Glossary of Islam

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The following list consists of notable concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in Arabic or Persian language. Glossary of Islam_sentence_0

The main purpose of this list is to disambiguate multiple spellings, to make note of spellings no longer in use for these concepts, to define the concept in one or two lines, to make it easy for one to find and pin down specific concepts, and to provide a guide to unique concepts of Islam all in one place. Glossary of Islam_sentence_1

Separating concepts in Islam from concepts specific to Arab culture, or from the language itself, can be difficult. Glossary of Islam_sentence_2

Many Arabic concepts have an Arabic secular meaning as well as an Islamic meaning. Glossary of Islam_sentence_3

One example is the concept of dawah. Glossary of Islam_sentence_4

Arabic, like all languages, contains words whose meanings differ across various contexts. Glossary of Islam_sentence_5

Arabic is written in its own alphabet, with letters, symbols, and orthographic conventions that do not have exact equivalents in the Latin alphabet (see Arabic alphabet). Glossary of Islam_sentence_6

The following list contains transliterations of Arabic terms and phrases; variations exist, e.g. din instead of deen and aqidah instead of aqeedah. Glossary of Islam_sentence_7

Most items in the list also contain their actual Arabic spelling. Glossary of Islam_sentence_8

A Glossary of Islam_section_0

Glossary of Islam_description_list_0

  • ʿAbd (عبد) (for male) ʾAmah (أمة) (for female): Servant or worshipper. Muslims consider themselves servants and worshippers of God as per Islam. Common Muslim names such as Abdullah (Servant of God), Abdul-Malik (Servant of the King), Abdur-Rahmān (Slave of the most Beneficent), Abdus-Salām (Slave of [the originator of] Peace), Abdur-Rahîm (Slave of the most Merciful), all refer to names of Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_0_0

Glossary of Islam_description_list_1

  • ʾAdab (أدب): Traditionally describes good manners, as in etiquette. For example, being courteous is good ʾadab. However, the term can be used very broadly, and the proper translation would be "the proper way to go about something," as in the example, ʾĀdāb al Qitāl, or, "The Proper Ways of Fighting in War," (Qitāl in Arabic means mortal combat) in which the word "etiquette" does not befit the context. A secondary meaning of ʾAdab is "literature".Glossary of Islam_item_1_1
  • ʾAdhān (أذان): call to salat (prayer), sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced Azaan, Athaan and Adhan.Glossary of Islam_item_1_2
  • ʿAdl (عدل): justice, especially distributive justice: social, economic, political, proprietary.Glossary of Islam_item_1_3
  • AH (هجرية): Anno Hegirae The Islamic calendar starts counting years starting from the time when Muhammad had to leave Mecca and go to Medina, an event known as the Hijra. The first day of the first Islamic year is 1 Muḥarram 1 (AH) and corresponds to 16 July 622 (CE).Glossary of Islam_item_1_4
  • ʾAḥad (أحد): literally "one." Islamically, ahad means One Alone, unique, none like God. Al-Ahad is one of the names of God.Glossary of Islam_item_1_5
  • ʾAḥkām (أحكام): These are rulings and orders of the Qu'ran and Sunnah. A single ruling is called a Ḥukm. Five kinds of orders: Wajib or Fard (obligatory), Mustahab (preferred and recommended), Halal or Mubah (permissible), Makruh (disliked and not recommended), and Haram (forbidden)Glossary of Islam_item_1_6
  • ʾAhl al-Bayt (أهل البيت): members of Muhammad's Household. Also known among Shia as the Maʿṣūmūn (معصومون) (infallibles; spiritually pure).Glossary of Islam_item_1_7
  • ʾAhl al-Fatrah ( أهل الفترة): people who live in ignorance of the teachings of a revealed religion, but according to the "Fitra", the "Natural Religion" innate to human nature as created by God.Glossary of Islam_item_1_8
  • ʾAhl al-Kitāb (أهل الكتاب ): "People of the Book", or followers of pre-Islamic monotheistic religions with some form of scripture believed to be of divine origin which were mentioned in Quran: Jews, Christians.Glossary of Islam_item_1_9
  • ʾĀkhirah (الآخرة): hereafter or eternal lifeGlossary of Islam_item_1_10
  • ʾAkhlāq (أخلاق): The practice of virtue. Morals.Glossary of Islam_item_1_11
  • Al-ʾIkhlāṣ (الإخلاص): Sincerity and genuineness in religious beliefs.Glossary of Islam_item_1_12
  • Al-Bir (البّر): Piety and righteousness and every act of obedience to Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_1_13
  • ʿĀlamīn (عالمين): Literally "worlds", humankind, jinn, angels and all that exists.Glossary of Islam_item_1_14
  • Al Hijr (Kaaba) (الكعبة): A semi-circular wall north-west of Kaaba.Glossary of Islam_item_1_15
  • ʿalayhi -s-salām (عليه السلام): "Peace be upon him" This expression normally follows after naming a prophet (other than Muhammad), or one of the noble Angels (i.e. Jibreel (Gabriel), Meekaal (Michael), etc.)Glossary of Islam_item_1_16
  • al-ḥamdu li-llāh (الحمد لله): "Praise be to God!" Qur'anic exclamation and also same meaning as hallelujah.Glossary of Islam_item_1_17
  • Allāh (الله): The name of God according to Islam. Also used as the Arabic word for God in general.Glossary of Islam_item_1_18
  • Allāhumma (اللَّهُمَّ): "O Allah, my Lord" - used in a phrase or salutation, invocations or supplications (dua).Glossary of Islam_item_1_19
  • Allāhu ʾAkbar (الله أكبر): "Allah is [the] greatest". Greater than anything or anyone, imaginable or unimaginable.Glossary of Islam_item_1_20
  • ʿĀlim (عالِم): lit. One who knows. A scholar (in any field of knowledge) ; a jurist or scientist (who knows science) or a theologian (who knows religion); similar to Japanese sensei, "teacher".Glossary of Islam_item_1_21

Glossary of Islam_description_list_2

  • ʾAmānah (أمانة): the trust. Of all creation, only human beings & jinns carry the "trust", which is free will.Glossary of Islam_item_2_22
  • ʾĀmīn (آمين): Amen.Glossary of Islam_item_2_23
  • ʾAmīr ul-Muʾminīn (أمير المؤمنين): "Commander of the Faithful" Historically the title of the Caliph. In some modern countries like Morocco, a ʾAmīr ul-Muʾminīn or Commander of the faithful is the religious chief.Glossary of Islam_item_2_24
  • ʾĀminah (آمنة): Muhammad's mother. Aminah fell sick and died in Abwa, near Madina (then Yathrib) when Muhammad was six years old.Glossary of Islam_item_2_25
  • Al-ʾAmr Bi'l Maʿrūf (الأمر بالمعروف): Islamic doctrine of enjoining right. There exists in Islam the (obligatory) principle of encouraging other people to do the right thing.Glossary of Islam_item_2_26
  • ʾAnfāl (أنفال): Spoils of war. (See Sūrat al-ʾAnfāl (8:1)) (سورة الأنفال)Glossary of Islam_item_2_27
  • ʾAnṣār (أنصار): "Helpers." The Muslim converts at Medina who helped the Muslims from Mecca after the Hijrah.Glossary of Islam_item_2_28
  • ʿAqīdah (عقيدة): Article of faith, tenet, creed, or dogma.Glossary of Islam_item_2_29
  • ʿAqīqah (عقيقة): Islamic practice of shaving the head of the newborn male and contributing the weight in silver for charity as well as 2 lambs.Glossary of Islam_item_2_30
  • ʿAql (عقل): Intelligence, intellect, mind, understandingGlossary of Islam_item_2_31
  • ʾArkān singular rukn (ركن/أركان): The five rukn "pillars" of Islam. (See rukn)Glossary of Islam_item_2_32
  • A.S. (ʿAlayhi s-salām) (عليه السلام): This acronym evokes a blessing and is appended to the names of the prophets who came before Muhammad. It will also be applied to the mothers of those prophets. When following a woman's name, the feminine form is ʿAlayha s-salām.Glossary of Islam_item_2_33
  • aṣaḥḥ: Arabic elative term, “more correct.” Used by muslim scholars to introduce their own view while not entirely dismissing that of others.Glossary of Islam_item_2_34
  • ʾAṣl ( أصل ) (pl. ʾuṣūl): Root, origin, source; principle.Glossary of Islam_item_2_35
  • ʾaslim taslam (أسلِم تسلَم): "Submit to Islam" (See dawah)Glossary of Islam_item_2_36
  • ʾAsmāʾ Allāh al-Ḥusnā (أسماء الله الحسنى): List of God's 99 names. According to a hadith, the one who enumerates them all will enter Paradise.Glossary of Islam_item_2_37
  • ʿAṣr (العصر): The third salat prayer. The time of the day before sunset and after noon. Also means "era".Glossary of Islam_item_2_38
  • Aṣ-Ṣirāṭ (الصراط): The bridge by crossing which it is determined (judged) whether a person would go to heaven or hell. How a person crosses the Sirat depends on what they have done in their life and what they have believed in.Glossary of Islam_item_2_39
  • al-ʿAsharatu Mubashsharun bil-Jannah or just ʿAsharatu Mubashsharah (Arabic: العشرة المبشّرون بالجنة‎, romanized: ʿAsharatu l-mubashshirūn or Arabic: عشرة المبشّر‎, romanized: Asharatul-mubashshirūna bil Jannah): The ten companions of Muhammad who were promised paradise (only in Sunni Islam)Glossary of Islam_item_2_40
  • ʿĀshūrāʾ (عاشوراء): Tenth day of the month of Muharram. It is the day God saved Moses and the children of Israel from the Pharaoh. The grandson of Muhammad, Imam Hussayn sacrificed his life along with 72 of his companions on the sand dunes of Karbala. Sunni Scholars recommended to fast during this day. To the Shias, it is also a day on which they mourn the death of the third Shia Imam, Husayn ibn Ali, along with his family and companions, who were killed in the famous battle in Karbala. They cry and weep and organize lamentating programmes where they not only learn how to live a proper Islamic life and improve their Spiritual Self but also cry at the end of the ritual to show their true love and faith towards imam Hussayn.Glossary of Islam_item_2_41
  • As-Salāmu ʿAlaykum (السلام عليكم): The Islamic greeting; literally "Peace be upon you"; In addition, wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (ورحمة الله وبركاته) means "and the Mercy of God and His blessing". The response to this greeting is wa-ʿAlaykum as-Salām wa-Raḥmatullāhi wa-Barakātuhu (وعليكم السلام ورحمة الله وبركاته) --"And on you be the Peace and Mercy of God and His Blessing".Glossary of Islam_item_2_42
  • ʾAstaghfir allāh (أستغفر الله): "I seek forgiveness from God." Islamic expression.Glossary of Islam_item_2_43
  • Aʿudhu billah (أعوذ بالله ʾAʿūdhu billāh): "I seek refuge in God". This is a paraphrase on the beginnings of the two last suras in the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_2_44
  • ʾAwliyāʾ (أولياء): Friends, protectors, helpers, caretaker, maintainer. (singular: wali)Glossary of Islam_item_2_45
  • ʿAwrah (عورة): The parts of the body, male or female, must be covered in public but not between spouses, such as, body parts must be concealed of a woman before non-related men.(Non-related men means those she can marry lawfully).Glossary of Islam_item_2_46
  • ʾĀyah (آية), plural ʾāyāt (آيات): A sign. More specifically, a verse in the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_2_47
  • Āyatullāh (آية الله, also spelled Ayatollah): Sign of God Title given to highly ranked religious scholars in Sh'ia sect.Glossary of Islam_item_2_48

B Glossary of Islam_section_1

Glossary of Islam_description_list_3

  • Baiʿa (بيعة): See Bay'ahGlossary of Islam_item_3_49
  • Baatil (باطل): see BāṭilGlossary of Islam_item_3_50
  • Baitullāh (بيت الله baytu -llāh): A mosque, literally "house of God". Specifically means the Ka'aba at Makkah (Mecca).Glossary of Islam_item_3_51
  • Bakka'in: a group known as the Weepers, who wept because they could not accompany Muhammad to Tabuk.Glossary of Islam_item_3_52
  • Barakah (بركة): a form of blessing, thought derive from God and passed on others via prophets, angels and saints.Glossary of Islam_item_3_53
  • Bārak Allāhu Fīkum (بارك الله فيكم): may Allah bless you; response to expression of thanks.Glossary of Islam_item_3_54
  • Barzakh (برزخ): Barrier. Used in the Qur'an to describe the barrier between sweet and salty water. In theology, the one-way barrier between the mortal realm and the spirit world which the deceased soul crosses and waits for qiyamah judgment.Glossary of Islam_item_3_55
  • Bashar (بشر): humankind, mankind, man, human(s), etc.Glossary of Islam_item_3_56
  • Baṣīrah (بصيرة): Insight, discernment, perceptivity, deep knowledge. Sometimes used by Sufis to denote the ability to directly perceive a transcendental Truth.Glossary of Islam_item_3_57
  • Bāṭil (باطل): voidGlossary of Islam_item_3_58
  • Bāṯin (باطن): The interior or hidden meaning. A person who devotes himself to studying such hidden meanings is a batini.Glossary of Islam_item_3_59
  • B.B.H.N. (عليه الصلاة والسلام): Blessed be His Name – acronym for S.A.W.S. See P.B.U.H (Peace Be Upon Him).Glossary of Islam_item_3_60
  • Bidʿah (بدعة): Innovation in religion, i.e. inventing new methods of worship. Bad Bidʿahs in Islam are considered a deviation and a serious sin by many Muslims.Glossary of Islam_item_3_61
  • Bidʿah sayyiʾah (بدعة سيئة): Inquiry prohibited in Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_3_62
  • Bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīmi (بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم): "In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".Glossary of Islam_item_3_63
  • Burda (بردة): In general terms, it means a "cloak" or "outer garment". Specific reference is to the "burda" of Muḥammad (see Qaṣīda al-Burda).Glossary of Islam_item_3_64
  • Bayʿah (بيعة): an oath of allegiance to a leader, traditionally the Caliph, a Sheikh or an Imam.Glossary of Islam_item_3_65

C Glossary of Islam_section_2

Glossary of Islam_description_list_4

  • Caliph (خَليفة) khalīfah: literally successor; refers to the successor of Muhammad, the ruler of an Islamic theocracy.Glossary of Islam_item_4_66

D Glossary of Islam_section_3

Glossary of Islam_description_list_5

  • Dahri (دهري): atheist – from the root ad dahr meaning time. In Islam, atheists are seen as those who think that time only destroys, hence the term ad dahriyyah or simply dahriya for the concept of atheism.Glossary of Islam_item_5_67
  • Dajjāl (دجّال): The Islamic equivalent of the Antichrist; means "liar" or "deceiver".Glossary of Islam_item_5_68
  • Ḍallāl (ضلال): going astray.Glossary of Islam_item_5_69
  • Dār al-ʿAhd (دار العهد): the Ottoman Empire's relationship with its Christian tributary states.Glossary of Islam_item_5_70
  • Dār al-ʾAmn (دار الأمن): means house of safety.Glossary of Islam_item_5_71
  • Dār ad-daʿwa (دار الدعوة): a region where Islam has recently been introduced.Glossary of Islam_item_5_72
  • Dār al-ḥarb (دار الحرب): means house of war; refers to areas outside Muslim rule which a Muslim state can go to war with simply for not being muslim.Glossary of Islam_item_5_73
  • Dār al-Islām (دار الإسلام): the abode, or land, of Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_5_74
  • Dār al-Kufr (دار الكفر): means domain of disbelief; the term originally refers to the Quraish-dominated society of Mecca between Mohammed's flight to Medina (the Hijra) and the city's conquest.Glossary of Islam_item_5_75
  • Dār aṣ-Ṣulḥ ( دارالصلح ): domain of agreementGlossary of Islam_item_5_76
  • Dār ash-shahāda (دار الشهادة): See Dar al-AmnGlossary of Islam_item_5_77
  • Darūd (الدرود، الصلاة على النبي): blessingGlossary of Islam_item_5_78
  • Daʿwah (الدعوة): the call to Islam, proselytizing.Glossary of Islam_item_5_79
  • Darwīš (درويش): an initiate of the Sufi Path, one who practices SufismGlossary of Islam_item_5_80
  • Dhikr (ذكر): A devotional practice whereby the name of God is repeated in a rhythmical manner. Remembrance of God; spiritual exercise; Muslims believe that the primary function of prophets is to remind people of God. It is also pronounced zikr.Glossary of Islam_item_5_81
  • Dhimmi (ذمّي) (pl. dhimam): "protected person"; Jews and Christians (and sometimes others, such as Buddhists, Sikhs, Hindus, and Zoroastrians), living in an Islamic state who must pay a separate tax instead of the zakah paid by Muslims and this exempts non-Muslims from military service under Islamic law.Glossary of Islam_item_5_82
  • Dhuhr (ظهر) (ẓuhr): the second obligatory daily prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_5_83
  • Dīn (الدين): (literally 'religion') the way of life based on Islamic revelation; the sum total of a Muslim's faith and practice. Dīn is often used to mean the faith and religion of Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_5_84
  • Diyyah (دية): "blood money", recompense for loss of a life.Glossary of Islam_item_5_85
  • Duʿāʾ (دعاء): personal prayer, supplicationGlossary of Islam_item_5_86
  • Dunya (دنيا): The physical Universe, as opposed to the Hereafter; sometimes spelled Dunia.Glossary of Islam_item_5_87

E Glossary of Islam_section_4

Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) Glossary of Islam_sentence_9

Glossary of Islam_description_list_6

  • Marks the end of Ramaadaan [Ramzaan], the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).Glossary of Islam_item_6_88

Eid al-Adha Glossary of Islam_sentence_10

Glossary of Islam_description_list_7

  • Honours the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismael as an act of obedience to God's command.Glossary of Islam_item_7_89

F Glossary of Islam_section_5

Glossary of Islam_description_list_8

  • Fadl: divine graceGlossary of Islam_item_8_90
  • Fajarah (فجرة) (also fujjār (فجّار)): Wicked evil doers. Plural of "fājir" (فاجر).Glossary of Islam_item_8_91
  • fājir (فجر): dawn, early morning, and the morning prayer. The time of the day when there is light in the horizon before sunrise.Glossary of Islam_item_8_92
  • Falāḥ (فلاح): deliverance, salvation, well-being.Glossary of Islam_item_8_93
  • Falsafah (فلسفة): "philosophy" The methods and content of Greek philosophy which were brought into Islam. A person who tries to interpret Islam through rationalist philosophy was called a faylasuf (فيلسوف), "philosopher".Glossary of Islam_item_8_94
  • Fanā' (فناء): Sufi term meaning extinction – a spiritual death of the lower self (Nafs) with associated bad characteristics. Having no existence outside of God.Glossary of Islam_item_8_95
  • Faqīh (فقيه)(pl. fuqahāʾ)(فقهاء): One who has a deep understanding of Islam, its laws, and jurisprudence. (see fiqh)Glossary of Islam_item_8_96
  • Al-Faraj (الفرج): the return of the Shia MahdiGlossary of Islam_item_8_97
  • Farḍ (فرض), plural furūḍ (فروض): a religious duty, or an obligatory action: praying 5 times a day is fard Neglecting a fard will result in a punishment in the hereafter. (See wajib)Glossary of Islam_item_8_98
  • Farḍ ʿain ( فرض عين): obligatory on every individual Muslim to aid in any way he can.Glossary of Islam_item_8_99
  • Farḍ kifāyah (فرض كفاية): an obligation on the Muslim community as a whole, from which some are freed if others take it up such as for jihad.Glossary of Islam_item_8_100
  • Fāsid (فاسد): corrupt, invalid/violable (in Islamic finance)Glossary of Islam_item_8_101
  • Fāsiq (فاسق): anyone who has violated Islamic law; usually refers to one whose character has been corrupted (plural "fāsiqūn").Glossary of Islam_item_8_102
  • Fātiḥa (الفاتحة): the short, opening sura of the Qur'an, which begins "In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds..." These words hold an important place in Muslim liturgies and forms the core of the salat.Glossary of Islam_item_8_103
  • Fatwā (فتوى): a non-binding legal opinion of a scholar (alim). However, binding on him for those who follow his taqlidGlossary of Islam_item_8_104
  • Fī ʾAmān allāh (في أمان الله): "In the protection of God". Said when a person departs.Glossary of Islam_item_8_105
  • Fiqh (فقه): jurisprudence built around the shariah by custom (al-urf). Literally means "deep understanding", refers to understanding the Islamic laws. (see faqih)Glossary of Islam_item_8_106
  • Fī sabīl allāh (في سبيل الله): for the sake of Allah; common Islamic expression for performing acts such as charity or Jihad and for 'qatlu' (fighting in mortal combat for the sake of Allah)Glossary of Islam_item_8_107
  • Fitna (pl. fitan) (فتنة): trial or tribulation; also refers to any period of disorder, such as a civil war, or the period of time before the end of the world or any civil strife.Glossary of Islam_item_8_108
  • Fiṭrah (فطرة): innate disposition towards virtue, knowledge, and beauty. Muslims believe every child is born with fitrah.Glossary of Islam_item_8_109
  • Furqān (فرقان): the criterion (of right and wrong, true and false); for example, the Qur'an as furqan.Glossary of Islam_item_8_110
  • Fuwaysiqah (فويسقة): vermin, evil from the root fasaqa meaning to deviate from the right wayGlossary of Islam_item_8_111

G Glossary of Islam_section_6

Glossary of Islam_description_list_9

  • Ghafara (غفر): (verb in past tense) to forgive, to cover up (sins). A characteristic of God.Glossary of Islam_item_9_112
  • Ghaflah (غفلة): heedlessness, forgetfulness of God, indifferenceGlossary of Islam_item_9_113
  • Ghayb (غيب): the unseen, unknown.Glossary of Islam_item_9_114
  • Ghanīmah (غنيمة): spoils of war, booty.Glossary of Islam_item_9_115
  • Gharar (غرر): excessive uncertainty; also "the sale of what is not present" such as fish not yet caught, crops not yet harvested.Glossary of Islam_item_9_116
  • Ghasbi (غصب): possessed unlawfullyGlossary of Islam_item_9_117
  • Ghāzi (غازى): (archaic) roughly, "raider": used for whose who participated in jihad (war). Later a title for veterans.Glossary of Islam_item_9_118
  • Ghusl (غسل): full ablution of the whole body (see wudu). Ghusl janaba is the mandatory shower after having sexual discharge.Glossary of Islam_item_9_119

H Glossary of Islam_section_7

Glossary of Islam_description_list_10

  • Ḥadath akbar (حدث أكبر): major ritual impurity which requires Niyyat for cleaning.Glossary of Islam_item_10_120
  • Ḥadath aṣghar (حدث أصغر): minor ritual impurityGlossary of Islam_item_10_121
  • Hādhā min faḍl rabbī (هَذَا مِن فَضْلِ رَبِّي): Qur'anic expression and phrase meaning This is by the Grace of my Lord.Glossary of Islam_item_10_122
  • Hādī (هادي): a guide, one who guides; A Muslim name for God is The Guide, or Al-Hadi.Glossary of Islam_item_10_123
  • Ḥadīth (حديث ḥadīth) plural ahādīth: literally "speech"; recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with sira these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariahGlossary of Islam_item_10_124
  • Ḥadīth mashhūr (حديث مشهور): Well-known hadith; a hadith which reported by one, two, or more Companions from Muhammad or from another Companion, but has later become well-known and transmitted by an indefinite number of people during the first and second generation of Muslims.Glossary of Islam_item_10_125
  • Ḥāfiẓ (حافظ): someone who knows the Qur'an by heart. Literal translation = memorizer or Protector.Glossary of Islam_item_10_126
  • Ḥaiḍ (حيض): menstruationGlossary of Islam_item_10_127
  • Ḥājj (حاجّ) plural Ḥujjāj (حجّاج) and Ḥajīj (حجيج): Pilgrim, one who has made the Hajj.Glossary of Islam_item_10_128
  • Ḥajj (حجّ) and Ḥijjah (plurals Ḥijjāt (حجّات) and Ḥijaj (حجج)): pilgrimage to Mecca. Sunnis regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam. See Dhu al-Hijjah.Glossary of Islam_item_10_129
  • Ḥajj at-Tamattuʿ (حج التمتع): performing ʿUmrah during the Hajj season, and on the Day of Tarwiah a pilgrim gets into the state of Ihram for Hajj. Before making ʿUmrah, approach the Miqat and declare the intention. End by sacrificing an animal.Glossary of Islam_item_10_130
  • Ḥajj al-Qirān (حج القران): At Miqat, declare intention to perform both Hajj and 'Umrah together. After throwing the Jamrah of Al-'Aqabah, and getting hair shaved or cut that take off his Ihram garments and sacrifice animal.Glossary of Islam_item_10_131
  • Ḥajj al-ʾIfrād (حج الإفراد): At Miqat, declare intention for Hajj only. Maintain Ihram garments up to the Day of Sacrifice. No offering is required from him.Glossary of Islam_item_10_132
  • Ḥākim (حاكم): a ruler's or governor's title; in some Muslim states, a judge. See Ahkam.Glossary of Islam_item_10_133
  • Ḥākimīya (حاكمية): sovereignty, governance.Glossary of Islam_item_10_134
  • Ḥalāl (حلال): lawful, permitted, good, beneficial, praiseworthy, honourable. (See mustahabb, mandub)Glossary of Islam_item_10_135
  • Ḥalaqah (حلقة): A gathering or meeting for the primary purpose of learning about Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_10_136
  • Ḥalq (حلق): Shaving of the head, particularly associated with pilgrimage to MeccaGlossary of Islam_item_10_137
  • Ḥanīf (حنيف): pre-Islamic non-Jewish or non-Christian monotheists. Plural: ḥunafā' (حنفاء).Glossary of Islam_item_10_138
  • Ḥaqq (حقّ): truth, reality, right, righteousness. Al-Haqq is one of 99 names of God.Glossary of Islam_item_10_139
  • Ḥarām (حرام): sinfulGlossary of Islam_item_10_140
  • Ḥaram (حرم): sanctuary.Glossary of Islam_item_10_141
  • Ḥasan (حسن): Good, beautiful, admirable. Also a categorization of a hadith's authenticity as "acceptable". (other categorizations include authentic and fabricated).Glossary of Islam_item_10_142
  • Hawa (هوى) (pl. ʾahwāʾ (أهواء)): Vain or egotistical desire; individual passion; impulsiveness.Glossary of Islam_item_10_143
  • Hidāyah (هداية): guidance from God.Glossary of Islam_item_10_144
  • Ḥijāb (حجاب): literally "cover". It describes the covering of the body for the purposes of modesty and dignity; broadly, a prescribed system of attitudes and behaviour regarding modesty and dignity. (See abayah, al-amira, burqa, chador, jilbab, khimar, milfeh, niqab, purdah, shayla)Glossary of Islam_item_10_145
  • Hijra (الهجرة): Muhammad and his followers' emigration from Mecca to Medina. Literally, "migration". This holiday marks the beginning of the Muslim New Year on the first day of the month of Muharram. See Rabi' al-awwal and abbreviation AH.Glossary of Islam_item_10_146
  • Ḥikmah (also Hikmat) (حكمة): Literally this means "wisdom" and refers to the highest possible level of understanding attainable by a Muslim. In particular, it refers to the illuminative, mystical sort of wisdom that a Gnostic or Sufi might attain.Glossary of Islam_item_10_147
  • Hilāl (هلال): Crescent moon.Glossary of Islam_item_10_148
  • Ḥima (حمى): wilderness reserve, protected forest, grazing commons; a concept of stewardshipGlossary of Islam_item_10_149
  • Ḥizb (حزب): One half of a juz', or roughly 1/60th of the Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_10_150
  • Hudā (هدى): Guidance.Glossary of Islam_item_10_151
  • Hudna (هدنة): Truce. Cease-fire (often temporary)Glossary of Islam_item_10_152
  • Ḥudūd (حدود) (sing. hadd): Literally, limits or boundaries. Usually refers to limits placed by Allah on man; penalties of the Islamic law (sharia) for particular crimes described in the Qur'an – intoxication, theft, rebellion, adultery and fornication, false accusation of adultery, and apostasy. (See ta'zeer)Glossary of Islam_item_10_153
  • Ḥukm (حكم): ruling in the Qur'an or Sunnah. Also spelled Hukum.Glossary of Islam_item_10_154
  • Ḥūrī (حورية ḥūrīya; pl. ḥūrīyāt حوريات): beautiful and pure young men and women that Muslims believe inhabit Paradise, or Heaven.Glossary of Islam_item_10_155

I Glossary of Islam_section_8

Glossary of Islam_description_list_11

  • ʿIbādah (عبادة): submission, worship, but not limited to ritual: all expressions of servitude to Allah, including the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping, charity, and humility, can be considered ibadah.Glossary of Islam_item_11_156
  • ʾIblīs (إبليس): Devil banished to Hell for his arrogance and disobedience; aka Satan.Glossary of Islam_item_11_157
  • ʿId (عيد): festival or celebration. Alternatively transliterated Eid.Glossary of Islam_item_11_158
  • ʿId ul-Adha (عيد الأضحى): "the Festival of Sacrifice." The four-day celebration starting on the tenth day of Dhul-Hijja.Glossary of Islam_item_11_159
  • ʿId ul-Fitr (عيد الفطر): "the Festival of Fitr (Breaking the fast)." A religious festival that marks the end of the fast of Ramadan.Glossary of Islam_item_11_160
  • ʾIfṭār (إفطار): a meal eaten by Muslims breaking their fast after sunset during the month of Ramadan.Glossary of Islam_item_11_161
  • ʾIḥrām (إحرام): state of consecration for hajj. Includes dress and or prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_11_162
  • ʾIḥsān (إحسان): perfection in worship, such that Muslims try to worship God as if they see Him, and although they cannot see Him, they undoubtedly believe He is constantly watching over them.Glossary of Islam_item_11_163
  • ʾIḥtiyāṭ (إحتياط): Also Ahwat. A Precaution, either obligatory or optional.Glossary of Islam_item_11_164
  • ʾIḥtiyāṭ mustaḥabb(إحتياط مستحبّ): A preferred precaution.Glossary of Islam_item_11_165
  • ʾIḥtiyāṭ wājib(إحتياط واجب): An obligatory precaution.Glossary of Islam_item_11_166
  • ʾIʿjāz (إعجاز): miracle, the character of the Qur'an in both form and content.Glossary of Islam_item_11_167
  • ʾIjāzah (إجازة): a certificate authorizing one to transmit a subject or text of Islamic knowledgeGlossary of Islam_item_11_168
  • ʾIjmā' (إجماع): the consensus of either the ummah (or just the ulema) – one of four bases of Islamic Law. More generally, political consensus itself. Shi'a substitute obedience to the Imam; opposite of ikhtilafGlossary of Islam_item_11_169
  • ʾIjtihād (اجتهاد): During the early times of Islam, the possibility of finding a new solution to a juridical problem. Has not been allowed in conservative Islam since the Middle Ages. However, Liberal movements within Islam generally argue that any Muslim can perform ijtihad, given that Islam has no generally accepted clerical hierarchy or bureaucratic organization. The opposite of ijtihad is taqlid (تقليد), Arabic for "imitation".Glossary of Islam_item_11_170
  • ʾIkhtilāf (اختلاف): disagreement among the madhhabs (scholars) of a religious principle; opposite of ijma.Glossary of Islam_item_11_171
  • ʾIkrām (إكرام): honouring, hospitality, generosity – Dhul jalaali wal ikraam is one of the 99 names of Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_11_172
  • ʾIkrāh (إكراه): mental or physical force.Glossary of Islam_item_11_173
  • ʾIlāh (إله): deity, a god; including gods worshiped by polytheists.Glossary of Islam_item_11_174
  • ʿIlm (علم): all varieties of knowledge, usually a synonym for scienceGlossary of Islam_item_11_175
  • ʾImām (إمام): literally, leader; e.g. a man who leads a community or leads the prayer; the Shi'a sect use the term only as a title for one of the twelve Allah-appointed successors of Muhammad.Glossary of Islam_item_11_176
  • ʾImāmah (إمامة) or imamate: successorship of Muhammad and the leadership of mankind.Glossary of Islam_item_11_177
  • ʾImān (إيمان): personal faithGlossary of Islam_item_11_178
  • ʾInna lilāhi wa ʾinna ʾilaihi rājiʿūn (إِنَّا لِلّهِ وَإِنَّـا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعونَ): To Allah we belong and to Him is our return – said to mournersGlossary of Islam_item_11_179
  • ʾInfāq (إنفاق): the habitual inclination to give rather than take in life; the basis for charityGlossary of Islam_item_11_180
  • ʾInjīl (الإنجيل): Arabic term for the holy book called The Gospel said to have been given to Jesus, who is known as Isa in Arabic; Muslims believe the holy book has been lost and the New Testament gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are not the word of Allah, only Christian stories about Jesus.Glossary of Islam_item_11_181
  • ʾIn shāʾa -llāh (إن شاء الله): "If God wills"; Inshallah is "resigned, accepting, neutral, passive. It is neither optimistic nor pessimistic."Glossary of Islam_item_11_182
  • ʾIqāmah (إقامة): the second call to prayer. Similar to the azhan.Glossary of Islam_item_11_183
  • ʾIrtidād (ارتداد): apostasy (see murtadd). Also riddah ردةGlossary of Islam_item_11_184
  • ʿĪsā (عيسى): Jesus – 'Isa ibn Maryam (English: Jesus son of Mary), (a matronymic since he had no biological father). The Qur'an asserts that Allah has no sons and therefore, 'Isa is not the son of Allah. Muslims honor 'Isa as a nabi and rasul.Glossary of Islam_item_11_185
  • ʿIshā' (عشاء): night; the fifth salat prayerGlossary of Islam_item_11_186
  • ʾIṣlāḥ (إصلاح ): "reform". This term may mean very different things, depending on the context. When used in reference to reform of Islam, it may mean modernism, such as that proposed by Muhammad Abduh; or Salafi literalism, such as that preached by Muhammad Nasiruddin al-AlbaniGlossary of Islam_item_11_187
  • ʾIslām (الإسلام)  (help·): "submission to God". The Arabic root word for Islam means submission, obedience, peace, and purity.Glossary of Islam_item_11_188
  • ʾIsnād (إسناد): chain of transmitters of any given hadithGlossary of Islam_item_11_189
  • ʾIsrāʾ (الإسراء): the night journey during which Muhammad (محمّد)is said to have visited Heaven. See miraj.Glossary of Islam_item_11_190
  • ʾIstighfār (استغفار): requesting forgivenessGlossary of Islam_item_11_191
  • ʾIstiḥādah (استحاضة): vaginal bleeding except Haid and NifasGlossary of Islam_item_11_192
  • ʾIstiṣlāḥ (استصلاح): public interest – a source of Islamic Law.Glossary of Islam_item_11_193
  • ʾIstishhād (استشهاد): martyrdom.Glossary of Islam_item_11_194
  • ʾIthm (إثم): Negative reward for bad deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.) Opposite of thawab.Glossary of Islam_item_11_195
  • ʾIʿtikāf (إعتكاف): seclusion in the masjid for the purpose of worship usually performed during the last 10 days of Ramadan.Glossary of Islam_item_11_196
  • ʾItmām al-hujjah (إتمام الحجة): clarification of truth in its ultimate form.Glossary of Islam_item_11_197
  • Ittaqullah (اتقوا الله): command to fear God or to be pious to Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_11_198

J Glossary of Islam_section_9

Glossary of Islam_description_list_12

  • Jāʾiz (جائز): That which is allowed or permissible. As a rule, everything that is not prohibited is allowed. (See halal, mustahabb, mandub)Glossary of Islam_item_12_199
  • Jahannam (جهنم): the Hell-fire; HellGlossary of Islam_item_12_200
  • Jāhilīyyah (الجاهليّة): the time of ignorance before Islam was realized. Describes polytheistic religions.Glossary of Islam_item_12_201
  • Jahl (جهل): ignorance, foolishness.Glossary of Islam_item_12_202
  • Jalsa (جلسة): sitting.Glossary of Islam_item_12_203
  • Jāmiʿah (جامعة): "gathering"; i.e. a university, a mosque, or more generally, a community or association.Glossary of Islam_item_12_204
  • Janābah (جنابة): A state of spiritual impurity that occur due to sexual intercourse or ejaculation and necessitates major ritual ablution (ghusl),Glossary of Islam_item_12_205
  • Janāzah (جنازة): Funeral. Ṣalāt al-Janāzah is a funeral prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_12_206
  • Jannah (جنة): Paradise, Heaven, the GardenGlossary of Islam_item_12_207
  • Jazāka-llāhu khayran (جزاك اللهُ خيرًا): "May God reward you with good." Islamic expression of gratitude.Glossary of Islam_item_12_208
  • Jihād (جهاد): struggle. Any earnest striving in the way of God, involving personal, physical, for righteousness and against wrongdoing;Glossary of Islam_item_12_209
  • Jihād aṣ-ṣaghīr (جهاد الصغير): Offensive jihad declared by caliph.Glossary of Islam_item_12_210
  • Jihād aṭ-ṭalab (جهاد الطلب): Offensive jihad.Glossary of Islam_item_12_211
  • Jihād ad-dafʿa (جهاد الدفعة): Defensive jihad.Glossary of Islam_item_12_212
  • Jihād bil-māl (جهاد بامال): Financial jihad.Glossary of Islam_item_12_213
  • Jihād bis-saif ( جهاد بالسيف): literally 'struggle by the sword'; holy war.Glossary of Islam_item_12_214
  • Jilbāb (جلباب): (pl. jalabib) a long, flowing, garment worn by some as a more conservative means of fulfillment of sartorial hijab. (See also: abaya. burka, chador)Glossary of Islam_item_12_215
  • Jinn (جنّ): Term for invisible beings, considered to roam the earth.Glossary of Islam_item_12_216
  • Jizya (جزية): A tax specified in the Koran (9:29) to be paid by non-Muslim males living under Muslim political control.Glossary of Islam_item_12_217
  • Juḥod (جحود): To deny. Jaahid (the denier). Disbelief out of rejection. When there comes to them that which they [should] have recognized, they refuse to believe in (kafaru) it. ( 2:89) Accordingly, juhud includes rejection (kufr at-taktheeb) and resistance (kufr al-'inaad)Glossary of Islam_item_12_218
  • Jumuʿah (جمعة): Friday prayer or Sabbath.Glossary of Islam_item_12_219
  • Juzʾ (جزء): one of thirty parts of the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_12_220

K Glossary of Islam_section_10

Glossary of Islam_description_list_13

  • Kaʿbah (الكعبة): cube-house; i.e., the cube-shaped building in Mecca which Muslims face to pray.Glossary of Islam_item_13_221
  • Kāfir - non-Muslim (كافر kāfir sing.; كفّار kuffār pl.): from the word kafara, "to hide." Those who deliberately hide the truth; non-Muslims in Islamic or non-Islamic countries or states, unbelievers, truth-concealers; one who is ungrateful to God as per Islam. Common derogatory term used by different Islamic factions such as sunni and shias to denounce each other as non-Muslims. Plural: Kāfirūn. Commonly used as an offensive term for black people by white South Africans.Glossary of Islam_item_13_222
  • Kalām (علم الكلام) (ʿilm al-kalām): Literally, "words" or "speech," and referring to oration. The name applied to the discipline of philosophy and theology concerned specifically with the nature of faith, determinism and freedom, and the nature of the divine attributes.Glossary of Islam_item_13_223
  • Khair (خير): Every kind of goodGlossary of Islam_item_13_224
  • Khalīfah (خليفة): Caliph, more generally, one performing the duties of khilafa.Glossary of Islam_item_13_225
  • Khalīl (خليل): devoted friendGlossary of Islam_item_13_226
  • Khalq (خلق): Creation – the act of measuring; determining, estimating and calculating. Khalq is the noun form of the verb khalaqa (see bara, sawwara).Glossary of Islam_item_13_227
  • Al-khāliq (الخالق): The Creator, Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_13_228
  • Khamr (خمر): Intoxicant, wine.Glossary of Islam_item_13_229
  • Khatīb (خطيب): the speaker at the Friday Muslim prayer, or Jumu'ah prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_13_230
  • Khatm (ختم): to finish - refers to the complete recitation of the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_13_231
  • Kharāj (خراج): a land tax.Glossary of Islam_item_13_232
  • Khayr: goodness. See birr (righteousness) See qist (equity) See 'adl (equilibrium and justice) See haqq (truth and right) See ma'ruf (known and approved) See taqwa (piety.)Glossary of Islam_item_13_233
  • khilāf (خلاف): Controversy, dispute, discord.Glossary of Islam_item_13_234
  • Khilāfah (خلافة): Man's trusteeship and stewardship of Earth; Most basic theory of the Caliphate; Flora and fauna as sacred trust; Accountability to; God for harms to nature, failure to actively care and maintain. Three specific ways in which khalifa is manifested in Muslim practice are the creation of haram to protect water, hima to protect other species (including those useful to man), and by resisting infidel domination over Muslim lands, in jihad.Glossary of Islam_item_13_235
  • Khilwa, (خلوة): An offense consisting of being caught alone in private with a member of the opposite sex who is not an immediate family member.Glossary of Islam_item_13_236
  • al-khulafāʾ ar-rāshidūn (الخلفاء الراشدون): four first caliphs, believed by most Muslims to be most righteous rulers in historyGlossary of Islam_item_13_237
  • Khimār (خمار) (pl. khumur (خُمُر) or ʾakhmirah (أخْمِرة)): headcovering (Q. 24:31).Glossary of Islam_item_13_238
  • Khitān (ختان): Male circumcision.Glossary of Islam_item_13_239
  • Khuluq (خُلُق) pl. ʾakhlāq (أخلاق): ethicsGlossary of Islam_item_13_240
  • Khushūʿ (خشوع): humility, devotion, concentration (especially in prayer).Glossary of Islam_item_13_241
  • Khuṭbah (خطبة): the sermon at Jumu'ah prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_13_242
  • Kibr (كِبْر): pride, arroganceGlossary of Islam_item_13_243
  • Kibar (كِبَر): old ageGlossary of Islam_item_13_244
  • Kitāb (كتاب): book; The Qurʾān is often referred to as "Al-Kitāb" (The Book).Glossary of Islam_item_13_245
  • Kufr (كفر): Unbelief, infidelity, blasphemy; also hubris. See Kafir and KuffarGlossary of Islam_item_13_246
  • Kufr al-ḥukm (كفر الحكم): Disbelief from judgment.Glossary of Islam_item_13_247
  • Kufr al-ʿInād (كفر العناد): Disbelief out of stubbornnessGlossary of Islam_item_13_248
  • Kufr al-ʾInkār (كفر الإنكار): Disbelief out of arrogance and pride.Glossary of Islam_item_13_249
  • Kufr al-ʾIstibdāl (كفر الإستبدال): Disbelief because of trying to substitute Allah's Laws.Glossary of Islam_item_13_250
  • Kufr al-ʾIstiḥlāl (كفر الإستحلال): Disbelief out of trying to make HARAM into HALAL.Glossary of Islam_item_13_251
  • Kufrul-Istihzaha: Disbelief due to mockery and derisionGlossary of Islam_item_13_252
  • Kufr al-jahl (كفر الجهل): Disbelief from not being aware of or not understanding.Glossary of Islam_item_13_253
  • Kufr al-juhud (كفر الجهد): Disbelief from obstinacy after being presented with truth.Glossary of Islam_item_13_254
  • Kufr an-Nifāq (كفر النفاق): Disbelief out of hypocrisy.Glossary of Islam_item_13_255
  • Kufr al-ʾIʿrāḍ (كفر الإعراض): Disbelief due to avoidance.Glossary of Islam_item_13_256
  • Kun (كن): God's command to the universe, 'Be!' is sufficient to create it.Glossary of Islam_item_13_257

L Glossary of Islam_section_11

Glossary of Islam_description_list_14

  • Lā ilāha illā-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله): "There is no god but God." The most important expression in Islam. It is part of the first pillar of Islam. According to Islam, this is the message of all the Prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad.Glossary of Islam_item_14_258
  • Labbayka -llāhumma (لبّيكَ اللّهُم): God, I obey you (said during hajj)Glossary of Islam_item_14_259
  • Laghw (لغو): Dirty, false, evil vain talkGlossary of Islam_item_14_260
  • Laʿnah (لعنة): Curse, execration, or imprecation.Glossary of Islam_item_14_261
  • Laylat al-Qadr (ليلة القدر): the Night of Power, towards the end of Ramadan, when Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_14_262

M Glossary of Islam_section_12

Glossary of Islam_description_list_15

  • Madhhab (مذهب): pl. Madhāhib (مذاهب) school of religious jurisprudence (fiqh), school of thought. Also see fiqh.Glossary of Islam_item_15_263
  • Madrasah (مدرسة): school, universityGlossary of Islam_item_15_264
  • Maghrib (مغرب): the fourth daily salat prayerGlossary of Islam_item_15_265
  • Mahdi (مهدي): "a guide". More specifically al-Mahdi (the guide) is a figure who will appear with Prophet Jesus before the end of time, when God allows it, to bring world peace, order and justice, after it has been overcome with injustice and aggression.Glossary of Islam_item_15_266
  • Mahdūr ad-damm (مهدور الدم): he whose blood must be wastedGlossary of Islam_item_15_267
  • Maḥram (محرم): a relative of the opposite gender usually described as being "within the forbidden limits"; a better description is "within the protected limits". means relatives who one can appear before without observing hijab and who one cannot marry.Glossary of Islam_item_15_268
  • Maisir (ميسر ): gambling, game of chanceGlossary of Islam_item_15_269
  • Makrūh (مكروه): Means "detested", though not haraam (forbidden); something that is disliked or offensive. If a person commits the Makruh, he does not accumulate ithim but avoiding the Makhruh is rewarded with thawab.Glossary of Islam_item_15_270
  • Malāʾikah (ملائكة): angels (Sing. Malak). Belief in angels is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and requiered for Muslims to believe in.Glossary of Islam_item_15_271
  • Mā malakat ʾaymānukum (ما ملكت أيمانكم): one's rightful spouse (literally: what your right hands possess)Glossary of Islam_item_15_272
  • Manāsik (مناسك): the rules specifying the requirements of a legally valid hajjGlossary of Islam_item_15_273
  • Mandūb (مندوب): commendable or recommended. Failure to do it would not be a sin. (See halal mustahabb)Glossary of Islam_item_15_274
  • Manhaj (منهج): the methodology by which truth is reachedGlossary of Islam_item_15_275
  • Mansūkh (منسوخ): That which is abrogated. The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:106) see naskhGlossary of Islam_item_15_276
  • Manzil (منزل): one of seven equal parts of the Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_15_277
  • Maʿrūf (معروف): consensus of the communityGlossary of Islam_item_15_278
  • Maqāṣid (مقاصد) sing. maqṣid (مقصد): goals or purposes; such as the purposes of Islamic lawGlossary of Islam_item_15_279
  • Maṣāliḥ (مصالح) sing. maṣlaḥah (مصلحة): public interestsGlossary of Islam_item_15_280
  • Masbuq (مَسْبُوق): A person who is late for salat and has not joined the imam in the first rak’at.Glossary of Islam_item_15_281
  • Mā shāʾa -llāh (ما شاء الله): Allah has willed itGlossary of Islam_item_15_282
  • Masīḥ (مسيح): the (Biblical) Messiah, Jesus ChristGlossary of Islam_item_15_283
  • Masjid (مسجد) pl. masājid, مساجد: place of prayer; mosqueGlossary of Islam_item_15_284
  • Masjid al-Ḥarām (المسجد الحرام): the mosque surrounding the Kaʿbah in Mecca.Glossary of Islam_item_15_285
  • Mawālī or mawālā (موالي): Non-Arab MuslimsGlossary of Islam_item_15_286
  • Mawlā [mawlan (مولى)] [pl. mawālin (موالٍ)]: protector or masterGlossary of Islam_item_15_287
  • Mawlānā (مولانا): an Arabic word literally meaning "our lord" or "our master". It is used mostly as a title preceding the name of a respected religious leader, in particular graduates of religious institutions. The term is sometimes used to refer to Rumi.Glossary of Islam_item_15_288
  • Maulvi (مولوی): an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names. Maulvi generally means any religious cleric or teacherGlossary of Islam_item_15_289
  • Mecca (مكّة Makkah): the holiest city in IslamGlossary of Islam_item_15_290
  • Medina (مدينة Madīnah): "city"; Medinat-un-Nabi means "the City of the Prophet." See Hijra (Islam)Glossary of Islam_item_15_291
  • Mi'ād (معاد): the Resurrection; God will resurrect all of humankind to be judged. Shi'as regard this as the fifth Pillar of Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_15_292
  • Miḥrāb (محراب): a niche in the wall of all mosques, indicating the direction of prayerGlossary of Islam_item_15_293
  • Millah (مِلَّة): In Arabic, millah means "religion," but it has only been used to refer to religions other than Islam, which is din.Glossary of Islam_item_15_294
  • Millet: (see Millah) (Turkish word also meaning a nation, community, or a people). In an Islamic state, "Ahl al Kitab" may continue to practice their former religion in a semi-autonomous community termed the millet.Glossary of Islam_item_15_295
  • Minaret (منارة): a tower built onto a mosque from the top of which the call to prayer is madeGlossary of Islam_item_15_296
  • Minbar (منبر): a raised pulpit in the mosque where the Imam stands to deliver sermonsGlossary of Islam_item_15_297
  • Minhaj (منهج): methodology, e.g. methods, rules, system, procedures.Glossary of Islam_item_15_298
  • Mīqāt (ميقات ): intended placeGlossary of Islam_item_15_299
  • Miʿrāj (المعراج): the Ascension to the Seven Heavens during the Night Journey See also: israGlossary of Islam_item_15_300
  • Muʾadhdhin (مأذن): a person who performs the call to prayerGlossary of Islam_item_15_301
  • Muʿāhadāt (معاهدات): treatiesGlossary of Islam_item_15_302
  • Muʿawwidhatayn (المعوذتين): suras Al-Falaq and an-Nas, the "Surahs of refuge", should be said to relieve suffering (also protect from Black Magic)Glossary of Islam_item_15_303
  • Mubāḥ (مباح): literally permissible; neither forbidden nor commended. Neutral. (See halal)Glossary of Islam_item_15_304
  • Mubaligh (مبلغ): person who recites Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_15_305
  • Muftī (مفتى): an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fatawa (plural of "fatwa").Glossary of Islam_item_15_306
  • Muḥajjabah (محجبة): woman who wears hijab.Glossary of Islam_item_15_307
  • Muḥkamāt: unequivocal verses of Qur'an. (See mutashabehat.)Glossary of Islam_item_15_308
  • Muḥāribah (محاربة): a person who wages war against GodGlossary of Islam_item_15_309
  • Muḥammadun rasūl allāh (محمدٌ رسول الله): "Muhammad is the messenger of God." This statement is the second part of the first pillar of Islam. This is the second most important statement in Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_15_310
  • Mufsid (مفسد): evil-doer a person who wages jihad (war) not in accordance with the Qur'an. Plural mufsideen.Glossary of Islam_item_15_311
  • Muḥsin (محسن): a person who performs good deed. Plural muhsineen. Opposite of Mufsidun.Glossary of Islam_item_15_312
  • Muhājirūn (مهاجرون): The first Muslims that accompanied Muhammad when he traveled to Medina.Glossary of Islam_item_15_313
  • Muharṭiq (مهرطق): heretic.Glossary of Islam_item_15_314
  • Mujāhid (مجاهد): a fighter for Islam. Plural Mujāhidūn (مجاهدون).Glossary of Islam_item_15_315
  • Mujtahid (مجتهد): a scholar who uses reason for the purpose of forming an opinion or making a ruling on a religious issue. Plural: Mujtahidun.Glossary of Islam_item_15_316
  • Mullah (ملا): are Islamic clergy. Ideally, they should have studied the Qur'an, Islamic traditions (hadith), and Islamic law (fiqh).Glossary of Islam_item_15_317
  • Muʾmin (مؤمن): A Muslim who observes the commandments of the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_15_318
  • Munāfiq (منافق): hypocrite. Plural: MunafiqunGlossary of Islam_item_15_319
  • Muntaiabah (منتقبة) pl. muntaqibāt (منتقبات): woman who wears niqabGlossary of Islam_item_15_320
  • Murābaḥah ( مرابحة): a type of sharia-compliant mortgage (see Ijara)Glossary of Islam_item_15_321
  • Murshid (مرشد): a Sufi teacherGlossary of Islam_item_15_322
  • Murtadd (مرتد) female apostate is Murtaddah: apostate (see irtidad see mahdur ad-damm.)Glossary of Islam_item_15_323
  • Muṣḥaf (مصحف): a copy, codex or redaction of the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_15_324
  • Mushrik (مشرك)(pl. mushrikūn) (مشركون): One who associates others in worship with God; a polytheist.Glossary of Islam_item_15_325
  • Muslim (مسلم): a follower of the religion of Islam. One who submits their will to God (Allah)Glossary of Islam_item_15_326
  • Mustaḥabb (مستحبّ): commendable or recommended. (See halal, mandub)Glossary of Islam_item_15_327
  • Mutʿah (متعة): literally enjoyment; compensation paid to a divorced woman; when used in the phrase nikāḥ al-mutʿah (نكاح المتعة) it refers to temporary marriage that is practiced in Twelver Shia Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_15_328
  • Mutashābihāt (متشابهات): equivocal verses of Qur'an. (See Muhakkamat.)Glossary of Islam_item_15_329
  • Mutaʿaṣṣibūn (متعصّبون): fanaticsGlossary of Islam_item_15_330
  • Muṭawwaʿ (مطوّع) plural muṭawwaʿūn (مطوّعون): religious man in certain regions, a volunteer teacherGlossary of Islam_item_15_331
  • Muṭawwaʿūn (مطوّعون) (مطوعين) (singular muṭawwaʿ): Religious police.Glossary of Islam_item_15_332
  • Mutawātir (متواتر): "agreed upon"—used to describe hadith that were narrated by many witnesses through different narration chains (isnads) leading back to MuhammadGlossary of Islam_item_15_333

N Glossary of Islam_section_13

Glossary of Islam_description_list_16

  • Nabī (نبي): literally, prophets. In the Islamic context, a Nabi is a man sent by God to give guidance to man, but not given scripture. The Prophet Abraham was a Nabi. This is in contrast to Rasul, or Messenger. Plural: Anbiya. See: Rasul.Glossary of Islam_item_16_334
  • Nafs (النفس): soul, the lower self, the ego/idGlossary of Islam_item_16_335
  • Nāfilah (نافلة): An optional, supererogatory practice of worship, in contrast to faridaGlossary of Islam_item_16_336
  • Najāsah (نجاسة): ImpurityGlossary of Islam_item_16_337
  • Nājis (ناجس): impureGlossary of Islam_item_16_338
  • Nakīr and Munkar (نكير و منكر): two angels who test the faith of the dead in their gravesGlossary of Islam_item_16_339
  • Namaz: Ritual Prayer in Turkish and Persian language.Glossary of Islam_item_16_340
  • Naṣīḥa (نصيحة): adviceGlossary of Islam_item_16_341
  • Naskh (نسخ): The doctrine of al-Nasikh wal-Mansukh (abrogation) of certain parts of the Qur'anic revelation by others. The principle is mentioned in the Qur'an (2:106) see mansukh.Glossary of Islam_item_16_342
  • Naṣṣ (نصّ): a known, clear legal injunctionGlossary of Islam_item_16_343
  • Nifās (نفاس): the bleeding after childbirth (see Haid)Glossary of Islam_item_16_344
  • Nifāq (نفاق): falsehood; dishonesty; hypocrisyGlossary of Islam_item_16_345
  • Nihāļ (نحال): Nihal is an Arabic name meaning "joyful."Glossary of Islam_item_16_346
  • Nikāḥ (النكاح): the matrimonial contract between a bride and bridegroom within Islamic marriageGlossary of Islam_item_16_347
  • Niqāb (نقاب): veil covering the faceGlossary of Islam_item_16_348
  • Niyyah (نية): intentionGlossary of Islam_item_16_349
  • Nubūwwah (نبوّة): prophethood. Shi'a regard this as the third Pillar of Islam.Glossary of Islam_item_16_350
  • Nukrah: a great munkar – prohibited, evil, dreadful thing.Glossary of Islam_item_16_351
  • Nūr (نور): Light, more theological connoted than daw', the proper term for light in Arabic. Nur is often associated with benevolence, as Light of Muhammad and angels of mercy as created from nur. The term is closely associated with nar, which denotes the burning light of fire, often associated with fierce forces, like angels of punishment, demons and hell.Glossary of Islam_item_16_352

P Glossary of Islam_section_14

Glossary of Islam_description_list_17

  • P.B.U.H.: an acronym that stands for "peace be upon him" a blessing which is affixed to Muhammad's name whenever it is written. In some circles and English writings, Sufis regard PBUH to signify "Peace and Blessings Upon Him" (the Rasul or Messenger of Allah). These are the primary English explications of the P.B.U.H. acronym. The Arabic version is S.A.W.Glossary of Islam_item_17_353

Q Glossary of Islam_section_15

Glossary of Islam_description_list_18

  • Qadhf (قذف): false imputation of unchastity specifically punished by sharia.Glossary of Islam_item_18_354
  • Qadar (قدر): predestination.Glossary of Islam_item_18_355
  • Qāḍī (قاضي): judge of Islamic LawGlossary of Islam_item_18_356
  • Qalb (قلب): Heart, considered th center of the self in Islamic anthropologyGlossary of Islam_item_18_357
  • Qiblah (قبلة): the direction Muslims face during prayerGlossary of Islam_item_18_358
  • Qitāl fī sabīl allāh ( قتال في سبيل الله ): fight in the cause of Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_18_359
  • Qiyāmah (قيامة): resurrection; return of the dead for the Day of JudgmentGlossary of Islam_item_18_360
  • Qiṣāṣ (قصاص): equitable retribution – a fine for murder if the heirs forgive the perpetrator. (See hudud, tazeer)Glossary of Islam_item_18_361
  • Qiyām (قيام): to stand, a position of salat prayerGlossary of Islam_item_18_362
  • Qiyās (القياس): analogy – foundation of legal reasoning and thus fiqhGlossary of Islam_item_18_363
  • Qudsī (قدسي): classification of a hadith that are believed to be narrated by Muhammad from God.Glossary of Islam_item_18_364
  • Qurbah (قربة): closeness to God. Term is associated with Sufism.Glossary of Islam_item_18_365
  • Qurʾān (القرآن): The word Qur'an means recitation. Muslims believe the Qur'an (Koran) to be the literal word of God and the culmination of God's revelation to mankind, revealed to Muhammad in the year AD 610 in the cave Hira by the angel Jibril.Glossary of Islam_item_18_366

R Glossary of Islam_section_16

Glossary of Islam_description_list_19

  • Rabb (ربّ): Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master.Glossary of Islam_item_19_367
  • R. A., raḍiya -llāhu ʿanhu (رضي الله عنه): May Allah be pleased with him. Variants are ʿanhā (her) and ʿanhum (them).Glossary of Islam_item_19_368
  • Raḥmān (رحمن): Merciful; Ar-Rahman (الرحمن) means "The Most Merciful"Glossary of Islam_item_19_369
  • Raḥīm (رحيم): compassionate; Ar-Rahim (الرحيم) means "The Most Compassionate" as in the BasmalaGlossary of Islam_item_19_370
  • Raḥimaḥullāh (رحمه الله): May Allah have mercy on him. Usually used after mentioning the companions of MuhammadGlossary of Islam_item_19_371
  • Raḥmatullāh (رحمة الله): Mercy of Allah. Sometimes used as an alternative to Rahimahullah after mentioning a righteous person by saying, rahmatullahi ʿilayh (رحمة الله علیه): Mercy of Allah be upon him/herGlossary of Islam_item_19_372
  • Rajm (رجم): lit. stoning, refers to capital punishment by stoning in parts of Islamic law, but also takes the meaning of "accursed" in a metaphorical way. Also used as an epithet for the devil in some Islamic prayers.Glossary of Islam_item_19_373
  • Rakʿah (ركعة): one unit of Islamic prayer, or Salat. Each daily prayer is made up of a different number of raka'ah.Glossary of Islam_item_19_374
  • Ramaḍān (رمضان): month of fasting when the Qur'an was first revealed. Spelt as Ramzaan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan as well.Glossary of Islam_item_19_375
  • Rāshidūn (راشدون): Sunnis consider the first four caliphs as the "orthodox" or "rightly guided" caliphs. They were Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and 'Ali.Glossary of Islam_item_19_376
  • Rasūl (رسول): messenger; Unlike prophets (Nabi), messengers are given scripture. Moses (as), David (as), Jesus (as) and Mohammed (as) are considered messengers. All messengers are considered prophets, but not all prophets are given scripture. See: Nabi.Glossary of Islam_item_19_377
  • Riba (ربا): interest, the charging and paying of which is forbidden by the Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_19_378
  • Ribat: Guarding Muslims from infidelsGlossary of Islam_item_19_379
  • Riddah (ردة): apostasy, in which a person abandons Islam for another faith or no faith at all.Glossary of Islam_item_19_380
  • Risālah (رِسَالَة): literally, message or letter. Used both in common parlance for mail correspondences, and in religious context as divine message.Glossary of Islam_item_19_381
  • Rūḥ (روح): spirit; the divine breath which God blew into the clay of Adam. Sometimes used interchangeable with nafs; otherwise distinguished and identified with the sublime parts of human's soul.Glossary of Islam_item_19_382
  • Rukn (ركن) plural ʾArkān (أركان): means what is inevitable. One of the five pillars of Islam. (See fard, wajib)Glossary of Islam_item_19_383
  • Rukūʿ (ركوع): the bowing performed during salat.Glossary of Islam_item_19_384

S Glossary of Islam_section_17

Glossary of Islam_description_list_20

  • Sabb (سَبّ): blasphemy: insulting God (sabb Allah) or Muhammad (sabb ar-rasūl or sabb an-nabī).Glossary of Islam_item_20_385
  • Ṣabr (صبر): patience, endurance, self-restraintGlossary of Islam_item_20_386
  • Ṣadaqah (صدقة): charity; voluntary alms above the amount for zakat.Glossary of Islam_item_20_387
  • Ṣaḥābah (الصحابة) (sing. Ṣāḥib) (صاحب): companions of Muhammad. A list of the best-known Companions can be found at List of companions of Muhammad.Glossary of Islam_item_20_388
  • Ṣāḥīḥ (صحيح): "Sound in isnad." A technical attribute applied to the "isnad" of a hadith.Glossary of Islam_item_20_389
  • Sakīnah (سكينة): divine "tranquility" or "peace" which descends upon a person when the Qur'an is recited.Glossary of Islam_item_20_390
  • Salaf (السلف الصالح): (righteous) predecessors/ancestors. In Islam, Salaf is generally used to refer to the first three generations of Muslims. Anyone who died after this is one of the khalaf or "latter-day Muslims".Glossary of Islam_item_20_391
  • Salafism: a reform movement, basing Islamic teachings on Quran and Sunnah alone. Contrary to Classical Sunnism, it disregards former established consensus and the opinions of the Sahaba.Glossary of Islam_item_20_392
  • Ṣalāt (صلاة) sala(t): any one of the daily five obligatory prayers. Sunnis regard this as the second Pillar of IslamGlossary of Islam_item_20_393
  • Salaat al-Istikharah: Prayer for guidance is done in conjunction with two rakaahs of supererogatory prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_20_394
  • Salām (سلام): peace (see sulh)Glossary of Islam_item_20_395
  • Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم): "May Allah bless him and grant him peace." The expression should be used after stating Muhammad's name. See abbreviation: S.A.W. or S.A.W.S. also P.B.U.H.Glossary of Islam_item_20_396
  • Ṣamad (صمد): eternal, absolute; Muslims believe Allah is "The Eternal."Glossary of Islam_item_20_397
  • Salsabīl (سلسبيل): a river in heaven (al-firdaus)Glossary of Islam_item_20_398
  • Sawa: awakening, revivalGlossary of Islam_item_20_399
  • S.A.W. (or S.A.W.S.): Sallallahu alayhi wa sallam (صلى الله عليه و سلم). See P.B.U.H.Glossary of Islam_item_20_400
  • Ṣawm (صَوم): fasting during the month of Ramadhan. The word sawm is derived from Syriac sawmo.Glossary of Islam_item_20_401
  • Sayyid (سيّد): (in everyday usage, equivalent to 'Mr.') a descendant of a relative of Muhammad, usually via Husayn.Glossary of Islam_item_20_402
  • Sema: refer to some of the ceremonies used by various sufi ordersGlossary of Islam_item_20_403
  • Shahādah (الشهادة): The testimony of faith: La ilaha illa Allah. Muhammadun rasulullah. ("There is no god but Allah. Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."). Sunnis regard this as the first Pillar of Islam. Also may be used as a synonym for the term Istish'hād meaning martyrdom.Glossary of Islam_item_20_404
  • Shahīd (شهيد) pl. shuhadāʾ (شهداء): witness, martyr. Usually refers to a person killed whilst fighting in "jihād fī sabīl Allāh" (jihad for the sake of Allah). Often used in modern times for deaths in a political cause (including victims of soldiers, deaths in battle, et cetera) which are viewed by some Muslims as a spiritual cause not just a political cause. But the real meaning of Jihad is to defend Islam in any way; thus, it could be in an economic way or could refer to fighting for the rights of the oppressed or the believers; most often it refers to mastering one's own inclination for evil and shirk.Glossary of Islam_item_20_405
  • Shaykh (شيخ): a spiritual master, Muslim clergyGlossary of Islam_item_20_406
  • Sharīʿah (الشريعة): "the path to a watering hole"; Islamic law; the eternal ethical code and moral code based on the Qur'an, Sunnah, Ijma, and Qiyas; basis of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)Glossary of Islam_item_20_407
  • Sharīf (شريف): a title bestowed upon the descendants of Muhammad through Hasan, son of his daughter Fatima Zahra and son-in-law Ali ibn Abi TalibGlossary of Islam_item_20_408
  • Shayṭān (شيطان): Evil being; a devil. With the articleAl- it designates the Devil (Iblis) in particular. In plural, it designates a host of evil spirits; demons. Also applied to evil humans and evil jinn.Glossary of Islam_item_20_409
  • Shīʿah (الشيعة): A branch of Islam who believe in Imam Ali and his sons (Hassan and Hussayn) as custodians of Islam by the will of Mohammed.Glossary of Islam_item_20_410
  • Shirk (شرك): idolatry; polytheism; the sin of believing in any divinity except God and of associating other gods with God.Glossary of Islam_item_20_411
  • Shūrā (شورى): consultationGlossary of Islam_item_20_412
    • Majlis ash-shūrā (مجلس الشورى): advisory council in a CaliphateGlossary of Islam_item_20_413

Glossary of Islam_description_list_21

  • Sidrat al-Muntaha (سدرة المنتهى ): a lotus tree that marks the end of the seventh heaven, the boundary where no creation can pass.Glossary of Islam_item_21_414
  • Sīrah (السيرة): life or biography of Muhammad; his moral example – with hadith this comprises the sunnahGlossary of Islam_item_21_415
  • aṣ-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm ( الصراط المستقيم): the Straight PathGlossary of Islam_item_21_416
  • Subah Sadiq: true dawnGlossary of Islam_item_21_417
  • Subḥānahu wa taʿāla (سبحانه و تعالى)(abbreviated S.W.T.): expression used following written name or vocalization of Allah in Arabic meaning highly praised and glorified is He.Glossary of Islam_item_21_418
  • Subḥān allāh (سبحان الله): "Glory to God" – this phrase is often used when praising God or exclaiming awe at His attributes, bounties, or creation.Glossary of Islam_item_21_419
  • Ṣūfī (صوفي): a Muslim mystic; See: Sufism (tasawwuf).Glossary of Islam_item_21_420
  • Suḥūr (سحور): the meal eaten by fasting Muslims just before dawn.Glossary of Islam_item_21_421
  • Sujūd(سجود): kneeling down, a position of salat.Glossary of Islam_item_21_422
  • Ṣukūk (صكوك): bond that generates revenue from sales, profits, or leases rather than interest.Glossary of Islam_item_21_423
  • Ṣulḥ (صلح): A condition of peace, an armistice, or treaty. It is related to the word muṣālaḥah (مصالحة) which means peace, conciliation, or compromise.Glossary of Islam_item_21_424
  • Sunnah (السنّة) or sunnat an-Nabī (سنّة النبي): the "path" or "example" of Muhammad, i.e., what he did or said or agreed to during his life. He is considered by Muslims to be the best human moral example. Also referring to optional good deeds, such as pious deeds and voluntary ritual prayers.Glossary of Islam_item_21_425
  • Sunni (سنّي): the largest denomination of Islam. The word Sunni comes from the word Sunnah (Arabic: سنة), which means the words and actions or example of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.Glossary of Islam_item_21_426
  • Sūrah (سورة): chapter; the Qur'an is composed of 114 surasGlossary of Islam_item_21_427

T Glossary of Islam_section_18

Glossary of Islam_description_list_22

  • Taʿāla (تعالى): AlmightyGlossary of Islam_item_22_428
  • Tābiʿīn (تابعون|تابعين): followers of the ṢaḥābahGlossary of Islam_item_22_429
  • Tafsīr (تفسير): exegesis, particularly such commentary on the Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_22_430
  • Ṭāghūt (طاغوت) (taghout): originally Aramaic, meaning "false god"; also tyranny.Glossary of Islam_item_22_431
  • Tahajjud (تهجُّد): optional (supererogatory), late-night (pre-dawn) prayerGlossary of Islam_item_22_432
  • Ṭahārah (طهارة): purification from ritual impurities by means of wudu or ghuslGlossary of Islam_item_22_433
  • Ṭāhir (طاهر): pure, ritually cleanGlossary of Islam_item_22_434
  • Tahlīl (تهليل): Uttering the formula of faith: "Lā ilāha illā -llāh", (i.e. "There is no god but God");Tahmid (تحميد):Tahmid means to praise Allah or saying "Alhamdillah".It derives from the same root ase Muhammad, mahmud and hamid(hmd) which means praise in Arabic.Glossary of Islam_item_22_435
  • Taḥnīk (تحنيك): 'Tahnik' is an Islamic ceremony of touching the lips of a newborn baby with honey, sweet juice or pressed dates.Glossary of Islam_item_22_436
  • Taḥrīf (تحريف): corruption, forgery. Muslims believe the Bible Scriptures were corrupted but the Qur'an is in its original form.Glossary of Islam_item_22_437
  • Tajdīd (تجديد): to purify and reform society in order to move it toward greater equity and justice, literally meaning to make new in present tenseGlossary of Islam_item_22_438
  • Tajdīf (تجديف): blasphemyGlossary of Islam_item_22_439
  • Tajwīd (تجويد): a special manner of reciting the Qur'an according to prescribed rules of pronunciation and intonation.Glossary of Islam_item_22_440
  • Takāful ( التكتاقل): Based on sharia Islamic law, it is a form of mutual insurance. See retakaful.Glossary of Islam_item_22_441
  • Takbīr (تكبير): a proclamation of the greatness of Allah; a Muslim invocation.Glossary of Islam_item_22_442
  • takhsis (ثخصص, also takhsees): in fiqh, a qualification of a general ruling ['aam] so that it only applies in certain cases.Glossary of Islam_item_22_443
  • Takfīr (تكفير): declaration of individual or group of previously considered Muslim as kaffir.Glossary of Islam_item_22_444
  • Takhrīj (تخريج الحديث ): The science of hadith extraction and authentication, including validation of chains of transmitters of a hadith by this science's scholars and grading hadith validity.Glossary of Islam_item_22_445
  • Takweeni (تکوینیة): OntologicalGlossary of Islam_item_22_446
  • Ṭalāq (الطلاق): divorceGlossary of Islam_item_22_447
  • Taqalan: accountable ones; those who are responsible for their deeds. Among them are the human and the jinn.Glossary of Islam_item_22_448
  • Taqdīr (تقدير): fate, predestinationGlossary of Islam_item_22_449
  • Taqlīd (تقليد): to follow the scholarly opinion of one of the four Imams of Islamic Jurisprudence.Glossary of Islam_item_22_450
  • Taqīyyah (تقيّة): 'precaution', that one is allowed to hide his true beliefs in certain circumstances or to lie to save himself of being killed or harmed.Glossary of Islam_item_22_451
  • Taqwa (تقوى): righteousness; goodness; Piety: Taqwa is taken from the verbe Ittaqua, which means Avoiding, Fearing the punishment from Allah for committing sins. It is piety obtained by fearing the punishment of Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_22_452
  • Tarāwīḥ (تراويح): extra prayers in Ramadan after the Isha prayer.Glossary of Islam_item_22_453
  • Tarkīb (تَرْكِيب): the study of Arabic grammar issued from the Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_22_454
  • Ṭarīqah (طريقة): a Muslim religious order, particularly a Sufi orderGlossary of Islam_item_22_455
  • Tartīl (ترتيل): slow, meditative recitation of the Qur'anGlossary of Islam_item_22_456
  • Tasbīḥ (تسبيح): Uttering the formula: "Subhan Allah", i.e. (Glory be to Allah)Glossary of Islam_item_22_457
  • Tashkīl (تشكيل): vocalization of Arabic text by means of diacritical marks. An integral part of the Arabic writing system. Literally meaning to form or arrangeGlossary of Islam_item_22_458
  • Taslīm (تسليم): salutation at the end of prayerGlossary of Islam_item_22_459
  • Taṭbīr (تطبير): Shia Ashura ceremony of self-flagellation by hitting head with sword.Glossary of Islam_item_22_460
  • Tawafuq (توافق): God-conscious understanding of a phenomenon.Glossary of Islam_item_22_461
  • Tawakkul (توکل): total reliance on Allah.Glossary of Islam_item_22_462
  • Tawassul (توسُّل): asking Allah Almighty through the medium and intercession of another person.Glossary of Islam_item_22_463
  • Ṭawāf (طواف): circumambulating the Ka'bah during Hajj.Glossary of Islam_item_22_464
  • Tawfiq (توفیق): Divine help in getting to the purpose to one who deserves.Glossary of Islam_item_22_465
  • Tawbah (توبة): repentanceGlossary of Islam_item_22_466
  • Tawḥīd (توحيد): monotheism; affirmation of the Oneness of Allah. Muslims regard this as the first part of the Pillar of Islam, the second part is accepting Muhammad as rasoul (messenger). The opposite of Tawheed is shirkGlossary of Islam_item_22_467
  • Ta'weel (تأويلة): explanation and elucidation, how something will occur and its result, or figurative interpretation.Glossary of Islam_item_22_468
  • Tawrāh (توراة): the Torah as revealed to Musa (Moses.)Glossary of Islam_item_22_469
  • Ṭayyib (طيِّب): all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc. Means "pure." The Shahaddath is tayyib.Glossary of Islam_item_22_470
  • Taʿzīr (تعزير): Discretionary punishment – a sentence or punishment whose measure is not fixed by the Shari'ah. (See hudud, qisas)Glossary of Islam_item_22_471
  • Tazkīyah (تزكية): Purification of the Soul.Glossary of Islam_item_22_472
  • Thawāb (ثواب): Reward for good deeds that is tallied on qiyamah (judgment day.) Opposite of ithim.Glossary of Islam_item_22_473
  • Tilāwah (تلاوة): ritual recitation of passages of the Qur'an.Glossary of Islam_item_22_474
  • Ṭumaʾnīnah (طمأنينة): state of motionlessness, calmGlossary of Islam_item_22_475

U Glossary of Islam_section_19

Glossary of Islam_description_list_23

  • ʿUbūdīyah (عبودية): worshipGlossary of Islam_item_23_476
  • ʾUḍḥīyah (أضحية): sacrificeGlossary of Islam_item_23_477
  • ʿUlamāʾ (علماء) or ulema: the leaders of Islamic society, including teachers, Imams and judges. Singular alim.Glossary of Islam_item_23_478
  • ʾUmmah (الاُمّة) or umma: (literally 'nation') the global community of all Muslim believersGlossary of Islam_item_23_479
  • ʿUmrah (عمرة): the lesser pilgrimage performed in Mecca. Unlike hajj, ʿumrah can be performed throughout the year.Glossary of Islam_item_23_480
  • ʿUqūbah (عقوبة): the branch of sharia that deals with punishment. (See hudud, qisas, tazeer)Glossary of Islam_item_23_481
  • ʿUrf (عرف): custom of a given society, leading to change in the fiqhGlossary of Islam_item_23_482
  • ʾUṣūl (أُصول) (sing. ʾaṣl)(أصل): Principles, origins.Glossary of Islam_item_23_483
  • ʾUṣūl al-Fiqh (أصول الفقه): the study of the origins and practice of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh)Glossary of Islam_item_23_484

W Glossary of Islam_section_20

Glossary of Islam_description_list_24

  • Wa ʿalaykum as-salām (وعليكم السلام): Wa 'Alaykum as-Salaam!, meaning "and upon you be peace". (see As-Salamu Alaykum)Glossary of Islam_item_24_485
  • Wafāt (وفاة): death. (Barah-wafat) Muhammad was born on the twelfth day of Rabi-ul-Awwal, the third month of the Muslim year. His death anniversary also falls on the same day, the word 'barah' standing for the twelve days of Muhammad's sickness.Glossary of Islam_item_24_486
  • Waḥdat al-wujūd (وحدة الوجود): "unity of being". Philosophical term used by some Sufis. Related to fanaaGlossary of Islam_item_24_487
  • Waḥy (وحی): revelation or inspiration of God to His prophets for all humankindGlossary of Islam_item_24_488
  • Wahn (وهن): literal meaning is "weakness" or "feebleness". According to one hadith, Muhammad explained it as "love of the world and dislike of death"Glossary of Islam_item_24_489
  • Wājib (واجب): obligatory or mandatory see fardGlossary of Islam_item_24_490
  • Walī (ولي): friend, protector, guardian, supporter, helperGlossary of Islam_item_24_491
  • Waqf (وقف): An endowment of money or property: the return or yield is typically dedicated toward a certain end, for example, to the maintenance of the poor, a family, a village, or a mosque. Plural: awqafGlossary of Islam_item_24_492
  • Warrāq (ورّاق): traditional scribe, publisher, printer, notary and book copierGlossary of Islam_item_24_493
  • Wasaṭ (وسط): the middle way, justly balanced, avoiding extremes, moderationGlossary of Islam_item_24_494
  • Wasīlah (وسيلة): the means by which one achieves nearness to Allah (see tawassul )Glossary of Islam_item_24_495
  • Witr (وتر): a voluntary, optional night prayer of odd numbers rakaats.Glossary of Islam_item_24_496
  • Wuḍūʾ (الوضوء): ablution for ritual purification from minor impurities before salat (see ghusl)Glossary of Islam_item_24_497

Y Glossary of Islam_section_21

Glossary of Islam_description_list_25

  • Yā Allāh (یا الله): O, God!Glossary of Islam_item_25_498
  • Ya Rasūl Allāh (یا رسول الله): O, Messenger of God!. Term used by companions when interacting with Muhammad.Glossary of Islam_item_25_499
  • Yaʾjūj wa-Maʾjūj (يأجوج ومأجوج ): Ya'jūj wa-Ma'jūj is the Islamic counterpart of Gog and MagogGlossary of Islam_item_25_500
  • Yaqīn (يقين): certainty, that which is certainGlossary of Islam_item_25_501
  • Yarḥamuk-Allāh (يرحمك الله): "May God have mercy on you", said when someone sneezes; the same as "(God) bless you" in EnglishGlossary of Islam_item_25_502
  • Allāh Yarḥamuhu (الله يرحمه), fem. yarḥamuhā(يرحمها): "May God have mercy of his/her soul", (said when someone dies)Glossary of Islam_item_25_503
  • Yawm ad-Dīn (يوم الدين): Day of Reckoning, AweGlossary of Islam_item_25_504
  • Yawm al-Ghaḍab (يوم الغضب): Day of Rage, WrathGlossary of Islam_item_25_505
  • Yawm al-Qiyāmah (يوم القيامة): "Day of the Resurrection"; Day of JudgementGlossary of Islam_item_25_506

Z Glossary of Islam_section_22

Glossary of Islam_description_list_26

  • Zabūr (زبور): the Psalms revealed to King Daoud (David) عليه السلامGlossary of Islam_item_26_507
  • Zabīḥa (Dhabīḥah) (ذَبِيْحَة) see dhabiha: Islamic method of slaughtering an animal. Using a sharp knife the animal's windpipe, throat and blood vessels of the neck are severed without cutting the spinal cord to ensure that the blood is thoroughly drained before removing the head. See halalGlossary of Islam_item_26_508
  • Ẓāhir(ظاهر): Exterior meaningGlossary of Islam_item_26_509
  • Zaidi (الزيدية): Islamic sub-sect of Shi'ah, popularly found in Yemen, with similarities to SunniGlossary of Islam_item_26_510
  • Zakāt (زكاة), Al-Māl: tax, alms, tithe as a Muslim duty; Sunnis regard this as the fourth Pillar of Islam. Neither charity nor derived from Islamic economics, but a religious duty and social obligation.Glossary of Islam_item_26_511
  • Zakāt al-Fiṭr (زكاة الفطر): Charity given at the end of Ramadan.Glossary of Islam_item_26_512
  • Ẓālimūn (ظالمون): polytheists, wrong-doers, and unjust.Glossary of Islam_item_26_513
  • Zandaqa (زندقة): heresyGlossary of Islam_item_26_514
  • Zināʾ (زناء, زنى): sexual activity outside of marriage (covering the English words adultery and fornication)Glossary of Islam_item_26_515
  • Zindīq (زنديق): heretic, atheistGlossary of Islam_item_26_516
  • Zulfiqar (Dhu-l-fiqār) (ذو الفقار): Sword of Ali, presented to him by MuhammadGlossary of Islam_item_26_517

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of Islam.