Italian language

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This article is about the Italian language. Italian language_sentence_0

For the regional varieties of standard Italian, see Regional Italian. Italian language_sentence_1

"Italiano" redirects here. Italian language_sentence_2

For other uses, see Italiano (disambiguation). Italian language_sentence_3

Italian language_table_infobox_0

ItalianItalian language_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationItalian language_header_cell_0_1_0 [itaˈljaːnoItalian language_cell_0_1_1
Native toItalian language_header_cell_0_2_0 Italy, Switzerland (Ticino and Southern Grisons), San Marino, Vatican City, Slovene Istria (Slovenia), Istria County (Croatia)Italian language_cell_0_2_1
RegionItalian language_header_cell_0_3_0 Italy, Ticino and Southern Grisons, Slovenian Littoral, Western IstriaItalian language_cell_0_3_1
EthnicityItalian language_header_cell_0_4_0 ItaliansItalian language_cell_0_4_1
Native speakersItalian language_header_cell_0_5_0 67 million native speakers in the European Union (2020)

L2 speakers in the European Union: 13.4 million c. 85 million total speakersItalian language_cell_0_5_1

Language familyItalian language_header_cell_0_6_0 Indo-EuropeanItalian language_cell_0_6_1
Early formsItalian language_header_cell_0_7_0 Old LatinItalian language_cell_0_7_1
DialectsItalian language_header_cell_0_8_0 Italian language_cell_0_8_1
Writing systemItalian language_header_cell_0_9_0 Latin (Italian alphabet)

Italian BrailleItalian language_cell_0_9_1

Signed formsItalian language_header_cell_0_10_0 Italiano segnato "(Signed Italian)"

italiano segnato esatto "(Signed Exact Italian)"Italian language_cell_0_10_1

Official statusItalian language_header_cell_0_11_0
Official language inItalian language_header_cell_0_12_0 4 countries

2 dependencies

An order and various organisationsItalian language_cell_0_12_1

Recognised minority

language inItalian language_header_cell_0_13_0


 Slovenia  EritreaItalian language_cell_0_13_1

Regulated byItalian language_header_cell_0_14_0 Accademia della Crusca (de facto)Italian language_cell_0_14_1
Language codesItalian language_header_cell_0_15_0
ISO 639-1Italian language_header_cell_0_16_0 Italian language_cell_0_16_1
ISO 639-2Italian language_header_cell_0_17_0 Italian language_cell_0_17_1
ISO 639-3Italian language_header_cell_0_18_0 Italian language_cell_0_18_1
GlottologItalian language_header_cell_0_19_0 Italian language_cell_0_19_1
LinguasphereItalian language_header_cell_0_20_0 51-AAA-qItalian language_cell_0_20_1

Italian (italiano [itaˈljaːno (listen) or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian language_sentence_4

Italian is, by most measures and together with Sardinian, the closest language to Latin, from which it descends via Vulgar Latin. Italian language_sentence_5

Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland (where it is the main language of Ticino and the Graubünden valleys of Calanca, Mesolcina, Bregaglia and val Poschiavo), San Marino and Vatican City. Italian language_sentence_6

It has an official minority status in western Istria (Croatia and Slovenia). Italian language_sentence_7

It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor), Greece (Ionian Islands and Dodecanese) and is generally understood in Corsica (due to its close relation with the Tuscan-influenced local language) and Savoie. Italian language_sentence_8

It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian language_sentence_9

Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian language_sentence_10

Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries. Italian language_sentence_11

Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian (either in its standard form or regional varieties) and other regional languages. Italian language_sentence_12

Italian is a major European language, being one of the official languages of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and one of the working languages of the Council of Europe. Italian language_sentence_13

It is the second most widely spoken native language in the European Union with 67 million speakers (15% of the EU population) and it is spoken as a second language by 13.4 million EU citizens (3%). Italian language_sentence_14

Including Italian speakers in non-EU European countries (such as Switzerland, Albania and the United Kingdom) and on other continents, the total number of speakers is approximately 85 million. Italian language_sentence_15

Italian is the main working language of the Holy See, serving as the lingua franca (common language) in the Roman Catholic hierarchy as well as the official language of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Italian language_sentence_16

Italian is known as the language of music because of its use in musical terminology and opera; numerous Italian words referring to music have become international terms taken into various languages worldwide. Italian language_sentence_17

Its influence is also widespread in the arts and in the food and luxury goods markets. Italian language_sentence_18

Italian was adopted by the state after the Unification of Italy, having previously been a literary language based on Tuscan as spoken mostly by the upper class of Florentine society. Italian language_sentence_19

Its development was also influenced by other Italian languages and, to some minor extent, by the Germanic languages of the post-Roman invaders. Italian language_sentence_20

The incorporation into Italian of learned words from its own ancestor language, Latin, is another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language, scientific terminology and the liturgical language of the Church. Italian language_sentence_21

Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Italians were also literate in Latin and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Italian. Italian language_sentence_22

Unlike most other Romance languages, Italian retains Latin's contrast between short and long consonants. Italian language_sentence_23

Almost all native Italian words end with vowels, a factor that makes Italian words extremely easy to use in rhyming. Italian language_sentence_24

Italian has a 7 vowel sound system ('e' and 'o' have mid-low and mid-high sounds); Classical Latin had 10, 5 with short and 5 with long sounds. Italian language_sentence_25

History Italian language_section_0

"History of Italian" redirects here. Italian language_sentence_26

For the history of the Italian people, see Italians. Italian language_sentence_27

For the history of the Italian culture, see culture of Italy. Italian language_sentence_28

Classification Italian language_section_1

Italian is a Romance language, a descendant of Vulgar Latin (colloquial spoken Latin). Italian language_sentence_29

Standard Italian is based on Tuscan, especially its Florentine dialect, and is therefore an Italo-Dalmatian language, a classification that includes most other central and southern Italian languages and the extinct Dalmatian. Italian language_sentence_30

According to many sources, Italian is the closest language to Latin in terms of vocabulary. Italian language_sentence_31

According to the Ethnologue, Lexical similarity is 89% with French, 87% with Catalan, 85% with Sardinian, 82% with Spanish, 80% with Portuguese, 78% with Ladin, 77% with Romanian. Italian language_sentence_32

Estimates may differ according to sources. Italian language_sentence_33

One study (analyzing the degree of differentiation of Romance languages in comparison to Latin (comparing phonology, inflection, discourse, syntax, vocabulary, and intonation) estimated that distance between Italian and Latin is higher than that between Sardinian and Latin. Italian language_sentence_34

In particular, its vowels are the second-closest to Latin after Sardinian. Italian language_sentence_35

As in most Romance languages, stress is distinctive. Italian language_sentence_36

Geographic distribution Italian language_section_2

Main article: Geographical distribution of Italian speakers Italian language_sentence_37

Italian is an official language of Italy and San Marino and is spoken fluently by the majority of the countries' populations. Italian language_sentence_38

Italian is the third most spoken language in Switzerland (after German and French), though its use there has moderately declined since the 1970s. Italian language_sentence_39

Italian is also used in administration and official documents in Vatican City. Italian language_sentence_40

Due to heavy Italian influence during the Italian colonial period, Italian is still understood by some in former colonies. Italian language_sentence_41

Although it was the primary language in Libya since colonial rule, Italian greatly declined under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi, who expelled the Italian Libyan population and made Arabic the sole official language of the country. Italian language_sentence_42

A few hundred Italian settlers returned to Libya in the 2000s; today Italian is the most spoken second language in the country and serves as a language of commerce and sometimes as a lingua franca between Libyans and foreigners. Italian language_sentence_43

Italian was the official language of Eritrea during Italian colonisation. Italian language_sentence_44

Italian is today used in commerce and it is still spoken especially among elders; besides that, Italian words are incorporated as loan words in the main language spoken in the country (Tigrinya). Italian language_sentence_45

The capital city of Eritrea, Asmara, still has several Italian schools, established during the colonial period. Italian language_sentence_46

In the early 19th century, Eritrea was the country with the highest number of Italians abroad, and the Italian Eritreans grew from 4,000 during World War I to nearly 100,000 at the beginning of World War II. Italian language_sentence_47

In Asmara there are two Italian schools: Italian language_sentence_48

Italian language_unordered_list_0

Italian was also introduced to Somalia through colonialism and was the sole official language of administration and education during the colonial period but fell out of use after government, educational and economic infrastructure were destroyed in the Somali Civil War. Italian language_sentence_49

Albania and Malta have large populations of non-native speakers, with over half of the population having some knowledge of the Italian language. Italian language_sentence_50

Although over 17 million Americans are of Italian descent, only a little over one million people in the United States speak Italian at home. Italian language_sentence_51

Nevertheless, an Italian language media market does exist in the country. Italian language_sentence_52

Italian immigrants to South America have also brought a presence of the language to that continent. Italian language_sentence_53

According to some sources, Italian is the second most spoken language in Argentina after the official language of Spanish, although its number of speakers, mainly of the older generation, is decreasing. Italian language_sentence_54

Education Italian language_section_3

Italian is widely taught in many schools around the world, but rarely as the first foreign language. Italian language_sentence_55

In the 21st century, technology also allows for the continual spread of the Italian language, as people have new ways to learn how to speak, read, and write languages at their own pace and at any given time. Italian language_sentence_56

For example, the free website and application Duolingo has 4.94 million English speakers learning the Italian language. Italian language_sentence_57

According to the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, every year there are more than 200,000 foreign students who study the Italian language; they are distributed among the 90 Institutes of Italian Culture that are located around the world, in the 179 Italian schools located abroad, or in the 111 Italian lecturer sections belonging to foreign schools where Italian is taught as a language of culture. Italian language_sentence_58

Influence and derived languages Italian language_section_4

See also: Italian diaspora Italian language_sentence_59

From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, thousands of Italians settled in Argentina, Uruguay, Southern Brazil and Venezuela, as well as in Canada and the United States, where they formed a physical and cultural presence. Italian language_sentence_60

In some cases, colonies were established where variants of regional languages of Italy were used, and some continue to use this regional language. Italian language_sentence_61

Examples are Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where Talian is used, and the town of Chipilo near Puebla, Mexico; each continues to use a derived form of Venetian dating back to the nineteenth century. Italian language_sentence_62

Another example is Cocoliche, an Italian–Spanish pidgin once spoken in Argentina and especially in Buenos Aires, and Lunfardo. Italian language_sentence_63

Lingua franca Italian language_section_5

See also: Mediterranean Lingua Franca Italian language_sentence_64

Starting in late medieval times in much of Europe and the Mediterranean, Latin was replaced as the primary commercial language by Italian language variants (especially Tuscan and Venetian). Italian language_sentence_65

These variants were consolidated during the Renaissance with the strength of Italy and the rise of humanism and the arts. Italian language_sentence_66

During that period, Italy held artistic sway over the rest of Europe. Italian language_sentence_67

It was the norm for all educated gentlemen to make the Grand Tour, visiting Italy to see its great historical monuments and works of art. Italian language_sentence_68

It thus became expected to learn at least some Italian. Italian language_sentence_69

In England, while the classical languages Latin and Greek were the first to be learned, Italian became the second most common modern language after French, a position it held until the late eighteenth century when it tended to be replaced by German. Italian language_sentence_70

John Milton, for instance, wrote some of his early poetry in Italian. Italian language_sentence_71

Within the Catholic church, Italian is known by a large part of the ecclesiastical hierarchy and is used in substitution for Latin in some official documents. Italian language_sentence_72

Italian loanwords continue to be used in most languages in matters of art and music (especially classical music including opera), in the design and fashion industries, in some sports like football and especially in culinary terms. Italian language_sentence_73

Languages and dialects Italian language_section_6

See also: Languages of Italy and Regional Italian Italian language_sentence_74

In Italy, almost all the other languages spoken as the vernacular—other than standard Italian and some languages spoken among immigrant communities—are often imprecisely called "Italian dialects", even though they are quite different, with some belonging to different linguistic branches. Italian language_sentence_75

The only exceptions to this are twelve groups considered "historical language minorities", which are officially recognized as distinct minority languages by the law. Italian language_sentence_76

On the other hand, Corsican (a language spoken on the French island of Corsica) is closely related to medieval Tuscan, from which Standard Italian derives and evolved. Italian language_sentence_77

The differences in the evolution of Latin in the different regions of Italy can be attributed to the presence of three other types of languages: substrata, superstrata, and adstrata. Italian language_sentence_78

The most prevalent were substrata (the language of the original inhabitants), as the Italian dialects were most likely simply Latin as spoken by native cultural groups. Italian language_sentence_79

Superstrata and adstrata were both less important. Italian language_sentence_80

Foreign conquerors of Italy that dominated different regions at different times left behind little to no influence on the dialects. Italian language_sentence_81

Foreign cultures with which Italy engaged in peaceful relations with, such as trade, had no significant influence either. Italian language_sentence_82

Throughout Italy, regional variations of Standard Italian, called Regional Italian, are spoken. Italian language_sentence_83

Regional differences can be recognized by various factors: the openness of vowels, the length of the consonants, and influence of the local language (for example, in informal situations , and replace the standard Italian in the area of Tuscany, Rome and Venice respectively for the infinitive "to go"). Italian language_sentence_84

There is no definitive date when the various Italian variants of Latin—including varieties that contributed to modern Standard Italian—began to be distinct enough from Latin to be considered separate languages. Italian language_sentence_85

One criterion for determining that two language variants are to be considered separate languages rather than variants of a single language is that they have evolved so that they are no longer mutually intelligible; this diagnostic is effective if mutual intelligibility is minimal or absent (e.g. in Romance, Romanian and Portuguese), but it fails in cases such as Spanish-Portuguese or Spanish-Italian, as native speakers of either pairing can understand each other well if they choose to do so. Italian language_sentence_86

Nevertheless, on the basis of accumulated differences in morphology, syntax, phonology, and to some extent lexicon, it is not difficult to identify that for the Romance varieties of Italy, the first extant written evidence of languages that can no longer be considered Latin comes from the ninth and tenth centuries C.E. Italian language_sentence_87

These written sources demonstrate certain vernacular characteristics and sometimes explicitly mention the use of the vernacular in Italy. Italian language_sentence_88

Full literary manifestations of the vernacular began to surface around the 13th century in the form of various religious texts and poetry.Although these are the first written records of Italian varieties separate from Latin, the spoken language had likely diverged long before the first written records appear, since those who were literate generally wrote in Latin even if they spoke other Romance varieties in person. Italian language_sentence_89

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the use of Standard Italian became increasingly widespread and was mirrored by a decline in the use of the dialects. Italian language_sentence_90

An increase in literacy was one of the main driving factors (one can assume that only literates were capable of learning Standard Italian, whereas those who were illiterate had access only to their native dialect). Italian language_sentence_91

The percentage of literates rose from 25% in 1861 to 60% in 1911, and then on to 78.1% in 1951. Italian language_sentence_92

Tullio De Mauro, an Italian linguist, has asserted that in 1861 only 2.5% of the population of Italy could speak Standard Italian. Italian language_sentence_93

He reports that in 1951 that percentage had risen to 87%. Italian language_sentence_94

The ability to speak Italian did not necessarily mean it was in everyday use, and most people (63.5%) still usually spoke their native dialects. Italian language_sentence_95

In addition, other factors such as mass emigration, industrialization, and urbanization, and internal migrations after World War II, contributed to the proliferation of Standard Italian. Italian language_sentence_96

The Italians who emigrated during the Italian diaspora beginning in 1861 were often of the uneducated lower class, and thus the emigration had the effect of increasing the percentage of literates, who often knew and understood the importance of Standard Italian, back home in Italy. Italian language_sentence_97

A large percentage of those who had emigrated also eventually returned to Italy, often more educated than when they had left. Italian language_sentence_98

The Italian dialects have declined in the modern era, as Italy unified under Standard Italian and continues to do so aided by mass media, from newspapers to radio to television. Italian language_sentence_99

Phonology Italian language_section_7

Main article: Italian phonology Italian language_sentence_100

Italian has a seven-vowel system, consisting of /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, as well as 23 consonants. Italian language_sentence_101

Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian phonology is conservative, preserving many words nearly unchanged from Vulgar Latin. Italian language_sentence_102

Some examples: Italian language_sentence_103

Italian language_unordered_list_1

  • Italian "fourteen" < Latin (cf. Romanian /, Spanish , French /kaˈtɔʁz/, Catalan and Portuguese )Italian language_item_1_2
  • Italian settimana "week" < Latin septimāna (cf. Romanian săptămână, Spanish and Portuguese semana, French semaine /s(ə)ˈmɛn/, Catalan setmana)Italian language_item_1_3
  • Italian medesimo "same" < Vulgar Latin *medi(p)simum (cf. Spanish mismo, Portuguese mesmo, French même /mɛm/, Catalan mateix; note that Italian usually prefers the shorter stesso)Italian language_item_1_4
  • Italian guadagnare "to win, earn, gain" < Vulgar Latin *guadanyāre < Germanic /waidanjan/ (cf. Spanish ganar, Portuguese ganhar, French gagner /ɡaˈɲe/, Catalan guanyar)Italian language_item_1_5

The conservative nature of Italian phonology is partly explained by its origin. Italian language_sentence_104

Italian stems from a literary language that is derived from the 13th-century speech of the city of Florence in the region of Tuscany, and has changed little in the last 700 years or so. Italian language_sentence_105

Furthermore, the Tuscan dialect is the most conservative of all Italian dialects, radically different from the Gallo-Italian languages less than 100 miles to the north (across the La Spezia–Rimini Line). Italian language_sentence_106

The following are some of the conservative phonological features of Italian, as compared with the common Western Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Galician, Catalan). Italian language_sentence_107

Some of these features are also present in Romanian. Italian language_sentence_108

Italian language_unordered_list_2

  • Little or no phonemic lenition of consonants between vowels, e.g. vīta > vita "life" (cf. Romanian viață, Spanish vida [ˈbiða], French vie), pedem > piede "foot" (cf. Spanish pie, French pied /pje/).Italian language_item_2_6
  • Preservation of geminate consonants, e.g. annum > /ˈ anno "year" (cf. Spanish año /ˈaɲo/, French an /ɑ̃/, Portuguese ano /ˈɐnu/).Italian language_item_2_7
  • Preservation of all Proto-Romance final vowels, e.g. pacem > pace "peace" (cf. Romanian pace, Spanish paz, French paix /pɛ/), octō > otto "eight" (cf. Romanian opt, Spanish ocho, French huit /ɥi(t)/), fēcī > feci "I did" (cf. Spanish hice, French fis /fi/).Italian language_item_2_8
  • Preservation of most intertonic vowels (those between the stressed syllable and either the beginning or ending syllable). This accounts for some of the most noticeable differences, as in the forms quattordici and settimana given above.Italian language_item_2_9
  • Slower consonant development, e.g. folia > Italo-Western /fɔʎʎa/ > foglia /ˈfɔʎʎa/ "leaf" (cf. Romanian foaie /ˈfo̯aje/, Spanish hoja /ˈoxa/, French feuille /fœj/; but note Portuguese folha /ˈfoʎɐ/).Italian language_item_2_10

Compared with most other Romance languages, Italian has many inconsistent outcomes, where the same underlying sound produces different results in different words, e.g. laxāre > lasciare and lassare, captiāre > cacciare and cazzare, (ex)dēroteolāre > sdrucciolare, druzzolare and ruzzolare, rēgīna > regina and reina. Italian language_sentence_109

Although in all these examples the second form has fallen out of usage, the dimorphism is thought to reflect the several-hundred-year period during which Italian developed as a literary language divorced from any native-speaking population, with an origin in 12th/13th-century Tuscan but with many words borrowed from languages farther to the north, with different sound outcomes. Italian language_sentence_110

(The La Spezia–Rimini Line, the most important isogloss in the entire Romance-language area, passes only about 20 miles to the north of Florence.) Italian language_sentence_111

Dual outcomes of Latin /p t k/ between vowels, such as lŏcum > luogo but fŏcum > fuoco, was once thought to be due to borrowing of northern voiced forms, but is now generally viewed as the result of early phonetic variation within Tuscany. Italian language_sentence_112

Some other features that distinguish Italian from the Western Romance languages: Italian language_sentence_113

Italian language_unordered_list_3

  • Latin ce-,ci- becomes /tʃe, tʃi/ rather than /(t)se, (t)si/.Italian language_item_3_11
  • Latin -ct- becomes /tt/ rather than /jt/ or /tʃ/: octō > otto "eight" (cf. Spanish ocho, French huit, Portuguese oito).Italian language_item_3_12
  • Vulgar Latin -cl- becomes cchi /kkj/ rather than /ʎ/: oclum > occhio "eye" (cf. Portuguese olho /ˈoʎu/, French oeil /œj/ < /œʎ/); but Romanian ochi /okʲ/.Italian language_item_3_13
  • Final /s/ is not preserved, and vowel changes rather than /s/ are used to mark the plural: amico, amici "male friend(s)", amica, amiche "female friend(s)" (cf. Romanian amic, amici and amică, amice; Spanish amigo(s) "male friend(s)", amiga(s) "female friend(s)"); trēs, sex → tre, sei "three, six" (cf. Romanian trei, șase; Spanish tres, seis).Italian language_item_3_14

Standard Italian also differs in some respects from most nearby Italian languages: Italian language_sentence_114

Italian language_unordered_list_4

  • Perhaps most noticeable is the total lack of metaphony, though metaphony is a feature characterizing nearly every other Italian language.Italian language_item_4_15
  • No simplification of original /nd/, /mb/ (which often became /nn/, /mm/ elsewhere).Italian language_item_4_16

Assimilation Italian language_section_8

Italian phonotactics do not usually permit verbs and polysyllabic nouns to end with consonants, except in poetry and song, so foreign words may receive extra terminal vowel sounds. Italian language_sentence_115

Writing system Italian language_section_9

Main article: Italian orthography Italian language_sentence_116

Italian has a shallow orthography, meaning very regular spelling with an almost one-to-one correspondence between letters and sounds. Italian language_sentence_117

In linguistic terms, the writing system is close to being a phonemic orthography. Italian language_sentence_118

The most important of the few exceptions are the following (see below for more details): Italian language_sentence_119

Italian language_unordered_list_5

  • The letter c represents the sound /k/ at the end of words and before the letters a, o, and u but represents the sound // (as the first sound in the English word chair) before the letters e and i.Italian language_item_5_17
  • The letter g represents the sound /ɡ/ at the end of words and before the letters a, o, and u but represents the sound // (as the first sound in the English word gem) before the letters e and i.Italian language_item_5_18
  • The letter n usually represents the sound /n/, but it represents the sound /ŋ/ (as in the English word sink) before the letter k and before the letter g when this is pronounced /g/, and it represents the sound /n/ when the letter g is pronounced //. So the combination of two letters ng is pronounced either /ŋg/ or /ndʒ/ (never /ŋ/ as in the English word singer).Italian language_item_5_19
  • The letter h is always silent: hotel /oˈtɛl/; hanno 'they have' and anno 'year' both represent /ˈanno/. It is used to form a digraph with c or g to represent /k/ or /g/ before i or e: chi /ki/ 'who', che /ke/ 'what'; aghi /ˈagi/ 'needles', ghetto /ˈgetto/.Italian language_item_5_20
  • The spellings ci and gi represent only /tʃ/ (as in English church) or /dʒ/ (as in English judge) with no /i/ sound before another vowel (ciuccio /ˈtʃuttʃo/ 'pacifier', Giorgio /ˈdʒɔrdʒo/) unless c or g precede stressed /i/ (farmacia /farmaˈtʃia/ 'pharmacy', biologia /bioloˈdʒia/ 'biology'). Elsewhere ci and gi represent /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ followed by /i/: cibo /ˈtʃibo/ 'food', baci /ˈbatʃi/ 'kisses'; gita /ˈdʒita/ 'trip', Tamigi /taˈmidʒi/ 'Thames'.*Italian language_item_5_21

The Italian alphabet is typically considered to consist of 21 letters. Italian language_sentence_120

The letters j, k, w, x, y are traditionally excluded, though they appear in loanwords such as jeans, whisky, taxi, xenofobo, xilofono. Italian language_sentence_121

The letter ⟨x⟩ has become common in standard Italian with the prefix extra-, although (e)stra- is traditionally used; it is also common to use the Latin particle ex(-) to mean "former(ly)" as in: la mia ex ("my ex-girlfriend"), "Ex-Jugoslavia" ("Former Yugoslavia"). Italian language_sentence_122

The letter ⟨j⟩ appears in the first name Jacopo and in some Italian place-names, such as Bajardo, Bojano, Joppolo, Jerzu, Jesolo, Jesi, Ajaccio, among others, and in Mar Jonio, an alternative spelling of Mar Ionio (the Ionian Sea). Italian language_sentence_123

The letter ⟨j⟩ may appear in dialectal words, but its use is discouraged in contemporary standard Italian. Italian language_sentence_124

Letters used in foreign words can be replaced with phonetically equivalent native Italian letters and digraphs: ⟨gi⟩, ⟨ge⟩, or ⟨i⟩ for ⟨j⟩; ⟨c⟩ or ⟨ch⟩ for ⟨k⟩ (including in the standard prefix kilo-); ⟨o⟩, ⟨u⟩ or ⟨v⟩ for ⟨w⟩; ⟨s⟩, ⟨ss⟩, ⟨z⟩, ⟨zz⟩ or ⟨cs⟩ for ⟨x⟩; and ⟨e⟩ or ⟨i⟩ for ⟨y⟩. Italian language_sentence_125

Italian language_unordered_list_6

  • The acute accent is used over word-final ⟨e⟩ to indicate a stressed front close-mid vowel, as in perché "why, because". In dictionaries, it is also used over ⟨o⟩ to indicate a stressed back close-mid vowel (azióne). The grave accent is used over word-final ⟨e⟩ and ⟨o⟩ to indicate a front open-mid vowel and a back open-mid vowel respectively, as in tè "tea" and può "(he) can". The grave accent is used over any vowel to indicate word-final stress, as in gioventù "youth". Unlike ⟨é⟩, which is a close-mid vowel, a stressed final ⟨o⟩ is almost always a back open-mid vowel (andrò), with a few exceptions, like metró, with a stressed final back close-mid vowel, making ⟨ó⟩ for the most part unnecessary outside of dictionaries. Most of the time, the penultimate syllable is stressed. But if the stressed vowel is the final letter of the word, the accent is mandatory, otherwise it is virtually always omitted. Exceptions are typically either in dictionaries, where all or most stressed vowels are commonly marked. Accents can optionally be used to disambiguate words that differ only by stress, as for prìncipi "princes" and princìpi "principles", or àncora "anchor" and ancóra "still/yet". For monosyllabic words, the rule is different: when two orthographically identical monosyllabic words with different meanings exist, one is accented and the other is not (example: è "is", e "and").Italian language_item_6_22
  • The letter ⟨h⟩ distinguishes ho, hai, ha, hanno (present indicative of avere "to have") from o ("or"), ai ("to the"), a ("to"), anno ("year"). In the spoken language, the letter is always silent. The ⟨h⟩ in ho additionally marks the contrasting open pronunciation of the ⟨o⟩. The letter ⟨h⟩ is also used in combinations with other letters. No phoneme /h/ exists in Italian. In nativized foreign words, the ⟨h⟩ is silent. For example, hotel and hovercraft are pronounced /oˈtɛl/ and /ˈɔverkraft/ respectively. (Where ⟨h⟩ existed in Latin, it either disappeared or, in a few cases before a back vowel, changed to [ɡ]: traggo "I pull" ← Lat. trahō.)Italian language_item_6_23
  • The letters ⟨s⟩ and ⟨z⟩ can symbolize voiced or voiceless consonants. ⟨z⟩ symbolizes /dz/ or /ts/ depending on context, with few minimal pairs. For example: zanzara /dzanˈdzaːra/ "mosquito" and nazione /natˈtsjoːne/ "nation". ⟨s⟩ symbolizes /s/ word-initially before a vowel, when clustered with a voiceless consonant (⟨p, f, c, ch⟩), and when doubled; it symbolizes /z/ when between vowels and when clustered with voiced consonants. Intervocalic ⟨s⟩ varies regionally between /s/ and /z/, with /z/ being more dominant in northern Italy and /s/ in the south.Italian language_item_6_24
  • The letters ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ vary in pronunciation between plosives and affricates depending on following vowels. The letter ⟨c⟩ symbolizes /k/ when word-final and before the back vowels ⟨a, o, u⟩. It symbolizes // as in chair before the front vowels ⟨e, i⟩. The letter ⟨g⟩ symbolizes /ɡ/ when word-final and before the back vowels ⟨a, o, u⟩. It symbolizes // as in gem before the front vowels ⟨e, i⟩. Other Romance languages and, to an extent, English have similar variations for ⟨c, g⟩. Compare hard and soft C, hard and soft G. (See also palatalization.)Italian language_item_6_25
  • The digraphs ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨gh⟩ indicate (/k/ and /ɡ/) before ⟨i, e⟩. The digraphs ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ indicate "softness" (/tʃ/ and /dʒ/, the affricate consonants of English church and judge) before ⟨a, o, u⟩. For example:Italian language_item_6_26

Italian language_description_list_7

  • Before back vowel (A, O, U) Before front vowel (I, E) Plosive C caramella /karaˈmɛlla/ candy CH china /ˈkiːna/ India ink G gallo /ˈɡallo/ rooster GH ghiro /ˈɡiːro/ edible dormouse Affricate CI ciambella /tʃamˈbɛlla/ donut C Cina /ˈtʃiːna/ China GI giallo /ˈdʒallo/ yellow G giro /ˈdʒiːro/ ,Italian language_item_7_27

Italian language_description_list_8

  • Note: ⟨h⟩ is silent in the digraphs ⟨ch⟩, ⟨gh⟩; and ⟨i⟩ is silent in the digraphs ⟨ci⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ before ⟨a, o, u⟩ unless the ⟨i⟩ is stressed. For example, it is silent in ciao /ˈtʃaː.o/ and cielo /ˈtʃɛː.lo/, but it is pronounced in farmacia /ˌfar.maˈtʃiː.a/ and farmacie /ˌfar.maˈtʃiː.e/.Italian language_item_8_28

Italian has geminate, or double, consonants, which are distinguished by length and intensity. Italian language_sentence_126

Length is distinctive for all consonants except for /ʃ/, /dz/, /ts/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/, which are always geminate when between vowels, and /z/, which is always single. Italian language_sentence_127

Geminate plosives and affricates are realized as lengthened closures. Italian language_sentence_128

Geminate fricatives, nasals, and /l/ are realized as lengthened continuants. Italian language_sentence_129

There is only one vibrant phoneme /r/ but the actual pronunciation depends on context and regional accent. Italian language_sentence_130

Generally one can find a flap consonant [ɾ] in unstressed position whereas [r] is more common in stressed syllables, but there may be exceptions. Italian language_sentence_131

Especially people from the Northern part of Italy (Parma, Aosta Valley, South Tyrol) may pronounce /r/ as [ʀ], [ʁ], or [ʋ]. Italian language_sentence_132

Of special interest to the linguistic study of Regional Italian is the gorgia toscana, or "Tuscan Throat", the weakening or lenition of /p/, /t/, and /k/ in the Tuscan language. Italian language_sentence_133

The voiced postalveolar fricative /ʒ/ is present as a phoneme only in loanwords: for example, garage [ɡaˈraːʒ]. Italian language_sentence_134

Phonetic [ʒ] is common in Central and Southern Italy as an intervocalic allophone of /dʒ/: gente [ˈdʒɛnte] 'people' but la gente [laˈʒɛnte] 'the people', ragione [raˈʒoːne] 'reason'. Italian language_sentence_135

Grammar Italian language_section_10

Main article: Italian grammar Italian language_sentence_136

See also: Italian verbs Italian language_sentence_137

Italian grammar is typical of the grammar of Romance languages in general. Italian language_sentence_138

Cases exist for personal pronouns (nominative, oblique, accusative, dative), but not for nouns. Italian language_sentence_139

There are two basic classes of nouns in Italian, referred to as genders, masculine and feminine. Italian language_sentence_140

Gender may be natural (ragazzo 'boy', ragazza 'girl') or simply grammatical with no possible reference to biological gender (masculine costo 'cost', feminine costa 'coast'). Italian language_sentence_141

Masculine nouns typically end in -o (ragazzo 'boy'), with plural marked by -i (ragazzi 'boys'), and feminine nouns typically end in -a, with plural marked by -e (ragazza 'girl', ragazze 'girls'). Italian language_sentence_142

For a group composed of boys and girls, ragazzi is the plural, suggesting that -i is a general plural. Italian language_sentence_143

A third category of nouns is unmarked for gender, ending in -e in the singular and -i in the plural: legge 'law, f. Italian language_sentence_144

sg. Italian language_sentence_145

', leggi 'laws, f. pl.'; fiume 'river, m. Italian language_sentence_146

sg. Italian language_sentence_147

', fiumi 'rivers, m. pl.', thus assignment of gender is arbitrary in terms of form, enough so that terms may be identical but of distinct genders: fine meaning 'aim', 'purpose' is masculine, while fine meaning 'end, ending' (e.g. of a movie) is feminine, and both are fini in the plural, a clear instance of -i as a non-gendered default plural marker. Italian language_sentence_148

These nouns often, but not always, denote inanimates. Italian language_sentence_149

There are a number of nouns that have a masculine singular and a feminine plural, most commonly of the pattern m. sg. Italian language_sentence_150

-o, f. pl. -a (miglio 'mile, m. Italian language_sentence_151

sg. Italian language_sentence_152

', miglia 'miles, f. pl.'; paio 'pair, m. Italian language_sentence_153

sg., paia 'pairs, f. pl.'), and thus are sometimes considered neuter (these are usually derived from neuter Latin nouns). Italian language_sentence_154

An instance of neuter gender also exists in pronouns of the third person singular. Italian language_sentence_155

Examples: Italian language_sentence_156

Italian language_table_general_1

DefinitionItalian language_header_cell_1_0_0 GenderItalian language_header_cell_1_0_1 Singular FormItalian language_header_cell_1_0_2 Plural FormItalian language_header_cell_1_0_3
SonItalian language_cell_1_1_0 MasculineItalian language_cell_1_1_1 FiglioItalian language_cell_1_1_2 FigliItalian language_cell_1_1_3
HouseItalian language_cell_1_2_0 FeminineItalian language_cell_1_2_1 CasaItalian language_cell_1_2_2 CaseItalian language_cell_1_2_3
LoveItalian language_cell_1_3_0 MasculineItalian language_cell_1_3_1 AmoreItalian language_cell_1_3_2 AmoriItalian language_cell_1_3_3
ArtItalian language_cell_1_4_0 FeminineItalian language_cell_1_4_1 ArteItalian language_cell_1_4_2 ArtiItalian language_cell_1_4_3

Nouns, adjectives, and articles inflect for gender and number (singular and plural). Italian language_sentence_157

Like in English, common nouns are capitalized when occurring at the beginning of a sentence. Italian language_sentence_158

Unlike English, nouns referring to languages (e.g. Italian), speakers of languages, or inhabitants of an area (e.g. Italians) are not capitalized. Italian language_sentence_159

There are three types of adjectives: descriptive, invariable and form-changing. Italian language_sentence_160

Descriptive adjectives are the most common, and their endings change to match the number and gender of the noun they modify. Italian language_sentence_161

Invariable adjectives are adjectives whose endings do not change. Italian language_sentence_162

The form changing adjectives "buono (good), bello (beautiful), grande (big), and santo (saint)" change in form when placed before different types of nouns. Italian language_sentence_163

Italian has three degrees for comparison of adjectives: positive, comparative, and superlative. Italian language_sentence_164

The order of words in the phrase is relatively free compared to most European languages. Italian language_sentence_165

The position of the verb in the phrase is highly mobile. Italian language_sentence_166

Word order often has a lesser grammatical function in Italian than in English. Italian language_sentence_167

Adjectives are sometimes placed before their noun and sometimes after. Italian language_sentence_168

Subject nouns generally come before the verb. Italian language_sentence_169

Italian is a null-subject language, so that nominative pronouns are usually absent, with subject indicated by verbal inflections (e.g. amo 'I love', ama '(s)he loves', amano 'they love'). Italian language_sentence_170

Noun objects normally come after the verb, as do pronoun objects after imperative verbs, infinitives and gerunds, but otherwise pronoun objects come before the verb. Italian language_sentence_171

There are both indefinite and definite articles in Italian. Italian language_sentence_172

There are four indefinite articles, selected by the gender of the noun they modify and by the phonological structure of the word that immediately follows the article. Italian language_sentence_173

Uno is masculine singular, used before z (ts/ or /dz/), s+consonant, gn (/ɲ/), or ps, while masculine singular un is used before a word beginning with any other sound. Italian language_sentence_174

The noun zio 'uncle' selects masculine singular, thus uno zio 'an uncle' or uno zio anziano 'an old uncle,' but un mio zio 'an uncle of mine'. Italian language_sentence_175

The feminine singular indefinite articles are una, used before any consonant sound, and its abbreviated form, written un', used before vowels: una camicia 'a shirt', una camicia bianca 'a white shirt', un'altra camicia 'a different shirt'. Italian language_sentence_176

There are seven forms for definite articles, both singular and plural. Italian language_sentence_177

In the singular: lo, which corresponds to the uses of uno; il, which corresponds to the uses with consonant of un; la, which corresponds to the uses of una; l', used for both masculine and feminine singular before vowels. Italian language_sentence_178

In the plural: gli is the masculine plural of lo and l'; i is the plural of il; and le is the plural of feminine la and l'. Italian language_sentence_179

There are numerous contractions of prepositions with subsequent articles. Italian language_sentence_180

There are numerous productive suffixes for diminutive, augmentative, pejorative, attenuating, etc., which are also used to create neologisms. Italian language_sentence_181

There are 27 pronouns, grouped in clitic and tonic pronouns. Italian language_sentence_182

Personal pronouns are separated into three groups: subject, object (which take the place of both direct and indirect objects), and reflexive. Italian language_sentence_183

Second person subject pronouns have both a polite and a familiar form. Italian language_sentence_184

These two different types of address are very important in Italian social distinctions. Italian language_sentence_185

All object pronouns have two forms: stressed and unstressed (clitics). Italian language_sentence_186

Unstressed object pronouns are much more frequently used, and come before the verb (Lo vedo. Italian language_sentence_187

'I see him.'). Italian language_sentence_188

Stressed object pronouns come after the verb, and are used when emphasis is required, for contrast, or to avoid ambiguity (Vedo lui, ma non lei. Italian language_sentence_189

'I see him, but not her'). Italian language_sentence_190

Aside from personal pronouns, Italian also has demonstrative, interrogative, possessive, and relative pronouns. Italian language_sentence_191

There are two types of demonstrative pronouns: relatively near (this) and relatively far (that). Italian language_sentence_192

Demonstratives in Italian are repeated before each noun, unlike in English. Italian language_sentence_193

There are three regular sets of verbal conjugations, and various verbs are irregularly conjugated. Italian language_sentence_194

Within each of these sets of conjugations, there are four simple (one-word) verbal conjugations by person/number in the indicative mood (present tense; past tense with imperfective aspect, past tense with perfective aspect, and future tense), two simple conjugations in the subjunctive mood (present tense and past tense), one simple conjugation in the conditional mood, and one simple conjugation in the imperative mood. Italian language_sentence_195

Corresponding to each of the simple conjugations, there is a compound conjugation involving a simple conjugation of "to be" or "to have" followed by a past participle. Italian language_sentence_196

"To have" is used to form compound conjugation when the verb is transitive ("Ha detto", "ha fatto": he/she has said, he/she has made/done), while "to be" is used in the case of verbs of motion and some other intransitive verbs ("È andato", "è stato": he/she has gone, he/she has been). Italian language_sentence_197

"To be" may be used with transitive verbs, but in such a case it makes the verb passive ("È detto", "è fatto": it is said, it is made/done). Italian language_sentence_198

This rule is not absolute, and some exceptions do exist. Italian language_sentence_199

Words Italian language_section_11

Conversation Italian language_section_12

Note: the plural form of verbs could also be used as an extremely formal (for example to noble people in monarchies) singular form (see royal we). Italian language_sentence_200

Italian language_table_general_2

English (inglese)Italian language_header_cell_2_0_0 Italian (italiano)Italian language_header_cell_2_0_1 PronunciationItalian language_header_cell_2_0_2
YesItalian language_cell_2_1_0 Italian language_cell_2_1_1 () /ˈsi/Italian language_cell_2_1_2
NoItalian language_cell_2_2_0 NoItalian language_cell_2_2_1 () /ˈnɔ/Italian language_cell_2_2_2
Of course!Italian language_cell_2_3_0 Certo! / Certamente! / Naturalmente!Italian language_cell_2_3_1 /ˈtʃɛrto/ /ˌtʃertaˈmente/ /naturalˈmente/Italian language_cell_2_3_2
Hello!Italian language_cell_2_4_0 Ciao! (informal) / Salve! (semi-formal)Italian language_cell_2_4_1 /ˈtʃao/Italian language_cell_2_4_2
Cheers!Italian language_cell_2_5_0 Salute!Italian language_cell_2_5_1 /saˈlute/Italian language_cell_2_5_2
How are you?Italian language_cell_2_6_0 Come stai? (informal) / Come sta? (formal) / Come state? (plural) / Come va? (general, informal)Italian language_cell_2_6_1 /ˌkomeˈstai/; /ˌkomeˈsta/ /ˌkome ˈstate/ /ˌkome va/Italian language_cell_2_6_2
Good morning!Italian language_cell_2_7_0 Buongiorno! (= Good day!)Italian language_cell_2_7_1 /ˌbwɔnˈdʒorno/Italian language_cell_2_7_2
Good evening!Italian language_cell_2_8_0 Buonasera!Italian language_cell_2_8_1 /ˌbwɔnaˈsera/Italian language_cell_2_8_2
Good night!Italian language_cell_2_9_0 Buonanotte! (for a good night sleeping) / Buona serata! (for a good night awake)Italian language_cell_2_9_1 /ˌbwɔnaˈnɔtte/ /ˌbwɔna seˈrata/Italian language_cell_2_9_2
Have a nice day!Italian language_cell_2_10_0 Buona giornata! (formal)Italian language_cell_2_10_1 /ˌbwɔna dʒorˈnata/Italian language_cell_2_10_2
Enjoy the meal!Italian language_cell_2_11_0 Buon appetito!Italian language_cell_2_11_1 /ˌbwɔn‿appeˈtito/Italian language_cell_2_11_2
Goodbye!Italian language_cell_2_12_0 Arrivederci (general) / ArrivederLa (formal) / Ciao! (informal)Italian language_cell_2_12_1 () /arriveˈdertʃi/Italian language_cell_2_12_2
Good luck!Italian language_cell_2_13_0 Buona fortuna! (general)Italian language_cell_2_13_1 /ˌbwɔna forˈtuna/Italian language_cell_2_13_2
I love youItalian language_cell_2_14_0 Ti amo (between lovers only) / Ti voglio bene (in the sense of "I am fond of you", between lovers, friends, relatives etc.)Italian language_cell_2_14_1 /ti ˈaːmo/; /ti ˌvɔʎʎo ˈbɛne/Italian language_cell_2_14_2
Welcome [to...]Italian language_cell_2_15_0 Benvenuto/-i (for male/males or mixed) / Benvenuta/-e (for female/females) [a / in...]Italian language_cell_2_15_1 /benveˈnuto//benveˈnuti//benveˈnuta//benveˈnute/Italian language_cell_2_15_2
PleaseItalian language_cell_2_16_0 Per favore / Per piacere / Per cortesiaItalian language_cell_2_16_1 () /per faˈvore/ /per pjaˈtʃere/ /per korteˈzia/Italian language_cell_2_16_2
Thank you!Italian language_cell_2_17_0 Grazie! (general) / Ti ringrazio! (informal) / La ringrazio! (formal) / Vi ringrazio! (plural)Italian language_cell_2_17_1 /ˈɡrattsje/ /ti rinˈɡrattsjo/Italian language_cell_2_17_2
You are welcome!Italian language_cell_2_18_0 Prego!Italian language_cell_2_18_1 /ˈprɛɡo/Italian language_cell_2_18_2
Excuse me / I am sorryItalian language_cell_2_19_0 Mi dispiace (only "I am sorry") / Scusa(mi) (informal) / Mi scusi (formal) / Scusatemi (plural) / Sono desolato ("I am sorry", if male) / Sono desolata ("I am sorry", if female)Italian language_cell_2_19_1 /ˈskuzi/; /ˈskuza/; /mi disˈpjatʃe/Italian language_cell_2_19_2
Who?Italian language_cell_2_20_0 Chi?Italian language_cell_2_20_1 /ki/Italian language_cell_2_20_2
What?Italian language_cell_2_21_0 Che cosa? / Cosa? / Che?Italian language_cell_2_21_1 /kekˈkɔza/ or /kekˈkɔsa/ /ˈkɔza/ or /kɔsa/ /ˈke/Italian language_cell_2_21_2
When?Italian language_cell_2_22_0 Quando?Italian language_cell_2_22_1 /ˈkwando/Italian language_cell_2_22_2
Where?Italian language_cell_2_23_0 Dove?Italian language_cell_2_23_1 /ˈdove/Italian language_cell_2_23_2
How?Italian language_cell_2_24_0 Come?Italian language_cell_2_24_1 /ˈkome/Italian language_cell_2_24_2
Why / BecauseItalian language_cell_2_25_0 PerchéItalian language_cell_2_25_1 /perˈke/Italian language_cell_2_25_2
AgainItalian language_cell_2_26_0 Di nuovo / AncoraItalian language_cell_2_26_1 /di ˈnwɔvo/; /anˈkora/Italian language_cell_2_26_2
How much? / How many?Italian language_cell_2_27_0 Quanto? / Quanta? / Quanti? / Quante?Italian language_cell_2_27_1 /ˈkwanto/Italian language_cell_2_27_2
What is your name?Italian language_cell_2_28_0 Come ti chiami? (informal) / Qual è il suo nome? (formal) / Come si chiama? (formal)Italian language_cell_2_28_1 /ˌkome tiˈkjami/ /kwal ˈɛ il ˌsu.o ˈnome/Italian language_cell_2_28_2
My name is ...Italian language_cell_2_29_0 Mi chiamo ...Italian language_cell_2_29_1 /mi ˈkjamo/Italian language_cell_2_29_2
This is ...Italian language_cell_2_30_0 Questo è ... (masculine) / Questa è ... (feminine)Italian language_cell_2_30_1 /ˌkwesto ˈɛ/ /ˌkwesta ˈɛ/Italian language_cell_2_30_2
Yes, I understand.Italian language_cell_2_31_0 Sì, capisco. / Ho capito.Italian language_cell_2_31_1 /si kaˈpisko/ /ɔkkaˈpito/Italian language_cell_2_31_2
I do not understand.Italian language_cell_2_32_0 Non capisco. / Non ho capito.Italian language_cell_2_32_1 () /noŋ kaˈpisko/ /nonˌɔkkaˈpito/Italian language_cell_2_32_2
Do you speak English?Italian language_cell_2_33_0 Parli inglese? (informal) / Parla inglese? (formal) / Parlate inglese? (plural)Italian language_cell_2_33_1 () /parˌlate iŋˈɡleːse/ () /ˌparla iŋˈɡleːse/Italian language_cell_2_33_2
I do not understand Italian.Italian language_cell_2_34_0 Non capisco l'italiano.Italian language_cell_2_34_1 /noŋ kaˌpisko litaˈljano/Italian language_cell_2_34_2
Help me!Italian language_cell_2_35_0 Aiutami! (informal) / Mi aiuti! (formal) / Aiutatemi! (plural) / Aiuto! (general)Italian language_cell_2_35_1 /aˈjutami/ /ajuˈtatemi/ /aˈjuto/Italian language_cell_2_35_2
You are right/wrong!Italian language_cell_2_36_0 (Tu) hai ragione/torto! (informal) / (Lei) ha ragione/torto! (formal) / (Voi) avete ragione/torto! (plural)Italian language_cell_2_36_1 Italian language_cell_2_36_2
What time is it?Italian language_cell_2_37_0 Che ora è? / Che ore sono?Italian language_cell_2_37_1 /ke ˌora ˈɛ/ /ke ˌore ˈsono/Italian language_cell_2_37_2
Where is the bathroom?Italian language_cell_2_38_0 Dov'è il bagno?Italian language_cell_2_38_1 () /doˌvɛ il ˈbaɲɲo/Italian language_cell_2_38_2
How much is it?Italian language_cell_2_39_0 Quanto costa?Italian language_cell_2_39_1 /ˌkwanto ˈkɔsta/Italian language_cell_2_39_2
The bill, please.Italian language_cell_2_40_0 Il conto, per favore.Italian language_cell_2_40_1 /il ˌkonto per faˈvore/Italian language_cell_2_40_2
The study of Italian sharpens the mind.Italian language_cell_2_41_0 Lo studio dell'italiano aguzza l'ingegno.Italian language_cell_2_41_1 /loˈstudjo dellitaˈljano aˈɡuttsa linˈdʒeɲɲo/Italian language_cell_2_41_2
Where are you from?Italian language_cell_2_42_0 Di dove sei? (general, informal)/ Di dove è? (formal)Italian language_cell_2_42_1 /di dove ssˈɛi/ /di dove ˈɛ/Italian language_cell_2_42_2
I likeItalian language_cell_2_43_0 Mi piace (for one object) / Mi piacciono (for multiple objects)Italian language_cell_2_43_1 /mi pjatʃe/ /mi pjattʃono/Italian language_cell_2_43_2

Question words Italian language_section_13

Italian language_table_general_3

EnglishItalian language_header_cell_3_0_0 ItalianItalian language_header_cell_3_0_1 IPAItalian language_header_cell_3_0_2
what (adj.)Italian language_cell_3_1_0 cheItalian language_cell_3_1_1 /ke/Italian language_cell_3_1_2
what (standalone)Italian language_cell_3_2_0 cosaItalian language_cell_3_2_1 /ˈkɔza/, /ˈkɔsa/Italian language_cell_3_2_2
whoItalian language_cell_3_3_0 chiItalian language_cell_3_3_1 /ki/Italian language_cell_3_3_2
howItalian language_cell_3_4_0 comeItalian language_cell_3_4_1 /ˈkome/Italian language_cell_3_4_2
whereItalian language_cell_3_5_0 doveItalian language_cell_3_5_1 /ˈdove/Italian language_cell_3_5_2
why, becauseItalian language_cell_3_6_0 perchéItalian language_cell_3_6_1 /perˈke/Italian language_cell_3_6_2
whichItalian language_cell_3_7_0 qualeItalian language_cell_3_7_1 /ˈkwale/Italian language_cell_3_7_2
whenItalian language_cell_3_8_0 quandoItalian language_cell_3_8_1 /ˈkwando/Italian language_cell_3_8_2
how muchItalian language_cell_3_9_0 quantoItalian language_cell_3_9_1 /ˈkwanto/Italian language_cell_3_9_2

Time Italian language_section_14

Italian language_table_general_4

EnglishItalian language_header_cell_4_0_0 ItalianItalian language_header_cell_4_0_1 IPAItalian language_header_cell_4_0_2
todayItalian language_cell_4_1_0 oggiItalian language_cell_4_1_1 /ˈɔddʒi/Italian language_cell_4_1_2
yesterdayItalian language_cell_4_2_0 ieriItalian language_cell_4_2_1 /ˈjɛri/Italian language_cell_4_2_2
tomorrowItalian language_cell_4_3_0 domaniItalian language_cell_4_3_1 /doˈmani/Italian language_cell_4_3_2
secondItalian language_cell_4_4_0 secondoItalian language_cell_4_4_1 /seˈkondo/Italian language_cell_4_4_2
minuteItalian language_cell_4_5_0 minutoItalian language_cell_4_5_1 /miˈnuto/Italian language_cell_4_5_2
hourItalian language_cell_4_6_0 oraItalian language_cell_4_6_1 /ˈora/Italian language_cell_4_6_2
dayItalian language_cell_4_7_0 giornoItalian language_cell_4_7_1 /ˈdʒorno/Italian language_cell_4_7_2
weekItalian language_cell_4_8_0 settimanaItalian language_cell_4_8_1 /settiˈmana/Italian language_cell_4_8_2
monthItalian language_cell_4_9_0 meseItalian language_cell_4_9_1 /ˈmeze/, /ˈmese/Italian language_cell_4_9_2
yearItalian language_cell_4_10_0 annoItalian language_cell_4_10_1 /ˈanno/Italian language_cell_4_10_2

Numbers Italian language_section_15

Italian language_table_general_5

EnglishItalian language_header_cell_5_0_0 ItalianItalian language_header_cell_5_0_1 IPAItalian language_header_cell_5_0_2
one hundredItalian language_cell_5_1_0 centoItalian language_cell_5_1_1 /ˈtʃɛnto/Italian language_cell_5_1_2
one thousandItalian language_cell_5_2_0 milleItalian language_cell_5_2_1 /ˈmille/Italian language_cell_5_2_2
two thousandItalian language_cell_5_3_0 duemilaItalian language_cell_5_3_1 /ˌdueˈmila/Italian language_cell_5_3_2
two thousand (and) twenty (2020)Italian language_cell_5_4_0 duemilaventiItalian language_cell_5_4_1 /dueˌmilaˈventi/Italian language_cell_5_4_2
one millionItalian language_cell_5_5_0 un milioneItalian language_cell_5_5_1 /miˈljone/Italian language_cell_5_5_2
one billionItalian language_cell_5_6_0 un miliardoItalian language_cell_5_6_1 /miˈljardo/Italian language_cell_5_6_2

Days of the week Italian language_section_16

Months of the year Italian language_section_17

See also Italian language_section_18

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