's methodology was a mixture of selective use of hadith and a literal understanding of the Quran. Islam_sentence_410

He rejected most philosophical approaches of Islam and proposed a clear, simple and dogmatic theology instead. Islam_sentence_411

Another major characteristic of his theological approach emphazises the significance of a Theocratic state: While the prevailing opinion held that religious wisdom was necessary for a state, Ibn Taymiyya regarded political power as necessary for religious excellence. Islam_sentence_412

He further rejected many hadiths circulating among Muslims during his time and relied only on Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim repeatedly to foil Asharite doctrine. Islam_sentence_413

Feeling threatened by the Crusaders as well as by the Mongols, Ibn Taymiyya stated it would be obligatory for Muslims to join a physical jihad against non-Muslims. Islam_sentence_414

This not only including the invaders, but also the heretics among the Muslims, including Shias, Asharites and "philosophers", who were blamed by Ibn Taymiyya for the deterioration of Islam. Islam_sentence_415

The Battle of Marj al-Saffar (1303) served as a significant turning point. Islam_sentence_416

Nevertheless, his writings only played a marginal role during his lifetime. Islam_sentence_417

He was repeatedly accused of blasphemy by anthropomorphizing God and his disciple Ibn Kathir distanced himself from his mentor and negated the anthropomorphizations, but simultaneously adhered to the same anti-rationalistic and hadith oriented methodology. Islam_sentence_418

This probably influenced his exegesis on his Tafsir, which discounted much of the exegetical tradition since then. Islam_sentence_419

However, the writings of Ibn Taymiyya became important sources for Wahhabism and 21st century Salafi theology, just as Tafsir Ibn Kathir also became highly rewarded in modern Salafism. Islam_sentence_420

The Timurid Renaissance was observed in the Timurid Empire based in Central Asia ruled by the Timurid dynasty, a phenomenal growth in the fields of arts and sciences, covering both eastern and western world. Islam_sentence_421

Outstanding throughout the stages of the Renaissance were the inventions of numerous devices and the constructions of Islamic learning centre, mosques, necropolis and observatories. Islam_sentence_422

Herat city for example matched with Florence, the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance, as the focal point of a cultural rebirth. Islam_sentence_423

Such aspects were seen to be strongly influenced across Islamic Gunpowder empires, mainly in Mughal India. Islam_sentence_424

Islam spread with Muslim trade networks, Sufi orders activity and conquests of the Gunpowder Empires that extended into Sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia and the Malay archipelago. Islam_sentence_425

Conversion to Islam, however, was not a sudden abandonment of old religious practices; rather, it was typically a matter of "assimilating Islamic rituals, cosmologies, and literatures into... local religious systems." Islam_sentence_426

Throughout this expanse, Islam blended with local cultures everywhere, as illustrated when the prophet Muhammad appeared in Hindu epics and folklore. Islam_sentence_427

The Muslims in China who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by adopting Chinese names and culture while Nanjing became an important center of Islamic study. Islam_sentence_428

The Turkish Muslims incorporated elements of Turkish Shamanism, which to this date differs Turkish synthesis of Islam from other Muslim societies, and became a part of a new Islamic interpretation, although Shamanistic influences already occurred during the Battle of Talas (752). Islam_sentence_429

Strikingly, Shamans were never mentioned by Muslim Heresiographers. Islam_sentence_430

One major change was the status of woman. Islam_sentence_431

Unlike Arabic traditions, the Turkic traditions hold woman in higher regard in society. Islam_sentence_432

The Turks must have also found striking similarities between Sufi rituals and Shaman practises. Islam_sentence_433

Shamanism also influenced orthodox Muslims who subscribed in Anatolia, Central-Asia and Balkans, producing Alevism. Islam_sentence_434

As a result, many Shaman traditions were perceived as Islamic, with beliefs such as sacred nature, trees, animals and foreign nature spirits remaining today. Islam_sentence_435

The Ottoman Caliphate, under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was the last caliphate of the late medieval and the early modern era. Islam_sentence_436

It is important to note, that the following Islamic reign by the Ottomans was strongly influenced by a symbiosis between Ottoman rulers and Sufism since the beginning. Islam_sentence_437

According to Ottoman historiography, the legitimation of a ruler is attributed to Sheikh Edebali who, accordingly, interpreted a dream of Osman Gazi as God's legitimation of his reign. Islam_sentence_438

Since Murad I's conquest of Edirne in 1362, the caliphate was claimed by the Turkish sultans of the empire. Islam_sentence_439

During the period of Ottoman growth, claims on caliphal authority were recognized in 1517 as Selim I, who through conquering and unification of Muslim lands, became the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in Mecca and Medina, and strengthening their claim to caliphate in the Muslim world. Islam_sentence_440

The Mevlevi Order and Bektashi Order had close relation to the sultans, as Sufi-mystical as well as heterodox and syncretic approaches to Islam flourished. Islam_sentence_441

Under the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to Southeast Europe. Islam_sentence_442

The Reconquista, launched against Muslim principalities in Iberia succeeded in 1492. Islam_sentence_443

In Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims, and to ensure security and harmony within its borders in the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty. Islam_sentence_444

The Shia Safavid dynasty rose to power in 1501 and later conquered all of Iran. Islam_sentence_445

The majority and oldest group among Shia at that time, the Zaydis, named after the great grandson of Ali, the scholar Zayd ibn Ali, used the Hanafi jurisprudence, as did most Sunnis. Islam_sentence_446

The ensuing mandatory conversion of Iran to Twelver Shia Islam for the largely Sunni population also ensured the final dominance of the Twelver sect within Shiism over the Zaidi and Ismaili sects. Islam_sentence_447

Nader Shah, who overthrew the Safavids, attempted to improve relations with Sunnis by propagating the integration of Shiism by calling it the Jaafari Madh'hab. Islam_sentence_448

In the Indian Subcontinent, during the rule of Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji in Bengal, the Indian Islamic missionaries achieved their greatest success in terms of dawah and number of converts to Islam. Islam_sentence_449

The Delhi Sultanate, founded by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, emerged as India's first Islamic power, well noted for being one of the few states to repel an attack by the Mongols and enthroning one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana. Islam_sentence_450

The wealthy Islamic Bengal Sultanate was subsequently founded, a major global trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans to be the "richest country to trade with". Islam_sentence_451

The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a direct descendant of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan. Islam_sentence_452

The empire was briefly interrupted by the Suri Empire founded by Sher Shah Suri, who re-initiated the rupee currency system. Islam_sentence_453

The Mughals gained power during the reign of Akbar the Great and Jahangir. Islam_sentence_454

The reign of Shah Jahan observed the height of Indo-Islamic architecture, with notable monuments such as Taj Mahal and Jama Masjid, Delhi, while the reign of his son Aurangzeb saw the compilation of the Fatwa Alamgiri (most well organised fiqh manuscript) and witnessed the peak of the Islamic rule in India. Islam_sentence_455

Mughal India surpassed Qing China to become the world's largest economy, worth 25% of world GDP, the Bengal Subah signalling the proto-industrialization and showing signs of the Industrial revolution. Islam_sentence_456

After Mughal India's collapse, Tipu Sultan's Kingdom of Mysore based in South India, which witnessed partial establishment of sharia based economic and military policies i.e. Fathul Mujahidin, replaced Bengal ruled by the Nawabs of Bengal as South Asia's foremost economic territory. Islam_sentence_457

After the British Raj, the Nizams of Hyderabad remained as the major Muslim princely state until the Annexation of Hyderabad by the modern Republic of India. Islam_sentence_458

Modern era (18th – 20th centuries) Islam_section_32

The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the 1800s, especially relative to the non-Muslim European powers. Islam_sentence_459

This decline was evident culturally; while Taqi al-Din founded an observatory in Istanbul and the Jai Singh Observatory was built in the 18th century, there was not a single Muslim-majority country with a major observatory by the twentieth century. Islam_sentence_460

By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the Mughal dynasty in India. Islam_sentence_461

In the 19th century, the Deobandi and Barelwi movements were initiated. Islam_sentence_462

During the 18th century Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab founded a military movement opposing the Ottoman Sultanate as an illegitimate rule, advising his fellows to return to the principles of Islam based on the theology of Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Islam_sentence_463

He was deeply influenced by the works of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn al-Qayyim and condemned many traditional Islamic practices, such as visiting the grave of Muhammad or Saints, as sin. Islam_sentence_464

During this period he formed an alliance with the Saud family, who founded the Wahhabi sect. Islam_sentence_465

This revival movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam of what they see as later innovations. Islam_sentence_466

Their ideology led to the desecration of shrines around the world, including that of Muhammad and his companions in Mecca and Medina. Islam_sentence_467

Many Arab nationalists, such as Rashid Rida, regarded the Caliphate as an Arab right taken away by the Turks. Islam_sentence_468

Therefore, they rebelled against the Ottoman Sultanate, until the Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in 1924. Islam_sentence_469

Concurrently Ibn Saud conquered Mecca, the "heartland of Islam", to impose Wahhabism as part of Islamic culture. Islam_sentence_470

At the end of the 19th century, Muslim luminaries such as Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Rida and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani sought to reconcile Islam with social and intellectual ideas of the Age of Enlightenment by purging Islam from alleged alterations and adhering to the basic tenets held during the Rashidun era. Islam_sentence_471

Due to their adherence to the Salafs they called themselves Salafiyya. Islam_sentence_472

However, they differ from the Salafi movement flourishing in the second half of the 20th century, which is rooted in the Wahhabi movement. Islam_sentence_473

Instead, they are also often called Islamic modernists. Islam_sentence_474

They rejected the Sunni schools of law and allowed Ijtihad. Islam_sentence_475

The Barelwi movement, founded in India, emphasises the primacy of Islamic law over adherence to Sufi practices and personal devotion to the prophet Muhammad. Islam_sentence_476

It grew from the writings of Ahmed Raza Khan, Fazl-e-Haq Khairabadi, Shah Ahmad Noorani and Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Hazarvi in the backdrop of an intellectual and moral decline of Muslims in British India. Islam_sentence_477

The movement was a mass movement, defending popular Sufism and reforming its practices, grew in response to the Deobandi movement. Islam_sentence_478

The movement is famous for the celebration of Mawlid and today, is spread across the globe with followers also in Pakistan, South Africa, United States, and United Kingdom among other countries. Islam_sentence_479

On 3 March 1924, the first President of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, as part of his secular reforms, constitutionally abolished the institution of the caliphate. Islam_sentence_480

Ottoman Caliphate, the world's last widely recognized caliphate was no more and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the parliament of the newly formed Turkish Republic and the Directorate of Religious Affairs. Islam_sentence_481

Postmodern times (20th century–present) Islam_section_33

Further information: Islamic revival Islam_sentence_482

Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Islam_sentence_483

Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia, to the Caribbean, forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas. Islam_sentence_484

The resulting urbanization and increase in trade in sub-Saharan Africa brought Muslims to settle in new areas and spread their faith, likely doubling its Muslim population between 1869 and 1914. Islam_sentence_485

Muslim immigrants began arriving, many as guest workers and largely from former colonies, in several Western European nations since the 1960s. Islam_sentence_486

There are more and more new Muslim intellectuals who increasingly separate perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions. Islam_sentence_487

Liberal Islam is a movement that attempts to reconcile religious tradition with modern norms of secular governance and human rights. Islam_sentence_488

Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and they stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters". Islam_sentence_489

Women's issues receive significant weight in the modern discourse on Islam. Islam_sentence_490

Secular powers such as the Chinese Red Guards closed many mosques and destroyed Qurans, and Communist Albania became the first country to ban the practice of every religion. Islam_sentence_491

About half a million Muslims were killed in Cambodia by communists who, it is argued, viewed them as their primary enemy and wished to exterminate them since they stood out and worshipped their own god. Islam_sentence_492

In Turkey, the military carried out coups to oust Islamist governments, and headscarves were banned in official buildings, as also happened in Tunisia. Islam_sentence_493

Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani, along with his acolyte Muhammad Abduh, have been credited as forerunners of the Islamic revival. Islam_sentence_494

Abul A'la Maududi helped influence modern political Islam. Islam_sentence_495

Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood advocate Islam as a comprehensive political solution, often in spite of being banned. Islam_sentence_496

In Iran, revolution replaced a secular regime with an Islamic state. Islam_sentence_497

In Turkey, the Islamist AK Party has democratically been in power for about a decade, while Islamist parties did well in elections following the Arab Spring. Islam_sentence_498

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of Muslim-majority countries, was established in 1969 after the burning of the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. Islam_sentence_499

Religiosity appears to be deepening worldwide. Islam_sentence_500

In many places, the prevalence of the hijab is growing increasingly common and the percentage of Muslims favoring Sharia has increased. Islam_sentence_501

With religious guidance increasingly available electronically, Muslims are able to access views that are strict enough for them rather than rely on state clerics who are often seen as stooges. Islam_sentence_502

It is estimated that, by 2050, the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "due to the young age and high fertility-rate of Muslims relative to other religious group." Islam_sentence_503

While the religious conversion has no net impact on the Muslim population growth as "the number of people who become Muslims through conversion seems to be roughly equal to the number of Muslims who leave the faith". Islam_sentence_504

Perhaps as a sign of these changes, most experts agree that Islam is growing faster than any other faith in East and West Africa. Islam_sentence_505

Denominations Islam_section_34

Main article: Islamic schools and branches Islam_sentence_506

See also: Shia–Sunni relations Islam_sentence_507

Sunni Islam_section_35

Main article: Sunni Islam Islam_sentence_508

The largest denomination in Islam is Sunni Islam, which makes up 75–90% of all Muslims, and is arguably the world's largest religious denomination. Islam_sentence_509

Sunni Muslims also go by the name Ahl as-Sunnah which means "people of the tradition [of Muhammad]". Islam_sentence_510

Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him and those leaders were elected. Islam_sentence_511

Further authorities regarding Sunnis believe that anyone who is righteous and just could be a caliph as long they act according to the teachings of Islam, the example of Muhammad. Islam_sentence_512

Alternatively, Sunnis commonly accept the companions of Muhammad as reliable for interpretating Islamic affairs. Islam_sentence_513

The Sunnis follow the Quran and the Hadith, which are recorded in Sunni traditions known as Al-Kutub Al-Sittah (six major books). Islam_sentence_514

For legal matters derived from the Quran or the Hadith, many follow four sunni madhhabs: Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki and Shafi'i. Islam_sentence_515

All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim may choose any one that he or she finds agreeable. Islam_sentence_516

Sunni schools of theology encompass Asharism founded by Al-Ashʿarī (c. 874–936), Maturidi by Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (853–944 CE) and traditionalist theology under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780–855 CE). Islam_sentence_517

Traditionalist theology is characterized by its adherence to a literal understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, the belief in the Quran to be uncreated and eternal, and opposes reason (kalam) in religious and ethical matters. Islam_sentence_518

On the other hand, Maturidism asserts, scripture is not needed for basic ethics and that good and evil can be understood by reason alone. Islam_sentence_519

Maturidi's doctrine, based on Hanafi law, asserted man's capacity and will alongside the supremacy of God in man's acts, providing a doctrinal framework for more flexibility, adaptability and syncretism. Islam_sentence_520

Maturidism especially flourished in Central-Asia. Islam_sentence_521

Nevertheless, people would rely on revelation, because reason alone could not grasp the whole truth. Islam_sentence_522

Asharism holds that ethics can just derive from divine revelation, but not from human reason. Islam_sentence_523

However, Asharism accepts reason in regard of exegetical matters and combined Muʿtazila approaches with traditionalistic ideas. Islam_sentence_524

In the 18th century, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab led a Salafi movement, referred by outsiders as Wahhabism, in modern-day Saudi Arabia. Islam_sentence_525

Originally shaped by Hanbalism, many modern followers departed from any of the established four schools of law Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali. Islam_sentence_526

Similarly, Ahl al-Hadith is a movement that deemphasized sources of jurisprudence outside the Quran and Hadith, such as informed opinion (ra'y). Islam_sentence_527

Nurcu is a Sunni movement based on the writings of Said Nursi (1877–1960) founded at the beginning of the twentieth century. Islam_sentence_528

His philosophy is based on Hanafi law and further incorporates elements of Sufism. Islam_sentence_529

He emphasized the importance of salvation in both life and afterlife through education and freedom, the synthesis of Islam and science and democracy as the best form governance within the rule of law. Islam_sentence_530

Through faith by inquiry instead of faith by imitation, Muslims would reject philosophies such as positivism, materialism and atheism emerging from the Western world of his time. Islam_sentence_531

His notion of sharia is twofold: On one hand, sharia applies to the voluntary actions of human beings. Islam_sentence_532

On the other hand, sharia denotes the set of laws of nature, but both ultimately derive from one source, which is God. Islam_sentence_533

His works on the Quran in the Risale-i Nur were translated into almost all languages of Central Asia. Islam_sentence_534

From Nurcu other movements such as the Gülen movement derived. Islam_sentence_535

Shia Islam_section_36

Main article: Shia Islam Islam_sentence_536

See also: Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam Islam_sentence_537

The Shia constitute 10–20% of Islam and are its second-largest branch. Islam_sentence_538

While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib, as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could hold positions of power. Islam_sentence_539

As a result, they believe that Ali ibn Abi Talib was the first Imam (leader), rejecting the legitimacy of the previous Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr, Uthman ibn al-Affan and Umar ibn al-Khattab. Islam_sentence_540

Other points of contention include certain practices viewed as innovating the religion, such as the mourning practice of tatbir, and the cursing of figures revered by Sunnis. Islam_sentence_541

However, Jafar al-Sadiq himself disapproved of people who disapproved of his great-grandfather Abu Bakr and Zayd ibn Ali revered Abu Bakr and Umar. Islam_sentence_542

More recently, Grand Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani condemned the practice. Islam_sentence_543

Shia Islam has several branches, the most prominent being the Twelvers (the largest branch), Zaidis and Ismailis. Islam_sentence_544

Different branches accept different descendants of Ali as Imams. Islam_sentence_545

After the death of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq who is considered the sixth Imam by the Twelvers and the Ismaili's, the Ismailis recognized his son Isma'il ibn Jafar as his successor whereas the Twelver Shia's followed his other son Musa al-Kadhim as the seventh Imam. Islam_sentence_546

The Zaydis consider Zayd ibn Ali, the uncle of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, as their fifth Imam, and follow a different line of succession after him. Islam_sentence_547

Other smaller groups include the Bohra as well as the Alawites and Alevi. Islam_sentence_548

Some Shia branches label other Shia branches that do not agree with their doctrine as Ghulat. Islam_sentence_549

Other denominations Islam_section_37


  • Bektashi Alevism is a syncretic and heterodox local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenī) teachings of Ali and Haji Bektash Veli. Alevism incorporates Turkish beliefs present during the 14th century, such as Shamanism and Animism, mixed with Shias and Sufi beliefs, adopted by some Turkish tribes."Islam_item_1_9
  • The Ahmadiyya movement is an Islamic reform movement (with Sunni roots) founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad that began in India in 1889 and is practiced by 10 to 20 million Muslims around the world. Ahmad claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies concerning the arrival of the 'Imam Mahdi' and the 'Promised Messiah'. However, the movement is rejected by the majority of Muslims as heretical since it believes in ongoing prophethood after the death of Muhammad. Ahmadis have been subject to religious persecution and discrimination since the movement's inception in 1889.Islam_item_1_10
  • The Ibadi sect dates back to the early days of Islam and is a branch of Kharijite and is practiced by 1.45 million Muslims around the world. Ibadis make up a majority of the population in Oman. Unlike most Kharijite groups, Ibadism does not regard sinful Muslims as unbelievers.Islam_item_1_11
  • Mahdavia is an Islamic sect that believes in a 15th-century Mahdi, Muhammad Jaunpuri.Islam_item_1_12
  • The Quranists are Muslims who generally reject the Sunnah, and doubt the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of the Hadith.Islam_item_1_13
  • The Nation of Islam is a sect that seeks to improve the condition of the Black man and Woman, particularly in America. They believe that the Mahdi and Allah came in the person of Wallace Fard Muhammad, something not recognized by other Muslims. It has about 20,000-50,000 members with various offshoots.Islam_item_1_14

Non-denominational Muslims Islam_section_38

Main article: Non-denominational Muslim Islam_sentence_550

Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination. Islam_sentence_551

Prominent figures who refused to identify with a particular Islamic denomination have included Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Islam_sentence_552

Recent surveys report that large proportions of Muslims in some parts of the world self-identify as "just Muslim", although there is little published analysis available regarding the motivations underlying this response. Islam_sentence_553

The Pew Research Center reports that respondents self-identifying as "just Muslim" make up a majority of Muslims in seven countries (and a plurality in three others), with the highest proportion in Kazakhstan at 74%. Islam_sentence_554

At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identify in this way. Islam_sentence_555

Derived religions Islam_section_39

Some movements, such as the Druze (see Islam and Druze), Berghouata and Ha-Mim, either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam and whether each is a separate religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial. Islam_sentence_556

Yazdânism is seen as a blend of local Kurdish beliefs and Islamic Sufi doctrine introduced to Kurdistan by Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir in the 12th century. Islam_sentence_557

Bábism stems from Twelver Shia passed through Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad i-Shirazi al-Bab while one of his followers Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri Baha'u'llah founded the Baháʼí Faith. Islam_sentence_558

Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak in late-fifteenth-century Punjab, incorporates aspects of both Islam and Hinduism. Islam_sentence_559

Bektashi Alevism is a syncretic and heterodox local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenī) teachings of Ali and Haji Bektash Veli. Islam_sentence_560

Alevism incorporates Turkish beliefs present during the 14th century, such as Shamanism and Animism, mixed with Shias and Sufi beliefs, adopted by some Turkish tribes. Islam_sentence_561

Demographics Islam_section_40

Main articles: Muslim world and Ummah Islam_sentence_562

See also: Islam by country and Muslim population growth Islam_sentence_563

A 2020 demographic study reported that 24.1% of the global population, or 1.8 billion people, are Muslims. Islam_sentence_564

Of those, it has been estimated that 87–90% are Sunni and 10–13% are Shia, with a small minority belonging to other sects. Islam_sentence_565

Approximately 49 countries are Muslim-majority, and Arabs account for around 20% of all Muslims worldwide. Islam_sentence_566

The number of Muslims worldwide increased from 200 million in 1900 to 551 million in 1970, and tripled to 1.6 billion by 2010. Islam_sentence_567

The majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa. Islam_sentence_568

Approximately 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million adherents in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. Islam_sentence_569

In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Nigeria and Egypt have the most populous Muslim communities. Islam_sentence_570

Most estimates indicate that the China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population). Islam_sentence_571

However, data provided by the San Diego State University's International Population Center to U.S. Islam_sentence_572 News & World Report suggests that China has 65.3 million Muslims. Islam_sentence_573

Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas, with between 2,454,000, according to Pew Forum, and approximately 7 million Muslims, according to the Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR), in the United States. Islam_sentence_574

Religious conversion has little net impact on the Muslim population as the number of people who convert to Islam is roughly similar to those who leave Islam. Islam_sentence_575

Growth rates of Islam in Europe were due primarily to immigration and higher birth rates of Muslims in 2005. Islam_sentence_576

Culture Islam_section_41

Main article: Islamic culture Islam_sentence_577

The term "Islamic culture" could be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. Islam_sentence_578

It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people. Islam_sentence_579

Finally, "Islamic civilization" may also refer to the aspects of the synthesized culture of the early Caliphates, including that of non-Muslims, sometimes referred to as "". Islam_sentence_580

Architecture Islam_section_42

Main article: Islamic architecture Islam_sentence_581

Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic architecture is that of the mosque. Islam_sentence_582

Varying cultures have an effect on mosque architecture. Islam_sentence_583

For example, North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan contain marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings, while mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles. Islam_sentence_584

The Ottomans mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islam_sentence_585


  • Islam_item_2_15
  • Islam_item_2_16
  • Islam_item_2_17
  • Islam_item_2_18

Art Islam_section_43

Main article: Islamic art Islam_sentence_586

See also: Ottoman miniature, Safavid art, and Mughal painting Islam_sentence_587

Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by Muslim populations. Islam_sentence_588

It includes fields as varied as architecture, calligraphy, painting, and ceramics, among others. Islam_sentence_589

While not condemned in the Quran, making images of human beings and animals is frowned on in many Islamic cultures and connected with laws against idolatry common to all Abrahamic religions, as Abdullaah ibn Mas'ood reported that Muhammad said, "Those who will be most severely punished by Allah on the Day of Resurrection will be the image-makers" (reported by al-Bukhaari). Islam_sentence_590

However, this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods, and there are examples of paintings of both animals and humans in Mughal, Persian, and Turkish art. Islam_sentence_591

The existence of this aversion to creating images of animate beings has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation, and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture. Islam_sentence_592


  • Islam_item_3_19
  • Islam_item_3_20
  • Islam_item_3_21
  • Islam_item_3_22

Music Islam_section_44

Main article: Islamic music Islam_sentence_593

Poetry Islam_section_45

Main article: Islamic poetry Islam_sentence_594

Calendar Islam_section_46

Main article: Islamic calendar Islam_sentence_595

The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen, reportedly by Caliph Umar, to be the Hijra in 622 CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. Islam_sentence_596

It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset. Islam_sentence_597

Islamic holy days fall on fixed dates of the lunar calendar, which means that they occur in different seasons in different years in the Gregorian calendar. Islam_sentence_598

The most important Islamic festivals are Eid al-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر‎) on the 1st of Shawwal, marking the end of the fasting month Ramadan, and Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى) on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah, coinciding with the end of the Hajj (pilgrimage). Islam_sentence_599

Criticism Islam_section_47

Main article: Criticism of Islam Islam_sentence_600

Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. Islam_sentence_601

Early criticism came from Christian authors, many of whom viewed Islam as a Christian heresy or a form of idolatry, often explaining it in apocalyptic terms. Islam_sentence_602

Later, there appeared criticism from the Muslim world itself, as well as from Jewish writers and from ecclesiastical Christians. Islam_sentence_603

Issues relating to the authenticity and morality of the Quran, the Islamic holy book, are also discussed by critics. Islam_sentence_604

Islamic salvation optimism and its carnality were criticized by Christian writers. Islam_sentence_605

Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise led many Christians to conclude that Islam was not a spiritual religion. Islam_sentence_606

Although sensual pleasure was also present in early Christianity, as seen in the writings of Irenaeus, the doctrines of the former Manichaean Augustine of Hippo led to the broad repudiation of bodily pleasure in both life and the afterlife. Islam_sentence_607

Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari defended the Quranic description of paradise by asserting that the Bible also implies such ideas, such as drinking wine in Gospel of Matthew. Islam_sentence_608

Defamatory images of Muhammad, derived from early 7th century depictions of Byzantine Church, appear in the 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri. Islam_sentence_609

Here, Muhammad appears in the eighth circle of hell, along with Ali. Islam_sentence_610

Dante does not blame Islam as a whole but accuses Muhammad of schism, by establishing another religion after Christianity. Islam_sentence_611

Since the events of September 11, 2001, Islam has faced criticism over its scriptures and teachings being claimed to be a significant source of terrorism and terrorist ideology. Islam_sentence_612

Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Muslim-majority countries, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice. Islam_sentence_613

In wake of the recent multiculturalism trend, Islam's influence on the ability of Muslim immigrants in the West to assimilate has been criticized. Islam_sentence_614

Both in his public and personal life, others objected the morality of Muhammad, therefore also the sunnah as a role model. Islam_sentence_615

See also Islam_section_48

Main article: Outline of Islam Islam_sentence_616

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: