Islamic philosophy

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Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Islamic philosophy_sentence_0

Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally: "philosophy"), which refers to philosophy as well as logic, mathematics, and physics; and Kalam (literally "speech"), which refers to a rationalist form of Islamic theology. Islamic philosophy_sentence_1

Early Islamic philosophy began with al-Kindi in the 2nd century of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and ended with Averroes (Ibn Rushd) in the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE), broadly coinciding with the period known as the Golden Age of Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_2

The death of Averroes effectively marked the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Islamic school, and philosophical activity declined significantly in Western Islamic countries such as Islamic Iberia and North Africa. Islamic philosophy_sentence_3

Islamic philosophy persisted for much longer in Muslim Eastern countries, in particular Safavid Persia, Ottoman and Mughal Empires, where several schools of philosophy continued to flourish: Avicennism, Averroism, Illuminationist philosophy, Mystical philosophy, Transcendent theosophy, and Isfahan philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_4

Ibn Khaldun, in his Muqaddimah, made important contributions to the philosophy of history. Islamic philosophy_sentence_5

Interest in Islamic philosophy revived during the Nahda ("Awakening") movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and continues to the present day. Islamic philosophy_sentence_6

Islamic philosophy had a major impact in Christian Europe, where translation of Arabic philosophical texts into Latin "led to the transformation of almost all philosophical disciplines in the medieval Latin world", with a particularly strong influence of Muslim philosophers being felt in natural philosophy, psychology and metaphysics. Islamic philosophy_sentence_7

Introduction Islamic philosophy_section_0

Islamic philosophy refers to philosophy produced in an Islamic society. Islamic philosophy_sentence_8

Islamic philosophy is a generic term that can be defined and used in different ways. Islamic philosophy_sentence_9

In its broadest sense it means the world view of Islam, as derived from the Islamic texts concerning the creation of the universe and the will of the Creator. Islamic philosophy_sentence_10

In another sense it refers to any of the schools of thought that flourished under the Islamic empire or in the shadow of the Arab-Islamic culture and Islamic civilization. Islamic philosophy_sentence_11

In its narrowest sense it is a translation of Falsafa, meaning those particular schools of thought that most reflect the influence of Greek systems of philosophy such as Neoplatonism and Aristotelianism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_12

It is not necessarily concerned with religious issues, nor exclusively produced by Muslims. Islamic philosophy_sentence_13

Nor do all schools of thought within Islam admit the usefulness or legitimacy of philosophical inquiry. Islamic philosophy_sentence_14

Some argue that there is no indication that the limited knowledge and experience of humans can lead to truth. Islamic philosophy_sentence_15

It is also important to observe that, while "reason" ('aql) is sometimes recognised as a source of Islamic law, this may have a totally different meaning from "reason" in philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_16

The historiography of Islamic philosophy is marked by disputes as to how the subject should be properly interpreted. Islamic philosophy_sentence_17

Some of the key issues involve the comparative importance of eastern intellectuals such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and of western thinkers such as Ibn Rushd, and also whether Islamic philosophy can be read at face value or should be interpreted in an esoteric fashion. Islamic philosophy_sentence_18

Supporters of the latter thesis, like Leo Strauss, maintain that Islamic philosophers wrote so as to conceal their true meaning in order to avoid religious persecution, but scholars such as Oliver Leaman disagree. Islamic philosophy_sentence_19

Formative influences Islamic philosophy_section_1

The main sources of classical or early Islamic philosophy are the religion of Islam itself (especially ideas derived and interpreted from the Quran) and Greek philosophy which the early Muslims inherited as a result of conquests, along with pre-Islamic Indian philosophy and Persian philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_20

Many of the early philosophical debates centered around reconciling religion and reason, the latter exemplified by Greek philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_21

Early Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_2

Main article: Early Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy_sentence_22

In early Islamic thought, which refers to philosophy during the "Islamic Golden Age", traditionally dated between the 8th and 12th centuries, two main currents may be distinguished. Islamic philosophy_sentence_23

The first is Kalam, which mainly dealt with Islamic theological questions, and the other is Falsafa, which was founded on interpretations of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_24

There were attempts by later philosopher-theologians at harmonizing both trends, notably by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) who founded the school of Avicennism, Ibn Rushd (Averroes) who founded the school of Averroism, and others such as Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) and Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī. Islamic philosophy_sentence_25

Kalam Islamic philosophy_section_3

Main article: Kalam Islamic philosophy_sentence_26

ʿIlm al-Kalām (Arabic: علم الكلام‎) is the philosophy that seeks Islamic theological principles through dialectic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_27

In Arabic, the word literally means "speech". Islamic philosophy_sentence_28

One of the first debates was that between partisans of the Qadar (قدر meaning "Fate"), who affirmed free will; and the Jabarites (جبر meaning "force", "constraint"), who believed in fatalism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_29

At the 2nd century of the Hijra, a new movement arose in the theological school of Basra, Iraq. Islamic philosophy_sentence_30

A pupil of Hasan of Basra, Wasil ibn Ata, left the group when he disagreed with his teacher on whether a Muslim who has committed a major sin invalidates his faith. Islamic philosophy_sentence_31

He systematized the radical opinions of preceding sects, particularly those of the Qadarites and Jabarites. Islamic philosophy_sentence_32

This new school was called Mu'tazilite (from i'tazala, to separate oneself). Islamic philosophy_sentence_33

The Mu'tazilites looked in towards a strict rationalism with which to interpret Islamic doctrine. Islamic philosophy_sentence_34

Their attempt was one of the first to pursue a rational theology in Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_35

They were however severely criticized by other Islamic philosophers, both Maturidis and Asharites. Islamic philosophy_sentence_36

The great Asharite scholar Fakhr ad-Din ar-Razi wrote the work Al-Mutakallimin fi 'Ilm al-Kalam against the Mutazalites. Islamic philosophy_sentence_37

In later times, Kalam was used to mean simply "theology", i.e. the duties of the heart as opposed to (or in conjunction with) fiqh (jurisprudence), the duties of the body. Islamic philosophy_sentence_38

Falsafa Islamic philosophy_section_4

Falsafa is a Greek loanword meaning "philosophy" (the Greek pronunciation philosophia became falsafa). Islamic philosophy_sentence_39

From the 9th century onward, due to Caliph al-Ma'mun and his successor, ancient Greek philosophy was introduced among the arabs and the Peripatetic School began to find able representatives. Islamic philosophy_sentence_40

Among them were Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, Avicenna and Averroes. Islamic philosophy_sentence_41

Another trend, represented by the Brethren of Purity, used Aristotelian language to expound a fundamentally Neoplatonic and Neopythagorean world view. Islamic philosophy_sentence_42

During the Abbasid caliphate, a number of thinkers and scientists, some of them heterodox Muslims or non-Muslims, played a role in transmitting Greek, Hindu and other pre-Islamic knowledge to the Christian West. Islamic philosophy_sentence_43

They contributed to making Aristotle known in Christian Europe. Islamic philosophy_sentence_44

Three speculative thinkers, Al-Farabi, Avicenna and Al-Kindi, combined Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_45

End of the classical period Islamic philosophy_section_5

By the 12th century, Kalam, attacked by both the philosophers and the orthodox, perished for lack of champions. Islamic philosophy_sentence_46

At the same time, however, Falsafa came under serious critical scrutiny. Islamic philosophy_sentence_47

The most devastating attack came from Al-Ghazali, whose work Tahafut al-Falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers) attacked the main arguments of the Peripatetic School. Islamic philosophy_sentence_48

Averroes, Maimonides' contemporary, was one of the last of the Islamic Peripatetics and set out to defend the views of the Falsafa against al-Ghazali's criticism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_49

The theories of Ibn Rushd do not differ fundamentally from those of Ibn Bajjah and Ibn Tufail, who only follow the teachings of Avicenna and Al-Farabi. Islamic philosophy_sentence_50

Like all Islamic Peripatetics, Averroes admits the hypothesis of the intelligence of the spheres and the hypothesis of universal emanation, through which motion is communicated from place to place to all parts of the universe as far as the supreme world—hypotheses which, in the mind of the Arabic philosophers, did away with the dualism involved in Aristotle's doctrine of pure energy and eternal matter. Islamic philosophy_sentence_51

But while Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and other Persian and Muslim philosophers hurried, so to speak, over subjects that trenched on traditional beliefs, Ibn Rushd delighted in dwelling upon them with full particularity and stress. Islamic philosophy_sentence_52

Thus he says, "Not only is matter eternal, but form is potentially inherent in matter; otherwise, it were a creation ex nihilo" (Munk, "Mélanges," p. 444). Islamic philosophy_sentence_53

According to this theory, therefore, the existence of this world is not only a possibility, as Avicenna declared, but also a necessity. Islamic philosophy_sentence_54

Logic Islamic philosophy_section_6

Main article: Logic in Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy_sentence_55

In early Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. Islamic philosophy_sentence_56

Sharia (Islamic law) placed importance on formulating standards of argument, which gave rise to a novel approach to logic in Kalam, but this approach was later displaced by ideas from Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy with the rise of the Mu'tazili philosophers, who highly valued Aristotle's Organon. Islamic philosophy_sentence_57

The works of Hellenistic-influenced Islamic philosophers were crucial in the reception of Aristotelian logic in medieval Europe, along with the commentaries on the Organon by Averroes. Islamic philosophy_sentence_58

The works of al-Farabi, Avicenna, al-Ghazali and other Muslim logicians who often criticized and corrected Aristotelian logic and introduced their own forms of logic, also played a central role in the subsequent development of European logic during the Renaissance. Islamic philosophy_sentence_59

According to the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Islamic philosophy_sentence_60

Important developments made by Muslim logicians included the development of "Avicennian logic" as a replacement of Aristotelian logic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_61

Avicenna's system of logic was responsible for the introduction of hypothetical syllogism, temporal modal logic and inductive logic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_62

Other important developments in early Islamic philosophy include the development of a strict science of citation, the isnad or "backing", and the development of a method to disprove claims, the ijtihad, which was generally applied to many types of questions. Islamic philosophy_sentence_63

Logic in Islamic law and theology Islamic philosophy_section_7

Early forms of analogical reasoning, inductive reasoning and categorical syllogism were introduced in Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), Sharia and Kalam (Islamic theology) from the 7th century with the process of Qiyas, before the Arabic translations of Aristotle's works. Islamic philosophy_sentence_64

Later, during the Islamic Golden Age, there was debate among Islamic philosophers, logicians and theologians over whether the term Qiyas refers to analogical reasoning, inductive reasoning or categorical syllogism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_65

Some Islamic scholars argued that Qiyas refers to inductive reasoning. Islamic philosophy_sentence_66

Ibn Hazm (994–1064) disagreed, arguing that Qiyas does not refer to inductive reasoning but to categorical syllogistic reasoning in a real sense and analogical reasoning in a metaphorical sense. Islamic philosophy_sentence_67

On the other hand, al-Ghazali (1058–1111; and, in modern times, Abu Muhammad Asem al-Maqdisi) argued that Qiyas refers to analogical reasoning in a real sense and categorical syllogism in a metaphorical sense. Islamic philosophy_sentence_68

Other Islamic scholars at the time, however, argued that the term Qiyas refers to both analogical reasoning and categorical syllogism in a real sense. Islamic philosophy_sentence_69

Aristotelian logic Islamic philosophy_section_8

The first original Arabic writings on logic were produced by al-Kindi (Alkindus) (805–873), who produced a summary on earlier logic up to his time. Islamic philosophy_sentence_70

The first writings on logic with non-Aristotelian elements was produced by al-Farabi (Alfarabi) (873–950), who discussed the topics of future contingents, the number and relation of the categories, the relation between logic and grammar, and non-Aristotelian forms of inference. Islamic philosophy_sentence_71

He is also credited for categorizing logic into two separate groups, the first being "idea" and the second being "proof". Islamic philosophy_sentence_72

Averroes (1126–1198), author of the most elaborate commentaries on Aristotelian logic, was the last major logician from al-Andalus. Islamic philosophy_sentence_73

Avicennian logic Islamic philosophy_section_9

Avicenna (980–1037) developed his own system of logic known as "Avicennian logic" as an alternative to Aristotelian logic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_74

By the 12th century, Avicennian logic had replaced Aristotelian logic as the dominant system of logic in the Islamic world. Islamic philosophy_sentence_75

The first criticisms of Aristotelian logic were written by Avicenna (980–1037), who produced independent treatises on logic rather than commentaries. Islamic philosophy_sentence_76

He criticized the logical school of Baghdad for their devotion to Aristotle at the time. Islamic philosophy_sentence_77

He investigated the theory of definition and classification and the quantification of the predicates of categorical propositions, and developed an original theory on "temporal modal" syllogism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_78

Its premises included modifiers such as "at all times", "at most times", and "at some time". Islamic philosophy_sentence_79

While Avicenna (980–1037) often relied on deductive reasoning in philosophy, he used a different approach in medicine. Islamic philosophy_sentence_80

Ibn Sina contributed inventively to the development of inductive logic, which he used to pioneer the idea of a syndrome. Islamic philosophy_sentence_81

In his medical writings, Avicenna was the first to describe the methods of agreement, difference and concomitant variation which are critical to inductive logic and the scientific method. Islamic philosophy_sentence_82

Ibn Hazm (994–1064) wrote the Scope of Logic, in which he stressed on the importance of sense perception as a source of knowledge. Islamic philosophy_sentence_83

Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (1058–1111) had an important influence on the use of logic in theology, making use of Avicennian logic in Kalam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_84

Despite the logical sophistication of al-Ghazali, the rise of the Ash'ari school in the 12th century slowly suffocated original work on logic in much of the Islamic world, though logic continued to be studied in some Islamic regions such as Persia and the Levant. Islamic philosophy_sentence_85

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (b. Islamic philosophy_sentence_86

1149) criticised Aristotle's "first figure" and developed a form of inductive logic, foreshadowing the system of inductive logic developed by John Stuart Mill (1806–1873). Islamic philosophy_sentence_87

Systematic refutations of Greek logic were written by the Illuminationist school, founded by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155–1191), who developed the idea of "decisive necessity", an important innovation in the history of logical philosophical speculation, and in favour of inductive reasoning. Islamic philosophy_sentence_88

Metaphysics Islamic philosophy_section_10

Cosmological and ontological arguments Islamic philosophy_section_11

Further information: Proof of the Truthful and Kalam cosmological argument Islamic philosophy_sentence_89

Avicenna's proof for the existence of God was the first ontological argument, which he proposed in the Metaphysics section of The Book of Healing. Islamic philosophy_sentence_90

This was the first attempt at using the method of a priori proof, which utilizes intuition and reason alone. Islamic philosophy_sentence_91

Avicenna's proof of God's existence is unique in that it can be classified as both a cosmological argument and an ontological argument. Islamic philosophy_sentence_92

"It is ontological insofar as ‘necessary existence’ in intellect is the first basis for arguing for a Necessary Existent". Islamic philosophy_sentence_93

The proof is also "cosmological insofar as most of it is taken up with arguing that contingent existents cannot stand alone and must end up in a Necessary Existent." Islamic philosophy_sentence_94

Distinction between essence and existence Islamic philosophy_section_12

Islamic philosophy, imbued as it is with Islamic theology, distinguishes more clearly than Aristotelianism the difference between essence and existence. Islamic philosophy_sentence_95

Whereas existence is the domain of the contingent and the accidental, essence endures within a being beyond the accidental. Islamic philosophy_sentence_96

This was first described by Avicenna's works on metaphysics, who was himself influenced by al-Farabi. Islamic philosophy_sentence_97

Some orientalists (or those particularly influenced by Thomist scholarship) argued that Avicenna was the first to view existence (wujud) as an accident that happens to the essence (mahiyya). Islamic philosophy_sentence_98

However, this aspect of ontology is not the most central to the distinction that Avicenna established between essence and existence. Islamic philosophy_sentence_99

One cannot therefore make the claim that Avicenna was the proponent of the concept of essentialism per se, given that existence (al-wujud) when thought of in terms of necessity would ontologically translate into a notion of the "Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself" (wajib al-wujud bi-dhatihi), which is without description or definition and, in particular, without quiddity or essence (la mahiyya lahu). Islamic philosophy_sentence_100

Consequently, Avicenna's ontology is 'existentialist' when accounting for being––existence in terms of necessity (wujub), while it is essentialist in terms of thinking about being–qua–existence in terms of "contingency–qua–possibility" (imkan or mumkin al-wujud, meaning "contingent being"). Islamic philosophy_sentence_101

Some argue that Avicenna anticipated Frege and Bertrand Russell in "holding that existence is an accident of accidents" and also anticipated Alexius Meinong's "view about nonexistent objects." Islamic philosophy_sentence_102

He also provided early arguments for "a "necessary being" as cause of all other existents." Islamic philosophy_sentence_103

The idea of "essence preced[ing] existence" is a concept which dates back to Avicenna and his school as well as Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi and his Illuminationist philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_104

"Existence preced[ing] essence", the opposite (existentialist) notion, was developed in the works of Averroes and Mulla Sadra's transcendent theosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_105

Resurrection Islamic philosophy_section_13

Ibn al-Nafis wrote the Theologus Autodidactus as a defense of "the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world." Islamic philosophy_sentence_106

The book presents rational arguments for bodily resurrection and the immortality of the human soul, using both demonstrative reasoning and material from the hadith corpus as forms of evidence. Islamic philosophy_sentence_107

Later Islamic scholars viewed this work as a response to Avicenna's metaphysical argument on spiritual resurrection (as opposed to bodily resurrection), which was earlier criticized by al-Ghazali. Islamic philosophy_sentence_108

Soul and spirit Islamic philosophy_section_14

The Muslim physician-philosophers, Avicenna and Ibn al-Nafis, developed their own theories on the soul. Islamic philosophy_sentence_109

They both made a distinction between the soul and the spirit, and in particular, the Avicennian doctrine on the nature of the soul was influential among the Scholastics. Islamic philosophy_sentence_110

Some of Avicenna's views on the soul included the idea that the immortality of the soul is a consequence of its nature, and not a purpose for it to fulfill. Islamic philosophy_sentence_111

In his theory of "The Ten Intellects", he viewed the human soul as the tenth and final intellect. Islamic philosophy_sentence_112

Avicenna generally supported Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heart, whereas Ibn al-Nafis on the other hand rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs." Islamic philosophy_sentence_113

He further criticized Aristotle's idea that every unique soul requires the existence of a unique source, in this case the heart. Islamic philosophy_sentence_114

Ibn al-Nafis concluded that "the soul is related primarily neither to the spirit nor to any organ, but rather to the entire matter whose temperament is prepared to receive that soul" and he defined the soul as nothing other than "what a human indicates by saying ‘I’." Islamic philosophy_sentence_115

Thought experiments Islamic philosophy_section_15

Further information: Avicenna § Thought experiments Islamic philosophy_sentence_116

While he was imprisoned in the castle of Fardajan near Hamadhan, Avicenna wrote his "Floating Man" thought experiment to demonstrate human self-awareness and the substantiality of the soul. Islamic philosophy_sentence_117

He referred to the living human intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature. Islamic philosophy_sentence_118

His "Floating Man" thought experiment tells its readers to imagine themselves suspended in the air, isolated from all , which includes no sensory contact with even their own bodies. Islamic philosophy_sentence_119

He argues that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness. Islamic philosophy_sentence_120

He thus concludes that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance. Islamic philosophy_sentence_121

This argument was later refined and simplified by René Descartes in epistemic terms when he stated: "I can abstract from the supposition of all external things, but not from the supposition of my own consciousness." Islamic philosophy_sentence_122

Time Islamic philosophy_section_16

While ancient Greek philosophers believed that the universe had an infinite past with no beginning, early medieval philosophers and theologians developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning. Islamic philosophy_sentence_123

This view was inspired by the creationism shared by Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_124

The Christian philosopher John Philoponus presented a detailed argument against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Islamic philosophy_sentence_125

Muslim and Arab Jewish philosophers like Al-Kindi, Saadia Gaon, and Al-Ghazali developed further arguments, with most falling into two broad categories: assertions of the "impossibility of the existence of an actual infinite" and of the "impossibility of completing an actual infinite by successive addition". Islamic philosophy_sentence_126

Truth Islamic philosophy_section_17

In metaphysics, Avicenna (Ibn Sina) defined truth as: Islamic philosophy_sentence_127

Avicenna elaborated on his definition of truth in his Metaphysics: Islamic philosophy_sentence_128

In his Quodlibeta, Thomas Aquinas wrote a commentary on Avicenna's definition of truth in his Metaphysics and explained it as follows: Islamic philosophy_sentence_129

Early Islamic political philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion and the process of ijtihad to find truth. Islamic philosophy_sentence_130

Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) reasoned that to discover the truth about nature, it is necessary to eliminate human opinion and error, and allow the universe to speak for itself. Islamic philosophy_sentence_131

In his Aporias against Ptolemy, Ibn al-Haytham further wrote the following comments on truth: Islamic philosophy_sentence_132

Free will and predestination Islamic philosophy_section_18

The issue of free will versus predestination issue is one of the "most contentious topics in classical Islamic thought." Islamic philosophy_sentence_133

In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa'l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. Islamic philosophy_sentence_134

This is explained in Qur'anic verses such as "Say: 'Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us: He is our protector'..." For Muslims, everything in the world that occurs, good or bad, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by God. Islamic philosophy_sentence_135

According to Muslim theologians, although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he or she has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. Islamic philosophy_sentence_136

According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet". Islamic philosophy_sentence_137

Natural philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_19

See also: Physics in medieval Islam Islamic philosophy_sentence_138

Atomism Islamic philosophy_section_20

See also: Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam Islamic philosophy_sentence_139

Atomistic philosophies are found very early in Islamic philosophy, and represent a synthesis of the Greek and Indian ideas. Islamic philosophy_sentence_140

Like both the Greek and Indian versions, Islamic atomism was a charged topic that had the potential for conflict with the prevalent religious orthodoxy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_141

Yet it was such a fertile and flexible idea that, as in Greece and India, it flourished in some schools of Islamic thought. Islamic philosophy_sentence_142

The most successful form of Islamic atomism was in the Asharite school of philosophy, most notably in the work of the philosopher al-Ghazali (1058–1111). Islamic philosophy_sentence_143

In Asharite atomism, atoms are the only perpetual, material things in existence, and all else in the world is "accidental" meaning something that lasts for only an instant. Islamic philosophy_sentence_144

Nothing accidental can be the cause of anything else, except perception, as it exists for a moment. Islamic philosophy_sentence_145

Contingent events are not subject to natural physical causes, but are the direct result of God's constant intervention, without which nothing could happen. Islamic philosophy_sentence_146

Thus nature is completely dependent on God, which meshes with other Asharite Islamic ideas on causation, or the lack thereof. Islamic philosophy_sentence_147

Other traditions in Islam rejected the atomism of the Asharites and expounded on many Greek texts, especially those of Aristotle. Islamic philosophy_sentence_148

An active school of philosophers in Spain, including the noted commentator Averroes (1126-1198 AD) explicitly rejected the thought of al-Ghazali and turned to an extensive evaluation of the thought of Aristotle. Islamic philosophy_sentence_149

Averroes commented in detail on most of the works of Aristotle and his commentaries did much to guide the interpretation of Aristotle in later Jewish and Christian scholastic thought. Islamic philosophy_sentence_150

Cosmology Islamic philosophy_section_21

Main article: Astronomy in medieval Islam Islamic philosophy_sentence_151

There are several cosmological verses in the Qur'an (610–632) which some modern writers have interpreted as foreshadowing the expansion of the universe and possibly even the Big Bang theory: Islamic philosophy_sentence_152

In contrast to ancient Greek philosophers who believed that the universe had an infinite past with no beginning, medieval philosophers and theologians developed the concept of the universe having a finite past with a beginning. Islamic philosophy_sentence_153

This view was inspired by the creation myth shared by the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_154

The Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, presented the first such argument against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past. Islamic philosophy_sentence_155

His reasoning was adopted by many, most notably; Muslim philosopher, Al-Kindi (Alkindus); the Jewish philosopher, Saadia Gaon (Saadia ben Joseph); and the Muslim theologian, Al-Ghazali (Algazel). Islamic philosophy_sentence_156

They used two logical arguments against an infinite past, the first being the "argument from the impossibility of the existence of an actual infinite", which states: Islamic philosophy_sentence_157

Islamic philosophy_description_list_0

  • "An actual infinite cannot exist."Islamic philosophy_item_0_0
  • "An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite."Islamic philosophy_item_0_1
  • ". . An infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist."Islamic philosophy_item_0_2

The second argument, the "argument from the impossibility of completing an actual infinite by successive addition", states: Islamic philosophy_sentence_158

Islamic philosophy_description_list_1

  • "An actual infinite cannot be completed by successive addition."Islamic philosophy_item_1_3
  • "The temporal series of past events has been completed by successive addition."Islamic philosophy_item_1_4
  • ". . The temporal series of past events cannot be an actual infinite."Islamic philosophy_item_1_5

Both arguments were adopted by later Christian philosophers and theologians, and the second argument in particular became famous after it was adopted by Immanuel Kant in his thesis of the first antimony concerning time. Islamic philosophy_sentence_159

In the 10th century, the Brethren of Purity published the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity, in which a heliocentric view of the universe is expressed in a section on cosmology: Islamic philosophy_sentence_160

Evolution Islamic philosophy_section_22

Struggle for existence Islamic philosophy_section_23

The Mu'tazili scientist and philosopher al-Jahiz (c. 776–869) was the first of the Muslim biologists and philosophers to develop an early theory of evolution. Islamic philosophy_sentence_161

He speculated on the influence of the environment on animals, considered the effects of the environment on the likelihood of an animal to survive, and first described the struggle for existence, a precursor to natural selection. Islamic philosophy_sentence_162

Al-Jahiz's ideas on the struggle for existence in the Book of Animals have been summarized as follows: Islamic philosophy_sentence_163

In Chapter 47 of India, entitled "On Vasudeva and the Wars of the Bharata," Abu Rayhan Biruni attempted to give a naturalistic explanation as to why the struggles described in the Mahabharata "had to take place." Islamic philosophy_sentence_164

He explains it using natural processes that include biological ideas related to evolution, which has led several scholars to compare his ideas to Darwinism and natural selection. Islamic philosophy_sentence_165

This is due to Biruni describing the idea of artificial selection and then applying it to nature: Islamic philosophy_sentence_166

In the 13th century, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi explains how the elements evolved into minerals, then plants, then animals, and then humans. Islamic philosophy_sentence_167

Tusi then goes on to explain how hereditary variability was an important factor for biological evolution of living things: Islamic philosophy_sentence_168

Tusi discusses how organisms are able to adapt to their environments: Islamic philosophy_sentence_169

Tusi then explains how humans evolved from advanced animals: Islamic philosophy_sentence_170

Transmutation of species Islamic philosophy_section_24

Al-Dinawari (828–896), considered the founder of Arabic botany for his Book of Plants, discussed plant evolution from its birth to its death, describing the phases of plant growth and the production of flowers and fruit. Islamic philosophy_sentence_171

Ibn Miskawayh's al-Fawz al-Asghar and the Brethren of Purity's Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity (The Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa) developed theories on evolution that possibly had an influence on Charles Darwin and his inception of Darwinism, but has at one time been criticized as overenthusiastic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_172

English translations of the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity were available from 1812, while Arabic manuscripts of the al-Fawz al-Asghar and The Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa were also available at the University of Cambridge by the 19th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_173

These works likely had an influence on 19th-century evolutionists, and possibly Charles Darwin. Islamic philosophy_sentence_174

In the 14th century, Ibn Khaldun further developed the evolutionary ideas found in the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity. Islamic philosophy_sentence_175

The following statements from his 1377 work, the Muqaddimah, express evolutionary ideas: Islamic philosophy_sentence_176

Numerous other Islamic scholars and scientists, including the polymaths Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Khazini, discussed and developed these ideas. Islamic philosophy_sentence_177

Translated into Latin, these works began to appear in the West after the Renaissance and may have influenced Western philosophy and science. Islamic philosophy_sentence_178

Phenomenology of Vision Islamic philosophy_section_25

See also: Book of Optics Islamic philosophy_sentence_179

The polymath Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) is considered a pioneer of phenomenology. Islamic philosophy_sentence_180

He articulated a relationship between the physical and observable world and that of intuition, psychology and mental functions. Islamic philosophy_sentence_181

His theories regarding knowledge and perception, linking the domains of science and religion, led to a philosophy of existence based on the direct observation of reality from the observer's point of view. Islamic philosophy_sentence_182

Much of his thought on phenomenology was not further developed until the 20th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_183

Philosophy of mind Islamic philosophy_section_26

Main article: Psychology in medieval Islam Islamic philosophy_sentence_184

The philosophy of mind was studied in medieval Islamic psychological thought, which refers to the study of the nafs (literally "self" or "psyche" in Arabic) in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries) as well as modern times (20th–21st centuries), and is related to psychology, psychiatry and the neurosciences. Islamic philosophy_sentence_185

Place and space Islamic philosophy_section_27

The Arab polymath al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen; died c. 1041) presented a thorough mathematical critique and refutation of Aristotle's conception of place (topos) in his Risala/Qawl fi’l-makan (Treatise/Discourse on Place). Islamic philosophy_sentence_186

Aristotle's Physics (Book IV – Delta) stated that the place of something is the two-dimensional boundary of the containing body that is at rest and is in contact with what it contains. Islamic philosophy_sentence_187

Ibn al-Haytham disagreed with this definition and demonstrated that place (al-makan) is the imagined (three-dimensional) void (al-khala' al-mutakhayyal) between the inner surfaces of the containing body. Islamic philosophy_sentence_188

He showed that place was akin to space, foreshadowing Descartes's notion of place as space qua Extensio or even Leibniz's analysis situs. Islamic philosophy_sentence_189

Ibn al-Haytham's mathematization of place rested on several geometric demonstrations, including his study on the sphere and other solids, which showed that the sphere (al-kura) is the largest in magnitude (volumetric) with respect to other geometric solids that have equal surface areas. Islamic philosophy_sentence_190

For instance, a sphere that has an equal surface area to that of a cylinder, would be larger in (volumetric) magnitude than the cylinder; hence, the sphere occupies a larger place than that occupied by the cylinder; unlike what is entailed by Aristotle's definition of place: that this sphere and that cylinder occupy places that are equal in magnitude. Islamic philosophy_sentence_191

Ibn al-Haytham rejected Aristotle's philosophical concept of place on mathematical grounds. Islamic philosophy_sentence_192

Later, the philosopher 'Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (13th century) tried to defend the Aristotelian conception of place in a treatise titled: Fi al-Radd ‘ala Ibn al-Haytham fi al-makan (A refutation of Ibn al-Haytham's place), although his effort was admirable from a philosophical standpoint, it was unconvincing from the scientific and mathematical viewpoints. Islamic philosophy_sentence_193

Ibn al-Haytham also discussed space perception and its epistemological implications in his Book of Optics (1021). Islamic philosophy_sentence_194

His experimental proof of the intromission model of vision led to changes in the way the visual perception of space was understood, contrary to the previous emission theory of vision supported by Euclid and Ptolemy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_195

In "tying the visual perception of space to prior bodily experience, Alhacen unequivocally rejected the intuitiveness of spatial perception and, therefore, the autonomy of vision. Islamic philosophy_sentence_196

Without tangible notions of distance and size for correlation, sight can tell us next to nothing about such things." Islamic philosophy_sentence_197

Philosophy of education Islamic philosophy_section_28

In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a maktab, which dates back to at least the 10th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_198

Like madrasahs (which referred to higher education), a maktab was often attached to a mosque. Islamic philosophy_sentence_199

In the 11th century, Ibn Sina (known as Avicenna in the West), in one of his books, wrote a chapter dealing with the maktab entitled "The Role of the Teacher in the Training and Upbringing of Children", as a guide to teachers working at maktab schools. Islamic philosophy_sentence_200

He wrote that children can learn better if taught in classes instead of individual tuition from private tutors, and he gave a number of reasons for why this is the case, citing the value of competition and emulation among pupils as well as the usefulness of group discussions and debates. Islamic philosophy_sentence_201

Ibn Sina described the curriculum of a maktab school in some detail, describing the curricula for two stages of education in a maktab school. Islamic philosophy_sentence_202

Primary education Islamic philosophy_section_29

Ibn Sina wrote that children should be sent to a maktab school from the age of 6 and be taught primary education until they reach the age of 14. Islamic philosophy_sentence_203

During which time, he wrote that they should be taught the Qur'an, Islamic metaphysics, language, literature, Islamic ethics, and manual skills (which could refer to a variety of practical skills). Islamic philosophy_sentence_204

Secondary education Islamic philosophy_section_30

Ibn Sina refers to the secondary education stage of maktab schooling as the period of specialization, when pupils should begin to acquire manual skills, regardless of their social status. Islamic philosophy_sentence_205

He writes that children after the age of 14 should be given a choice to choose and specialize in subjects they have an interest in, whether it was reading, manual skills, literature, preaching, medicine, geometry, trade and commerce, craftsmanship, or any other subject or profession they would be interested in pursuing for a future career. Islamic philosophy_sentence_206

He wrote that this was a transitional stage and that there needs to be flexibility regarding the age in which pupils graduate, as the student's emotional development and chosen subjects need to be taken into account. Islamic philosophy_sentence_207

Philosophy of science Islamic philosophy_section_31

See also: Islamic science Islamic philosophy_sentence_208

Scientific method Islamic philosophy_section_32

The pioneering development of the scientific method by the Arab Ash'ari polymath Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen) was an important contribution to the philosophy of science. Islamic philosophy_sentence_209

In the Book of Optics (c. 1025 CE), his scientific method was very similar to the modern scientific method and consisted of the following procedures: Islamic philosophy_sentence_210

Islamic philosophy_ordered_list_2

  1. ObservationIslamic philosophy_item_2_6
  2. Statement of problemIslamic philosophy_item_2_7
  3. Formulation of hypothesisIslamic philosophy_item_2_8
  4. Testing of hypothesis using experimentationIslamic philosophy_item_2_9
  5. Analysis of experimental resultsIslamic philosophy_item_2_10
  6. Interpretation of data and formulation of conclusionIslamic philosophy_item_2_11
  7. Publication of findingsIslamic philosophy_item_2_12

In The Model of the Motions, Ibn al-Haytham also describes an early version of Occam's razor, where he employs only minimal hypotheses regarding the properties that characterize astronomical motions, as he attempts to eliminate from his planetary model the cosmological hypotheses that cannot be observed from Earth. Islamic philosophy_sentence_211

In Aporias against Ptolemy, Ibn al-Haytham commented on the difficulty of attaining scientific knowledge: Islamic philosophy_sentence_212

He held that the criticism of existing theories—which dominated this book—holds a special place in the growth of scientific knowledge: Islamic philosophy_sentence_213

Ibn al-Haytham attributed his experimental scientific method and scientific skepticism to his Islamic faith. Islamic philosophy_sentence_214

He believed that human beings are inherently flawed and that only God is perfect. Islamic philosophy_sentence_215

He reasoned that to discover the truth about nature, it is necessary to eliminate human opinion and error, and allow the universe to speak for itself. Islamic philosophy_sentence_216

In The Winding Motion, Ibn al-Haytham further wrote that faith should only apply to prophets of Islam and not to any other authorities, in the following comparison between the Islamic prophetic tradition and the demonstrative sciences: Islamic philosophy_sentence_217

Ibn al-Haytham described his search for truth and knowledge as a way of leading him closer to God: Islamic philosophy_sentence_218

His contemporary Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī also introduced an early scientific method in nearly every field of inquiry he studied. Islamic philosophy_sentence_219

For example, in his treatise on mineralogy, Kitab al-Jamahir (Book of Precious Stones), he is "the most exact of experimental scientists", while in the introduction to his study of India, he declares that "to execute our project, it has not been possible to follow the geometric method" and develops comparative sociology as a scientific method in the field. Islamic philosophy_sentence_220

He was also responsible for introducing the experimental method into mechanics, the first to conduct elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena, and a pioneer of experimental psychology. Islamic philosophy_sentence_221

Unlike his contemporary Avicenna's scientific method where "general and universal questions came first and led to experimental work", al-Biruni developed scientific methods where "universals came out of practical, experimental work" and "theories are formulated after discoveries." Islamic philosophy_sentence_222

During his debate with Avicenna on natural philosophy, al-Biruni made the first real distinction between a scientist and a philosopher, referring to Avicenna as a philosopher and considering himself to be a mathematical scientist. Islamic philosophy_sentence_223

Al-Biruni's scientific method was similar to the modern scientific method in many ways, particularly his emphasis on repeated experimentation. Islamic philosophy_sentence_224

Biruni was concerned with how to conceptualize and prevent both systematic errors and random errors, such as "errors caused by the use of small instruments and errors made by human observers." Islamic philosophy_sentence_225

He argued that if instruments produce random errors because of their imperfections or idiosyncratic qualities, then multiple observations must be taken, analyzed qualitatively, and on this basis, arrive at a "common-sense single value for the constant sought", whether an arithmetic mean or a "reliable estimate." Islamic philosophy_sentence_226

Experimental medicine Islamic philosophy_section_33

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) is considered the father of modern medicine, for his introduction of experimental medicine and clinical trials, the experimental use and testing of drugs, and a precise guide for practical experimentation in the process of discovering and proving the effectiveness of medical substances, in his medical encyclopedia, The Canon of Medicine (11th century), which was the first book dealing with experimental medicine. Islamic philosophy_sentence_227

It laid out the following rules and principles for testing the effectiveness of new drugs or medications, which still form the basis of modern clinical trials: Islamic philosophy_sentence_228

Islamic philosophy_ordered_list_3

  1. "The drug must be free from any extraneous accidental quality."Islamic philosophy_item_3_13
  2. "It must be used on a simple, not a composite, disease."Islamic philosophy_item_3_14
  3. "The drug must be tested with two contrary types of diseases, because sometimes a drug cures one disease by Its essential qualities and another by its accidental ones."Islamic philosophy_item_3_15
  4. "The quality of the drug must correspond to the strength of the disease. For example, there are some drugs whose heat is less than the coldness of certain diseases, so that they would have no effect on them."Islamic philosophy_item_3_16
  5. "The time of action must be observed, so that essence and accident are not confused."Islamic philosophy_item_3_17
  6. "The effect of the drug must be seen to occur constantly or in many cases, for if this did not happen, it was an accidental effect."Islamic philosophy_item_3_18
  7. "The experimentation must be done with the human body, for testing a drug on a lion or a horse might not prove anything about its effect on man."Islamic philosophy_item_3_19

Peer review Islamic philosophy_section_34

The first documented description of a peer review process is found in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931) of al-Raha, Syria, who describes the first medical peer review process. Islamic philosophy_sentence_229

His work, as well as later Arabic medical manuals, state that a visiting physician must always make duplicate notes of a patient's condition on every visit. Islamic philosophy_sentence_230

When the patient was cured or had died, the notes of the physician were examined by a local medical council of other physicians, who would review the practising physician's notes to decide whether his/her performance have met the required standards of medical care. Islamic philosophy_sentence_231

If their reviews were negative, the practicing physician could face a lawsuit from a maltreated patient. Islamic philosophy_sentence_232

Other fields Islamic philosophy_section_35

Epistemology Islamic philosophy_section_36

Avicenna's most influential theory in epistemology is his theory of knowledge, in which he developed the concept of tabula rasa. Islamic philosophy_sentence_233

He argued that the "human intellect at birth is rather like a tabula rasa, a pure potentiality that is actualized through education and comes to know" and that knowledge is attained through "empirical familiarity with objects in this world from which one abstracts universal concepts" which is developed through a "syllogistic method of reasoning; observations lead to prepositional statements, which when compounded lead to further abstract concepts." Islamic philosophy_sentence_234

In the 12th century, Ibn Tufail further developed the concept of tabula rasa in his Arabic novel, Hayy ibn Yaqzan, in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island. Islamic philosophy_sentence_235

The Latin translation of his work, entitled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Islamic philosophy_sentence_236

Eschatology Islamic philosophy_section_37

Main article: Islamic eschatology Islamic philosophy_sentence_237

Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. Islamic philosophy_sentence_238

Eschatology relates to one of the six articles of faith (aqidah) of Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_239

Like the other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches the bodily resurrection of the dead, the fulfillment of a divine plan for creation, and the immortality of the human soul (though Jews do not necessarily view the soul as eternal); the righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Heaven), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell). Islamic philosophy_sentence_240

A significant fraction (one third, in fact) of the Quran deals with these beliefs, with many hadith elaborating on the themes and details. Islamic philosophy_sentence_241

Islamic apocalyptic literature describing the Armageddon is often known as fitna (a test) and malahim (or ghayba in the Shi'a tradition). Islamic philosophy_sentence_242

Ibn al-Nafis dealt with Islamic eschatology in some depth in his Theologus Autodidactus, where he rationalized the Islamic view of eschatology using reason and science to explain the events that would occur according to Islamic eschatology. Islamic philosophy_sentence_243

He presented his rational and scientific arguments in the form of Arabic fiction, hence his Theologus Autodidactus may be considered the earliest science fiction work. Islamic philosophy_sentence_244

Legal philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_38

Main articles: Fiqh and Sharia Islamic philosophy_sentence_245

Sharia (شَرِيعَةٌ) refers to the body of Islamic law. Islamic philosophy_sentence_246

The term means "way" or "path"; it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Islamic principles of jurisprudence. Islamic philosophy_sentence_247

Fiqh is the term for Islamic jurisprudence, made up of the rulings of Islamic jurists. Islamic philosophy_sentence_248

A component of Islamic studies, Fiqh expounds the methodology by which Islamic law is derived from primary and secondary sources. Islamic philosophy_sentence_249

Mainstream Islam distinguish fiqh, which means understanding details and inferences drawn by scholars, from sharia that refers to principles that lie behind the fiqh. Islamic philosophy_sentence_250

Scholars hope that fiqh and sharia are in harmony in any given case, but they cannot be sure. Islamic philosophy_sentence_251

Philosophical novels Islamic philosophy_section_39

The Islamic philosophers, Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis, were pioneers of the philosophical novel. Islamic philosophy_sentence_252

Ibn Tufail wrote the first fictional Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) as a response to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers, and then Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a fictional novel Theologus Autodidactus as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus. Islamic philosophy_sentence_253

Both of these novels had protagonists (Hayy in Philosophus Autodidactus and Kamil in Theologus Autodidactus) who were autodidactic individuals spontaneously generated in a cave and living in seclusion on a desert island, both being the earliest examples of a desert island story. Islamic philosophy_sentence_254

However, while Hayy lives alone on the desert island for most of the story in Philosophus Autodidactus, the story of Kamil extends beyond the desert island setting in Theologus Autodidactus, developing into the first example of a science fiction novel. Islamic philosophy_sentence_255

Ibn al-Nafis described his book Theologus Autodidactus as a defense of "the system of Islam and the Muslims' doctrines on the missions of Prophets, the religious laws, the resurrection of the body, and the transitoriness of the world." Islamic philosophy_sentence_256

He presents rational arguments for bodily resurrection and the immortality of the human soul, using both demonstrative reasoning and material from the hadith corpus to prove his case. Islamic philosophy_sentence_257

Later Islamic scholars viewed this work as a response to the metaphysical claim of Avicenna and Ibn Tufail that bodily resurrection cannot be proven through reason, a view that was earlier criticized by al-Ghazali. Islamic philosophy_sentence_258

A Latin translation of Philosophus Autodidactus was published in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger. Islamic philosophy_sentence_259

The first English translation by Simon Ockley was published in 1708, and German and Dutch translations were also published at the time. Islamic philosophy_sentence_260

Philosophus Autodidactus went on to have a significant influence on European literature, and became an influential best-seller throughout Western Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. Islamic philosophy_sentence_261

These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, which also featured a desert island narrative and was regarded as the first novel in English. Islamic philosophy_sentence_262

Philosophus Autodidactus also had a "profound influence" on modern Western philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_263

It became "one of the most important books that heralded the Scientific Revolution" and European Enlightenment, and the thoughts expressed in the novel can be found in "different variations and to different degrees in the books of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Isaac Newton, and Immanuel Kant." Islamic philosophy_sentence_264

The novel inspired the concept of "tabula rasa" developed in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) by Locke, who was a student of Pococke. Islamic philosophy_sentence_265

Philosophus Autodidactus also developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture, condition of possibility, materialism, and Molyneux's Problem. Islamic philosophy_sentence_266

The novel also inspired Robert Boyle, another acquaintance of Pococke, to write his own philosophical novel set on an island, The Aspiring Naturalist. Islamic philosophy_sentence_267

Other European scholars influenced by Philosophus Autodidactus include Gottfried Leibniz, Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens, George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers, and Samuel Hartlib. Islamic philosophy_sentence_268

Political philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_40

Early Islamic political philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, and the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance. Islamic philosophy_sentence_269

This view was challenged by the Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more secular view and were supported by secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate. Islamic philosophy_sentence_270

The only Greek political treatise known to medieval Muslims at the time was Plato's Republic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_271

By the end of the Islamic Golden Age, however, the Asharite view of Islam had in general triumphed. Islamic philosophy_sentence_272

Islamic political philosophy, was, indeed, rooted in the very sources of Islam, i.e. the Qur'an and the Sunnah, the words and practices of Muhammad. Islamic philosophy_sentence_273

However, in the Western thought, it is generally known that it was a specific area peculiar merely to the great philosophers of Islam: al-Kindi (Alkindus), al-Farabi (Alfarabi), İbn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and Ibn Khaldun. Islamic philosophy_sentence_274

The political conceptions of Islam such as kudrah, sultan, ummah, cemaa -and even the "core" terms of the Qur'an, i.e. ibada, din, rab and ilah- is taken as the basis of an analysis. Islamic philosophy_sentence_275

Hence, not only the ideas of the Muslim political philosophers but also many other jurists and ulama posed political ideas and theories. Islamic philosophy_sentence_276

For example, the ideas of the Khawarij in the very early years of Islamic history on Khilafa and Ummah, or that of Shia Islam on the concept of Imamah are considered proofs of political thought. Islamic philosophy_sentence_277

The clashes between the Ehl-i Sunna and Shia in the 7th and 8th centuries had a genuine political character. Islamic philosophy_sentence_278

The 14th-century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun is considered one of the greatest political theorists. Islamic philosophy_sentence_279

The British philosopher-anthropologist Ernest Gellner considered Ibn Khaldun's definition of government, "an institution which prevents injustice other than such as it commits itself", the best in the history of political theory. Islamic philosophy_sentence_280

Philosophy of history Islamic philosophy_section_41

The first detailed studies on the subject of historiography and the first critiques on historical methods appeared in the works of the Arab Ash'ari polymath Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406), who is regarded as the father of historiography, cultural history, and the philosophy of history, especially for his historiographical writings in the Muqaddimah (Latinized as Prolegomena) and Kitab al-Ibar (Book of Advice). Islamic philosophy_sentence_281

His Muqaddimah also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history, and he discussed the rise and fall of civilizations. Islamic philosophy_sentence_282

Franz Rosenthal wrote in the History of Muslim Historiography: Islamic philosophy_sentence_283

Philosophy of religion Islamic philosophy_section_42

There is an important question on the relation of religion and philosophy, reason and faith and so on. Islamic philosophy_sentence_284

In one hand there is extraordinary importance attached to religion in Islamic civilization and in other hand they created certain doctrines in respect to reason and religion. Islamic philosophy_sentence_285

Social philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_43

The social philosopher and Ash'ari polymath Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) was the last major Islamic philosopher from Tunis, North Africa. Islamic philosophy_sentence_286

In his Muqaddimah, he developed the earliest theories on social philosophy, in formulating theories of social cohesion and social conflict. Islamic philosophy_sentence_287

His Muqaddimah was also the introduction to a seven volume analysis of universal history. Islamic philosophy_sentence_288

Ibn Khaldun is considered the "father of sociology", "father of historiography", and "father of the philosophy of history" by some, for allegedly being the first to discuss the topics of sociology, historiography and the philosophy of history in detail. Islamic philosophy_sentence_289

Judeo-Islamic philosophies Islamic philosophy_section_44

Main article: Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400) Islamic philosophy_sentence_290

Islamic philosophy found an audience with the Jews, to whom belongs the honor of having transmitted it to the Christian world. Islamic philosophy_sentence_291

A series of eminent men—such as the Ibn Tibbons, Narboni, Gersonides—joined in translating the Arabic philosophical works into Hebrew and commenting upon them. Islamic philosophy_sentence_292

The works of Ibn Rushd especially became the subject of their study, due in great measure to Maimonides, who, in a letter addressed to his pupil Joseph ben Judah, spoke in the highest terms of Ibn Rushd's commentary. Islamic philosophy_sentence_293

The oldest Jewish religio-philosophical work preserved in Arabic is that of Saadia Gaon (892–942), Emunot ve-Deot, "The Book of Beliefs and Opinions". Islamic philosophy_sentence_294

In this work Saadia treats the questions that interested the Mutakallamin, such as the creation of matter, the unity of God, the divine attributes, the soul, etc. Saadia criticizes other philosophers severely. Islamic philosophy_sentence_295

For Saadia there was no problem as to creation: God created the world ex nihilo, just as the Bible attests; and he contests the theory of the Mutakallamin in reference to atoms, which theory, he declares, is just as contrary to reason and religion as the theory of the philosophers professing the eternity of matter. Islamic philosophy_sentence_296

To prove the unity of God, Saadia uses the demonstrations of the Mutakallamin. Islamic philosophy_sentence_297

Only the attributes of essence (sifat al-dhatia) can be ascribed to God, but not the attributes of action (sifat-al-fi'aliya). Islamic philosophy_sentence_298

The soul is a substance more delicate even than that of the celestial spheres. Islamic philosophy_sentence_299

Here Saadia controverts the Mutakallamin, who considered the soul an "accident" 'arad (compare Guide for the Perplexed i. Islamic philosophy_sentence_300

74), and employs the following one of their premises to justify his position: "Only a substance can be the substratum of an accident" (that is, of a non-essential property of things). Islamic philosophy_sentence_301

Saadia argues: "If the soul be an accident only, it can itself have no such accidents as wisdom, joy, love," etc. Saadia was thus in every way a supporter of the Kalam; and if at times he deviated from its doctrines, it was owing to his religious views. Islamic philosophy_sentence_302

Since no idea and no literary or philosophical movement ever germinated on Persian or Arabian soil without leaving its impress on the Jews, Al Ghazali found an imitator in the person of Judah ha-Levi. Islamic philosophy_sentence_303

This poet also took upon himself to free his religion from what he saw as the shackles of speculative philosophy, and to this end wrote the "Kuzari," in which he sought to discredit all schools of philosophy alike. Islamic philosophy_sentence_304

He passes severe censure upon the Mutakallimun for seeking to support religion by philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_305

He says, "I consider him to have attained the highest degree of perfection who is convinced of religious truths without having scrutinized them and reasoned over them" ("Kuzari," v.). Islamic philosophy_sentence_306

Then he reduced the chief propositions of the Mutakallamin, to prove the unity of God, to ten in number, describing them at length, and concluding in these terms: "Does the Kalam give us more information concerning God and His attributes than the prophet did?" Islamic philosophy_sentence_307

(Ib. Islamic philosophy_sentence_308

iii. Islamic philosophy_sentence_309

and iv.) Islamic philosophy_sentence_310

Aristotelianism finds no favor in Judah ha-Levi's eyes, for it is no less given to details and criticism; Neoplatonism alone suited him somewhat, owing to its appeal to his poetic temperament. Islamic philosophy_sentence_311

Similarly the reaction in favour of stricter Aristotelianism, as found in Averroes, had its Jewish counterpart in the work of Maimonides. Islamic philosophy_sentence_312

Later Jewish philosophers, such as Gersonides and Elijah Delmedigo, followed the school of Averroes and played a part in transmitting Averroist thought to medieval Europe. Islamic philosophy_sentence_313

In Spain and Italy, Jewish translators such as Abraham de Balmes and Jacob Mantino translated Arabic philosophic literature into Hebrew and Latin, contributing to the development of modern European philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_314

Later Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_45

The death of Ibn Rushd (Averroës) effectively marks the end of a particular discipline of Islamic philosophy usually called the Peripatetic Arabic School, and philosophical activity declined significantly in western Islamic countries, namely in Islamic Spain and North Africa, though it persisted for much longer in the Eastern countries, in particular Iran and India. Islamic philosophy_sentence_315

Contrary to the traditional view, Dimitri Gutas and the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy consider the period between the 11th and 14th centuries to be the true "Golden Age" of Arabic and Islamic philosophy, initiated by Al-Ghazali's successful integration of logic into the Madrasah curriculum and the subsequent rise of Avicennism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_316

Since the political power shift in Western Europe (Spain and Portugal) from Muslim to Christian control, the Muslims naturally did not practice philosophy in Western Europe. Islamic philosophy_sentence_317

This also led to some loss of contact between the 'west' and the 'east' of the Islamic world. Islamic philosophy_sentence_318

Muslims in the 'east' continued to do philosophy, as is evident from the works of Ottoman scholars and especially those living in Muslim kingdoms within the territories of present-day Iran and India, such as Shah Waliullah and Ahmad Sirhindi. Islamic philosophy_sentence_319

This fact has escaped most pre-modern historians of Islamic (or Arabic) philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_320

In addition, logic has continued to be taught in religious seminaries up to modern times. Islamic philosophy_sentence_321

After Ibn Rushd, there arose many later schools of Islamic Philosophy such as those founded by Ibn Arabi and Shi'ite Mulla Sadra. Islamic philosophy_sentence_322

These new schools are of particular importance, as they are still active in the Islamic world. Islamic philosophy_sentence_323

The most important among them are: Islamic philosophy_sentence_324

Islamic philosophy_unordered_list_4

Illuminationist school Islamic philosophy_section_46

Main article: Illuminationist philosophy Islamic philosophy_sentence_325

Illuminationist philosophy was a school of Islamic philosophy founded by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi in the 12th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_326

This school is a combination of Avicenna's philosophy and ancient Iranian philosophy, with many new innovative ideas of Suhrawardi. Islamic philosophy_sentence_327

It is often described as having been influenced by Neoplatonism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_328

In logic in Islamic philosophy, systematic refutations of Greek logic were written by the Illuminationist school, founded by Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (1155–1191), who developed the idea of "decisive necessity", an important innovation in the history of logical philosophical speculation. Islamic philosophy_sentence_329

Transcendent school Islamic philosophy_section_47

Main article: Transcendent theosophy Islamic philosophy_sentence_330

Transcendent theosophy is the school of Islamic philosophy founded by Mulla Sadra in the 17th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_331

His philosophy and ontology is considered to be just as important to Islamic philosophy as Martin Heidegger's philosophy later was to Western philosophy in the 20th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_332

Mulla Sadra bought "a new philosophical insight in dealing with the nature of reality" and created "a major transition from essentialism to existentialism" in Islamic philosophy, several centuries before this occurred in Western philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_333

The idea of "essence precedes existence" is a concept which dates back to Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and his school of Avicennism as well as Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi and his Illuminationist philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_334

The opposite idea of "Existence precedes essence" was thus developed in the works of Averroes and Mulla Sadra as a reaction to this idea and is a key foundational concept of existentialism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_335

For Mulla Sadra, "existence precedes the essence and is thus principle since something has to exist first and then have an essence." Islamic philosophy_sentence_336

This is primarily the argument that lies at the heart of Mulla Sadra's Transcendent Theosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_337

Sayyid Jalal Ashtiyani later summarized Mulla Sadra's concept as follows: Islamic philosophy_sentence_338

More careful approaches are needed in terms of thinking about philosophers (and theologians) in Islam in terms of phenomenological methods of investigation in ontology (or onto-theology), or by way of comparisons that are made with Heidegger's thought and his critique of the history of metaphysics. Islamic philosophy_sentence_339

Contemporary Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_48

Main article: Contemporary Islamic philosophy Islamic philosophy_sentence_340

The tradition of Islamic philosophy is still very much alive today, particularly among followers of Suhrawardi's Hikmat al-Ishraq (Illumination Philosophy) and Mulla Sadra's Hikmat-e-Mota'aliye (Transcendent Theosophy). Islamic philosophy_sentence_341

Another figure is Muhammad Iqbal, who reshaped and revitalized Islamic philosophy among the Muslims of the Indian sub-continent in the early 20th century. Islamic philosophy_sentence_342

His The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam  is a milestone in the modern political philosophy of Islam. Islamic philosophy_sentence_343

In contemporary Islamic regions, the teaching of hikmat or hikmah has continued to flourish. Islamic philosophy_sentence_344

Islamic philosophy_unordered_list_5

  • Ruhollah Khomeini, founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, was a teacher of the philosophical school of Hikmat-ul-Mutaliya. Before the Islamic Revolution, he was one of the few who formally taught philosophy at the Religious Seminary at Qom.Islamic philosophy_item_5_25
  • Abdollah Javadi-Amoli, Grand Ayatollah is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja. He is a conservative Iranian politician and one of the prominent Islamic scholars of the Hawza (seminary) in Qom.Islamic philosophy_item_5_26
  • Ahmad Milad Karimi, Afghan philosopher of religion and professor of Islamic Philosophy at the University of Münster in Germany.Islamic philosophy_item_5_27
  • Mohammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi, Grand Ayatollah is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric. Advocate of Islamic philosophy, particularly Hikmat Mutaliyyah.Islamic philosophy_item_5_28
  • Geydar Dzhemal, Russian Islamic philosopher, author of Orientation - North. Founding ideologist of Islamic Marxism.Islamic philosophy_item_5_29
  • Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, Grand Ayatollah, Iranian Twelver Shi'a cleric (Allameh Tabatabaei), author of numerous works including the 27-volume Quranic commentary al-Mizan (الميزان).Islamic philosophy_item_5_30
  • Hamka or Haji Abdul Malik Karim Amirullah was a prominent Indonesian author, Ulema politician, philosophical thinker, and author of Tafir Al Azhar. He was head of Indonesia's mufti council (MUI). He resigned when his fatwa against the celebration of Christmas by Muslims was condemned by the Suharto regime. Highly respected in his country, he was also appreciated in Malaysia and Singapore.Islamic philosophy_item_5_31
  • Murtaza Motahhari, the best student of Allamah Tabatabai, a martyr of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, and author of numerous books (an incomplete compilation of his works comprises 25 volumes). He, like his teachers Allama Tabatabai and Ayatollah Khomeini, belong to the philosophical schools of Hikmat-ul-MutaliyaIslamic philosophy_item_5_32
  • Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, who is credited with creating modern Islamist political thought in the 20th century, was the founder of Jamaat-e-Islami and spent his life attempting to revive the Islamic intellectual tradition.Islamic philosophy_item_5_33
  • Israr Ahmed, (1932–2010) was a Pakistani Islamic theologian followed particularly in South Asia and also among the South Asian diaspora in the Middle East, Western Europe, and North America. Founder of the Tanzeem-e-islami, an offshoot of the Jamaat-e-Islami, he was significant scholar of Islam and the Quran.Islamic philosophy_item_5_34
  • Muhammad Hamidullah (1908–2002) belonged to a family of scholars, jurists, writers and sufis. He was a world-renowned scholar of Islam and international law from India, who was known for contributions to the research of the history of Hadith, translations of the Koran, the advancement of golden age Islamic learning, and to the dissemination of Islamic teachings in the Western world.Islamic philosophy_item_5_35
  • Fazlur Rahman was professor of Islamic thought at the University of Chicago.Islamic philosophy_item_5_36
  • Wahid Hasyim first Indonesian minister of religious affairs. Former head of Indonesian Nahdwatul Ulema, and founder of Islamic state universities in Indonesia. He is best known for reformation of the Madrasah curriculum.Islamic philosophy_item_5_37
  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Iranian University Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University.Islamic philosophy_item_5_38
  • Javed Ahmad Ghamidi is a well-known Pakistani Islamic scholar, exegete, and educator. A former member of the Jamaat-e-Islami, who extended the work of his tutor, Amin Ahsan Islahi.Islamic philosophy_item_5_39
  • In Malaysia, Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas is a prominent metaphysical thinker.Islamic philosophy_item_5_40
  • Ali Shariati Iranian revolutionary thinker and sociologist who focused on Marxism and Islam.Islamic philosophy_item_5_41
  • Abu Abd al-Rahman Ibn Aqil al-Zahiri (born 1942) is a Saudi Arabian polymath primarily focused on the reconciliation of reason and revelation.Islamic philosophy_item_5_42
  • Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr (died 1980) is a Shi'ite Grand Ayatollah and one of the most influential Islamic philosophers of the 20th century. His two most important contributions to philosophy are his books "Our Philosophy" and "The Logical Foundations of Induction." He is also widely known for his work on economics, including "Our Economics" and "The Non-Usury Banking System" which are two of the most influential works in contemporary Islamic economics.Islamic philosophy_item_5_43

Criticism Islamic philosophy_section_49

Philosophy has not been without criticism amongst Muslims, both contemporary and past. Islamic philosophy_sentence_345

The imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, for whom the Hanbali school of thought is named, rebuked philosophical discussion, once telling proponents of it that he was secure in his religion, but that they were "in doubt, so go to a doubter and argue with him (instead)." Islamic philosophy_sentence_346

Today, Islamic philosophical thought has also been criticized by scholars of the modern Salafi movement. Islamic philosophy_sentence_347

There would be many Islamic thinkers who were not enthusiastic about its potential, but it would be incorrect to assume that they opposed philosophy simply because it was a "foreign science". Islamic philosophy_sentence_348

Oliver Leaman, an expert on Islamic philosophy, points out that the objections of notable theologians are rarely directed at philosophy itself, but rather at the conclusions the philosophers arrived at. Islamic philosophy_sentence_349

Even the 11th century al-Ghazali, known for his Incoherence of the Philosophers critique of philosophers, was himself an expert in philosophy and logic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_350

His criticism was that they arrived at theologically erroneous conclusions. Islamic philosophy_sentence_351

In his view the three most serious of these were believing in the co-eternity of the universe with God, denying the bodily resurrection, and asserting that God only has knowledge of abstract universals, not of particular things, though not all philosophers subscribed to these same views. Islamic philosophy_sentence_352

In recent studies by Muslim contemporary thinkers that aim at "renewing the impetus of philosophical thinking in Islam," the philosopher and theorist Nader El-Bizri offers a critical analysis of the conventions that dominate mainstream academic and epistemic approaches in studying Islamic philosophy. Islamic philosophy_sentence_353

These approaches, of methodology and historiography are looked at from archival standpoints within Oriental and Mediaevalist Studies, fail to recognize the fact that philosophy in Islam can still be a living intellectual tradition. Islamic philosophy_sentence_354

He maintains that its renewal requires a radical reform in ontology and epistemology within Islamic thought. Islamic philosophy_sentence_355

El-Bizri's interpretations of Avicenna (Ibn Sina) from the standpoint of Heidegger's critique of the history of metaphysics, and specifically against the background of the unfolding of the essence of technology, aim at finding new pathways in ontology that are not simply Avicennian nor Heideggerian, even though El-Bizri's approach in rethinking falsafa amounts to a "Neo-Avicennism" that carries resonances with novel modern philosophical ways of reading Aristotelianism and Thomism. Islamic philosophy_sentence_356

El-Bizri engages contemporary issues in philosophy through a fundamental critical analytic of the evolution of key concepts in the history of ontology and epistemology. Islamic philosophy_sentence_357

Nader El-Bizri is a modernist in outlook since he aims at bringing newness to the tradition rather than simply reproduce it or being in rupture with it. Islamic philosophy_sentence_358

Opposition to philosophy Islamic philosophy_section_50

Some Muslims oppose the idea of philosophy as un-Islamic. Islamic philosophy_sentence_359

The popular Salafist website (supervised by Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid of Saudi Arabia) declares philosophy to be an "alien entity": Islamic philosophy_sentence_360

The fatwa claims that "the majority of fuqaha’ [experts in fiqh have stated that it is haraam to study philosophy, and lists some of these: Islamic philosophy_sentence_361

Islamic philosophy_unordered_list_6

  • Ibn Nujaym (Hanafi) writing in al-Ashbaah wa’l-Nazaa’im;Islamic philosophy_item_6_44
  • al-Dardeer (Maaliki) said in al-Sharh al-Kabeer;Islamic philosophy_item_6_45
  • Al-Dasooqi in his Haashiyah (2/174);Islamic philosophy_item_6_46
  • Zakariya al-Ansaari (Shaafa’i) in Asna al-Mataalib (4/182);Islamic philosophy_item_6_47
  • al-Bahooti (Hanbali) said in Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’ (3/34);Islamic philosophy_item_6_48

IslamQA quotes Al-Ghazali who declares that of the "four branches" of philosophy (geometry and mathematics, logic, theology, and natural sciences), some of the natural sciences "go against shari’ah, Islam and truth", and that except for medicine, "there is no need for the study of nature". Islamic philosophy_sentence_362

Maani’ Hammad al-Juhani, (a member of the Consultative Council and General Director, World Assembly of Muslim Youth) is quoted as declaring that because philosophy does not follow the moral guidelines of the Sunnah, "philosophy, as defined by the philosophers, is one of the most dangerous falsehoods and most vicious in fighting faith and religion on the basis of logic, which it is very easy to use to confuse people in the name of reason, interpretation and metaphor that distort the religious texts". Islamic philosophy_sentence_363

Ibn Abi al-Izz, a commentator on al-Tahhaawiyyah, condemns philosophers as the ones who "most deny the Last Day and its events. Islamic philosophy_sentence_364

In their view Paradise and Hell are no more than parables for the masses to understand, but they have no reality beyond people’s minds." Islamic philosophy_sentence_365

See also Islamic philosophy_section_51

Islamic philosophy_unordered_list_7

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: philosophy.