Islamic Golden Age

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Islamic Golden Age_table_infobox_0

Islamic Golden AgeIslamic Golden Age_table_caption_0
Preceded byIslamic Golden Age_header_cell_0_0_0 Rashidun CaliphateIslamic Golden Age_cell_0_0_1
Followed byIslamic Golden Age_header_cell_0_1_0 Timurid Renaissance, Age of the Islamic GunpowdersIslamic Golden Age_cell_0_1_1
Monarch(s)Islamic Golden Age_header_cell_0_2_0 Umayyad, Abbasid, Samanid, Fatimid, Ayyubid, MamlukIslamic Golden Age_cell_0_2_1
Leader(s)Islamic Golden Age_header_cell_0_3_0 Islamic Golden Age_cell_0_3_1

The Islamic Golden Age (Arabic: العصر الذهبي للإسلام‎, romanized: al-'asr al-dhahabi lil-islam), was a period of cultural, economic, and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_0

This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, the world's largest city by then, where Islamic scholars and polymaths from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into Arabic and Persian. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_1

The period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_2

A few scholars date the end of the golden age around 1350 linking with the Timurid Renaissance, while several modern historians and scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries meeting with the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_3

(The medieval period of Islam is very similar if not the same, with one source defining it as 900–1300 CE.) Islamic Golden Age_sentence_4

History of the concepts Islamic Golden Age_section_0

The metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_5

The author of a Handbook for Travelers in Syria and Palestine in 1868 observed that the most beautiful mosques of Damascus were "like Mohammedanism itself, now rapidly decaying" and relics of "the golden age of Islam". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_6

There is no unambiguous definition of the term, and depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement, it may be taken to refer to rather disparate time spans. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_7

Thus, one 19th century author would have it extend to the duration of the caliphate, or to "six and a half centuries", while another would have it end after only a few decades of Rashidun conquests, with the death of Umar and the First Fitna. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_8

During the early 20th century, the term was used only occasionally and often referred to as the early military successes of the Rashidun caliphs. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_9

It was only in the second half of the 20th century that the term came to be used with any frequency, now mostly referring to the cultural flourishing of science and mathematics under the caliphates during the 9th to 11th centuries (between the establishment of organised scholarship in the House of Wisdom and the beginning of the crusades), but often extended to include part of the late 8th or the 12th to early 13th centuries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_10

Definitions may still vary considerably. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_11

Equating the end of the golden age with the end of the caliphates is a convenient cut-off point based on a historical landmark, but it can be argued that Islamic culture had entered a gradual decline much earlier; thus, Khan (2003) identifies the proper golden age as being the two centuries between 750–950, arguing that the beginning loss of territories under Harun al-Rashid worsened after the death of al-Ma'mun in 833, and that the crusades in the 12th century resulted in a weakening of the Islamic empire from which it never recovered. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_12

Causes Islamic Golden Age_section_1

Religious influence Islamic Golden Age_section_2

Main article: Islamic attitudes towards science Islamic Golden Age_sentence_13

The various Quranic injunctions and Hadith (or actions of Prophet Muhammad), which place values on education and emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge, played a vital role in influencing the Muslims of this age in their search for knowledge and the development of the body of science. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_14

Government sponsorship Islamic Golden Age_section_3

The Islamic Empire heavily patronized scholars. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_15

The money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to about twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_16

The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_17

The House of Wisdom was a library established in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_18

Diverse contributions Islamic Golden Age_section_4

Main articles: Greek contributions to Islamic world, Indian influence on Islamic science, Christian influences in Islam, and Chinese influences on Islamic pottery Islamic Golden Age_sentence_19

During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the scientific knowledge of the civilizations that had been conquered. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_20

Many classic works of antiquity that might otherwise have been lost were translated from Greek, Persian, Indian, Chinese, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations into Arabic and Persian, and later in turn translated into Turkish, Hebrew, and Latin. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_21

Christians, especially the adherents of the Church of the East (Nestorians), contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_22

They also excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy, science (such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Yusuf Al-Khuri, Al Himsi, Qusta ibn Luqa, Masawaiyh, Patriarch Eutychius, and Jabril ibn Bukhtishu) and theology. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_23

For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were often Assyrian Christians. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_24

Among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_25

Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek and Syriac languages was either newly translated or had been preserved since the Hellenistic period. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_26

Among the prominent centers of learning and transmission of classical wisdom were Christian colleges such as the School of Nisibis and the School of Edessa, the pagan University of Harran and the renowned hospital and medical academy of Jundishapur, which was the intellectual, theological and scientific center of the Church of the East. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_27

The House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_28

It was led by Christian physician Hunayn ibn Ishaq, with the support of Byzantine medicine. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_29

Many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Ptolemy and Archimedes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_30

Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_31

Among the various countries and cultures conquered through successive Islamic conquests, a remarkable number of scientists originated from Persia, who contributed immensely to the scientific flourishing of the Islamic Golden Age. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_32

According to Bernard Lewis: "Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Persian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_33

The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution." Islamic Golden Age_sentence_34

Science, medicine, philosophy and technology in the newly Islamized Iranian society was influenced by and based on the scientific model of the major pre-Islamic Iranian universities in the Sassanian Empire. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_35

During this period hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_36

Ibn Khaldun claimed in his work Muqaddimah (1377) that most Muslim contributions in ḥadîth were generally the works of Persians specifically: Islamic Golden Age_sentence_37

New technology Islamic Golden Age_section_5

With a new and easier writing system, and the introduction of paper, information was democratized to the extent that, for probably the first time in history, it became possible to make a living from only writing and selling books. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_38

The use of paper spread from China into Muslim regions in the eighth century, arriving in Al-Andalus on the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal) in the 10th century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_39

It was easier to manufacture than parchment, less likely to crack than papyrus, and could absorb ink, making it difficult to erase and ideal for keeping records. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_40

Islamic paper makers devised assembly-line methods of hand-copying manuscripts to turn out editions far larger than any available in Europe for centuries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_41

It was from these countries that the rest of the world learned to make paper from linen. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_42

Education Islamic Golden Age_section_6

Further information: Madrasa Islamic Golden Age_sentence_43

The centrality of scripture and its study in the Islamic tradition helped to make education a central pillar of the religion in virtually all times and places in the history of Islam. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_44

The importance of learning in the Islamic tradition is reflected in a number of hadiths attributed to Muhammad, including one that instructs the faithful to "seek knowledge, even in China". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_45

This injunction was seen to apply particularly to scholars, but also to some extent to the wider Muslim public, as exemplified by the dictum of al-Zarnuji, "learning is prescribed for us all". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_46

While it is impossible to calculate literacy rates in pre-modern Islamic societies, it is almost certain that they were relatively high, at least in comparison to their European counterparts. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_47

Education would begin at a young age with study of Arabic and the Quran, either at home or in a primary school, which was often attached to a mosque. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_48

Some students would then proceed to training in tafsir (Quranic exegesis) and fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), which was seen as particularly important. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_49

Education focused on memorization, but also trained the more advanced students to participate as readers and writers in the tradition of commentary on the studied texts. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_50

It also involved a process of socialization of aspiring scholars, who came from virtually all social backgrounds, into the ranks of the ulema. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_51

For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_52

Madrasas soon multiplied throughout the Islamic world, which helped to spread Islamic learning beyond urban centers and to unite diverse Islamic communities in a shared cultural project. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_53

Nonetheless, instruction remained focused on individual relationships between students and their teacher. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_54

The formal attestation of educational attainment, ijaza, was granted by a particular scholar rather than the institution, and it placed its holder within a genealogy of scholars, which was the only recognized hierarchy in the educational system. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_55

While formal studies in madrasas were open only to men, women of prominent urban families were commonly educated in private settings and many of them received and later issued ijazas in hadith studies, calligraphy and poetry recitation. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_56

Working women learned religious texts and practical skills primarily from each other, though they also received some instruction together with men in mosques and private homes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_57

Madrasas were devoted principally to study of law, but they also offered other subjects such as theology, medicine, and mathematics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_58

The madrasa complex usually consisted of a mosque, boarding house, and a library. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_59

It was maintained by a waqf (charitable endowment), which paid salaries of professors, stipends of students, and defrayed the costs of construction and maintenance. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_60

The madrasa was unlike a modern college in that it lacked a standardized curriculum or institutionalized system of certification. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_61

Muslims distinguished disciplines inherited from pre-Islamic civilizations, such as philosophy and medicine, which they called "sciences of the ancients" or "rational sciences", from Islamic religious sciences. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_62

Sciences of the former type flourished for several centuries, and their transmission formed part of the educational framework in classical and medieval Islam. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_63

In some cases, they were supported by institutions such as the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, but more often they were transmitted informally from teacher to student. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_64

The University of Al Karaouine, founded in 859 AD, is listed in The Guinness Book Of Records as the world's oldest degree-granting university. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_65

The Al-Azhar University was another early university (madrasa). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_66

The madrasa is one of the relics of the Fatimid caliphate. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_67

The Fatimids traced their descent to Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and named the institution using a variant of her honorific title Al-Zahra (the brilliant). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_68

Organized instruction in the Al-Azhar Mosque began in 978. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_69

Law Islamic Golden Age_section_7

Main article: Sharia Islamic Golden Age_sentence_70

Juristic thought gradually developed in study circles, where independent scholars met to learn from a local master and discuss religious topics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_71

At first, these circles were fluid in their membership, but with time distinct regional legal schools crystallized around shared sets of methodological principles. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_72

As the boundaries of the schools became clearly delineated, the authority of their doctrinal tenets came to be vested in a master jurist from earlier times, who was henceforth identified as the school's founder. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_73

In the course of the first three centuries of Islam, all legal schools came to accept the broad outlines of classical legal theory, according to which Islamic law had to be firmly rooted in the Quran and hadith. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_74

The classical theory of Islamic jurisprudence elaborates how scriptures should be interpreted from the standpoint of linguistics and rhetoric. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_75

It also comprises methods for establishing authenticity of hadith and for determining when the legal force of a scriptural passage is abrogated by a passage revealed at a later date. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_76

In addition to the Quran and sunnah, the classical theory of Sunni fiqh recognizes two other sources of law: juristic consensus (ijmaʿ) and analogical reasoning (qiyas). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_77

It therefore studies the application and limits of analogy, as well as the value and limits of consensus, along with other methodological principles, some of which are accepted by only certain legal schools. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_78

This interpretive apparatus is brought together under the rubric of ijtihad, which refers to a jurist's exertion in an attempt to arrive at a ruling on a particular question. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_79

The theory of Twelver Shia jurisprudence parallels that of Sunni schools with some differences, such as recognition of reason (ʿaql) as a source of law in place of qiyas and extension of the notion of sunnah to include traditions of the imams. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_80

The body of substantive Islamic law was created by independent jurists (muftis). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_81

Their legal opinions (fatwas) were taken into account by ruler-appointed judges who presided over qāḍī's courts, and by maẓālim courts, which were controlled by the ruler's council and administered criminal law. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_82

Theology Islamic Golden Age_section_8

Main article: Islamic theology Islamic Golden Age_sentence_83

Classical Islamic theology emerged from an early doctrinal controversy which pitted the ahl al-hadith movement, led by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only acceptable authority in matters of faith, against Mu'tazilites and other theological currents, who developed theological doctrines using rationalistic methods. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_84

In 833 the caliph al-Ma'mun tried to impose Mu'tazilite theology on all religious scholars and instituted an inquisition (mihna), but the attempts to impose a caliphal writ in matters of religious orthodoxy ultimately failed. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_85

This controversy persisted until al-Ash'ari (874–936) found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu'tazilites to defend most substantive tenets maintained by ahl al-hadith. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_86

A rival compromise between rationalism and literalism emerged from the work of al-Maturidi (d. c. 944), and, although a minority of scholars remained faithful to the early ahl al-hadith creed, Ash'ari and Maturidi theology came to dominate Sunni Islam from the 10th century on. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_87

Philosophy Islamic Golden Age_section_9

Main article: Islamic philosophy Islamic Golden Age_sentence_88

Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes) played a major role in interpreting the works of Aristotle, whose ideas came to dominate the non-religious thought of the Christian and Muslim worlds. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_89

According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, translation of philosophical texts from Arabic to Latin in Western Europe "led to the transformation of almost all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_90

The influence of Islamic philosophers in Europe was particularly strong in natural philosophy, psychology and metaphysics, though it also influenced the study of logic and ethics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_91

Metaphysics Islamic Golden Age_section_10

Ibn Sina argued his "Floating man" thought experiment concerning self-awareness, in which a man prevented of sense experience by being blindfolded and free falling would still be aware of his existence. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_92

Epistemology Islamic Golden Age_section_11

In epistemology, Ibn Tufail wrote the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and in response Ibn al-Nafis wrote the novel Theologus Autodidactus. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_93

Both were concerning autodidacticism as illuminated through the life of a feral child spontaneously generated in a cave on a desert island. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_94

Mathematics Islamic Golden Age_section_12

Main article: Mathematics in medieval Islam Islamic Golden Age_sentence_95

Algebra Islamic Golden Age_section_13

Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī played a significant role in the development of algebra, arithmetic and Hindu-Arabic numerals. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_96

He has been described as the father or founder of algebra. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_97

Another Persian mathematician, Omar Khayyam, is credited with identifying the foundations of Analytic geometry. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_98

Omar Khayyam found the general geometric solution of the cubic equation. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_99

His book Treatise on Demonstrations of Problems of Algebra (1070), which laid down the principles of algebra, is part of the body of Persian mathematics that was eventually transmitted to Europe. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_100

Yet another Persian mathematician, Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī, found algebraic and numerical solutions to various cases of cubic equations. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_101

He also developed the concept of a function. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_102

Geometry Islamic Golden Age_section_14

Further information: Islamic geometric patterns Islamic Golden Age_sentence_103

Islamic art makes use of geometric patterns and symmetries in many of its art forms, notably in girih tilings. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_104

These are formed using a set of five tile shapes, namely a regular decagon, an elongated hexagon, a bow tie, a rhombus, and a regular pentagon. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_105

All the sides of these tiles have the same length; and all their angles are multiples of 36° (π/5 radians), offering fivefold and tenfold symmetries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_106

The tiles are decorated with strapwork lines (girih), generally more visible than the tile boundaries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_107

In 2007, the physicists Peter Lu and Paul Steinhardt argued that girih from the 15th century resembled quasicrystalline Penrose tilings. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_108

Elaborate geometric zellige tilework is a distinctive element in Moroccan architecture. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_109

Muqarnas vaults are three-dimensional but were designed in two dimensions with drawings of geometrical cells. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_110

Trigonometry Islamic Golden Age_section_15

Ibn Muʿādh al-Jayyānī is one of several Islamic mathematicians to whom the law of sines is attributed; he wrote his The Book of Unknown Arcs of a Sphere in the 11th century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_111

This formula relates the lengths of the sides of any triangle, rather than only right triangles, to the sines of its angles. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_112

According to the law, Islamic Golden Age_sentence_113

where a, b, and c are the lengths of the sides of a triangle, and A, B, and C are the opposite angles (see figure). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_114

Calculus Islamic Golden Age_section_16

Alhazen discovered the sum formula for the fourth power, using a method that could be generally used to determine the sum for any integral power. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_115

He used this to find the volume of a paraboloid. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_116

He could find the integral formula for any polynomial without having developed a general formula. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_117

Natural sciences Islamic Golden Age_section_17

Main article: Science in the medieval Islamic world Islamic Golden Age_sentence_118

Scientific method Islamic Golden Age_section_18

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) was a significant figure in the history of scientific method, particularly in his approach to experimentation, and has been described as the "world's first true scientist". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_119

Avicenna made rules for testing the effectiveness of drugs, including that the effect produced by the experimental drug should be seen constantly or after many repetitions, to be counted. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_120

The physician Rhazes was an early proponent of experimental medicine and recommended using control for clinical research. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_121

He said: "If you want to study the effect of bloodletting on a condition, divide the patients into two groups, perform bloodletting only on one group, watch both, and compare the results." Islamic Golden Age_sentence_122

Astronomy Islamic Golden Age_section_19

Main article: Astronomy in medieval Islam Islamic Golden Age_sentence_123

In about 964 AD, the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, writing in his Book of Fixed Stars, described a "nebulous spot" in the Andromeda constellation, the first definitive reference to what we now know is the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest spiral galaxy to our galaxy. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_124

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi invented a geometrical technique called a Tusi-couple, which generates linear motion from the sum of two circular motions to replace Ptolemy's problematic equant. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_125

The Tusi couple was later employed in Ibn al-Shatir's geocentric model and Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric model although it is not known who the intermediary is or if Copernicus rediscovered the technique independently. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_126

The names for some of the stars referenced by Arabic astronomer Ptolemy, including Rigel and Vega, are still in use. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_127

Physics Islamic Golden Age_section_20

Main article: Islamic physics Islamic Golden Age_sentence_128

Alhazen played a role in the development of optics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_129

One of the prevailing theories of vision in his time and place was the emission theory supported by Euclid and Ptolemy, where sight worked by the eye emitting rays of light, and the other was the Aristotelean theory that sight worked when the essence of objects flows into the eyes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_130

Alhazen correctly argued that vision occurred when light, traveling in straight lines, reflects off an object into the eyes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_131

Al-Biruni wrote of his insights into light, stating that its velocity must be immense when compared to the speed of sound. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_132

Chemistry Islamic Golden Age_section_21

Main article: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam Islamic Golden Age_sentence_133

Modern science today still sees a lot of the major contributions that were done by Islamic scientists of the golden age. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_134

During this era, production of products such as soda, nitre, alum, and other well known salts began. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_135

The use of chemistry to reach these products was used highly in the advancement of the textiles at the time. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_136

Al-Kindi warned against alchemists attempting the transmutation of simple, base metals into precious ones like gold in the ninth century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_137

Geodesy Islamic Golden Age_section_22

Main article: Geography and cartography in medieval Islam Islamic Golden Age_sentence_138

Al-Biruni (973–1048) estimated the radius of the earth as 6339.6 km (modern value is c. 6,371 km), the best estimate at that time. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_139

Biology Islamic Golden Age_section_23

Main article: Medicine in the medieval Islamic world Islamic Golden Age_sentence_140

In the cardiovascular system, Ibn al-Nafis in his Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon was the first known scholar to contradict the contention of the Galen School that blood could pass between the ventricles in the heart through the cardiac inter-ventricular septum that separates them, saying that there is no passage between the ventricles at this point. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_141

Instead, he correctly argued that all the blood that reached the left ventricle did so after passing through the lung. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_142

He also stated that there must be small communications, or pores, between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein, a prediction that preceded the discovery of the pulmonary capillaries of Marcello Malpighi by 400 years. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_143

The Commentary was rediscovered in the twentieth century in the Prussian State Library in Berlin; whether its view of the pulmonary circulation influenced scientists such as Michael Servetus is unclear. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_144

In the nervous system, Rhazes stated that nerves had motor or sensory functions, describing 7 cranial and 31 spinal cord nerves. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_145

He assigned a numerical order to the cranial nerves from the optic to the hypoglossal nerves. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_146

He classified the spinal nerves into 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 3 sacral, and 3 coccygeal nerves. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_147

He used this to link clinical signs of injury to the corresponding location of lesions in the nervous system. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_148

Modern commentators have likened medieval accounts of the "struggle for existence" in the animal kingdom to the framework of the theory of evolution. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_149

Thus, in his survey of the history of the ideas which led to the theory of natural selection, Conway Zirkle noted that al-Jahiz was one of those who discussed a "struggle for existence", in his Kitāb al-Hayawān (Book of Animals), written in the 9th century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_150

In the 13th century, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi believed that humans were derived from advanced animals, saying, "Such humans [probably anthropoid apes] live in the Western Sudan and other distant corners of the world. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_151

They are close to animals by their habits, deeds and behavior." Islamic Golden Age_sentence_152

In 1377, Ibn Khaldun in his Muqaddimah stated, "The animal kingdom was developed, its species multiplied, and in the gradual process of Creation, it ended in man and arising from the world of the monkeys." Islamic Golden Age_sentence_153

Engineering Islamic Golden Age_section_24

See also: List of inventions in the medieval Islamic world Islamic Golden Age_sentence_154

The Banū Mūsā brothers, in their Book of Ingenious Devices, describe an automatic flute player which may have been the first programmable machine. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_155

The flute sounds were produced through hot steam and the user could adjust the device to various patterns so that they could get various sounds from it. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_156

Social sciences Islamic Golden Age_section_25

Ibn Khaldun is regarded to be among the founding fathers of modern sociology, historiography, demography, and economics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_157

Archiving was a respected position during this time in Islam though most of the governing documents have been lost over time. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_158

However, from correspondence and remaining documentation gives a hint of the social climate as well as shows that the archives were detailed and vast during their time. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_159

All letters that were received or sent on behalf of the governing bodies were copied, archived and noted for filing. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_160

The position of the archivist was seen as one that had to have a high level of devotion as they held the records of all pertinent transactions. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_161

Healthcare Islamic Golden Age_section_26

Hospitals Islamic Golden Age_section_27

Main article: Bimarestan Islamic Golden Age_sentence_162

The earliest known Islamic hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad by order of Harun Al-Rashid, and the most important of Baghdad's hospitals was established in 982 by the Buyid ruler 'Adud al-Dawla. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_163

The best documented early Islamic hospitals are the great Syro-Egyptian establishments of the 12th and 13th centuries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_164

By the tenth century, Baghdad had five more hospitals, while Damascus had six hospitals by the 15th century and Córdoba alone had 50 major hospitals, many exclusively for the military. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_165

The typical hospital was divided into departments such as systemic diseases, surgery, and orthopedics, with larger hospitals having more diverse specialties. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_166

"Systemic diseases" was the rough equivalent of today's internal medicine and was further divided into sections such as fever, infections and digestive issues. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_167

Every department had an officer-in-charge, a presiding officer and a supervising specialist. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_168

The hospitals also had lecture theaters and libraries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_169

Hospitals staff included sanitary inspectors, who regulated cleanliness, and accountants and other administrative staff. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_170

The hospitals were typically run by a three-man board comprising a non-medical administrator, the chief pharmacist, called the shaykh saydalani, who was equal in rank to the chief physician, who served as mutwalli (dean). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_171

Medical facilities traditionally closed each night, but by the 10th century laws were passed to keep hospitals open 24 hours a day. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_172

For less serious cases, physicians staffed outpatient clinics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_173

Cities also had first aid centers staffed by physicians for emergencies that were often located in busy public places, such as big gatherings for Friday prayers. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_174

The region also had mobile units staffed by doctors and pharmacists who were supposed to meet the need of remote communities. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_175

Baghdad was also known to have a separate hospital for convicts since the early 10th century after the vizier ‘Ali ibn Isa ibn Jarah ibn Thabit wrote to Baghdad’s chief medical officer that "prisons must have their own doctors who should examine them every day". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_176

The first hospital built in Egypt, in Cairo's Southwestern quarter, was the first documented facility to care for mental illnesses. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_177

In Aleppo's Arghun Hospital, care for mental illness included abundant light, fresh air, running water and music. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_178

Medical students would accompany physicians and participate in patient care. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_179

Hospitals in this era were the first to require medical diplomas to license doctors. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_180

The licensing test was administered by the region's government appointed chief medical officer. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_181

The test had two steps; the first was to write a treatise, on the subject the candidate wished to obtain a certificate, of original research or commentary of existing texts, which they were encouraged to scrutinize for errors. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_182

The second step was to answer questions in an interview with the chief medical officer. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_183

Physicians worked fixed hours and medical staff salaries were fixed by law. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_184

For regulating the quality of care and arbitrating cases, it is related that if a patient dies, their family presents the doctor's prescriptions to the chief physician who would judge if the death was natural or if it was by negligence, in which case the family would be entitled to compensation from the doctor. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_185

The hospitals had male and female quarters while some hospitals only saw men and other hospitals, staffed by women physicians, only saw women. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_186

While women physicians practiced medicine, many largely focused on obstetrics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_187

Hospitals were forbidden by law to turn away patients who were unable to pay. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_188

Eventually, charitable foundations called waqfs were formed to support hospitals, as well as schools. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_189

Part of the state budget also went towards maintaining hospitals. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_190

While the services of the hospital were free for all citizens and patients were sometimes given a small stipend to support recovery upon discharge, individual physicians occasionally charged fees. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_191

In a notable endowment, a 13th-century governor of Egypt Al-Mansur Qalawun ordained a foundation for the Qalawun hospital that would contain a mosque and a chapel, separate wards for different diseases, a library for doctors and a pharmacy and the hospital is used today for ophthalmology. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_192

The Qalawun hospital was based in a former Fatimid palace which had accommodation for 8,000 people – "it served 4,000 patients daily." Islamic Golden Age_sentence_193

The waqf stated, Islamic Golden Age_sentence_194

Pharmacies Islamic Golden Age_section_28

Arabic arabs used their natural and cultural resources to contribute to the strong development of pharmacy where the belief that God has provided the means for a cure for every disease. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_195

However, there was confusion about the nature of some ancient plants that existed during this time. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_196

A prominent figure that was noted as the most influential in the development of pharmacy who used the name Yūhannā ibn Māsawaiyh (circa 777-857), also referred to as "The Divine Mesue" and "The Prince of Medicine" by European scholars. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_197

Māsawaiyh led the first private medical school in Baghdad and the author of three major pharmaceutical treatises. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_198

These treatises consisted of works over compound medicines, humors, and pharmaceutical recipes that provided instructions on how they were prepared. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_199

These works were typically published together under the title "Opera Medicinalia" and were broken up into "De simplicubus", "Grabadin", and "Canones universales". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_200

Although Māsawaiyh's influence was so significant to where his writings were the most dominant source of pharmaceutical writings, his exact identity remains unclear. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_201

In the past, all substances that were to be introduced into, on or near the human body were labeled as medicine, ranging from: drugs, food, beverages, even perfumes and cosmetics. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_202

By the seventh century, the early distinction between medicine and pharmacy began. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_203

It initially started by setting the first hospitals with pharmacy and apothecaries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_204

Demand for drugs increased as the population increased. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_205

It was not until the ninth century where pharmacy was established as an independent and well-defined profession by Muslim scholars. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_206

It is said by many historians that upon the opening of the first private pharmacy in the eighth century, marks the independence of pharmacy on medicine. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_207

The emergence of medicine and pharmacy within the Islamic caliphate began after the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century and by the ninth century, there was a rapid expansion of many scientific institutions, libraries, schools and then pharmacies in many Muslim cities. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_208

The rise of alchemy during the ninth century also played a vital role for early pharmacological development. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_209

While they were not successful in converting non-precious metals into precious metals, their works that consisted of techniques and lab equipment that were major contributors to the development of pharmacy. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_210

Chemical techniques such as distillation, condensation, evaporation and pulverization were often used. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_211

The Qur'an evolved the development of professional ethics where the rise of ritual washing also enhanced the importance of hygiene in pharmacology. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_212

Pharmacies were periodically inspected by government inspectors called muhtasib, who checked to see that the medicines were mixed properly, not diluted and kept in clean jars. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_213

Work done by each muhtasib was carefully outlined in manuals that explains ways of examining and recognizing falsified drugs, foods and spices. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_214

It was forbidden for pharmacists to perform medical treatment without the presence of a physician while physicians were limited to the preparation and handling of such medications. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_215

It was feared that recipes would fall into the hands of someone without the proper pharmaceutical training. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_216

Licenses were required to run private practices. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_217

Violators were fined or beaten. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_218

Medicine Islamic Golden Age_section_29

Main article: Medicine in the medieval Islamic world Islamic Golden Age_sentence_219

The theory of Humorism was largely dominant during this time. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_220

Arab physician Ibn Zuhr provided proof that scabies is caused by the itch mite and that it can be cured by removing the parasite without the need for purging, bleeding or other treatments called for by humorism, making a break with the humorism of Galen and Ibn Sina. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_221

Rhazes differentiated through careful observation the two diseases smallpox and measles, which were previously lumped together as a single disease that caused rashes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_222

This was based on location and the time of the appearance of the symptoms and he also scaled the degree of severity and prognosis of infections according to the color and location of rashes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_223

Al-Zahrawi was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, and the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of haemophilia. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_224

On hygienic practices, Rhazes, who was once asked to choose the site for a new hospital in Baghdad, suspended pieces of meat at various points around the city, and recommended building the hospital at the location where the meat putrefied the slowest. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_225

For Islamic scholars, Indian and Greek physicians and medical researchers Sushruta, Galen, Mankah, Atreya, Hippocrates, Charaka, and Agnivesa were pre-eminent authorities. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_226

In order to make the Indian and Greek tradition more accessible, understandable, and teachable, Islamic scholars ordered and made more systematic the vast Indian and Greco-Roman medical knowledge by writing encyclopedias and summaries. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_227

Sometimes, past scholars were criticized, like Rhazes who criticized and refuted Galen's revered theories, most notably, the Theory of Humors and was thus accused of ignorance. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_228

It was through 12th-century Arabic translations that medieval Europe rediscovered Hellenic medicine, including the works of Galen and Hippocrates, and discovered ancient Indian medicine, including the works of Sushruta and Charaka. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_229

Works such as Ibn Sina's The Canon of Medicine were translated into Latin and disseminated throughout Europe. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_230

During the 15th and 16th centuries alone, The Canon of Medicine was published more than thirty-five times. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_231

It was used as a standard medical textbook through the 18th century in Europe. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_232

Surgery Islamic Golden Age_section_30

Al-Zahrawi was a tenth century Arab physician. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_233

He is sometimes referred to as the "Father of surgery". Islamic Golden Age_sentence_234

He describes what is thought to be the first attempt at reduction mammaplasty for the management of gynaecomastia and the first mastectomy to treat breast cancer. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_235

He is credited with the performance of the first thyroidectomy. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_236

He wrote three textbooks on surgery, including "Manual of Medial Practitioners" which contains a catalog of 278 instruments used in surgery Islamic Golden Age_sentence_237

Commerce and travel Islamic Golden Age_section_31

Main articles: Arab Agricultural Revolution, History of Islamic economics, and Geography and cartography in medieval Islam Islamic Golden Age_sentence_238

Apart from the Nile, Tigris, and Euphrates, navigable rivers were uncommon in the Middle East, so transport by sea was very important. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_239

Navigational sciences were highly developed, making use of a rudimentary sextant (known as a kamal). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_240

When combined with detailed maps of the period, sailors were able to sail across oceans rather than skirt along the coast. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_241

Muslim sailors were also responsible for reintroducing large, three-masted merchant vessels to the Mediterranean. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_242

The name caravel may derive from an earlier Arab boat known as the qārib. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_243

Many Muslims went to China to trade, and these Muslims began to have a great economic influence on the country. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_244

Muslims virtually dominated the import/export industry by the time of the Sung dynasty (960–1279). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_245

Muhammad al-Idrisi created the Tabula Rogeriana, the best maps of the middle ages, used by various explorers such as Christopher Columbus and Vasco Da Gama for their voyages in America and India. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_246

Agriculture Islamic Golden Age_section_32

The Arabs of Al-Andalus exerted a large impact on Spanish agriculture, including the restoration of Roman-era aqueducts and irrigation channels, as well as the introduction of new technologies such as the acequias (derived from the qanats of Persia) and Persian gardens (such as at the Generalife). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_247

In Spain and Sicily, the Arabs introduced crops and foodstuffs from the Persia and India such as rice, sugarcane, oranges, lemons, bananas, saffron, carrots, apricots and eggplants, as well as restoring cultivation of olives and pomegranates from Greco-Roman times. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_248

The Palmeral of Elche in southern Spain is a UNESCO World Heritage site that is emblematic of the Islamic agricultural legacy in Europe. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_249

Arts and culture Islamic Golden Age_section_33

Literature and poetry Islamic Golden Age_section_34

Main articles: Islamic literature and Islamic poetry Islamic Golden Age_sentence_250

See also: Arabic literature, Persian literature, and One Thousand and One Nights Islamic Golden Age_sentence_251

The 13th century Seljuq poet Rumi wrote some of the finest poetry in the Persian language and remains one of the best selling poets in America. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_252

Other famous poets of the Persian language include Hafez (whose work was read by William Jones, Thoreau, Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Friedrich Engels), Saadi (whose poetry was cited extensively by Goethe, Hegel and Voltaire), Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam and Amir Khusrow. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_253

One Thousand and One Nights, an anthology of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in the Arabic language during the time of the Abbasid Caliphate, has had a large influence on Western and Middle Eastern literature and popular culture with such classics as Aladdin, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves and Sinbad the Sailor. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_254

The folk-tale 'Sinbad the Sailor' even draws inspiration directly from Hellenistic literature like the Homeric epics (translated from Greek to Arabic in the 8th century CE) and Alexander Romances (tales of Alexander the Great popular in Europe, the Middle East and India). Islamic Golden Age_sentence_255

Art Islamic Golden Age_section_35

Main article: Islamic art Islamic Golden Age_sentence_256

Manuscript illumination was an important art, and Persian miniature painting flourished in the Persianate world. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_257

Calligraphy, an essential aspect of written Arabic, developed in manuscripts and architectural decoration. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_258

Music Islamic Golden Age_section_36

Main article: Arabic music Islamic Golden Age_sentence_259

The ninth and tenth centuries saw a flowering of Arabic music. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_260

Philosopher and esthete Al-Farabi, at the end of the ninth century, established the foundations of modern Arabic music theory, based on the maqammat, or musical modes. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_261

His work was based on the music of Ziryab, the court musician of Andalusia. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_262

Ziryab was a renowned polymath, whose contributions to western civilization included formal dining, haircuts, chess, and more, in addition to his dominance of the world musical scene of the ninth century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_263

Architecture Islamic Golden Age_section_37

Main article: Islamic architecture Islamic Golden Age_sentence_264

The Great Mosque of Kairouan (in Tunisia), the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic world excluding Turkey and the Balkans, is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_265

Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the 9th century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_266

The Great Mosque of Kairouan is constituted of a three-tiered square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by colonnaded porticos, and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_267

The Great Mosque of Samarra in Iraq was completed in 847. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_268

It combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base, above which a huge spiralling minaret was constructed. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_269

The beginning of construction of the Great Mosque at Cordoba in 785 marked the beginning of Islamic architecture in Spain and Northern Africa. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_270

The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_271

Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_272

The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in geometrically patterned glazed tiles. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_273

Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_274

Decline Islamic Golden Age_section_38

Invasions Islamic Golden Age_section_39

In 1206, Genghis Khan established a powerful dynasty among the Mongols of central Asia. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_275

During the 13th century, this Mongol Empire conquered most of the Eurasian land mass, including China in the east and much of the old Islamic caliphate (as well as Kievan Rus') in the west. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_276

The destruction of Baghdad and the House of Wisdom by Hulagu Khan in 1258 has been seen by some as the end of the Islamic Golden Age. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_277

The Ottoman conquest of the Arabic-speaking Middle East in 1516–17 placed the traditional heart of the Islamic world under Ottoman Turkish control. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_278

The rational sciences continued to flourish in the Middle East during the Ottoman period. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_279

Economics Islamic Golden Age_section_40

To account for the decline of Islamic science, it has been argued that the Sunni Revival in the 11th and 12th centuries produced a series of institutional changes that decreased the relative payoff to producing scientific works. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_280

With the spread of madrasas and the greater influence of religious leaders, it became more lucrative to produce religious knowledge. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_281

Ahmad Y. al-Hassan has rejected the thesis that lack of creative thinking was a cause, arguing that science was always kept separate from religious argument; he instead analyzes the decline in terms of economic and political factors, drawing on the work of the 14th-century writer Ibn Khaldun. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_282

Al-Hassan extended the golden age up to the 16th century, noting that scientific activity continued to flourish up until then. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_283

Several other contemporary scholars have also extended it to around the 16th to 17th centuries, and analysed the decline in terms of political and economic factors. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_284

More recent research has challenged the notion that it underwent decline even at that time, citing a revival of works produced on rational scientific topics during the seventeenth century. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_285

Current research has led to the conclusion that "the available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that an increase in the political power of these elites caused the observed decline in scientific output." Islamic Golden Age_sentence_286

Culture Islamic Golden Age_section_41

Economic historian Joel Mokyr has argued that Islamic philosopher al-Ghazali (1058–1111) "was a key figure in the decline in Islamic science", as his works contributed to rising mysticism and occasionalism in the Islamic world. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_287

Against this view, Saliba (2007) has given a number of examples especially of astronomical research flourishing after the time of al-Ghazali. Islamic Golden Age_sentence_288

See also Islamic Golden Age_section_42

Islamic Golden Age_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Golden Age.