Israel

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This article is about the State of Israel. Israel_sentence_0

For other uses, see Israel (disambiguation). Israel_sentence_1

Israel_table_infobox_0

State of IsraelIsrael_header_cell_0_0_0
Capital

and largest cityIsrael_header_cell_0_1_0

JerusalemIsrael_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesIsrael_header_cell_0_2_0 HebrewIsrael_cell_0_2_1
Recognized languagesIsrael_header_cell_0_3_0 ArabicIsrael_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groups (2019)Israel_header_cell_0_4_0 Israel_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2019)Israel_header_cell_0_5_0 Israel_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Israel_header_cell_0_6_0 IsraeliIsrael_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentIsrael_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary parliamentary republicIsrael_cell_0_7_1
PresidentIsrael_header_cell_0_8_0 Reuven RivlinIsrael_cell_0_8_1
Prime MinisterIsrael_header_cell_0_9_0 Benjamin NetanyahuIsrael_cell_0_9_1
Knesset SpeakerIsrael_header_cell_0_10_0 Yariv LevinIsrael_cell_0_10_1
Chief JusticeIsrael_header_cell_0_11_0 Esther HayutIsrael_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureIsrael_header_cell_0_12_0 KnessetIsrael_cell_0_12_1
Independence from the British EmpireIsrael_header_cell_0_13_0
DeclarationIsrael_header_cell_0_14_0 14 May 1948Israel_cell_0_14_1
Admission to the

United NationsIsrael_header_cell_0_15_0

11 May 1949Israel_cell_0_15_1
Basic LawsIsrael_header_cell_0_16_0 1958–2018Israel_cell_0_16_1
Area Israel_header_cell_0_17_0
TotalIsrael_header_cell_0_18_0 20,770–22,072 km (8,019–8,522 sq mi) (150th)Israel_cell_0_18_1
Water (%)Israel_header_cell_0_19_0 2.1Israel_cell_0_19_1
PopulationIsrael_header_cell_0_20_0
2020 estimateIsrael_header_cell_0_21_0 9,294,200 (99th)Israel_cell_0_21_1
2008 censusIsrael_header_cell_0_22_0 7,412,200Israel_cell_0_22_1
DensityIsrael_header_cell_0_23_0 421/km (1,090.4/sq mi) (35th)Israel_cell_0_23_1
GDP (PPP)Israel_header_cell_0_24_0 2020 estimateIsrael_cell_0_24_1
TotalIsrael_header_cell_0_25_0 $372.314 billion (51st)Israel_cell_0_25_1
Per capitaIsrael_header_cell_0_26_0 $40,336 (34th)Israel_cell_0_26_1
GDP (nominal)Israel_header_cell_0_27_0 2020 estimateIsrael_cell_0_27_1
TotalIsrael_header_cell_0_28_0 $410.501 billion (31st)Israel_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaIsrael_header_cell_0_29_0 $44,474 (19th)Israel_cell_0_29_1
Gini (2018)Israel_header_cell_0_30_0 34.8

medium · 48thIsrael_cell_0_30_1

HDI (2018)Israel_header_cell_0_31_0 0.906

very high · 22ndIsrael_cell_0_31_1

CurrencyIsrael_header_cell_0_32_0 New shekel (₪‎) (ILS)Israel_cell_0_32_1
Time zoneIsrael_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC+2 (IST)Israel_cell_0_33_1
Summer (DST)Israel_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC+3 (IDT)Israel_cell_0_34_1
Date formatIsrael_header_cell_0_35_0 Israel_cell_0_35_1
Driving sideIsrael_header_cell_0_36_0 rightIsrael_cell_0_36_1
Calling codeIsrael_header_cell_0_37_0 +972Israel_cell_0_37_1
ISO 3166 codeIsrael_header_cell_0_38_0 ILIsrael_cell_0_38_1
Internet TLDIsrael_header_cell_0_39_0 .ilIsrael_cell_0_39_1

Israel (/ˈɪzriəl, ˈɪzreɪəl/; Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל‎; Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل‎), officially known as the State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Medinat Yisra'el), is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. Israel_sentence_2

It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. Israel_sentence_3

Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although international recognition of the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem is limited. Israel_sentence_4

Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Israel_sentence_5

Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age. Israel_sentence_6

The Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Israel_sentence_7

Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces. Israel_sentence_8

The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Israel_sentence_9

Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, the expulsion of the Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Israel_sentence_10

Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. Israel_sentence_11

In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187. Israel_sentence_12

The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Israel_sentence_13

During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement followed by immigration to Palestine. Israel_sentence_14

In 1947, the United Nations (UN) adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_15

The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, and rejected by Arab leaders. Israel_sentence_16

The following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, and the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel_sentence_17

Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, and since the Six-Day War in June 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip (still considered occupied after the 2005 disengagement, although some legal experts dispute this claim). Israel_sentence_18

Subsequent legislative acts have resulted in the full application of Israeli law within the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem, as well as its partial application in the West Bank via "pipelining" into Israeli settlements. Israel_sentence_19

Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is internationally considered to be the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Israel_sentence_20

Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement, while Israel has signed peace treaties with both Egypt and Jordan. Israel_sentence_21

In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state and the nation state of the Jewish people. Israel_sentence_22

The country is a liberal democracy with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, and universal suffrage. Israel_sentence_23

The prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel_sentence_24

With a population of around 9 million as of 2019, Israel is a developed country and an OECD member. Israel_sentence_25

It has the world's 31st-largest economy by nominal GDP, and is the most developed country currently in conflict. Israel_sentence_26

It has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, and ranks among the world's top countries by percentage of citizens with military training, percentage of citizens holding a tertiary education degree, research and development spending by GDP percentage, women's safety, life expectancy, innovativeness, and happiness. Israel_sentence_27

Etymology Israel_section_0

Under British Mandate (1920–1948), the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebrew: פלשתינה [א״י]‎, lit. Israel_sentence_28

'Palestine [Eretz Israel]'). Israel_sentence_29

Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name 'State of Israel' (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎, Medīnat Yisrā'el [mediˈnat jisʁaˈʔel; Arabic: دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎, Dawlat Isrāʼīl, [dawlat ʔisraːˈʔiːl) after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel ('the Land of Israel'), Ever (from ancestor Eber), Zion, and Judea, were considered but rejected, while the name 'Israel' was suggested by Ben-Gurion and passed by a vote of 6–3. Israel_sentence_30

In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. Israel_sentence_31

The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively. Israel_sentence_32

The name 'Israel' (Hebrew: Yisraʾel, Isrāʾīl; Septuagint Greek: Ἰσραήλ, Israēl, 'El (God) persists/rules', though after often interpreted as 'struggle with God') in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Israel_sentence_33

Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Israel_sentence_34

Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus". Israel_sentence_35

The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE). Israel_sentence_36

The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Baháʼí Faith. Israel_sentence_37

Through the centuries, the territory was known by a variety of other names, including Canaan, Djahy, Samaria, Judea, Yehud, Iudaea, Syria Palaestina and Southern Syria. Israel_sentence_38

History Israel_section_1

Main article: History of Israel Israel_sentence_39

Prehistory Israel_section_2

Further information: Prehistory of the Levant Israel_sentence_40

The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1.5 million years ago, was found in Ubeidiya near the Sea of Galilee. Israel_sentence_41

Other notable Paleolithic sites include the caves Tabun, Qesem and Manot. Israel_sentence_42

The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, who lived in the area that is now northern Israel 120,000 years ago. Israel_sentence_43

Around 10th millennium BCE, the Natufian culture existed in the area. Israel_sentence_44

Antiquity Israel_section_3

Main article: History of ancient Israel and Judah Israel_sentence_45

Further information: Israelites, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), and Kingdom of Judah Israel_sentence_46

The early history of the territory is unclear. Israel_sentence_47

Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the narrative in the Torah concerning the patriarchs, The Exodus, and the conquest of Canaan described in the Book of Joshua, and instead views the narrative as constituting the Israelites' national myth. Israel_sentence_48

During the Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE), large parts of Canaan formed vassal states paying tribute to the New Kingdom of Egypt, whose administrative headquarters lay in Gaza. Israel_sentence_49

Ancestors of the Israelites are thought to have included ancient Semitic-speaking peoples native to this area. Israel_sentence_50

The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of these Canaanite peoples and their cultures through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh. Israel_sentence_51

The archaeological evidence indicates a society of village-like centres, but with more limited resources and a small population. Israel_sentence_52

Villages had populations of up to 300 or 400, which lived by farming and herding, and were largely self-sufficient; economic interchange was prevalent. Israel_sentence_53

Writing was known and available for recording, even in small sites. Israel_sentence_54

While it is unclear if there was ever a United Monarchy, there is well-accepted archeological evidence referring to "Israel" in the Merneptah Stele which dates to about 1200 BCE; and the Canaanites are archaeologically attested in the Middle Bronze Age (2100–1550 BCE). Israel_sentence_55

There is debate about the earliest existence of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah and their extent and power, but historians and archaeologists agree that a Kingdom of Israel existed by ca. 900 BCE and that a Kingdom of Judah existed by ca. 700 BCE. Israel_sentence_56

The Kingdom of Israel was destroyed around 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Israel_sentence_57

In 586 BCE, King Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon conquered Judah. Israel_sentence_58

According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyed Solomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon. Israel_sentence_59

The defeat was also recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles. Israel_sentence_60

The Babylonian exile ended around 538 BCE under the rule of the Medo-Persian Cyrus the Great after he captured Babylon. Israel_sentence_61

The Second Temple was constructed around 520 BCE. Israel_sentence_62

As part of the Persian Empire, the former Kingdom of Judah became the province of Judah (Yehud Medinata) with different borders, covering a smaller territory. Israel_sentence_63

The population of the province was greatly reduced from that of the kingdom, archaeological surveys showing a population of around 30,000 people in the 5th to 4th centuries BCE. Israel_sentence_64

Classical period Israel_section_4

Main article: Second Temple period Israel_sentence_65

Further information: Hasmonean dynasty, Herodian dynasty, and Jewish–Roman wars Israel_sentence_66

With successive Persian rule, the autonomous province Yehud Medinata was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans. Israel_sentence_67

The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest. Israel_sentence_68

Incorporated into the Ptolemaic and finally the Seleucid empires, the southern Levant was heavily hellenized, building the tensions between Judeans and Greeks. Israel_sentence_69

The conflict erupted in 167 BCE with the Maccabean Revolt, which succeeded in establishing an independent Hasmonean Kingdom in Judah, which later expanded over much of modern Israel, as the Seleucids gradually lost control in the region. Israel_sentence_70

The Roman Republic invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean Civil War. Israel_sentence_71

The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome. Israel_sentence_72

With the decline of the Herodian dynasty, Judea, transformed into a Roman province, became the site of a violent struggle of Jews against Romans, culminating in the Jewish–Roman wars, ending in wide-scale destruction, expulsions, genocide, and enslavement of masses of Jewish captives. Israel_sentence_73

An estimated 1,356,460 Jews were killed as a result of the First Jewish Revolt; the Second Jewish Revolt (115–117) led to the death of more than 200,000 Jews; and the Third Jewish Revolt (132–136) resulted in the death of 580,000 Jewish soldiers. Israel_sentence_74

Jewish presence in the region significantly dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE. Israel_sentence_75

Nevertheless, there was a continuous small Jewish presence and Galilee became its religious center. Israel_sentence_76

The Mishnah and part of the Talmud, central Jewish texts, were composed during the 2nd to 4th centuries CE in Tiberias and Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_77

The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country. Israel_sentence_78

Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman Paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule. Israel_sentence_79

Through the 5th and 6th centuries, the dramatic events of the repeated Samaritan revolts reshaped the land, with massive destruction to Byzantine Christian and Samaritan societies and a resulting decrease of the population. Israel_sentence_80

After the Persian conquest and the installation of a short-lived Jewish Commonwealth in 614 CE, the Byzantine Empire reconquered the country in 628. Israel_sentence_81

Middle Ages and modern history Israel_section_5

Further information: History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages, Muslim conquest of the Levant, Crusades, and Old Yishuv Israel_sentence_82

In 634–641 CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had recently adopted Islam. Israel_sentence_83

Control of the region transferred between the Rashidun Caliphs, Umayyads, Abbasids, Fatimids, Seljuks, Crusaders, and Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries. Israel_sentence_84

During the siege of Jerusalem by the First Crusade in 1099, the Jewish inhabitants of the city fought side by side with the Fatimid garrison and the Muslim population who tried in vain to defend the city against the Crusaders. Israel_sentence_85

When the city fell, around 60,000 people were massacred, including 6,000 Jews seeking refuge in a synagogue. Israel_sentence_86

At this time, a full thousand years after the fall of the Jewish state, there were Jewish communities all over the country. Israel_sentence_87

Fifty of them are known and include Jerusalem, Tiberias, Ramleh, Ashkelon, Caesarea, and Gaza. Israel_sentence_88

According to Albert of Aachen, the Jewish residents of Haifa were the main fighting force of the city, and "mixed with Saracen [Fatimid] troops", they fought bravely for close to a month until forced into retreat by the Crusader fleet and land army. Israel_sentence_89

In 1165, Maimonides visited Jerusalem and prayed on the Temple Mount, in the "great, holy house." Israel_sentence_90

In 1141, the Spanish-Jewish poet Yehuda Halevi issued a call for Jews to migrate to the Land of Israel, a journey he undertook himself. Israel_sentence_91

In 1187, Sultan Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, defeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin and subsequently captured Jerusalem and almost all of Palestine. Israel_sentence_92

In time, Saladin issued a proclamation inviting Jews to return and settle in Jerusalem, and according to Judah al-Harizi, they did: "From the day the Arabs took Jerusalem, the Israelites inhabited it." Israel_sentence_93

Al-Harizi compared Saladin's decree allowing Jews to re-establish themselves in Jerusalem to the one issued by the Persian king Cyrus the Great over 1,600 years earlier. Israel_sentence_94

In 1211, the Jewish community in the country was strengthened by the arrival of a group headed by over 300 rabbis from France and England, among them Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens. Israel_sentence_95

Nachmanides (Ramban), the 13th-century Spanish rabbi and recognised leader of Jewry, greatly praised the Land of Israel and viewed its settlement as a positive commandment incumbent on all Jews. Israel_sentence_96

He wrote "If the gentiles wish to make peace, we shall make peace and leave them on clear terms; but as for the land, we shall not leave it in their hands, nor in the hands of any nation, not in any generation." Israel_sentence_97

In 1260, control passed to the Mamluk sultans of Egypt. Israel_sentence_98

The country was located between the two centres of Mamluk power, Cairo and Damascus, and only saw some development along the postal road connecting the two cities. Israel_sentence_99

Jerusalem, although left without the protection of any city walls since 1219, also saw a flurry of new construction projects centred around the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound on the Temple Mount. Israel_sentence_100

In 1266, the Mamluk Sultan Baybars converted the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron into an exclusive Islamic sanctuary and banned Christians and Jews from entering, who previously had been able to enter it for a fee. Israel_sentence_101

The ban remained in place until Israel took control of the building in 1967. Israel_sentence_102

In 1470, Isaac b. Meir Latif arrived from Italy and counted 150 Jewish families in Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_103

Thanks to Joseph Saragossi who had arrived in the closing years of the 15th century, Safed and its environs had developed into the largest concentration of Jews in Palestine. Israel_sentence_104

With the help of the Sephardic immigration from Spain, the Jewish population had increased to 10,000 by the early 16th century. Israel_sentence_105

In 1516, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire; it remained under Turkish rule until the end of the First World War, when Britain defeated the Ottoman forces and set up a military administration across the former Ottoman Syria. Israel_sentence_106

In 1660, a Druze revolt led to the destruction of Safed and Tiberias. Israel_sentence_107

In the late 18th century, local Arab Sheikh Zahir al-Umar created a de facto independent Emirate in the Galilee. Israel_sentence_108

Ottoman attempts to subdue the Sheikh failed, but after Zahir's death the Ottomans regained control of the area. Israel_sentence_109

In 1799 governor Jazzar Pasha successfully repelled an assault on Acre by troops of Napoleon, prompting the French to abandon the Syrian campaign. Israel_sentence_110

In 1834 a revolt by Palestinian Arab peasants broke out against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies under Muhammad Ali. Israel_sentence_111

Although the revolt was suppressed, Muhammad Ali's army retreated and Ottoman rule was restored with British support in 1840. Israel_sentence_112

Shortly after, the Tanzimat reforms were implemented across the Ottoman Empire. Israel_sentence_113

In 1920, after the Allies conquered the Levant during World War I, the territory was divided between Britain and France under the mandate system, and the British-administered area which included modern day Israel was named Mandatory Palestine. Israel_sentence_114

Zionism and British Mandate Israel_section_6

Main articles: Zionism, Yishuv, Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem, Mandatory Palestine, and Mandate for Palestine Israel_sentence_115

Further information: Balfour Declaration and Intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine Israel_sentence_116

Since the existence of the earliest Jewish diaspora, many Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel", though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute. Israel_sentence_117

The hopes and yearnings of Jews living in exile are an important theme of the Jewish belief system. Israel_sentence_118

After the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, some communities settled in Palestine. Israel_sentence_119

During the 16th century, Jewish communities struck roots in the Four Holy CitiesJerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed—and in 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1,500 Jews to Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_120

In the second half of the 18th century, Eastern European opponents of Hasidism, known as the Perushim, settled in Palestine. Israel_sentence_121

The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestine, known as the First Aliyah, began in 1881, as Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe. Israel_sentence_122

The First Aliyah laid the cornerstone for widespread Jewish settlement in Palestine. Israel_sentence_123

From 1881 to 1903, the Jews had established dozens of settlements and purchased about 350,000 dunams of land. Israel_sentence_124

At the same time, the revival of the Hebrew language began among Jews in Palestine, spurred on largely by Eliezer Ben-Yehuda, a Russian-born Jew who had settled in Jerusalem in 1881. Israel_sentence_125

Jews were encouraged to speak Hebrew in the place of other languages, a Hebrew school system began to emerge, and new words were coined or borrowed from other languages for modern inventions and concepts. Israel_sentence_126

As a result, Hebrew gradually became the predominant language of the Jewish community of Palestine, which until then had been divided into different linguistic communities that primarily used Hebrew for religious purposes and as a means of communication between Jews with different native languages. Israel_sentence_127

Although the Zionist movement already existed in practice, Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl is credited with founding political Zionism, a movement that sought to establish a Jewish state in the Land of Israel, thus offering a solution to the so-called Jewish question of the European states, in conformity with the goals and achievements of other national projects of the time. Israel_sentence_128

In 1896, Herzl published Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State), offering his vision of a future Jewish state; the following year he presided over the First Zionist Congress. Israel_sentence_129

The Second Aliyah (1904–14), began after the Kishinev pogrom; some 40,000 Jews settled in Palestine, although nearly half of them left eventually. Israel_sentence_130

Both the first and second waves of migrants were mainly Orthodox Jews, although the Second Aliyah included socialist groups who established the kibbutz movement. Israel_sentence_131

Though the immigrants of the Second Aliyah largely sought to create communal agricultural settlements, the period also saw the establishment of Tel Aviv in 1909 as the "first Hebrew city." Israel_sentence_132

This period also saw the appearance of Jewish armed self-defense organizations as a means of defense for Jewish settlements. Israel_sentence_133

The first such organization was Bar-Giora, a small secret guard founded in 1907. Israel_sentence_134

Two years later, larger Hashomer organization was founded as its replacement. Israel_sentence_135

During World War I, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour sent the Balfour Declaration to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, that stated that Britain intended for the creation of a Jewish "national home" in Palestine. Israel_sentence_136

In 1918, the Jewish Legion, a group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine. Israel_sentence_137

Arab opposition to British rule and Jewish immigration led to the 1920 Palestine riots and the formation of a Jewish militia known as the Haganah (meaning "The Defense" in Hebrew) in 1920 as an outgrowth of Hashomer, from which the Irgun and Lehi, or the Stern Gang, paramilitary groups later split off. Israel_sentence_138

In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain the Mandate for Palestine under terms which included the Balfour Declaration with its promise to the Jews, and with similar provisions regarding the Arab Palestinians. Israel_sentence_139

The population of the area at this time was predominantly Arab and Muslim, with Jews accounting for about 11%, and Arab Christians about 9.5% of the population. Israel_sentence_140

The Third (1919–23) and Fourth Aliyahs (1924–29) brought an additional 100,000 Jews to Palestine. Israel_sentence_141

The rise of Nazism and the increasing persecution of Jews in 1930s Europe led to the Fifth Aliyah, with an influx of a quarter of a million Jews. Israel_sentence_142

This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of 1936–39, which was launched as a reaction to continued Jewish immigration and land purchases. Israel_sentence_143

Several hundred Jews and British security personnel were killed, while the British Mandate authorities alongside the Zionist militias of the Haganah and Irgun killed 5,032 Arabs and wounded 14,760, resulting in over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled. Israel_sentence_144

The British introduced restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine with the White Paper of 1939. Israel_sentence_145

With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine. Israel_sentence_146

By the end of World War II, the Jewish population of Palestine had increased to 33% of the total population. Israel_sentence_147

After World War II Israel_section_7

Further information: United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, 1947–1949 Palestine war, and Israeli Declaration of Independence Israel_sentence_148

After World War II, the UK found itself facing a Jewish guerrilla campaign over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels. Israel_sentence_149

The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule. Israel_sentence_150

At the same time, hundreds of thousands of Jewish Holocaust survivors and refugees sought a new life far from their destroyed communities in Europe. Israel_sentence_151

The Haganah attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine in a program called Aliyah Bet in which tens of thousands of Jewish refugees attempted to enter Palestine by ship. Israel_sentence_152

Most of the ships were intercepted by the Royal Navy and the refugees rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British. Israel_sentence_153

On 22 July 1946, Irgun attacked the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_154

A total of 91 people of various nationalities were killed and 46 were injured. Israel_sentence_155

The hotel was the site of the Secretariat of the Government of Palestine and the Headquarters of the British Armed Forces in Mandatory Palestine and Transjordan. Israel_sentence_156

The attack initially had the approval of the Haganah. Israel_sentence_157

It was conceived as a response to Operation Agatha (a series of widespread raids, including one on the Jewish Agency, conducted by the British authorities) and was the deadliest directed at the British during the Mandate era. Israel_sentence_158

The Jewish insurgency continued throughout the rest of 1946 and 1947 despite repressive efforts by the British military and Palestine Police Force to stop it. Israel_sentence_159

British efforts to mediate a negotiated solution with Jewish and Arab representatives also failed as the Jews were unwilling to accept any solution that did not involve a Jewish state and suggested a partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab states, while the Arabs were adamant that a Jewish state in any part of Palestine was unacceptable and that the only solution was a unified Palestine under Arab rule. Israel_sentence_160

In February 1947, the British referred the Palestine issue to the newly formed United Nations. Israel_sentence_161

On 15 May 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations resolved that the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine." Israel_sentence_162

In the Report of the Committee dated 3 September 1947 to the General Assembly, the majority of the Committee in Chapter VI proposed a plan to replace the British Mandate with "an independent Arab State, an independent Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem [...] the last to be under an International Trusteeship System." Israel_sentence_163

Meanwhile, the Jewish insurgency continued and peaked in July 1947, with a series of widespread guerrilla raids culminating in the sergeants affair. Israel_sentence_164

After three Irgun fighters had been sentenced to death for their role in the Acre Prison break, a May 1947 Irgun raid on Acre Prison in which 27 Irgun and Lehi militants were freed, the Irgun captured two British sergeants and held them hostage, threatening to kill them if the three men were executed. Israel_sentence_165

When the British carried out the executions, the Irgun responded by killing the two hostages and hanged their bodies from eucalyptus trees, booby-trapping one of them with a mine which injured a British officer as he cut the body down. Israel_sentence_166

The hangings caused widespread outrage in Britain and were a major factor in the consensus forming in Britain that it was time to evacuate Palestine. Israel_sentence_167

In September 1947, the British cabinet decided that the Mandate was no longer tenable, and to evacuate Palestine. Israel_sentence_168

According to Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones, four major factors led to the decision to evacuate Palestine: the inflexibility of Jewish and Arab negotiators who were unwilling to compromise on their core positions over the question of a Jewish state in Palestine, the economic pressure that stationing a large garrison in Palestine to deal with the Jewish insurgency and the possibility of a wider Jewish rebellion and the possibility of an Arab rebellion put on a British economy already strained by World War II, the "deadly blow to British patience and pride" caused by the hangings of the sergeants, and the mounting criticism the government faced in failing to find a new policy for Palestine in place of the White Paper of 1939. Israel_sentence_169

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 181 (II) recommending the adoption and implementation of the Plan of Partition with Economic Union. Israel_sentence_170

The plan attached to the resolution was essentially that proposed by the majority of the Committee in the report of 3 September. Israel_sentence_171

The Jewish Agency, which was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan. Israel_sentence_172

The Arab League and Arab Higher Committee of Palestine rejected it, and indicated that they would reject any other plan of partition. Israel_sentence_173

On the following day, 1 December 1947, the Arab Higher Committee proclaimed a three-day strike, and riots broke out in Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_174

The situation spiralled into a civil war; just two weeks after the UN vote, Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones announced that the British Mandate would end on 15 May 1948, at which point the British would evacuate. Israel_sentence_175

As Arab militias and gangs attacked Jewish areas, they were faced mainly by the Haganah, as well as the smaller Irgun and Lehi. Israel_sentence_176

In April 1948, the Haganah moved onto the offensive. Israel_sentence_177

During this period 250,000 Palestinian Arabs fled or were expelled, due to a number of factors. Israel_sentence_178

On 14 May 1948, the day before the expiration of the British Mandate, David Ben-Gurion, the head of the Jewish Agency, declared "the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz-Israel, to be known as the State of Israel." Israel_sentence_179

The only reference in the text of the Declaration to the borders of the new state is the use of the term Eretz-Israel ("Land of Israel"). Israel_sentence_180

The following day, the armies of four Arab countries—Egypt, Syria, Transjordan and Iraq—entered what had been British Mandatory Palestine, launching the 1948 Arab–Israeli War; contingents from Yemen, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Sudan joined the war. Israel_sentence_181

The apparent purpose of the invasion was to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state at inception, and some Arab leaders talked about driving the Jews into the sea. Israel_sentence_182

According to Benny Morris, Jews felt that the invading Arab armies aimed to slaughter the Jews. Israel_sentence_183

The Arab league stated that the invasion was to restore law and order and to prevent further bloodshed. Israel_sentence_184

After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Line, were established. Israel_sentence_185

Jordan annexed what became known as the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and Egypt occupied the Gaza Strip. Israel_sentence_186

The UN estimated that more than 700,000 Palestinians were expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would become known in Arabic as the Nakba ("catastrophe"). Israel_sentence_187

Some 156,000 remained and became Arab citizens of Israel. Israel_sentence_188

Early years of the State of Israel Israel_section_8

Further information: Arab–Israeli conflict Israel_sentence_189

Israel was admitted as a member of the UN by majority vote on 11 May 1949. Israel_sentence_190

Both Israel and Jordan were genuinely interested in a peace agreement but the British acted as a brake on the Jordanian effort in order to avoid damaging British interests in Egypt. Israel_sentence_191

In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics. Israel_sentence_192

The kibbutzim, or collective farming communities, played a pivotal role in establishing the new state. Israel_sentence_193

Immigration to Israel during the late 1940s and early 1950s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Mossad LeAliyah Bet (lit. Israel_sentence_194

"Institute for Immigration B") which organized illegal and clandestine immigration. Israel_sentence_195

Both groups facilitated regular immigration logistics like arranging transportation, but the latter also engaged in clandestine operations in countries, particularly in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where the lives of Jews were believed to be in danger and exit from those places was difficult. Israel_sentence_196

Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in 1953. Israel_sentence_197

The immigration was in accordance with the One Million Plan. Israel_sentence_198

The immigrants came for differing reasons: some held Zionist beliefs or came for the promise of a better life in Israel, while others moved to escape persecution or were expelled. Israel_sentence_199

An influx of Holocaust survivors and Jews from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel during the first three years increased the number of Jews from 700,000 to 1,400,000. Israel_sentence_200

By 1958, the population of Israel rose to two million. Israel_sentence_201

Between 1948 and 1970, approximately 1,150,000 Jewish refugees relocated to Israel. Israel_sentence_202

Some new immigrants arrived as refugees with no possessions and were housed in temporary camps known as ma'abarot; by 1952, over 200,000 people were living in these tent cities. Israel_sentence_203

Jews of European background were often treated more favorably than Jews from Middle Eastern and North African countries—housing units reserved for the latter were often re-designated for the former, with the result that Jews newly arrived from Arab lands generally ended up staying in transit camps for longer. Israel_sentence_204

During this period, food, clothes and furniture had to be rationed in what became known as the austerity period. Israel_sentence_205

The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust. Israel_sentence_206

During the 1950s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen, nearly always against civilians, mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip, leading to several Israeli reprisal operations. Israel_sentence_207

In 1956, the United Kingdom and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal, which the Egyptians had nationalized. Israel_sentence_208

The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, together with the growing amount of Fedayeen attacks against Israel's southern population, and recent Arab grave and threatening statements, prompted Israel to attack Egypt. Israel_sentence_209

Israel joined a secret alliance with the United Kingdom and France and overran the Sinai Peninsula but was pressured to withdraw by the UN in return for guarantees of Israeli shipping rights in the Red Sea via the Straits of Tiran and the Canal. Israel_sentence_210

The war, known as the Suez Crisis, resulted in significant reduction of Israeli border infiltration. Israel_sentence_211

In the early 1960s, Israel captured Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and brought him to Israel for trial. Israel_sentence_212

The trial had a major impact on public awareness of the Holocaust. Israel_sentence_213

Eichmann remains the only person executed in Israel by conviction in an Israeli civilian court. Israel_sentence_214

During the spring and summer of 1963 Israel was engaged in a, now declassified diplomatic standoff with the United States due to the Israeli nuclear program. Israel_sentence_215

Since 1964, Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the Jordan River into the coastal plain, had been trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water resources, provoking tensions between Israel on the one hand, and Syria and Lebanon on the other. Israel_sentence_216

Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel and called for its destruction. Israel_sentence_217

By 1966, Israeli-Arab relations had deteriorated to the point of actual battles taking place between Israeli and Arab forces. Israel_sentence_218

In May 1967, Egypt massed its army near the border with Israel, expelled UN peacekeepers, stationed in the Sinai Peninsula since 1957, and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel_sentence_219

Other Arab states mobilized their forces. Israel_sentence_220

Israel reiterated that these actions were a casus belli and, on 5 June, launched a pre-emptive strike against Egypt. Israel_sentence_221

Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel. Israel_sentence_222

In a Six-Day War, Israel defeated Jordan and captured the West Bank, defeated Egypt and captured the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula, and defeated Syria and captured the Golan Heights. Israel_sentence_223

Jerusalem's boundaries were enlarged, incorporating East Jerusalem, and the 1949 Green Line became the administrative boundary between Israel and the occupied territories. Israel_sentence_224

Following the 1967 war and the "Three No's" resolution of the Arab League and during the 1967–1970 War of Attrition, Israel faced attacks from the Egyptians in the Sinai Peninsula, and from Palestinian groups targeting Israelis in the occupied territories, in Israel proper, and around the world. Israel_sentence_225

Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), established in 1964, which initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland". Israel_sentence_226

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Palestinian groups launched a wave of attacks against Israeli and Jewish targets around the world, including a massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Israel_sentence_227

The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers of the massacre, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon. Israel_sentence_228

On 6 October 1973, as Jews were observing Yom Kippur, the Egyptian and Syrian armies launched a surprise attack against Israeli forces in the Sinai Peninsula and Golan Heights, that opened the Yom Kippur War. Israel_sentence_229

The war ended on 25 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but having suffered over 2,500 soldiers killed in a war which collectively took 10–35,000 lives in about 20 days. Israel_sentence_230

An internal inquiry exonerated the government of responsibility for failures before and during the war, but public anger forced Prime Minister Golda Meir to resign. Israel_sentence_231

In July 1976, an airliner was hijacked during its flight from Israel to France by Palestinian guerrillas and landed at Entebbe, Uganda. Israel_sentence_232

Israeli commandos carried out an operation in which 102 out of 106 Israeli hostages were successfully rescued. Israel_sentence_233

Further conflict and peace process Israel_section_9

Further information: Israeli–Palestinian peace process and Iran–Israel proxy conflict Israel_sentence_234

See also: One-state solution, Two-state solution, Three-state solution, and Lieberman Plan Israel_sentence_235

The 1977 Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin's Likud party took control from the Labor Party. Israel_sentence_236

Later that year, Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat made a trip to Israel and spoke before the Knesset in what was the first recognition of Israel by an Arab head of state. Israel_sentence_237

In the two years that followed, Sadat and Begin signed the Camp David Accords (1978) and the Israel–Egypt Peace Treaty (1979). Israel_sentence_238

In return, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and agreed to enter negotiations over an autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israel_sentence_239

On 11 March 1978, a PLO guerilla raid from Lebanon led to the Coastal Road massacre. Israel_sentence_240

Israel responded by launching an invasion of southern Lebanon to destroy the PLO bases south of the Litani River. Israel_sentence_241

Most PLO fighters withdrew, but Israel was able to secure southern Lebanon until a UN force and the Lebanese army could take over. Israel_sentence_242

The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. Israel_sentence_243

In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border. Israel_sentence_244

Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground. Israel_sentence_245

Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank, increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area. Israel_sentence_246

The Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel, passed in 1980, was believed by some to reaffirm Israel's 1967 annexation of Jerusalem by government decree, and reignited international controversy over the status of the city. Israel_sentence_247

No Israeli legislation has defined the territory of Israel and no act specifically included East Jerusalem therein. Israel_sentence_248

The position of the majority of UN member states is reflected in numerous resolutions declaring that actions taken by Israel to settle its citizens in the West Bank, and impose its laws and administration on East Jerusalem, are illegal and have no validity. Israel_sentence_249

In 1981 Israel annexed the Golan Heights, although annexation was not recognized internationally. Israel_sentence_250

Israel's population diversity expanded in the 1980s and 1990s. Israel_sentence_251

Several waves of Ethiopian Jews immigrated to Israel since the 1980s, while between 1990 and 1994, immigration from the post-Soviet states increased Israel's population by twelve percent. Israel_sentence_252

On 7 June 1981, the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad, in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program. Israel_sentence_253

Following a series of PLO attacks in 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon that year to destroy the bases from which the PLO launched attacks and missiles into northern Israel. Israel_sentence_254

In the first six days of fighting, the Israelis destroyed the military forces of the PLO in Lebanon and decisively defeated the Syrians. Israel_sentence_255

An Israeli government inquiry—the Kahan Commission—would later hold Begin and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre and hold Defense minister Ariel Sharon as bearing "personal responsibility" for the massacre. Israel_sentence_256

Sharon was forced to resign as Defense Minister. Israel_sentence_257

In 1985, Israel responded to a Palestinian terrorist attack in Cyprus by bombing the PLO headquarters in Tunisia. Israel_sentence_258

Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in 1986, but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until 2000, from where Israeli forces engaged in conflict with Hezbollah. Israel_sentence_259

The First Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule, broke out in 1987, with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza. Israel_sentence_260

Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation. Israel_sentence_261

More than a thousand people were killed in the violence. Israel_sentence_262

During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel. Israel_sentence_263

Despite public outrage, Israel heeded American calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war. Israel_sentence_264

In 1992, Yitzhak Rabin became Prime Minister following an election in which his party called for compromise with Israel's neighbors. Israel_sentence_265

The following year, Shimon Peres on behalf of Israel, and Mahmoud Abbas for the PLO, signed the Oslo Accords, which gave the Palestinian National Authority the right to govern parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Israel_sentence_266

The PLO also recognized Israel's right to exist and pledged an end to terrorism. Israel_sentence_267

In 1994, the Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed, making Jordan the second Arab country to normalize relations with Israel. Israel_sentence_268

Arab public support for the Accords was damaged by the continuation of Israeli settlements and checkpoints, and the deterioration of economic conditions. Israel_sentence_269

Israeli public support for the Accords waned as Israel was struck by Palestinian suicide attacks. Israel_sentence_270

In November 1995, while leaving a peace rally, Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by Yigal Amir, a far-right-wing Jew who opposed the Accords. Israel_sentence_271

Under the leadership of Benjamin Netanyahu at the end of the 1990s, Israel withdrew from Hebron, and signed the Wye River Memorandum, giving greater control to the Palestinian National Authority. Israel_sentence_272

Ehud Barak, elected Prime Minister in 1999, began the new millennium by withdrawing forces from Southern Lebanon and conducting negotiations with Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat and U.S. President Bill Clinton at the 2000 Camp David Summit. Israel_sentence_273

During the summit, Barak offered a plan for the establishment of a Palestinian state. Israel_sentence_274

The proposed state included the entirety of the Gaza Strip and over 90% of the West Bank with Jerusalem as a shared capital. Israel_sentence_275

Each side blamed the other for the failure of the talks. Israel_sentence_276

After a controversial visit by Likud leader Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount, the Second Intifada began. Israel_sentence_277

Some commentators contend that the uprising was pre-planned by Arafat due to the collapse of peace talks. Israel_sentence_278

Sharon became prime minister in a 2001 special election. Israel_sentence_279

During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier, ending the Intifada. Israel_sentence_280

By this time 1,100 Israelis had been killed, mostly in suicide bombings. Israel_sentence_281

The Palestinian fatalities, from 2000 to 2008, reached 4,791 killed by Israeli security forces, 44 killed by Israeli civilians, and 609 killed by Palestinians. Israel_sentence_282

In July 2006, a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a cross-border abduction of two Israeli soldiers precipitated the month-long Second Lebanon War. Israel_sentence_283

On 6 September 2007, the Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria. Israel_sentence_284

At the end of 2008, Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. Israel_sentence_285

The 2008–09 Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire. Israel_sentence_286

Hamas announced its own ceasefire, with its own conditions of complete withdrawal and opening of border crossings. Israel_sentence_287

Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order. Israel_sentence_288

In what Israel described as a response to more than a hundred Palestinian rocket attacks on southern Israeli cities, Israel began an operation in Gaza on 14 November 2012, lasting eight days. Israel_sentence_289

Israel started another operation in Gaza following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas in July 2014. Israel_sentence_290

In September 2010, Israel was invited to join the OECD. Israel_sentence_291

Israel has also signed free trade agreements with the European Union, the United States, the European Free Trade Association, Turkey, Mexico, Canada, Jordan, and Egypt, and in 2007, it became the first non-Latin-American country to sign a free trade agreement with the Mercosur trade bloc. Israel_sentence_292

By the 2010s, the increasing regional cooperation between Israel and Arab League countries, with many of whom peace agreements (Jordan, Egypt) diplomatic relations (UAE, Palestine) and unofficial relations (Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Tunisia), have been established, the Israeli security situation shifted from the traditional Arab–Israeli hostility towards regional rivalry with Iran and its proxies. Israel_sentence_293

The Iranian–Israeli conflict gradually emerged from the declared hostility of post-revolutionary Islamic Republic of Iran towards Israel since 1979, into covert Iranian support of Hezbollah during the South Lebanon conflict (1985–2000) and essentially developed into a proxy regional conflict from 2005. Israel_sentence_294

With increasing Iranian involvement in the Syrian Civil War from 2011 the conflict shifted from proxy warfare into direct confrontation by early 2018. Israel_sentence_295

Geography and environment Israel_section_10

Main articles: Geography of Israel and Wildlife of Israel Israel_sentence_296

Israel is located in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent region. Israel_sentence_297

The country is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest. Israel_sentence_298

It lies between latitudes 29° and 34° N, and longitudes 34° and 36° E. Israel_sentence_299

The sovereign territory of Israel (according to the demarcation lines of the 1949 Armistice Agreements and excluding all territories captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War) is approximately 20,770 square kilometers (8,019 sq mi) in area, of which two percent is water. Israel_sentence_300

However Israel is so narrow (100 km at its widest, compared to 400 km from north to south) that the exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean is double the land area of the country. Israel_sentence_301

The total area under Israeli law, including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, is 22,072 square kilometers (8,522 sq mi), and the total area under Israeli control, including the military-controlled and partially Palestinian-governed territory of the West Bank, is 27,799 square kilometers (10,733 sq mi). Israel_sentence_302

Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the Negev desert in the south to the inland fertile Jezreel Valley, mountain ranges of the Galilee, Carmel and toward the Golan in the north. Israel_sentence_303

The Israeli coastal plain on the shores of the Mediterranean is home to most of the nation's population. Israel_sentence_304

East of the central highlands lies the Jordan Rift Valley, which forms a small part of the 6,500-kilometer (4,039 mi) Great Rift Valley. Israel_sentence_305

The Jordan River runs along the Jordan Rift Valley, from Mount Hermon through the Hulah Valley and the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea, the lowest point on the surface of the Earth. Israel_sentence_306

Further south is the Arabah, ending with the Gulf of Eilat, part of the Red Sea. Israel_sentence_307

Unique to Israel and the Sinai Peninsula are makhteshim, or erosion cirques. Israel_sentence_308

The largest makhtesh in the world is Ramon Crater in the Negev, which measures 40 by 8 kilometers (25 by 5 mi). Israel_sentence_309

A report on the environmental status of the Mediterranean Basin states that Israel has the largest number of plant species per square meter of all the countries in the basin. Israel_sentence_310

Tectonics and seismicity Israel_section_11

Further information: List of earthquakes in the Levant Israel_sentence_311

The Jordan Rift Valley is the result of tectonic movements within the Dead Sea Transform (DSF) fault system. Israel_sentence_312

The DSF forms the transform boundary between the African Plate to the west and the Arabian Plate to the east. Israel_sentence_313

The Golan Heights and all of Jordan are part of the Arabian Plate, while the Galilee, West Bank, Coastal Plain, and Negev along with the Sinai Peninsula are on the African Plate. Israel_sentence_314

This tectonic disposition leads to a relatively high seismic activity in the region. Israel_sentence_315

The entire Jordan Valley segment is thought to have ruptured repeatedly, for instance during the last two major earthquakes along this structure in 749 and 1033. Israel_sentence_316

The deficit in slip that has built up since the 1033 event is sufficient to cause an earthquake of Mw ~7.4. Israel_sentence_317

The most catastrophic known earthquakes occurred in 31 BCE, 363, 749, and 1033 CE, that is every ca. 400 years on average. Israel_sentence_318

Destructive earthquakes leading to serious loss of life strike about every 80 years. Israel_sentence_319

While stringent construction regulations are currently in place and recently built structures are earthquake-safe, as of 2007 the majority of the buildings in Israel were older than these regulations and many public buildings as well as 50,000 residential buildings did not meet the new standards and were "expected to collapse" if exposed to a strong earthquake. Israel_sentence_320

Climate Israel_section_12

Temperatures in Israel vary widely, especially during the winter. Israel_sentence_321

Coastal areas, such as those of Tel Aviv and Haifa, have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and long, hot summers. Israel_sentence_322

The area of Beersheba and the Northern Negev have a semi-arid climate with hot summers, cool winters, and fewer rainy days than the Mediterranean climate. Israel_sentence_323

The Southern Negev and the Arava areas have a desert climate with very hot, dry summers, and mild winters with few days of rain. Israel_sentence_324

The highest temperature in the continent of Asia (54.0 °C or 129.2 °F) was recorded in 1942 at Tirat Zvi kibbutz in the northern Jordan River valley. Israel_sentence_325

At the other extreme, mountainous regions can be windy and cold, and areas at elevation of 750 metres (2,460 ft) or more (same elevation as Jerusalem) will usually receive at least one snowfall each year. Israel_sentence_326

From May to September, rain in Israel is rare. Israel_sentence_327

With scarce water resources, Israel has developed various water-saving technologies, including drip irrigation. Israel_sentence_328

Israelis also take advantage of the considerable sunlight available for solar energy, making Israel the leading nation in solar energy use per capita (practically every house uses solar panels for water heating). Israel_sentence_329

Four different phytogeographic regions exist in Israel, due to the country's location between the temperate and tropical zones, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the desert in the east. Israel_sentence_330

For this reason, the flora and fauna of Israel are extremely diverse. Israel_sentence_331

There are 2,867 known species of plants found in Israel. Israel_sentence_332

Of these, at least 253 species are introduced and non-native. Israel_sentence_333

There are 380 Israeli nature reserves. Israel_sentence_334

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Demographics Israel_section_13

Main articles: Demographics of Israel and Israelis Israel_sentence_335

As of 2020, Israel's population was an estimated 9,294,200, of whom 74.2% were recorded by the civil government as Jews. Israel_sentence_336

Arabs accounted for 20.9% of the population, while non-Arab Christians and people who have no religion listed in the civil registry made up 4.8%. Israel_sentence_337

Over the last decade, large numbers of migrant workers from Romania, Thailand, China, Africa, and South America have settled in Israel. Israel_sentence_338

Exact figures are unknown, as many of them are living in the country illegally, but estimates run from 166,000 to 203,000. Israel_sentence_339

By June 2012, approximately 60,000 African migrants had entered Israel. Israel_sentence_340

About 92% of Israelis live in urban areas. Israel_sentence_341

Data published by the OECD in 2016 estimated the average life expectancy of Israelis at 82.5 years, making it the 6th-highest in the world. Israel_sentence_342

Israel was established as a homeland for the Jewish people and is often referred to as a Jewish state. Israel_sentence_343

The country's Law of Return grants all Jews and those of Jewish ancestry the right to Israeli citizenship. Israel_sentence_344

Retention of Israel's population since 1948 is about even or greater, when compared to other countries with mass immigration. Israel_sentence_345

Jewish emigration from Israel (called yerida in Hebrew), primarily to the United States and Canada, is described by demographers as modest, but is often cited by Israeli government ministries as a major threat to Israel's future. Israel_sentence_346

Three quarters of the population are Jews from a diversity of Jewish backgrounds. Israel_sentence_347

Approximately 75% of Israeli Jews are born in Israel, 16% are immigrants from Europe and the Americas, and 7% are immigrants from Asia and Africa (including the Arab world). Israel_sentence_348

Jews from Europe and the former Soviet Union and their descendants born in Israel, including Ashkenazi Jews, constitute approximately 50% of Jewish Israelis. Israel_sentence_349

Jews who left or fled Arab and Muslim countries and their descendants, including both Mizrahi and Sephardi Jews, form most of the rest of the Jewish population. Israel_sentence_350

Jewish intermarriage rates run at over 35% and recent studies suggest that the percentage of Israelis descended from both Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews increases by 0.5 percent every year, with over 25% of school children now originating from both communities. Israel_sentence_351

Around 4% of Israelis (300,000), ethnically defined as "others", are Russian descendants of Jewish origin or family who are not Jewish according to rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return. Israel_sentence_352

The total number of Israeli settlers beyond the Green Line is over 600,000 (≈10% of the Jewish Israeli population). Israel_sentence_353

In 2016, 399,300 Israelis lived in West Bank settlements, including those that predated the establishment of the State of Israel and which were re-established after the Six-Day War, in cities such as Hebron and Gush Etzion bloc. Israel_sentence_354

In addition to the West Bank settlements, there were more than 200,000 Jews living in East Jerusalem, and 22,000 in the Golan Heights. Israel_sentence_355

Approximately 7,800 Israelis lived in settlements in the Gaza Strip, known as Gush Katif, until they were evacuated by the government as part of its 2005 disengagement plan. Israel_sentence_356

Major urban areas Israel_section_14

For a more comprehensive list, see List of cities in Israel. Israel_sentence_357

There are four major metropolitan areas: Gush Dan (Tel Aviv metropolitan area; population 3,854,000), Jerusalem metropolitan area (population 1,253,900), Haifa metropolitan area (population 924,400), and Beersheba metropolitan area (population 377,100). Israel_sentence_358

Israel's largest municipality, in population and area, is Jerusalem with 936,425 residents in an area of 125 square kilometres (48 sq mi). Israel_sentence_359

Israeli government statistics on Jerusalem include the population and area of East Jerusalem, which is widely recognized as part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli occupation. Israel_sentence_360

Tel Aviv and Haifa rank as Israel's next most populous cities, with populations of 460,613 and 285,316, respectively. Israel_sentence_361

Israel has 16 cities with populations over 100,000. Israel_sentence_362

In all, there are 77 Israeli localities granted "municipalities" (or "city") status by the Ministry of the Interior, four of which are in the West Bank. Israel_sentence_363

Two more cities are planned: Kasif, a planned city to be built in the Negev, and Harish, originally a small town that is being built into a large city since 2015. Israel_sentence_364

^a This number includes East Jerusalem and West Bank areas, which had a total population of 542,410 inhabitants in 2016. Israel_sentence_365

Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is internationally unrecognized. Israel_sentence_366

Language Israel_section_15

Main article: Languages of Israel Israel_sentence_367

Israel has one official language, Hebrew. Israel_sentence_368

Arabic had been an official language of the State of Israel; in 2018 it was downgraded to having a 'special status in the state' with its use by state institutions to be set in law. Israel_sentence_369

Hebrew is the primary language of the state and is spoken every day by the majority of the population. Israel_sentence_370

Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority, with Hebrew taught in Arab schools. Israel_sentence_371

As a country of immigrants, many languages can be heard on the streets. Israel_sentence_372

Due to mass immigration from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia (some 130,000 Ethiopian Jews live in Israel), Russian and Amharic are widely spoken. Israel_sentence_373

More than one million Russian-speaking immigrants arrived in Israel from the post-Soviet states between 1990 and 2004. Israel_sentence_374

French is spoken by around 700,000 Israelis, mostly originating from France and North Africa (see Maghrebi Jews). Israel_sentence_375

English was an official language during the Mandate period; it lost this status after the establishment of Israel, but retains a role comparable to that of an official language, as may be seen in road signs and official documents. Israel_sentence_376

Many Israelis communicate reasonably well in English, as many television programs are broadcast in English with subtitles and the language is taught from the early grades in elementary school. Israel_sentence_377

In addition, Israeli universities offer courses in the English language on various subjects. Israel_sentence_378

Religion Israel_section_16

Main articles: Religion in Israel and Abrahamic religions Israel_sentence_379

Israel comprises a major part of the Holy Land, a region of significant importance to all Abrahamic religions – Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Druze and Baháʼí Faith. Israel_sentence_380

The religious affiliation of Israeli Jews varies widely: a social survey from 2016 made by Pew Research indicates that 49% self-identify as Hiloni (secular), 29% as Masorti (traditional), 13% as Dati (religious) and 9% as Haredi (ultra-Orthodox). Israel_sentence_381

Haredi Jews are expected to represent more than 20% of Israel's Jewish population by 2028. Israel_sentence_382

Muslims constitute Israel's largest religious minority, making up about 17.6% of the population. Israel_sentence_383

About 2% of the population is Christian and 1.6% is Druze. Israel_sentence_384

The Christian population is composed primarily of Arab Christians and Aramean Christians, but also includes post-Soviet immigrants, the foreign laborers of multinational origins, and followers of Messianic Judaism, considered by most Christians and Jews to be a form of Christianity. Israel_sentence_385

Members of many other religious groups, including Buddhists and Hindus, maintain a presence in Israel, albeit in small numbers. Israel_sentence_386

Out of more than one million immigrants from the former Soviet Union, about 300,000 are considered not Jewish by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel. Israel_sentence_387

The city of Jerusalem is of special importance to Jews, Muslims, and Christians, as it is the home of sites that are pivotal to their religious beliefs, such as the Old City that incorporates the Western Wall and the Temple Mount, the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Israel_sentence_388

Other locations of religious importance in Israel are Nazareth (holy in Christianity as the site of the Annunciation of Mary), Tiberias and Safed (two of the Four Holy Cities in Judaism), the White Mosque in Ramla (holy in Islam as the shrine of the prophet Saleh), and the Church of Saint George in Lod (holy in Christianity and Islam as the tomb of Saint George or Al Khidr). Israel_sentence_389

A number of other religious landmarks are located in the West Bank, among them Joseph's Tomb in Nablus, the birthplace of Jesus and Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem, and the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron. Israel_sentence_390

The administrative center of the Baháʼí Faith and the Shrine of the Báb are located at the Baháʼí World Centre in Haifa; the leader of the faith is buried in Acre. Israel_sentence_391

A few kilometres south of the Baháʼí World Centre is Mahmood Mosque affiliated with the reformist Ahmadiyya movement. Israel_sentence_392

Kababir, Haifa's mixed neighbourhood of Jews and Ahmadi Arabs is one of a few of its kind in the country, others being Jaffa, Acre, other Haifa neighborhoods, Harish and Upper Nazareth. Israel_sentence_393

Education Israel_section_17

Main article: Education in Israel Israel_sentence_394

Education is highly valued in the Israeli culture and was viewed as a fundamental block of ancient Israelites. Israel_sentence_395

Jewish communities in the Levant were the first to introduce compulsory education for which the organized community, not less than the parents was responsible. Israel_sentence_396

Many international business leaders such as Microsoft founder Bill Gates have praised Israel for its high quality of education in helping spur Israel's economic development and technological boom. Israel_sentence_397

In 2015, the country ranked third among OECD members (after Canada and Japan) for the percentage of 25–64 year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 49% compared with the OECD average of 35%. Israel_sentence_398

In 2012, the country ranked third in the world in the number of academic degrees per capita (20 percent of the population). Israel_sentence_399

Israel has a school life expectancy of 16 years and a literacy rate of 97.8%. Israel_sentence_400

The State Education Law, passed in 1953, established five types of schools: state secular, state religious, ultra orthodox, communal settlement schools, and Arab schools. Israel_sentence_401

The public secular is the largest school group, and is attended by the majority of Jewish and non-Arab pupils in Israel. Israel_sentence_402

Most Arabs send their children to schools where Arabic is the language of instruction. Israel_sentence_403

Education is compulsory in Israel for children between the ages of three and eighteen. Israel_sentence_404

Schooling is divided into three tiers – primary school (grades 1–6), middle school (grades 7–9), and high school (grades 10–12) – culminating with Bagrut matriculation exams. Israel_sentence_405

Proficiency in core subjects such as mathematics, the Hebrew language, Hebrew and general literature, the English language, history, Biblical scripture and civics is necessary to receive a Bagrut certificate. Israel_sentence_406

Israel's Jewish population maintains a relatively high level of educational attainment where just under half of all Israeli Jews (46%) hold post-secondary degrees. Israel_sentence_407

This figure has remained stable in their already high levels of educational attainment over recent generations. Israel_sentence_408

Israeli Jews (among those ages 25 and older) have average of 11.6 years of schooling making them one of the most highly educated of all major religious groups in the world. Israel_sentence_409

In Arab, Christian and Druze schools, the exam on Biblical studies is replaced by an exam on Muslim, Christian or Druze heritage. Israel_sentence_410

Maariv described the Christian Arabs sectors as "the most successful in education system", since Christians fared the best in terms of education in comparison to any other religion in Israel. Israel_sentence_411

Israeli children from Russian-speaking families have a higher bagrut pass rate at high-school level. Israel_sentence_412

Amongst immigrant children born in the Former Soviet Union, the bagrut pass rate is higher amongst those families from European FSU states at 62.6% and lower amongst those from Central Asian and Caucasian FSU states. Israel_sentence_413

In 2014, 61.5% of all Israeli twelfth graders earned a matriculation certificate. Israel_sentence_414

Israel has a tradition of higher education where its quality university education has been largely responsible in spurring the nations modern economic development. Israel_sentence_415

Israel has nine public universities that are subsidized by the state and 49 private colleges. Israel_sentence_416

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel's second-oldest university after the Technion, houses the National Library of Israel, the world's largest repository of Judaica and Hebraica. Israel_sentence_417

The Technion and the Hebrew University consistently ranked among world's 100 top universities by the prestigious ARWU academic ranking. Israel_sentence_418

Other major universities in the country include the Weizmann Institute of Science, Tel Aviv University, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Bar-Ilan University, the University of Haifa and the Open University of Israel. Israel_sentence_419

Ariel University, in the West Bank, is the newest university institution, upgraded from college status, and the first in over thirty years. Israel_sentence_420

Government and politics Israel_section_18

Main articles: Politics of Israel and Israeli system of government Israel_sentence_421

See also: Criticism of the Israeli government Israel_sentence_422

Israel is a parliamentary democracy with universal suffrage. Israel_sentence_423

A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the prime minister—usually this is the chair of the largest party. Israel_sentence_424

The prime minister is the head of government and head of the cabinet. Israel_sentence_425

Israel is governed by a 120-member parliament, known as the Knesset. Israel_sentence_426

Membership of the Knesset is based on proportional representation of political parties, with a 3.25% electoral threshold, which in practice has resulted in coalition governments. Israel_sentence_427

Residents of Israeli settlements in the West Bank are eligible to vote and after the 2015 election, 10 of the 120 MKs (8%) were settlers. Israel_sentence_428

Parliamentary elections are scheduled every four years, but unstable coalitions or a no-confidence vote by the Knesset can dissolve a government earlier. Israel_sentence_429

The Basic Laws of Israel function as an uncodified constitution. Israel_sentence_430

In 2003, the Knesset began to draft an official constitution based on these laws. Israel_sentence_431

The president of Israel is head of state, with limited and largely ceremonial duties. Israel_sentence_432

Israel has no official religion, but the definition of the state as "Jewish and democratic" creates a strong connection with Judaism, as well as a conflict between state law and religious law. Israel_sentence_433

Interaction between the political parties keeps the balance between state and religion largely as it existed during the British Mandate. Israel_sentence_434

Legal system Israel_section_19

Main articles: Judiciary of Israel and Israeli law Israel_sentence_435

Israel has a three-tier court system. Israel_sentence_436

At the lowest level are magistrate courts, situated in most cities across the country. Israel_sentence_437

Above them are district courts, serving as both appellate courts and courts of first instance; they are situated in five of Israel's six districts. Israel_sentence_438

The third and highest tier is the Supreme Court, located in Jerusalem; it serves a dual role as the highest court of appeals and the High Court of Justice. Israel_sentence_439

In the latter role, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, allowing individuals, both citizens and non-citizens, to petition against the decisions of state authorities. Israel_sentence_440

Although Israel supports the goals of the International Criminal Court, it has not ratified the Rome Statute, citing concerns about the ability of the court to remain free from political impartiality. Israel_sentence_441

Israel's legal system combines three legal traditions: English common law, civil law, and Jewish law. Israel_sentence_442

It is based on the principle of stare decisis (precedent) and is an adversarial system, where the parties in the suit bring evidence before the court. Israel_sentence_443

Court cases are decided by professional judges rather than juries. Israel_sentence_444

Marriage and divorce are under the jurisdiction of the religious courts: Jewish, Muslim, Druze, and Christian. Israel_sentence_445

The election of judges is carried out by a committee of two Knesset members, three Supreme Court justices, two Israeli Bar members and two ministers (one of which, Israel's justice minister, is the committee's chairman). Israel_sentence_446

The committee's members of the Knesset are secretly elected by the Knesset, and one of them is traditionally a member of the opposition, the committee's Supreme Court justices are chosen by tradition from all Supreme Court justices by seniority, the Israeli Bar members are elected by the bar, and the second minister is appointed by the Israeli cabinet. Israel_sentence_447

The current justice minister and committee's chairwoman is Ayelet Shaked. Israel_sentence_448

Administration of Israel's courts (both the "General" courts and the Labor Courts) is carried by the Administration of Courts, situated in Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_449

Both General and Labor courts are paperless courts: the storage of court files, as well as court decisions, are conducted electronically. Israel_sentence_450

Israel's Basic Law: Human Dignity and Liberty seeks to defend human rights and liberties in Israel. Israel_sentence_451

As a result of "Enclave law", large portions of Israeli civil law are applied to Israeli settlements and Israeli residents in the occupied territories. Israel_sentence_452

Administrative divisions Israel_section_20

Main article: Districts of Israel Israel_sentence_453

The State of Israel is divided into six main administrative districts, known as mehozot (Hebrew: מחוזות‎; singular: mahoz) – Center, Haifa, Jerusalem, North, South, and Tel Aviv districts, as well as the Judea and Samaria Area in the West Bank. Israel_sentence_454

All of the Judea and Samaria Area and parts of the Jerusalem and Northern districts are not recognized internationally as part of Israel. Israel_sentence_455

Districts are further divided into fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (Hebrew: נפות‎; singular: nafa), which are themselves partitioned into fifty natural regions. Israel_sentence_456

Israel_table_general_1

DistrictIsrael_header_cell_1_0_0 CapitalIsrael_header_cell_1_0_1 Largest cityIsrael_header_cell_1_0_2 PopulationIsrael_header_cell_1_0_3
JewsIsrael_header_cell_1_1_0 ArabsIsrael_header_cell_1_1_1 TotalIsrael_header_cell_1_1_2 noteIsrael_header_cell_1_1_3
JerusalemIsrael_header_cell_1_2_0 JerusalemIsrael_cell_1_2_1 67%Israel_cell_1_2_3 32%Israel_cell_1_2_4 1,083,300Israel_cell_1_2_5 Israel_cell_1_2_6
NorthIsrael_header_cell_1_3_0 Nof HaGalilIsrael_cell_1_3_1 NazarethIsrael_cell_1_3_2 43%Israel_cell_1_3_3 54%Israel_cell_1_3_4 1,401,300Israel_cell_1_3_5 Israel_cell_1_3_6
HaifaIsrael_header_cell_1_4_0 HaifaIsrael_cell_1_4_1 68%Israel_cell_1_4_3 26%Israel_cell_1_4_4 996,300Israel_cell_1_4_5 Israel_cell_1_4_6
CenterIsrael_header_cell_1_5_0 RamlaIsrael_cell_1_5_1 Rishon LeZionIsrael_cell_1_5_2 88%Israel_cell_1_5_3 8%Israel_cell_1_5_4 2,115,800Israel_cell_1_5_5 Israel_cell_1_5_6
Tel AvivIsrael_header_cell_1_6_0 Tel AvivIsrael_cell_1_6_1 93%Israel_cell_1_6_3 2%Israel_cell_1_6_4 1,388,400Israel_cell_1_6_5 Israel_cell_1_6_6
SouthIsrael_header_cell_1_7_0 BeershebaIsrael_cell_1_7_1 AshdodIsrael_cell_1_7_2 73%Israel_cell_1_7_3 20%Israel_cell_1_7_4 1,244,200Israel_cell_1_7_5 Israel_cell_1_7_6
Judea and Samaria AreaIsrael_header_cell_1_8_0 ArielIsrael_cell_1_8_1 Modi'in IllitIsrael_cell_1_8_2 98%Israel_cell_1_8_3 0%Israel_cell_1_8_4 399,300Israel_cell_1_8_5 Israel_cell_1_8_6

Israel_description_list_1

  • ^a Including over 200,000 Jews and 300,000 Arabs in East Jerusalem.Israel_item_1_5
  • ^b Israeli citizens only.Israel_item_1_6

Specific types of settlements Israel_section_21

Israel_unordered_list_2

Israeli-occupied territories Israel_section_22

Main articles: Israeli-occupied territories and Israeli occupation of the West Bank Israel_sentence_457

Israel_table_general_2

Overview of administration and sovereignty in the former British territory of Mandatory Palestine (1923–1948)Israel_table_caption_2
AreaIsrael_header_cell_2_0_0 Administered byIsrael_header_cell_2_0_2 Recognition of governing authorityIsrael_header_cell_2_0_3 Sovereignty claimed byIsrael_header_cell_2_0_4 Recognition of claimIsrael_header_cell_2_0_5
Gaza StripIsrael_cell_2_1_0 Palestinian National Authority (PA) (currently Hamas-led); under Israeli occupationIsrael_cell_2_1_2 Witnesses to the Oslo II AccordIsrael_cell_2_1_3 State of PalestineIsrael_cell_2_1_4 137 UN member statesIsrael_cell_2_1_5
West BankIsrael_cell_2_2_0 Area AIsrael_cell_2_2_1 PA (currently Fatah-led); under Israeli occupationIsrael_cell_2_2_2
Area BIsrael_cell_2_3_0 PA (currently Fatah-led) and Israeli military; under Israeli occupationIsrael_cell_2_3_1
Area CIsrael_cell_2_4_0 Israeli military (Palestinians) under Israeli occupation, and Israeli enclave law (Israeli settlements)Israel_cell_2_4_1
East JerusalemIsrael_cell_2_5_0 Israeli governmentIsrael_cell_2_5_1 Honduras, Guatemala, Nauru, and the United StatesIsrael_cell_2_5_2 China, RussiaIsrael_cell_2_5_3
West JerusalemIsrael_cell_2_6_0 Australia, Russia, Czechia, Honduras, Guatemala, Nauru, and the United StatesIsrael_cell_2_6_2 United Nations as an international city along with East JerusalemIsrael_cell_2_6_3 Various UN member states and the European Union; joint sovereignty also widely supportedIsrael_cell_2_6_4
Golan HeightsIsrael_cell_2_7_0 United StatesIsrael_cell_2_7_2 SyriaIsrael_cell_2_7_3 All UN member states except the United StatesIsrael_cell_2_7_4
Israel (proper)Israel_cell_2_8_0 163 UN member statesIsrael_cell_2_8_2 IsraelIsrael_cell_2_8_3 163 UN member statesIsrael_cell_2_8_4

In 1967, as a result of the Six-Day War, Israel captured and occupied the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. Israel_sentence_458

Israel also captured the Sinai Peninsula, but returned it to Egypt as part of the 1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty. Israel_sentence_459

Between 1982 and 2000, Israel occupied part of southern Lebanon, in what was known as the Security Belt. Israel_sentence_460

Since Israel's capture of these territories, Israeli settlements and military installations have been built within each of them, except Lebanon. Israel_sentence_461

The Golan Heights and East Jerusalem have been fully incorporated into Israel under Israeli law, but not under international law. Israel_sentence_462

Israel has applied civilian law to both areas and granted their inhabitants permanent residency status and the ability to apply for citizenship. Israel_sentence_463

The UN Security Council has declared the annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem to be "null and void" and continues to view the territories as occupied. Israel_sentence_464

The status of East Jerusalem in any future peace settlement has at times been a difficult issue in negotiations between Israeli governments and representatives of the Palestinians, as Israel views it as its sovereign territory, as well as part of its capital. Israel_sentence_465

The West Bank excluding East Jerusalem is known in Israeli law as the Judea and Samaria Area; the almost 400,000 Israeli settlers residing in the area are considered part of Israel's population, have Knesset representation, a large part of Israel's civil and criminal laws applied to them, and their output is considered part of Israel's economy. Israel_sentence_466

The land itself is not considered part of Israel under Israeli law, as Israel has consciously refrained from annexing the territory, without ever relinquishing its legal claim to the land or defining a border with the area. Israel_sentence_467

There is no border between Israel-proper and the West Bank for Israeli vehicles. Israel_sentence_468

Israeli political opposition to annexation is primarily due to the perceived "demographic threat" of incorporating the West Bank's Palestinian population into Israel. Israel_sentence_469

Outside of the Israeli settlements, the West Bank remains under direct Israeli military rule, and Palestinians in the area cannot become Israeli citizens. Israel_sentence_470

The international community maintains that Israel does not have sovereignty in the West Bank, and considers Israel's control of the area to be the longest military occupation is modern history. Israel_sentence_471

The West Bank was occupied and annexed by Jordan in 1950, following the Arab rejection of the UN decision to create two states in Palestine. Israel_sentence_472

Only Britain recognized this annexation and Jordan has since ceded its claim to the territory to the PLO. Israel_sentence_473

The population are mainly Palestinians, including refugees of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Israel_sentence_474

From their occupation in 1967 until 1993, the Palestinians living in these territories were under Israeli military administration. Israel_sentence_475

Since the Israel–PLO letters of recognition, most of the Palestinian population and cities have been under the internal jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, and only partial Israeli military control, although Israel has on several occasions redeployed its troops and reinstated full military administration during periods of unrest. Israel_sentence_476

In response to increasing attacks during the Second Intifada, the Israeli government started to construct the Israeli West Bank barrier. Israel_sentence_477

When completed, approximately 13% of the barrier will be constructed on the Green Line or in Israel with 87% inside the West Bank. Israel_sentence_478

The Gaza Strip is considered to be a "foreign territory" under Israeli law; however, since Israel operates a land, air, and sea blockade of the Gaza Strip, together with Egypt, the international community considers Israel to be the occupying power. Israel_sentence_479

The Gaza Strip was occupied by Egypt from 1948 to 1967 and then by Israel after 1967. Israel_sentence_480

In 2005, as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, Israel removed all of its settlers and forces from the territory, however, it continues to maintain control of its airspace and waters. Israel_sentence_481

The international community, including numerous international humanitarian organizations and various bodies of the UN, consider Gaza to remain occupied. Israel_sentence_482

Following the 2007 Battle of Gaza, when Hamas assumed power in the Gaza Strip, Israel tightened its control of the Gaza crossings along its border, as well as by sea and air, and prevented persons from entering and exiting the area except for isolated cases it deemed humanitarian. Israel_sentence_483

Gaza has a border with Egypt, and an agreement between Israel, the European Union, and the PA governed how border crossing would take place (it was monitored by European observers). Israel_sentence_484

The application of democracy to its Palestinian citizens, and the selective application of Israeli democracy in the Israeli-controlled Palestinian territories, has been criticized. Israel_sentence_485

The International Court of Justice, principal judicial organ of the UN, asserted, in its 2004 advisory opinion on the legality of the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier, that the lands captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, including East Jerusalem, are occupied territory. Israel_sentence_486

Most negotiations relating to the territories have been on the basis of UN Security Council Resolution 242, which emphasises "the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war", and calls on Israel to withdraw from occupied territories in return for normalization of relations with Arab states, a principle known as "Land for peace". Israel_sentence_487

According to some observers, Israel has engaged in systematic and widespread violations of human rights in the occupied territories, including the occupation itself and war crimes against civilians. Israel_sentence_488

The allegations include violations of international humanitarian law by the UN Human Rights Council, with local residents having "limited ability to hold governing authorities accountable for such abuses" by the U.S. Israel_sentence_489 State Department, mass arbitrary arrests, torture, unlawful killings, systemic abuses and impunity by Amnesty International and others and a denial of the right to Palestinian self-determination. Israel_sentence_490

In response to such allegations, Prime Minister Netanyahu has defended the country's security forces for protecting the innocent from terrorists and expressed contempt for what he describes as a lack of concern about the human rights violations committed by "criminal killers". Israel_sentence_491

Some observers, such as Israeli officials, scholars, United States Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley and UN secretary-generals Ban Ki-moon and Kofi Annan, also assert that the UN is disproportionately concerned with Israeli misconduct. Israel_sentence_492

Foreign relations Israel_section_23

Main articles: Foreign relations of Israel, International recognition of Israel, and Israeli foreign aid Israel_sentence_493

Israel maintains diplomatic relations with 164 member states of the United Nations, as well as with the Holy See, Kosovo, the Cook Islands and Niue. Israel_sentence_494

It has 107 diplomatic missions around the world; countries with whom they have no diplomatic relations include most Muslim countries. Israel_sentence_495

Only three members of the Arab League have normalized relations with Israel: Egypt and Jordan signed peace treaties in 1979 and 1994, respectively, and Mauritania opted for full diplomatic relations with Israel in 1999. Israel_sentence_496

Despite the peace treaty between Israel and Egypt, Israel is still widely considered an enemy country among Egyptians. Israel_sentence_497

Under Israeli law, Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Sudan, and Yemen are enemy countries, and Israeli citizens may not visit them without permission from the Ministry of the Interior. Israel_sentence_498

Iran had diplomatic relations with Israel under the Pahlavi dynasty but withdrew its recognition of Israel during the Islamic Revolution. Israel_sentence_499

As a result of the 2008–09 Gaza War, Mauritania, Qatar, Bolivia, and Venezuela suspended political and economic ties with Israel. Israel_sentence_500

China maintains good ties with both Israel and the Arab world. Israel_sentence_501

The United States and the Soviet Union were the first two countries to recognize the State of Israel, having declared recognition roughly simultaneously. Israel_sentence_502

Diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union were broken in 1967, following the Six-Day War, and renewed in October 1991. Israel_sentence_503

The United States regards Israel as its "most reliable partner in the Middle East," based on "common democratic values, religious affinities, and security interests". Israel_sentence_504

The United States has provided $68 billion in military assistance and $32 billion in grants to Israel since 1967, under the Foreign Assistance Act (period beginning 1962), more than any other country for that period until 2003. Israel_sentence_505

The United Kingdom is seen as having a "natural" relationship with Israel on account of the Mandate for Palestine. Israel_sentence_506

Relations between the two countries were also made stronger by former prime minister Tony Blair's efforts for a two state resolution. Israel_sentence_507

By 2007, Germany had paid 25 billion euros in reparations to the Israeli state and individual Israeli Holocaust survivors. Israel_sentence_508

Israel is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer. Israel_sentence_509

Although Turkey and Israel did not establish full diplomatic relations until 1991, Turkey has cooperated with the Jewish state since its recognition of Israel in 1949. Israel_sentence_510

Turkey's ties to the other Muslim-majority nations in the region have at times resulted in pressure from Arab and Muslim states to temper its relationship with Israel. Israel_sentence_511

Relations between Turkey and Israel took a downturn after the 2008–09 Gaza War and Israel's raid of the Gaza flotilla. Israel_sentence_512

Relations between Greece and Israel have improved since 1995 due to the decline of Israeli–Turkish relations. Israel_sentence_513

The two countries have a defense cooperation agreement and in 2010, the Israeli Air Force hosted Greece's Hellenic Air Force in a joint exercise at the Uvda base. Israel_sentence_514

The joint Cyprus-Israel oil and gas explorations centered on the Leviathan gas field are an important factor for Greece, given its strong links with Cyprus. Israel_sentence_515

Cooperation in the world's longest subsea electric power cable, the EuroAsia Interconnector, has strengthened relations between Cyprus and Israel. Israel_sentence_516

Azerbaijan is one of the few majority Muslim countries to develop bilateral strategic and economic relations with Israel. Israel_sentence_517

Azerbaijan supplies Israel with a substantial amount of its oil needs, and Israel has helped modernize the Armed Forces of Azerbaijan. Israel_sentence_518

India established full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992 and has fostered a strong military, technological and cultural partnership with the country since then. Israel_sentence_519

According to an international opinion survey conducted in 2009 on behalf of the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, India is the most pro-Israel country in the world. Israel_sentence_520

India is the largest customer of the Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest military partner of India after Russia. Israel_sentence_521

Ethiopia is Israel's main ally in Africa due to common political, religious and security interests. Israel_sentence_522

Israel provides expertise to Ethiopia on irrigation projects and thousands of Ethiopian Jews live in Israel. Israel_sentence_523

Israel has a history of providing emergency aid and humanitarian response teams to disasters across the world. Israel_sentence_524

In 1955 Israel began its foreign aid program in Burma. Israel_sentence_525

The program's focus subsequently shifted to Africa. Israel_sentence_526

Israel's humanitarian efforts officially began in 1957, with the establishment of Mashav, the Israel's Agency for International Development Cooperation. Israel_sentence_527

In this early period, whilst Israel's aid represented only a small percentage of total aid to Africa, its program was effective in creating goodwill throughout the continent; however, following the 1967 war relations soured. Israel_sentence_528

Israel's foreign aid program subsequently shifted its focus to Latin America. Israel_sentence_529

Since the late 1970s Israel's foreign aid has gradually decreased. Israel_sentence_530

In recent years Israel has tried to reestablish its aid to Africa. Israel_sentence_531

There are additional Israeli humanitarian and emergency response groups that work with the Israel government, including IsraAid, a joint programme run by 14 Israeli organizations and North American Jewish groups, ZAKA, The Fast Israeli Rescue and Search Team (FIRST), Israeli Flying Aid (IFA), Save a Child's Heart (SACH) and Latet. Israel_sentence_532

Between 1985 and 2015, Israel sent 24 delegations of IDF search and rescue unit, the Home Front Command, to 22 countries. Israel_sentence_533

Currently Israeli foreign aid ranks low among OECD nations, spending less than 0.1% of its GNI on development assistance. Israel_sentence_534

The UN has set a target of 0.7%. Israel_sentence_535

In 2015 six nations reached the UN target. Israel_sentence_536

The country ranked 43rd in the 2016 World Giving Index. Israel_sentence_537

Military Israel_section_24

Main articles: Israel Defense Forces and Israeli security forces Israel_sentence_538

Further information: List of wars involving Israel, List of the Israel Defense Forces operations, and Israel and weapons of mass destruction Israel_sentence_539

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and is headed by its Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Cabinet. Israel_sentence_540

The IDF consists of the army, air force and navy. Israel_sentence_541

It was founded during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War by consolidating paramilitary organizations—chiefly the Haganah—that preceded the establishment of the state. Israel_sentence_542

The IDF also draws upon the resources of the Military Intelligence Directorate (Aman), which works with Mossad and Shabak. Israel_sentence_543

The Israel Defense Forces have been involved in several major wars and border conflicts in its short history, making it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world. Israel_sentence_544

Most Israelis are drafted into the military at the age of 18. Israel_sentence_545

Men serve two years and eight months and women two years. Israel_sentence_546

Following mandatory service, Israeli men join the reserve forces and usually do up to several weeks of reserve duty every year until their forties. Israel_sentence_547

Most women are exempt from reserve duty. Israel_sentence_548

Arab citizens of Israel (except the Druze) and those engaged in full-time religious studies are exempt from military service, although the exemption of yeshiva students has been a source of contention in Israeli society for many years. Israel_sentence_549

An alternative for those who receive exemptions on various grounds is Sherut Leumi, or national service, which involves a program of service in hospitals, schools and other social welfare frameworks. Israel_sentence_550

As a result of its conscription program, the IDF maintains approximately 176,500 active troops and an additional 465,000 reservists, giving Israel one of the world's highest percentage of citizens with military training. Israel_sentence_551

The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech weapons systems designed and manufactured in Israel as well as some foreign imports. Israel_sentence_552

The Arrow missile is one of the world's few operational anti-ballistic missile systems. Israel_sentence_553

The Python air-to-air missile series is often considered one of the most crucial weapons in its military history. Israel_sentence_554

Israel's Spike missile is one of the most widely exported anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) in the world. Israel_sentence_555

Israel's Iron Dome anti-missile air defense system gained worldwide acclaim after intercepting hundreds of Qassam, 122 mm Grad and Fajr-5 artillery rockets fire by Palestinian militants from the Gaza Strip. Israel_sentence_556

Since the Yom Kippur War, Israel has developed a network of reconnaissance satellites. Israel_sentence_557

The success of the Ofeq program has made Israel one of seven countries capable of launching such satellites. Israel_sentence_558

Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons as well as chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction. Israel_sentence_559

Israel has not signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and maintains a policy of deliberate ambiguity toward its nuclear capabilities. Israel_sentence_560

The Israeli Navy's Dolphin submarines are believed to be armed with nuclear Popeye Turbo missiles, offering second-strike capability. Israel_sentence_561

Since the Gulf War in 1991, when Israel was attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles, all homes in Israel are required to have a reinforced security room, Merkhav Mugan, impermeable to chemical and biological substances. Israel_sentence_562

Since Israel's establishment, military expenditure constituted a significant portion of the country's gross domestic product, with peak of 30.3% of GDP spent on defense in 1975. Israel_sentence_563

In 2016, Israel ranked 6th in the world by defense spending as a percentage of GDP, with 5.7%, and 15th by total military expenditure, with $18 billion. Israel_sentence_564

Since 1974, the United States has been a particularly notable contributor of military aid to Israel. Israel_sentence_565

Under a memorandum of understanding signed in 2016, the U.S. is expected to provide the country with $3.8 billion per year, or around 20% of Israel's defense budget, from 2018 to 2028. Israel_sentence_566

Israel ranked 5th globally for arms exports in 2017. Israel_sentence_567

The majority of Israel's arms exports are unreported for security reasons. Israel_sentence_568

Israel is consistently rated low in the Global Peace Index, ranking 144th out of 163 nations for peacefulness in 2017. Israel_sentence_569

Economy Israel_section_25

Main article: Economy of Israel Israel_sentence_570

Israel is considered the most advanced country in Western Asia and the Middle East in economic and industrial development. Israel_sentence_571

Israel's quality university education and the establishment of a highly motivated and educated populace is largely responsible for spurring the country's high technology boom and rapid economic development. Israel_sentence_572

In 2010, it joined the OECD. Israel_sentence_573

The country is ranked 16th in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report and 54th on the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business index. Israel_sentence_574

Israel was also ranked 5th in the world by share of people in high-skilled employment. Israel_sentence_575

Israeli economic data covers the economic territory of Israel, including the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank. Israel_sentence_576

Despite limited natural resources, intensive development of the agricultural and industrial sectors over the past decades has made Israel largely self-sufficient in food production, apart from grains and beef. Israel_sentence_577

Imports to Israel, totaling $66.76 billion in 2017, include raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, and consumer goods. Israel_sentence_578

Leading exports include machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, and textiles and apparel; in 2017, Israeli exports reached $60.6 billion. Israel_sentence_579

The Bank of Israel holds $113 billion of foreign-exchange reserves. Israel_sentence_580

Since the 1970s, Israel has received military aid from the United States, as well as economic assistance in the form of loan guarantees, which now account for roughly half of Israel's external debt. Israel_sentence_581

Israel has one of the lowest external debts in the developed world, and is a lender in terms of net external debt (assets vs. liabilities abroad), which in 2015 stood at a surplus of $69 billion. Israel_sentence_582

Israel has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States, and the third-largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies after the U.S. and China. Israel_sentence_583

Intel and Microsoft built their first overseas research and development facilities in Israel, and other high-tech multi-national corporations, such as IBM, Google, Apple, Hewlett-Packard, Cisco Systems, Facebook and Motorola have opened research and development centres in the country. Israel_sentence_584

In 2007, American investor Warren Buffett's holding company Berkshire Hathaway bought an Israeli company, Iscar, its first acquisition outside the United States, for $4 billion. Israel_sentence_585

Days of working time in Israel are Sunday through Thursday (for a five-day workweek), or Friday (for a six-day workweek). Israel_sentence_586

In observance of Shabbat, in places where Friday is a work day and the majority of population is Jewish, Friday is a "short day", usually lasting until 14:00 in the winter, or 16:00 in the summer. Israel_sentence_587

Several proposals have been raised to adjust the work week with the majority of the world, and make Sunday a non-working day, while extending working time of other days or replacing Friday with Sunday as a work day. Israel_sentence_588

Science and technology Israel_section_26

Main articles: Science and technology in Israel and List of Israeli inventions and discoveries Israel_sentence_589

Israel's development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences have evoked comparisons with Silicon Valley. Israel_sentence_590

Israel ranks 5th in the 2019 Bloomberg Innovation Index, and is 1st in the world in expenditure on research and development as a percentage of GDP. Israel_sentence_591

Israel boasts 140 scientists, technicians, and engineers per 10,000 employees, the highest number in the world (in comparison, the same is 85 for the U.S.). Israel_sentence_592

Israel has produced six Nobel Prize-winning scientists since 2004 and has been frequently ranked as one of the countries with the highest ratios of scientific papers per capita in the world. Israel_sentence_593

Israel has led the world in stem-cell research papers per capita since 2000. Israel_sentence_594

Israeli universities are ranked among the top 50 world universities in computer science (Technion and Tel Aviv University), mathematics (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) and chemistry (Weizmann Institute of Science). Israel_sentence_595

In 2012, Israel was ranked ninth in the world by the Futron's Space Competitiveness Index. Israel_sentence_596

The Israel Space Agency coordinates all Israeli space research programs with scientific and commercial goals, and have indigenously designed and built at least 13 commercial, research and spy satellites. Israel_sentence_597

Some of Israel's satellites are ranked among the world's most advanced space systems. Israel_sentence_598

Shavit is a space launch vehicle produced by Israel to launch small satellites into low Earth orbit. Israel_sentence_599

It was first launched in 1988, making Israel the eighth nation to have a space launch capability. Israel_sentence_600

In 2003, Ilan Ramon became Israel's first astronaut, serving as payload specialist of STS-107, the fatal mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Israel_sentence_601

The ongoing shortage of water in the country has spurred innovation in water conservation techniques, and a substantial agricultural modernization, drip irrigation, was invented in Israel. Israel_sentence_602

Israel is also at the technological forefront of desalination and water recycling. Israel_sentence_603

The Sorek desalination plant is the largest seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination facility in the world. Israel_sentence_604

By 2014, Israel's desalination programs provided roughly 35% of Israel's drinking water and it is expected to supply 40% by 2015 and 70% by 2050. Israel_sentence_605

As of 2015, more than 50 percent of the water for Israeli households, agriculture and industry is artificially produced. Israel_sentence_606

The country hosts an annual Water Technology and Environmental Control Exhibition & Conference (WATEC) that attracts thousands of people from across the world. Israel_sentence_607

In 2011, Israel's water technology industry was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of products and services in the tens of millions of dollars. Israel_sentence_608

As a result of innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the coming years. Israel_sentence_609

Israel has embraced solar energy; its engineers are on the cutting edge of solar energy technology and its solar companies work on projects around the world. Israel_sentence_610

Over 90% of Israeli homes use solar energy for hot water, the highest per capita in the world. Israel_sentence_611

According to government figures, the country saves 8% of its electricity consumption per year because of its solar energy use in heating. Israel_sentence_612

The high annual incident solar irradiance at its geographic latitude creates ideal conditions for what is an internationally renowned solar research and development industry in the Negev Desert. Israel_sentence_613

Israel had a modern electric car infrastructure involving a countrywide network of charging stations to facilitate the charging and exchange of car batteries. Israel_sentence_614

It was thought that this would have lowered Israel's oil dependency and lowered the fuel costs of hundreds of Israel's motorists that use cars powered only by electric batteries. Israel_sentence_615

The Israeli model was being studied by several countries and being implemented in Denmark and Australia. Israel_sentence_616

However, Israel's trailblazing electric car company Better Place shut down in 2013. Israel_sentence_617

Transportation Israel_section_27

Main article: Transport in Israel Israel_sentence_618

Israel has 19,224 kilometres (11,945 mi) of paved roads, and 3 million motor vehicles. Israel_sentence_619

The number of motor vehicles per 1,000 persons is 365, relatively low with respect to developed countries. Israel_sentence_620

Israel has 5,715 buses on scheduled routes, operated by several carriers, the largest of which is Egged, serving most of the country. Israel_sentence_621

Railways stretch across 1,277 kilometres (793 mi) and are operated solely by government-owned Israel Railways. Israel_sentence_622

Following major investments beginning in the early to mid-1990s, the number of train passengers per year has grown from 2.5 million in 1990, to 53 million in 2015; railways are also transporting 7.5 million tons of cargo, per year. Israel_sentence_623

Israel is served by two international airports, Ben Gurion Airport, the country's main hub for international air travel near Tel Aviv, and Ramon Airport, which serves the southernmost port city of Eilat. Israel_sentence_624

There are several small domestic airports as well. Israel_sentence_625

Ben Gurion, Israel's largest airport, handled over 15 million passengers in 2015. Israel_sentence_626

On the Mediterranean coast, the Port of Haifa is the country's oldest and largest port, while Ashdod Port is one of the few deep water ports in the world built on the open sea. Israel_sentence_627

In addition to these, the smaller Port of Eilat is situated on the Red Sea, and is used mainly for trading with Far East countries. Israel_sentence_628

Tourism Israel_section_28

Main article: Tourism in Israel Israel_sentence_629

See also: List of archaeological sites in Israel and the Palestinian territories Israel_sentence_630

Tourism, especially religious tourism, is an important industry in Israel, with the country's temperate climate, beaches, archaeological, other historical and biblical sites, and unique geography also drawing tourists. Israel_sentence_631

Israel's security problems have taken their toll on the industry, but the number of incoming tourists is on the rebound. Israel_sentence_632

In 2017, a record of 3.6 million tourists visited Israel, yielding a 25 percent growth since 2016 and contributed NIS 20 billion to the Israeli economy. Israel_sentence_633

Energy Israel_section_29

Main article: Energy in Israel Israel_sentence_634

Israel began producing natural gas from its own offshore gas fields in 2004. Israel_sentence_635

Between 2005 and 2012, Israel had imported gas from Egypt via the al-Arish–Ashkelon pipeline, which was terminated due to Egyptian Crisis of 2011–14. Israel_sentence_636

In 2009, a natural gas reserve, Tamar, was found near the coast of Israel. Israel_sentence_637

A second natural gas reserve, Leviathan, was discovered in 2010. Israel_sentence_638

The natural gas reserves in these two fields (Leviathan has around 19 trillion cubic feet) could make Israel energy secure for more than 50 years. Israel_sentence_639

In 2013, Israel began commercial production of natural gas from the Tamar field. Israel_sentence_640

As of 2014, Israel produced over 7.5 billion cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas a year. Israel_sentence_641

Israel had 199 billion cubic meters (bcm) of proven reserves of natural gas as of the start of 2016. Israel_sentence_642

Ketura Sun is Israel's first commercial solar field. Israel_sentence_643

Built in early 2011 by the Arava Power Company on Kibbutz Ketura, Ketura Sun covers twenty acres and is expected to produce green energy amounting to 4.95 megawatts (MW). Israel_sentence_644

The field consists of 18,500 photovoltaic panels made by Suntech, which will produce about 9 gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electricity per year. Israel_sentence_645

In the next twenty years, the field will spare the production of some 125,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide. Israel_sentence_646

The field was inaugurated on 15 June 2011. Israel_sentence_647

On 22 May 2012 Arava Power Company announced that it had reached financial close on an additional 58.5 MW for 8 projects to be built in the Arava and the Negev valued at 780 million NIS or approximately $204 million. Israel_sentence_648

Culture Israel_section_30

Main article: Culture of Israel Israel_sentence_649

Israel's diverse culture stems from the diversity of its population. Israel_sentence_650

Jews from diaspora communities around the world brought their cultural and religious traditions back with them, creating a melting pot of Jewish customs and beliefs. Israel_sentence_651

Arab influences are present in many cultural spheres, such as architecture, music, and cuisine. Israel_sentence_652

Israel is the only country in the world where life revolves around the Hebrew calendar. Israel_sentence_653

Work and school holidays are determined by the Jewish holidays, and the official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. Israel_sentence_654

Literature Israel_section_31

Main article: Israeli literature Israel_sentence_655

Israeli literature is primarily poetry and prose written in Hebrew, as part of the renaissance of Hebrew as a spoken language since the mid-19th century, although a small body of literature is published in other languages, such as English. Israel_sentence_656

By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library of Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_657

In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, and other non-print media. Israel_sentence_658

In 2016, 89 percent of the 7,300 books transferred to the library were in Hebrew. Israel_sentence_659

In 1966, Shmuel Yosef Agnon shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with German Jewish author Nelly Sachs. Israel_sentence_660

Leading Israeli poets have been Yehuda Amichai, Nathan Alterman, Leah Goldberg, and Rachel Bluwstein. Israel_sentence_661

Internationally famous contemporary Israeli novelists include Amos Oz, Etgar Keret and David Grossman. Israel_sentence_662

The Israeli-Arab satirist Sayed Kashua (who writes in Hebrew) is also internationally known. Israel_sentence_663

Israel has also been the home of Emile Habibi, whose novel The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist, and other writings, won him the Israel prize for Arabic literature. Israel_sentence_664

Music and dance Israel_section_32

Main articles: Music of Israel and Dance in Israel Israel_sentence_665

Israeli music contains musical influences from all over the world; Mizrahi and Sephardic music, Hasidic melodies, Greek music, jazz, and pop rock are all part of the music scene. Israel_sentence_666

Among Israel's world-renowned orchestras is the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, which has been in operation for over seventy years and today performs more than two hundred concerts each year. Israel_sentence_667

Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman and Ofra Haza are among the internationally acclaimed musicians born in Israel. Israel_sentence_668

Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest nearly every year since 1973, winning the competition four times and hosting it twice. Israel_sentence_669

Eilat has hosted its own international music festival, the Red Sea Jazz Festival, every summer since 1987. Israel_sentence_670

The nation's canonical folk songs, known as "Songs of the Land of Israel," deal with the experiences of the pioneers in building the Jewish homeland. Israel_sentence_671

Cinema and theatre Israel_section_33

Main article: Cinema of Israel Israel_sentence_672

Ten Israeli films have been final nominees for Best Foreign Language Film at the Academy Awards since the establishment of Israel. Israel_sentence_673

The 2009 movie Ajami was the third consecutive nomination of an Israeli film. Israel_sentence_674

Palestinian Israeli filmmakers have made a number of films dealing with the Arab-Israeli conflict and the status of Palestinians within Israel, such as Mohammed Bakri's 2002 film Jenin, Jenin and The Syrian Bride. Israel_sentence_675

Continuing the strong theatrical traditions of the Yiddish theatre in Eastern Europe, Israel maintains a vibrant theatre scene. Israel_sentence_676

Founded in 1918, Habima Theatre in Tel Aviv is Israel's oldest repertory theater company and national theater. Israel_sentence_677

Media Israel_section_34

Main article: Media of Israel Israel_sentence_678

The 2017 Freedom of the Press annual report by Freedom House ranked Israel as the Middle East and North Africa's most free country, and 64th globally. Israel_sentence_679

In the 2017 Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders, Israel (including "Israel extraterritorial" since 2013 ranking) was placed 91st of 180 countries, first in the Middle East and North Africa region. Israel_sentence_680

Museums Israel_section_35

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Israeli museums. Israel_sentence_681

The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions and houses the Dead Sea Scrolls, along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art. Israel_sentence_682

Israel's national Holocaust museum, Yad Vashem, is the world central archive of Holocaust-related information. Israel_sentence_683

Beit Hatfutsot ("The Diaspora House"), on the campus of Tel Aviv University, is an interactive museum devoted to the history of Jewish communities around the world. Israel_sentence_684

Apart from the major museums in large cities, there are high-quality art spaces in many towns and kibbutzim. Israel_sentence_685

Mishkan LeOmanut in kibbutz Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in the north of the country. Israel_sentence_686

Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world. Israel_sentence_687

Several Israeli museums are devoted to Islamic culture, including the Rockefeller Museum and the L. Israel_sentence_688 A. Mayer Institute for Islamic Art, both in Jerusalem. Israel_sentence_689

The Rockefeller specializes in archaeological remains from the Ottoman and other periods of Middle East history. Israel_sentence_690

It is also the home of the first hominid fossil skull found in Western Asia, called Galilee Man. Israel_sentence_691

A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum. Israel_sentence_692

Cuisine Israel_section_36

Main article: Israeli cuisine Israel_sentence_693

Israeli cuisine includes local dishes as well as Jewish cuisine brought to the country by immigrants from the diaspora. Israel_sentence_694

Since the establishment of the state in 1948, and particularly since the late 1970s, an Israeli fusion cuisine has developed. Israel_sentence_695

Israeli cuisine has adopted, and continues to adapt, elements of the Mizrahi, Sephardi, and Ashkenazi styles of cooking. Israel_sentence_696

It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in the Levantine, Arab, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, such as falafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za'atar. Israel_sentence_697

Schnitzel, pizza, hamburgers, French fries, rice and salad are also common in Israel. Israel_sentence_698

Roughly half of the Israeli-Jewish population attests to keeping kosher at home. Israel_sentence_699

Kosher restaurants, though rare in the 1960s, make up around 25% of the total as of 2015, perhaps reflecting the largely secular values of those who dine out. Israel_sentence_700

Hotel restaurants are much more likely to serve kosher food. Israel_sentence_701

The non-kosher retail market was traditionally sparse, but grew rapidly and considerably following the influx of immigrants from the post-Soviet states during the 1990s. Israel_sentence_702

Together with non-kosher fish, rabbits and ostriches, pork—often called "white meat" in Israel—is produced and consumed, though it is forbidden by both Judaism and Islam. Israel_sentence_703

Sports Israel_section_37

Main article: Sport in Israel Israel_sentence_704

The most popular spectator sports in Israel are association football and basketball. Israel_sentence_705

The Israeli Premier League is the country's premier football league, and the Israeli Basketball Premier League is the premier basketball league. Israel_sentence_706

Maccabi Haifa, Maccabi Tel Aviv, Hapoel Tel Aviv and Beitar Jerusalem are the largest football clubs. Israel_sentence_707

Maccabi Tel Aviv, Maccabi Haifa and Hapoel Tel Aviv have competed in the UEFA Champions League and Hapoel Tel Aviv reached the UEFA Cup quarter-finals. Israel_sentence_708

Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup; in 1970 the Israel national football team qualified for the FIFA World Cup, the only time it participated in the World Cup. Israel_sentence_709

The 1974 Asian Games, held in Tehran, were the last Asian Games in which Israel participated, plagued by the Arab countries that refused to compete with Israel. Israel_sentence_710

Israel was excluded from the 1978 Asian Games and since then has not competed in Asian sport events. Israel_sentence_711

In 1994, UEFA agreed to admit Israel, and its football teams now compete in Europe. Israel_sentence_712

Maccabi Tel Aviv B.C. has won the European championship in basketball six times. Israel_sentence_713

In 2016, the country was chosen as a host for the EuroBasket 2017. Israel_sentence_714

Chess is a leading sport in Israel and is enjoyed by people of all ages. Israel_sentence_715

There are many Israeli grandmasters and Israeli chess players have won a number of youth world championships. Israel_sentence_716

Israel stages an annual international championship and hosted the World Team Chess Championship in 2005. Israel_sentence_717

The Ministry of Education and the World Chess Federation agreed upon a project of teaching chess within Israeli schools, and it has been introduced into the curriculum of some schools. Israel_sentence_718

The city of Beersheba has become a national chess center, with the game being taught in the city's kindergartens. Israel_sentence_719

Owing partly to Soviet immigration, it is home to the largest number of chess grandmasters of any city in the world. Israel_sentence_720

The Israeli chess team won the silver medal at the 2008 Chess Olympiad and the bronze, coming in third among 148 teams, at the 2010 Olympiad. Israel_sentence_721

Israeli grandmaster Boris Gelfand won the Chess World Cup 2009 and the 2011 Candidates Tournament for the right to challenge the world champion. Israel_sentence_722

He only lost the World Chess Championship 2012 to reigning world champion Anand after a speed-chess tie breaker. Israel_sentence_723

Israel has won nine Olympic medals since its first win in 1992, including a gold medal in windsurfing at the 2004 Summer Olympics. Israel_sentence_724

Israel has won over 100 gold medals in the Paralympic Games and is ranked 20th in the all-time medal count. Israel_sentence_725

The 1968 Summer Paralympics were hosted by Israel. Israel_sentence_726

The Maccabiah Games, an Olympic-style event for Jewish and Israeli athletes, was inaugurated in the 1930s, and has been held every four years since then. Israel_sentence_727

Israeli tennis champion Shahar Pe'er ranked 11th in the world on 31 January 2011. Israel_sentence_728

Krav Maga, a martial art developed by Jewish ghetto defenders during the struggle against fascism in Europe, is used by the Israeli security forces and police. Israel_sentence_729

Its effectiveness and practical approach to self-defense, have won it widespread admiration and adherence around the world. Israel_sentence_730

See also Israel_section_38

Israel_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel.