Italian Communist Party

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For the Italian communist party of the 1920s, see Communist Party of Italy. Italian Communist Party_sentence_0

For the party founded in 2016, see Italian Communist Party (2016). Italian Communist Party_sentence_1

Italian Communist Party_table_infobox_0

Italian Communist Party

Partito Comunista ItalianoItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_0_0

AbbreviationItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_1_0 PCIItalian Communist Party_cell_0_1_1
General SecretariesItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_2_0 Palmiro Togliatti

Luigi Longo Enrico Berlinguer Alessandro Natta Achille OcchettoItalian Communist Party_cell_0_2_1

FoundedItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_3_0 21 January 1921 (1921-01-21)

(as Communist Party of Italy) 15 May 1943 (1943-05-15) (as Italian Communist Party)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_3_1

DissolvedItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_4_0 3 February 1991 (1991-02-03)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_4_1
Preceded byItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_5_0 Italian Socialist PartyItalian Communist Party_cell_0_5_1
Succeeded byItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_6_0 Democratic Party of the Left

(main successor) Communist Refoundation Party (split)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_6_1

HeadquartersItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_7_0 Via delle Botteghe Oscure 4, RomeItalian Communist Party_cell_0_7_1
NewspaperItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_8_0 l'UnitàItalian Communist Party_cell_0_8_1
Youth wingItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_9_0 Communist Youth FederationItalian Communist Party_cell_0_9_1
MembershipItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_10_0 989,708 (1991)

2,252,446 (1947)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_10_1

IdeologyItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_11_0 Communism

Marxism–Leninism From the 1970s also: Revisionism Democratic socialismItalian Communist Party_cell_0_11_1

Political positionItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_12_0 Before 1970s:

Left-wing to far-left After 1970s: Left-wingItalian Communist Party_cell_0_12_1

National affiliationItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_13_0 National Liberation Committee (1943–47)

Popular Democratic Front (1947–56)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_13_1

International affiliationItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_14_0 Comintern (1921–1943)

Cominform (1947–1956)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_14_1

European Parliament groupItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_15_0 Communists and Allies (1973–1989)

European United Left (1989–1991)Italian Communist Party_cell_0_15_1

ColoursItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_16_0 RedItalian Communist Party_cell_0_16_1
Party flagItalian Communist Party_header_cell_0_17_0

The Italian Communist Party (Italian: Partito Comunista Italiano, PCI) was a communist political party in Italy. Italian Communist Party_sentence_2

The PCI was founded as the Communist Party of Italy on 21 January 1921 in Livorno by seceding from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI). Italian Communist Party_sentence_3

Amadeo Bordiga and Antonio Gramsci led the split. Italian Communist Party_sentence_4

Outlawed during the Fascist regime, the party played a major role in the Italian resistance movement. Italian Communist Party_sentence_5

It changed its name in 1943 to PCI and became the second largest political party of Italy after World War II, attracting the support of about a third of the vote share during the 1970s. Italian Communist Party_sentence_6

At the time, it was the largest communist party in the West, with peak support reaching 2.3 million members, in 1947, and peak share being 34.4% of the vote (12.6 million votes) in the 1976 general election. Italian Communist Party_sentence_7

The PCI transitioned from doctrinaire communism to democratic socialism by the 1970s or the 1980s. Italian Communist Party_sentence_8

In 1991, it was dissolved and re-launched as the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), which joined the Socialist International and the Party of European Socialists. Italian Communist Party_sentence_9

The more radical members of the organization formally seceded to establish the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC). Italian Communist Party_sentence_10

History Italian Communist Party_section_0

Early years Italian Communist Party_section_1

World War II Italian Communist Party_section_2

After the fall of Mussolini's regime on 25 July 1943, the Communist Party returned to a formally legal status, playing a major role during the national liberation, known in Italy as Resistenza ("Resistance") and forming many partisan groups. Italian Communist Party_sentence_11

In the April 1944 after the so-called svolta di Salerno (Salerno's turn), Togliatti agreed to cooperate with King Victor Emmanuel III and his Prime Minister, the Marshal Pietro Badoglio. Italian Communist Party_sentence_12

After the turn, Communists took part in every government during the national liberation and constitutional period from June 1944 to May 1947. Italian Communist Party_sentence_13

The Communists' contribution to the new Italian democratic constitution was decisive. Italian Communist Party_sentence_14

The so-called "Gullo decrees" of 1944, for instance, sought to improve social and economic conditions in the countryside. Italian Communist Party_sentence_15

During Badoglio and Ferruccio Parri's cabinets, Togliatti served as Deputy Prime Minister. Italian Communist Party_sentence_16

During the Resistance, the PCI became increasingly popular, as the majority of partisans were communists. Italian Communist Party_sentence_17

The Garibaldi Brigades, promoted by the PCI, were among the more numerous partisan forces. Italian Communist Party_sentence_18

Post-war years Italian Communist Party_section_3

The PCI took part in the 1946 Italian general election and referendum, campaigning for the "republic". Italian Communist Party_sentence_19

In the election, the Communists arrived third, behind the Christian Democracy (DC) and the Socialist Party, gaining almost 19% of votes and electing 104 members of the Constituent Assembly. Italian Communist Party_sentence_20

While the popular referendum resulted in the replacement of the monarchy with a republic, with the 54% of votes in favour and 46% against. Italian Communist Party_sentence_21

In May 1947, the PCI was excluded from the government. Italian Communist Party_sentence_22

The Christian democratic Prime Minister, Alcide De Gasperi, was losing popularity, and feared that the leftist coalition would take power. Italian Communist Party_sentence_23

While the PCI was growing particularly fast due to its organizing efforts supporting sharecroppers in Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria, movements which were also bolstered by the reforms of Fausto Gullo, the Communist Minister of Agriculture. Italian Communist Party_sentence_24

On 1 May, the nation was thrown into crisis by the murder of eleven leftist peasants (including four children) at an International Workers' Day parade in Palermo by Salvatore Giuliano and his gang. Italian Communist Party_sentence_25

In the political chaos which ensued, the president engineered the expulsion of all left-wing ministers from the cabinet on 31 May. Italian Communist Party_sentence_26

The PCI would not have a national position in government again. Italian Communist Party_sentence_27

De Gasperi did this under pressure from US Secretary of State George Marshall, who'd informed him that anti-communism was a pre-condition for receiving American aid, and Ambassador James C. Dunn who had directly asked de Gasperi to dissolve the parliament and remove the PCI. Italian Communist Party_sentence_28

In the general election of 1948, the party joined the PSI in the Popular Democratic Front (FDP), but it was defeated by the Christian Democracy party. Italian Communist Party_sentence_29

The United States spent over $10 million to support anti-PCI groups in the election. Italian Communist Party_sentence_30

Fearful of the possible FDP's electoral victory, the British and American governments also undermined the quest for justice by tolerating the efforts made by Italy's top authorities to prevent any of the alleged Italian war criminals from being extradited and taken to court. Italian Communist Party_sentence_31

The denial of Italian war crimes was backed up by the Italian state, academe, and media, re-inventing Italy as only a victim of the German Nazism and the post-war Foibe massacres. Italian Communist Party_sentence_32

The party gained considerable electoral success during the following years and occasionally supplied external support to centre-left governments, although it never directly joined a government. Italian Communist Party_sentence_33

It successfully lobbied Fiat to set up the AvtoVAZ (Lada) car factory in the Soviet Union (1966). Italian Communist Party_sentence_34

The party did best in Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany and Umbria, where it regularly won the local administrative elections; and in some of the industrialized cities of Northern Italy. Italian Communist Party_sentence_35

At the city government level during the course of the post-war period, the PCI demonstrated (in cities like Bologna and Florence) their capacity for uncorrupt, efficient and clean government. Italian Communist Party_sentence_36

After the elections of 1975, the PCI was the strongest force in nearly all of the municipal councils of the great cities. Italian Communist Party_sentence_37

From the 1950s to 1960s Italian Communist Party_section_4

The Soviet Union's brutal suppression of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 created a split within the PCI. Italian Communist Party_sentence_38

The party leadership, including Palmiro Togliatti and Giorgio Napolitano (who in 2006 became President of the Italian Republic), regarded the Hungarian insurgents as counter-revolutionaries as reported at the time in l'Unità, the official PCI newspaper. Italian Communist Party_sentence_39

However, Giuseppe Di Vittorio, chief of the communist trade union Italian General Confederation of Labour (CGIL), repudiated the leadership position as did prominent party member Antonio Giolitti and Italian Socialist Party national secretary Pietro Nenni, a close ally of the PCI. Italian Communist Party_sentence_40

Napolitano later hinted at doubts over the propriety of his decision. Italian Communist Party_sentence_41

He would eventually write in From the Communist Party to European Socialism. Italian Communist Party_sentence_42

A Political Autobiography (Dal Pci al socialismo europeo. Italian Communist Party_sentence_43

Un'autobiografia politica) that he regretted his justification of the Soviet intervention, but quieted his concerns at the time for the sake of party unity and the international leadership of Soviet Communism. Italian Communist Party_sentence_44

Giolitti and Nenni went on to split with the PCI over this issue. Italian Communist Party_sentence_45

Napolitano became a leading member of the miglioristi faction within the PCI which promoted a social-democratic direction in party policy. Italian Communist Party_sentence_46

In the mid-1960s, the United States State Department estimated the party membership to be approximately 1,350,000 (4.2% of the working age population, making it the largest communist party in per capita terms in the capitalist world at the time and the largest party at all in the whole of Western Europe with the German Social Democratic Party). Italian Communist Party_sentence_47

United States government sources have claimed that the party was receiving $40–50 million per year from the Soviets while the United States investment in Italy was $5–6 million. Italian Communist Party_sentence_48

However, declassified information shows this to be exaggerated, although the PCI relied on Soviet financial assistance more than any other communist party supported by Moscow. Italian Communist Party_sentence_49

According to the former KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin, Longo and other PCI leaders became alarmed at the possibility of a coup in Italy after the Athens Colonel Coup in April 1967. Italian Communist Party_sentence_50

These fears were not completely unfounded as there had been two attempted coups in Italy, Piano Solo in 1964 and Golpe Borghese in 1970, by military and neo-fascist groups. Italian Communist Party_sentence_51

The PCI’s Giorgio Amendola formally requested Soviet assistance to prepare the party in case of such an event. Italian Communist Party_sentence_52

The KGB drew up and implemented a plan to provide the PCI with its own intelligence and clandestine signal corps. Italian Communist Party_sentence_53

From 1967 through 1973, PCI members were sent to East Germany and Moscow to receive training in clandestine warfare and information gathering techniques by both the Stasi and the KGB. Italian Communist Party_sentence_54

Shortly before the May 1972 elections, Longo personally wrote to Leonid Brezhnev asking for and receiving an additional $5.7 million in funding. Italian Communist Party_sentence_55

This was on top of the $3.5 million that the Soviet Union gave the PCI in 1971. Italian Communist Party_sentence_56

The Soviets also provided additional funding through the use of front companies providing generous contracts to PCI members. Italian Communist Party_sentence_57

Enrico Berlinguer Italian Communist Party_section_5

In 1969, Enrico Berlinguer, PCI deputy national secretary and later secretary general, took part in the international conference of the Communist parties in Moscow, where his delegation disagreed with the "official" political line and refused to support the final report. Italian Communist Party_sentence_58

Unexpectedly to his hosts, his speech challenged the Communist leadership in Moscow. Italian Communist Party_sentence_59

He refused to "excommunicate" the Chinese Communists and directly told Leonid Brezhnev that the invasion of Czechoslovakia by the Warsaw Pact countries (which he called the "tragedy in Prague") had made clear the considerable differences within the communist movement on fundamental questions such as national sovereignty, socialist democracy and the freedom of culture. Italian Communist Party_sentence_60

At the time the PCI, which had absorbed the PSI's left-wing, the Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity, so strengthening its leadership over the Italian left, was the largest communist party in a capitalist state, garnering 34.4% of the vote in the 1976 general election. Italian Communist Party_sentence_61

Relationships between the PCI and the Soviet Union gradually fell apart as the party moved away from Soviet obedience and Marxist–Leninist orthodoxy in the 1970s and 1980s and toward Eurocommunism and the Socialist International. Italian Communist Party_sentence_62

The PCI sought a collaboration with Socialist and Christian Democracy parties (the Historic Compromise). Italian Communist Party_sentence_63

However, Christian Democrat party leader Aldo Moro's kidnapping and murder by the Red Brigades in May 1978 put an end to any hopes of such a compromise. Italian Communist Party_sentence_64

The compromise was largely abandoned as a PCI policy in 1981. Italian Communist Party_sentence_65

The Proletarian Unity Party merged into the PCI in 1984. Italian Communist Party_sentence_66

During the Years of Lead, the PCI strongly opposed the terrorism and the Red Brigades, who in turn murdered or wounded many PCI members or trade unionists close to the PCI. Italian Communist Party_sentence_67

According to Mitrokhin, the party asked the Soviets to pressure the Czechoslovakian State Security (StB) to withdraw their support to the group, which Moscow was unable or unwilling to do. Italian Communist Party_sentence_68

This as well as the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to a complete break with Moscow in 1979. Italian Communist Party_sentence_69

In 1980, the PCI refused to participate in the international conference of communist parties in Paris although cash payments to the PCI continued until 1984. Italian Communist Party_sentence_70

Dissolution Italian Communist Party_section_6

Achille Occhetto became general secretary of the PCI in 1988. Italian Communist Party_sentence_71

At a 1989 conference in a working-class section of Bologna, Occhetto stunned the party faithful with a speech heralding the end of Communism, a move now referred to in Italian politics as the svolta della Bolognina (Bolognina turning point). Italian Communist Party_sentence_72

The collapse of the Communist governments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe led Occhetto to conclude that the era of Eurocommunism was over. Italian Communist Party_sentence_73

Under his leadership, the PCI dissolved and refounded itself as the Democratic Party of the Left, which branded itself as a progressive left-wing and democratic socialist party. Italian Communist Party_sentence_74

A third of the PCI membership, led by Armando Cossutta, refused to join the PDS and instead seceded to form the Communist Refoundation Party. Italian Communist Party_sentence_75

Popular support Italian Communist Party_section_7

In all its history, the PCI was particularly strong in Central Italy, in the so-called "Red Regions" of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and Marche, as well as in the industrialized cities of Northern Italy. Italian Communist Party_sentence_76

However, Communists' municipal showcase was Bologna, which was held continuously by the PCI from 1945 onwards. Italian Communist Party_sentence_77

Amongst other measures, the local PCI administration tackled urban problems with successful programmes of health for the elderly, nursery education and traffic reform while also undertaking initiatives in housing and school meal provisions. Italian Communist Party_sentence_78

From 1946 to 1956, the Communist city council built 31 nursery schools, 896 flats and 9 schools. Italian Communist Party_sentence_79

Health care improved substantially, street lighting was installed, new drains and municipal launderettes were built and 8,000 children received subsidised school meals. Italian Communist Party_sentence_80

In 1972, the then-mayor of Bologna, Renato Zangheri, introduced a new and innovative traffic plan with strict limitations for private vehicles and a renewed concentration on cheap public transport. Italian Communist Party_sentence_81

Bologna's social services continued to expand throughout the early and mid-1970s. Italian Communist Party_sentence_82

The city centre was restored, centres for the mentally sick were instituted to help those who had been released from recently closed psychiatric hospitals, handicapped persons were offered training and found suitable jobs, afternoon activities for schoolchildren were made less mindless than the traditional doposcuola (after-school activities) and school programming for the whole day helped working parents. Italian Communist Party_sentence_83

Communists administrations at a local level also helped to aid new businesses while also introducing innovative social reforms. Italian Communist Party_sentence_84

The electoral results of the PCI in general (Chamber of Deputies) and European Parliament elections since 1946 are shown in the chart below. Italian Communist Party_sentence_85

Election results Italian Communist Party_section_8

Italian Parliament Italian Communist Party_section_9

Italian Communist Party_table_general_1

Chamber of DeputiesItalian Communist Party_cell_1_0_0
Election yearItalian Communist Party_header_cell_1_1_0 VotesItalian Communist Party_header_cell_1_1_1 %Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_1_2 SeatsItalian Communist Party_header_cell_1_1_3 +/−Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_1_4 LeaderItalian Communist Party_header_cell_1_1_5
1921Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_2_0 304,719 (7th)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_2_1 4.6Italian Communist Party_cell_1_2_2 15 / 535Italian Communist Party_cell_1_2_3 15Italian Communist Party_cell_1_2_4 Amedeo BordigaItalian Communist Party_cell_1_2_5
1924Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_3_0 268,191 (6th)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_3_1 3.6Italian Communist Party_cell_1_3_2 19 / 535Italian Communist Party_cell_1_3_3 4Italian Communist Party_cell_1_3_4 Antonio GramsciItalian Communist Party_cell_1_3_5
1929Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_4_0 bannedItalian Communist Party_cell_1_4_1 -Italian Communist Party_cell_1_4_2 0 / 400Italian Communist Party_cell_1_4_3 19Italian Communist Party_cell_1_4_4 Antonio GramsciItalian Communist Party_cell_1_4_5
1934Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_5_0 bannedItalian Communist Party_cell_1_5_1 -Italian Communist Party_cell_1_5_2 0 / 400Italian Communist Party_cell_1_5_3 -Italian Communist Party_cell_1_5_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_1_5_5
1946Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_6_0 4,356,686 (3rd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_6_1 18.9Italian Communist Party_cell_1_6_2 104 / 556Italian Communist Party_cell_1_6_3 104Italian Communist Party_cell_1_6_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_1_6_5
1948Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_7_0 8,136,637 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_7_1 31.0Italian Communist Party_cell_1_7_2 130 / 574Italian Communist Party_cell_1_7_3 26Italian Communist Party_cell_1_7_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_1_7_5
1953Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_8_0 6,120,809 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_8_1 22.6Italian Communist Party_cell_1_8_2 143 / 590Italian Communist Party_cell_1_8_3 13Italian Communist Party_cell_1_8_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_1_8_5
1958Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_9_0 6,704,454 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_9_1 22.7Italian Communist Party_cell_1_9_2 140 / 596Italian Communist Party_cell_1_9_3 3Italian Communist Party_cell_1_9_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_1_9_5
1963Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_10_0 7,767,601 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_10_1 25.3Italian Communist Party_cell_1_10_2 166 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_10_3 26Italian Communist Party_cell_1_10_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_1_10_5
1968Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_11_0 8,557,404 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_11_1 26.9Italian Communist Party_cell_1_11_2 177 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_11_3 11Italian Communist Party_cell_1_11_4 Luigi LongoItalian Communist Party_cell_1_11_5
1972Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_12_0 9,072,454 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_12_1 27.1Italian Communist Party_cell_1_12_2 179 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_12_3 2Italian Communist Party_cell_1_12_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_1_12_5
1976Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_13_0 12,622,728 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_13_1 34.4Italian Communist Party_cell_1_13_2 228 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_13_3 49Italian Communist Party_cell_1_13_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_1_13_5
1979Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_14_0 11,139,231 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_14_1 30.4Italian Communist Party_cell_1_14_2 201 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_14_3 27Italian Communist Party_cell_1_14_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_1_14_5
1983Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_15_0 11,032,318 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_15_1 29.9Italian Communist Party_cell_1_15_2 198 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_15_3 3Italian Communist Party_cell_1_15_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_1_15_5
1987Italian Communist Party_header_cell_1_16_0 10,254,591 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_1_16_1 26.6Italian Communist Party_cell_1_16_2 177 / 630Italian Communist Party_cell_1_16_3 24Italian Communist Party_cell_1_16_4 Alessandro NattaItalian Communist Party_cell_1_16_5

Italian Communist Party_table_general_2

Senate of the RepublicItalian Communist Party_cell_2_0_0
Election yearItalian Communist Party_header_cell_2_1_0 VotesItalian Communist Party_header_cell_2_1_1 %Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_1_2 SeatsItalian Communist Party_header_cell_2_1_3 +/−Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_1_4 LeaderItalian Communist Party_header_cell_2_1_5
1948Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_2_0 6,969,122 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_2_1 30.8Italian Communist Party_cell_2_2_2 50 / 237Italian Communist Party_cell_2_2_3 Italian Communist Party_cell_2_2_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_2_2_5
1953Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_3_0 6,120,809 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_3_1 22.6Italian Communist Party_cell_2_3_2 56 / 237Italian Communist Party_cell_2_3_3 6Italian Communist Party_cell_2_3_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_2_3_5
1958Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_4_0 6,704,454 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_4_1 22.2Italian Communist Party_cell_2_4_2 60 / 246Italian Communist Party_cell_2_4_3 4Italian Communist Party_cell_2_4_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_2_4_5
1963Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_5_0 6,933,842 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_5_1 25.2Italian Communist Party_cell_2_5_2 84 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_5_3 24Italian Communist Party_cell_2_5_4 Palmiro TogliattiItalian Communist Party_cell_2_5_5
1968Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_6_0 8,583,285 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_6_1 30.0Italian Communist Party_cell_2_6_2 101 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_6_3 17Italian Communist Party_cell_2_6_4 Luigi LongoItalian Communist Party_cell_2_6_5
1972Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_7_0 8,475,141 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_7_1 28.1Italian Communist Party_cell_2_7_2 94 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_7_3 7Italian Communist Party_cell_2_7_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_2_7_5
1976Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_8_0 10,640,471 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_8_1 33.8Italian Communist Party_cell_2_8_2 116 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_8_3 22Italian Communist Party_cell_2_8_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_2_8_5
1979Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_9_0 9,859,004 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_9_1 31.5Italian Communist Party_cell_2_9_2 109 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_9_3 7Italian Communist Party_cell_2_9_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_2_9_5
1983Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_10_0 9,579,699 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_10_1 30.8Italian Communist Party_cell_2_10_2 107 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_10_3 2Italian Communist Party_cell_2_10_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_2_10_5
1987Italian Communist Party_header_cell_2_11_0 9,181,579 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_2_11_1 28.3Italian Communist Party_cell_2_11_2 101 / 315Italian Communist Party_cell_2_11_3 6Italian Communist Party_cell_2_11_4 Alessandro NattaItalian Communist Party_cell_2_11_5

European Parliament Italian Communist Party_section_10

Italian Communist Party_table_general_3

European ParliamentItalian Communist Party_cell_3_0_0
Election yearItalian Communist Party_header_cell_3_1_0 VotesItalian Communist Party_header_cell_3_1_1 %Italian Communist Party_header_cell_3_1_2 SeatsItalian Communist Party_header_cell_3_1_3 +/−Italian Communist Party_header_cell_3_1_4 LeaderItalian Communist Party_header_cell_3_1_5
1979Italian Communist Party_header_cell_3_2_0 10,361,344 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_3_2_1 29.6Italian Communist Party_cell_3_2_2 24 / 81Italian Communist Party_cell_3_2_3 Italian Communist Party_cell_3_2_4 Enrico BerlinguerItalian Communist Party_cell_3_2_5
1984Italian Communist Party_header_cell_3_3_0 11,714,428 (1st)Italian Communist Party_cell_3_3_1 33.3Italian Communist Party_cell_3_3_2 27 / 81Italian Communist Party_cell_3_3_3 3Italian Communist Party_cell_3_3_4 Alessandro NattaItalian Communist Party_cell_3_3_5
1989Italian Communist Party_header_cell_3_4_0 9,598,369 (2nd)Italian Communist Party_cell_3_4_1 27.6Italian Communist Party_cell_3_4_2 22 / 81Italian Communist Party_cell_3_4_3 5Italian Communist Party_cell_3_4_4 Achille OcchettoItalian Communist Party_cell_3_4_5

Leadership Italian Communist Party_section_11

Italian Communist Party_unordered_list_0

Symbols Italian Communist Party_section_12

Italian Communist Party_unordered_list_1

  • Italian Communist Party_item_1_5
  • Italian Communist Party_item_1_6
  • Italian Communist Party_item_1_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian Communist Party.