Jacksonville, Florida

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"Jacksonville" redirects here. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_0

For other uses, see Jacksonville (disambiguation). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_1

Jacksonville, Florida_table_infobox_0

Jacksonville, FloridaJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_1_1
StateJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_2_0 FloridaJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_2_1
CountyJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_3_0 DuvalJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_3_1
FoundedJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_4_0 1822Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_5_0 1832Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_5_1
ConsolidatedJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_6_0 1968Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_6_1
Named forJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_7_0 Andrew JacksonJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_7_1
GovernmentJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_8_0
TypeJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_9_0 Strong Mayor–CouncilJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_9_1
BodyJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_10_0 Jacksonville City CouncilJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_10_1
MayorJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_11_0 Lenny Curry (R)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_11_1
AreaJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_12_0
TotalJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_13_0 874.67 sq mi (2,265.39 km)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_13_1
LandJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_14_0 747.48 sq mi (1,935.97 km)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_14_1
WaterJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_15_0 127.19 sq mi (329.42 km)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_15_1
ElevationJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_16_0 16 ft (5 m)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_16_1
Population (2010)Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_17_0
TotalJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_18_0 821,784Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_18_1
Estimate (2019)Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_19_0 911,507Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_19_1
RankJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_20_0 1st in Florida

12th in United StatesJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_20_1

DensityJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_21_0 1,219.44/sq mi (470.83/km)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_21_1
UrbanJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_22_0 1,065,219 (US: 40th)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_22_1
MetroJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_23_0 1,504,980 (US: 39th)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_23_1
CSAJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_24_0 1,631,488 (US: 34th)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_24_1
Time zoneJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_25_0 UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_25_1
Summer (DST)Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_26_0 UTC−4 (EDT)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_26_1
ZIP CodesJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_27_0 32099, 32201–32212, 32214–32241, 32244–32247, 32250, 32254–32260, 32266, 32267, 32277, 32290Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_27_1
Area code(s)Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_28_0 904Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_28_1
FIPS codeJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_29_0 12-35000Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_29_1
GNIS feature IDJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_30_0 0295003Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_30_1
AirportJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_31_0 Jacksonville International AirportJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_31_1
InterstatesJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_32_0 Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_32_1
WaterwaysJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_33_0 St. Johns River, Fall Creek, Arlington RiverJacksonville, Florida_cell_0_33_1
WebsiteJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_0_34_0 Jacksonville, Florida_cell_0_34_1

Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States as of 2020. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_2

It is the seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_3

Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_4

As of 2019, Jacksonville's population was estimated to be 911,507, making it the 12th most populous city in the U.S., the most populous city in the Southeast, and the most populous city in the South outside of the state of Texas. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_5

The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,523,615 and is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_6

Jacksonville is centered on the banks of the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_7 Johns River in the First Coast region of northeast Florida, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia state line and 328 miles (528 km) north of Miami. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_8

The Jacksonville Beaches communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_9

The area was originally inhabited by the Timucua people, and in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_10

Under British rule, a settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed, known as Wacca Pilatka to the Seminole and the Cow Ford to the British. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_11

A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain; it was named after Andrew Jackson, the first military governor of the Florida Territory and seventh President of the United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_12

Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_13

Its riverine location facilitates Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, the U.S. Marine Corps Blount Island Command, and the Port of Jacksonville, Florida's third largest seaport. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_14

Jacksonville's military bases and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay form the third largest military presence in the United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_15

Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance, healthcare and logistics. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_16

As with much of Florida, tourism is important to the Jacksonville area, particularly tourism related to golf. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_17

People from Jacksonville are sometimes called "Jacksonvillians" or "Jaxsons" (also spelled "Jaxons"). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_18

History Jacksonville, Florida_section_0

Main articles: History of Jacksonville, Florida and Timeline of Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_19

Early history Jacksonville, Florida_section_1

The area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_20

On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_21

In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua people. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_22

At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_23 Johns River. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_24

One early French map shows a village called Ossachite at the site of what is now downtown Jacksonville; this may be the earliest recorded name for that area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_25

In 1562, French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_26 Johns River, calling it the River of May because that was the month of his discovery. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_27

Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_28

In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement on the St. Johns River, Fort Caroline, near the main village of the Saturiwa. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_29

Philip II of Spain ordered Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to protect the interests of Spain by attacking the French at Fort Caroline. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_30

On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_31 Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, and killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_32

The Spanish renamed the fort as San Mateo and, following the expulsion of the French, St. Augustine became the most important European settlement in Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_33

The location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate, but a reconstruction of the fort was established in 1964 along the St. Johns River. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_34

Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 as part of the Treaty of Paris in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War (known as the French and Indian War on the North American front). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_35

The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_36

The road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; these names reflected the use of the ford for moving cattle across the river there. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_37

The British introduced the cultivation of sugarcane, indigo and fruits as cash crops on plantations, in addition to exporting lumber. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_38

A large number of British colonists who were "energetic and of good character" were given land grants in the region and emigrated to the region, becoming the first English-speaking population in Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_39

These colonists came from England, Georgia, South Carolina and Bermuda. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_40

British judges introduced the system of common law to Florida, resulting in the Floridian legal system utilizing concepts such as trial-by-jury, habeas corpus and county-based government. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_41

After being defeated in the American Revolutionary War, Britain returned control of the territory to Spain in 1783 via the Peace of Paris. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_42

The settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_43

Founding and 19th century Jacksonville, Florida_section_2

After Spain ceded the Florida Territory to the United States in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_44

They named the town Jacksonville, after celebrated war hero and first Territorial Governor (later U.S. President) Andrew Jackson. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_45

Led by Isaiah D. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_46

During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_47

The city was blockaded by Union forces, who gained control of nearby Fort Clinch. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_48

Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_49

In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_50

However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Johns Bluff, and occupied Jacksonville in 1862. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_51

Slaves escaped to freedom in Union lines. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_52

In February 1864 Union forces left Jacksonville and confronted a Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee, going down to defeat. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_53

Union forces retreated to Jacksonville and held the city for the remainder of the war. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_54

In March 1864 a Confederate cavalry confronted a Union expedition in the Battle of Cedar Creek. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_55

Warfare and the long occupation left the city disrupted after the war. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_56

During Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, Jacksonville and nearby St. Augustine became popular winter resorts for the rich and famous. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_57

Visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_58

President Grover Cleveland attended the Sub-Tropical Exposition in the city on February 22, 1888, during his trip to Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_59

This highlighted the visibility of the state as a worthy place for tourism. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_60

The city's tourism, however, was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever outbreaks. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_61

Extending the Florida East Coast Railway further south drew visitors to other areas. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_62

From 1893 to 1938, Jacksonville was the site of the Florida Old Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Home; it operated a nearby cemetery. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_63

20th and 21st centuries Jacksonville, Florida_section_3

1900 to 1939 Jacksonville, Florida_section_4

On May 3, 1901, downtown Jacksonville was ravaged by a fire that started as a kitchen fire. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_64

Spanish moss at a nearby mattress factory was quickly engulfed in flames and enabled the fire to spread rapidly. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_65

In merely eight hours, it swept through 146 city blocks, destroyed over 2,000 buildings, left about 10,000 homeless and killed seven residents. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_66

The Confederate Monument in Hemming Park was one of the few landmarks to survive the fire. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_67

Governor William Sherman Jennings declared martial law and sent the state militia to maintain order; on May 17, municipal authority resumed. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_68

It is said the glow from the flames could be seen in Savannah, Georgia, and the smoke plumes seen in Raleigh, North Carolina. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_69

Known as the "Great Fire of 1901", it was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest urban fire in the southeastern United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_70

Architect Henry John Klutho was a primary figure in the reconstruction of the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_71

The first multi-story structure built by Klutho was the Dyal-Upchurch Building in 1902. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_72

The St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_73 James Building, built on the previous site of the St. James Hotel that burned down, was built in 1912 as Klutho's crowning achievement. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_74

In the 1910s, northern film studios headquartered in New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic landscapes, excellent rail access, and cheap labor. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_75

Over the course of the decade, more than 30 silent film studios were established, earning Jacksonville the title of "Winter Film Capital of the World". Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_76

However, the emergence of Hollywood as a major film production center ended the city's film industry. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_77

One movie studio site, Norman Studios, remains in Arlington; it has been converted to the Jacksonville Silent Film Museum at Norman Studios. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_78

During this time, Jacksonville also became a banking and insurance center, with companies such as Barnett Bank, Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank, Prudential, Gulf Life, Afro-American Insurance, Independent Life and American Heritage Life thriving in the business district. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_79

1940 to 1979 Jacksonville, Florida_section_5

During World War II, The U.S. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_80 Navy became a major employer and economic force, constructing three Navy bases in the city, while the U.S. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_81 Marine Corps established Blount Island Command. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_82

Jacksonville, like most large cities in the United States, suffered from negative effects of rapid urban sprawl after World War II. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_83

The construction of federal highways essentially subsidized development of suburban housing, and wealthier, better established residents moved to newer housing in the suburbs. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_84

After World War II, the government of the city of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new public building projects in the postwar economic boom. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_85

Mayor W. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_86 Haydon Burns' Jacksonville Story resulted in the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_87

Development of suburbs led to a growing middle class who lived outside the urban core. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_88

An increasing proportion of residents in Jacksonville's urban core had a higher than average rate of poverty, especially as businesses and jobs also migrated to the suburbs. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_89

Given the postwar migration of residents, businesses, and jobs, the city's tax base declined. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_90

It had difficulty funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_91

In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services, such as sewage and building code enforcement. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_92

In 1958, a study recommended that the city of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities to create the needed larger geographic tax base to improve services throughout the county. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_93

Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_94

On August 27, 1960, a white mob attacked civil rights demonstrators in Hemming Park with clubs. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_95

The police largely stood by. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_96

In 1962, a federal court ordered the city to prepare a plan for integration of public schools, in accordance with the ruling of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_97

A study found that schools were in poor condition and poorly equipped. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_98

On December 29, 1963, the Hotel Roosevelt fire killed 22 people, the highest one-day death toll in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_99

On September 10, 1964, Hurricane Dora made landfall near St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_100 Augustine, causing major damage to buildings in North Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_101

Hurricane Dora was the first hurricane to make a direct hit to North Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_102

In the mid-1960s, corruption scandals arose among city and some county officials, who were mainly part of a traditional white, conservative Democratic network that had dominated politics for the decades since the disenfranchisement of most African Americans since the turn of the century. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_103

After a grand jury was convened to investigate, 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_104

In 1963 the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools threatened to withdraw accreditation of area schools in a year because of "instructional deficiencies." Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_105

But voters refused to approve new taxes to improve school conditions. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_106

In late 1963, Duval County was spending $299 per student compared to the state average spending of $372 per student. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_107

In 1964 all 15 of Duval County's public high schools lost their accreditation. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_108

This added momentum to proposals for government reform. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_109

Jacksonville Consolidation, led by J. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_110 J. Daniel and Claude Yates, began to win more support during this period, from both inner-city blacks, who wanted more involvement in government after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that provided federal oversight and enforcement of their right to vote, and whites in the suburbs, who wanted more services and more control over the central city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_111

Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending, and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_112

When a consolidation referendum was held in 1967, voters approved the plan. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_113

On October 1, 1968, the city and county governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_114

Fire, police, health & welfare, recreation, public works, and housing & urban development were all combined under the new government. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_115

In honor of the occasion, then-Mayor Hans Tanzler posed with actress Lee Meredith behind a sign marking the new border of the "Bold New City of the South" at Florida 13 and Julington Creek. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_116

The consolidation created a 900-square-mile entity. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_117

1980 to present Jacksonville, Florida_section_6

Tommy Hazouri supported passage of environmental regulations and reduced pollution odor during his single term as mayor, which began in 1987. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_118

Ed Austin was elected as mayor in 1991. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_119

His most lasting contribution is the River City Renaissance program, a $235 million bond issued in 1993 by the city of Jacksonville which funded urban renewal and revamped the city's historic downtown neighborhoods. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_120

Austin oversaw the city's purchase and refurbishing of the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_121 James Building, which is now used as Jacksonville's city hall. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_122

He was mayor in 1993 when Jacksonville was awarded its National Football League franchise, the Jacksonville Jaguars. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_123

The Better Jacksonville Plan, promoted as a "blueprint for Jacksonville's future" and approved by Jacksonville voters in 2000, authorized a half-penny sales tax. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_124

This generated most of the revenue required for the $2.25 billion package of major projects, which have included road & infrastructure improvements, environmental preservation, targeted economic development, and new or improved public facilities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_125

In 2005, Jacksonville hosted Super Bowl XXXIX, which was seen by an estimated 86 million viewers. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_126

The city has suffered damage in natural disasters. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_127

In October 2016, Hurricane Matthew caused major flooding and damage to Jacksonville, Jacksonville Beach, Atlantic Beach and Neptune Beach, the first such damage in the area since 2004. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_128

In September 2017, Hurricane Irma caused record-breaking floods in Jacksonville, with a severity not seen since 1846. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_129

As has been typical of other metropolitan areas across the country, suburban growth has continued around Jacksonville, where large areas of land were available for development, drawing more residents, businesses and jobs from the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_130

This has resulted in further demographic changes. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_131

The city's largest ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, declined from 75.8% of the population in 1970 to 55.1% by 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_132

Geography Jacksonville, Florida_section_7

Cityscape Jacksonville, Florida_section_8

Topography Jacksonville, Florida_section_9

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 874.3 square miles (2,264 km), making Jacksonville the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States; of this, 86.66% (757.7 sq mi or 1,962 km) is land and 13.34% (116.7 sq mi or 302 km) is water. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_133

Jacksonville surrounds the town of Baldwin. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_134

Nassau County lies to the north, Baker County lies to the west, and Clay and St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_135 Johns counties lie to the south; the Atlantic Ocean lies to the east, along with the Jacksonville Beaches. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_136

The city developed along both sides of the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_137 Johns River. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_138

The Trout River, a major tributary of the St. Johns River, is located entirely within Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_139

Just south of Jacksonville and north of Saint Augustine is the boundary of where the Floridian Peninsula ends and Continental North America begins; Jacksonville is north of that line. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_140

While still in the North American Coastal plain, the topography begins to take on slight Piedmont characteristics. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_141

Like the Central Florida ridge and the Piedmont, the area begins sloping several miles inland. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_142

On the west side of Jacksonville, a series of low ridges predominate. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_143

The high point of Jacksonville rises to 190 feet above sea level on Trail Ridge, along the boundary with Baker County. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_144

Soil composition is primarily sand and clay rather than limestone, so few sinkholes develop; however, deep, large diameter sinkholes do occur. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_145

Architecture Jacksonville, Florida_section_10

See also: Architecture of Jacksonville and List of tallest buildings in Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_146

The architecture of Jacksonville varies in style. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_147

Few structures in the city center predate the Great Fire of 1901. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_148

The city is home to one of the largest collections of Prairie School style buildings outside the Midwest. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_149

Following the Great Fire of 1901, Henry John Klutho would come to influence generations of local designers with his works by both the Chicago School, championed by Louis Sullivan, and the Prairie School of architecture, popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_150

Jacksonville is also home to a notable collection of Mid-Century modern architecture. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_151

Local architects Robert C. Broward, Taylor Hardwick, and William Morgan adapted a range design principles, including International style, Brutalism, Futurism and Organicism, all applied with an American interpretation generally referred to today as Mid-century modern design. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_152

The architecture firms of Reynolds, Smith & Hills (RS&H) and Kemp, Bunch & Jackson (KBJ) have also contributed a number of important works to the city's modern architectural movement. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_153

Jacksonville's early predominant position as a regional center of business left an indelible mark on the city's skyline. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_154

Many of the earliest skyscrapers in the state were constructed in Jacksonville, dating to 1902. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_155

The city last held the state height record from 1974 to 1981. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_156

The tallest building in Downtown Jacksonville's skyline is the Bank of America Tower, constructed in 1990 as the Barnett Center. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_157

It has a height of 617 ft (188 m) and includes 42 floors. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_158

Other notable structures include the 37-story Wells Fargo Center (with its distinctive flared base making it the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline), originally built in 1972–74 by the Independent Life and Accident Insurance Company, and the 28-floor Riverplace Tower. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_159

When this tower was completed in 1967, it was the tallest precast, post-tensioned concrete structure in the world. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_160

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_0

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Neighborhoods Jacksonville, Florida_section_11

Main article: Neighborhoods of Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_161

There are more than 500 neighborhoods within Jacksonville's vast area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_162

These include Downtown Jacksonville and its surrounding neighborhoods, including LaVilla, Brooklyn, Riverside and Avondale, Springfield, Eastside, Mandarin, and San Marco. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_163

Additionally, greater Jacksonville is traditionally divided into several amorphous areas, comprising large parts of Duval County. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_164

These are Northside, Westside, Southside, and Arlington, as well as the Jacksonville Beaches. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_165

There are four municipalities that have retained their own governments since consolidation; these are Baldwin and the three Jacksonville Beaches towns of Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Jacksonville Beach. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_166

Four of Jacksonville's neighborhoods, Avondale, Ortega, Springfield, and Riverside, have been identified as U.S. historic districts and are in the National Register of Historic Places. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_167

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_1

  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_1_8
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Climate Jacksonville, Florida_section_12

According to the Köppen climate classification, Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate, with hot humid summers, and warm to mild and drier winters. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_168

Seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months from May through September, when brief but intense downpours with thunder and lightning are common, while the driest months are from November through April. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_169

Rainfall averages around 52 inches (1,300 mm) a year. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_170

Normal monthly mean temperatures range from 53.1 °F (11.7 °C) in January to 82.3 °F (27.9 °C) in July; high temperatures average 64 to 92 °F (18 to 33 °C) throughout the year. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_171

High heat indices are common for the summer months in the area, with indices above 110 °F (43.3 °C) possible. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_172

The highest temperature recorded was 104 °F (40 °C) on July 28, 1872, and July 11, 1879 . Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_173

The city of Jacksonville averages only about 10 to 15 nights at or below freezing. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_174

Such cold weather is usually short lived. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_175

The coldest temperature recorded at Jacksonville International Airport was 7 °F (−14 °C) on January 21, 1985. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_176

Jacksonville has recorded three days with measurable snow since 1911, most recently a one-inch (2.5 cm) snowfall in December 1989 and flurries in December 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_177

Jacksonville has only received one direct hit from a hurricane since 1871. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_178

The rarity of direct strikes is attributed to chance. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_179

However, the city has experienced hurricane or near-hurricane conditions more than a dozen times due to storms crossing the state from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, or passing to the north or south in the Atlantic and brushing past the area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_180

The strongest effect on Jacksonville was from Hurricane Dora in 1964, the only recorded storm to hit the First Coast with sustained hurricane-force winds. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_181

The eye crossed St. Augustine with winds that had just barely diminished to 110 mph (180 km/h), making it a strong Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_182

In 1979, Hurricane David passed offshore by 40 miles (64 kilometres), bringing winds around 95 mph (150 km/h). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_183

Hurricane Floyd in 1999 caused damage mainly to Jacksonville Beach; the Jacksonville Beach pier was severely damaged and later demolished. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_184

In 2004, Jacksonville was inundated by Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, which made landfall south of the area, and suffered minor damage from Tropical Storm Bonnie, which spawned a minor tornado. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_185

Jacksonville also suffered damage from 2008's Tropical Storm Fay which crisscrossed the state, bringing parts of Jacksonville under darkness for four days. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_186

Fay damaged, but did not destroy, the Jacksonville Beach pier that had been rebuilt after Floyd. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_187

On May 28, 2012, Jacksonville was hit by Tropical Storm Beryl, packing winds up to 70 mph (110 km/h) which made landfall near Jacksonville Beach. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_188

Hurricane Matthew passed 37 mi (60 km) to the east with winds of 110 miles per hour. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_189

It caused storm surge, extensive flooding of the Atlantic Ocean and St. Johns River, and wind damage; the storm knocked out power for 250,000 people. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_190

In 2017, Hurricane Irma passed 75 mi (121 km) to the west with 65 mph (100 km/h) winds. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_191

It caused severe storm surge and flooding, passing the flood record of Hurricane Dora in 1964. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_192

Parks Jacksonville, Florida_section_13

The City of Jacksonville has a unique park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, Florida State Parks and the City of Jacksonville Department of Parks and Recreation. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_193

Jacksonville operates the largest urban park system in the United States, providing facilities and services at more than 337 locations on more than 80,000 acres (320 km) located throughout the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_194

A number of parks provide access for people to boat, swim, fish, sail, jetski, surf and waterski. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_195

National parks Jacksonville, Florida_section_14

Main article: National Park Service Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_196

The Timucuan Preserve is a U.S. National Preserve comprising over 46,000 acres (19,000 ha) of wetlands and waterways. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_197

It includes natural and historic areas such as the Fort Caroline National Memorial and the Kingsley Plantation, the oldest standing plantation in the state. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_198

State parks Jacksonville, Florida_section_15

Main article: Florida State Parks Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_199

There are several state parks within the city limits of Jacksonville, these include Amelia Island State Park, Big Talbot Island State Park, Fort George Island Cultural State Park, George Crady Bridge Fishing Pier State Park, Little Talbot Island State Park, Pumpkin Hill Creek Preserve State Park and Yellow Bluff Fort Historic State Park. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_200

City parks Jacksonville, Florida_section_16

See also: List of parks in Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_201

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_2

  • Springfield Park is a public park on the southern bounds of the historic neighborhood of Springfield (for which it is named), and is part of a network of parks that parallel Hogans Creek. The park opened in 1907 as Dignan Park, named for a former chairman of the city's Board of Public Works. In 1914, the park hosted the annual reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, a gathering of former Confederate soldiers. Five months after the reunion, the city renamed the park "Confederate Park". A Confederate monument was erected in 1915 honoring the Women of the Southland. On August 11, 2020, the city council voted to change the name of the park to "Springfield Park".Jacksonville, Florida_item_2_20

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_3

  • Friendship Fountain is a large fountain in St. Johns River Park at the west end of Downtown Jacksonville's Southbank Riverwalk. It opened in 1965 as the world's largest and tallest fountain, and has been one of Jacksonville's most recognizable and popular attractions. The fountain's three pumps could push 17,000 US gallons (64,000 L) of water per minute up to 100 feet (30 m) in height. Designed by Jacksonville architect Taylor Hardwick in 1963 and, in 2011 the city completed a $3.2 million renovation to the fountain and the surrounding park. It features a light show and music each evening.Jacksonville, Florida_item_3_21
  • Hanna Park is a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) public beach and city park near Mayport in the Jacksonville Beaches area. It consists of 447 acres (1.81 km) of mature coastal hammock, and was known as Manhattan Beach, Florida's first beach community for African Americans during the period of segregation in the United States.Jacksonville, Florida_item_3_22

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_4

  • Hemming Park is a 1.54-acre (6,200 m) public park in the heart of the government center in downtown. Originally a village green, it was the first and is the oldest park in the city. The area was established as a public square in 1857 by Isaiah Hart, founder of Jacksonville. The first Wednesday of every month, Hemming Park is converted into the centerpiece of Jacksonville's Downtown Art Walk. The third Thursday of every month Hemming Park hosts a night market called Jaxsons Night Market.Jacksonville, Florida_item_4_23
  • Klutho Park is an 18.34-acre (74,200 m) public park, between downtownand the historic neighborhood of Springfield. It is part of a network of parks that parallel Hogans Creek, Klutho Park being the largest. Created between 1899 and 1901 on land donated by the Springfield Company. The park also housed the City's first zoo, opening at the park in 1914. The Hogans Creek Improvement Project of 1929–30, designed by architect Henry J. Klutho, turned much of the park grounds into a Venetian-style promenade.Jacksonville, Florida_item_4_24
  • Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail is a 14.5-mile (23.3 km) Rail Trail that extends northwest to Baldwin, Florida. It includes three separate paths; a multi-use asphalt trail for hiking, jogging, in-line skating or cycling; an off-road bike trail; and a horseback riding trail.Jacksonville, Florida_item_4_25
  • Jessie Ball DuPont Park is a 7-acre (2.8 ha) park, home to Treaty Oak, a massive 250-year-old tree in the Southbank.Jacksonville, Florida_item_4_26
  • Metropolitan Park is a 32-acre (13 ha) waterfront park on the St. Johns River, in the Sports Complex area of downtown. The multi-purpose facility contains an exhibition area, picnic and playground area, and a performance pavilion which has a capacity of 10,000 persons.Jacksonville, Florida_item_4_27

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_5

  • Memorial Park is a 5.85-acre (23,700 m) public park, on the St. Johns River in the historic neighborhoods Riverside. Completed in 1924, it is the third oldest park in the city. Built to honor of the 1,200 Floridians who died serving during World War I, the notable Olmsted Brothers were commissioned to design the park, along with local architect Roy A. Benjamin. Charles Adrian Pillars designed the bronze sculpture, 'Life', prominently showcased in the park.Jacksonville, Florida_item_5_28
  • Riverside Park is an 11.4-acre (4.6 ha) public park, in the historic neighborhood of Riverside. It is the second oldest park in the city.Jacksonville, Florida_item_5_29
  • Riverwalk 2.0 miles (3.2 km) along the St. Johns from Berkman Plaza to I-95 at the Fuller Warren Bridge while the Southbank Riverwalk stretches 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from the Radisson Hotel to Museum Circle. Adjacent to Museum Circle is St. Johns River Park, also known as Friendship Park. It is the location of Friendship Fountain, one of the most recognizable and popular attractions in Jacksonville. This landmark was built in 1965 and promoted as the "World's Tallest and Largest" fountain at the time.Jacksonville, Florida_item_5_30
  • Veterans Memorial Wall is a tribute to local servicemen and women killed while serving in US armed forces. A ceremony is held each Memorial Day recognizing any service woman or man from Jacksonville who died in the previous year.Jacksonville, Florida_item_5_31

Other Jacksonville, Florida_section_17

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_6

Demographics Jacksonville, Florida_section_18

Jacksonville, Florida_table_general_1

City compared to county & stateJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_1_0_0
Jacksonville demographicsJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_1_1_0
2010 CensusJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_2_0 JacksonvilleJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_2_1 Duval CountyJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_2_2 FloridaJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_2_3
Total populationJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_3_0 821,784Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_3_1 864,263Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_3_2 18,801,310Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_3_3
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_4_0 +11.7%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_4_1 +11.0%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_4_2 +17.6%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_4_3
Population densityJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_5_0 1,100.1/sq miJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_5_1 1,133.9/sq miJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_5_2 350.6/sq miJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_5_3
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_6_0 59.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_6_1 60.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_6_2 75.0%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_6_3
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_7_0 55.1%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_7_1 56.6%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_7_2 57.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_7_3
Black or African-AmericanJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_8_0 30.7%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_8_1 29.5%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_8_2 16.0%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_8_3
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_9_0 7.7%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_9_1 7.6%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_9_2 22.5%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_9_3
AsianJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_10_0 4.3%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_10_1 4.2%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_10_2 2.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_10_3
Native American or Native AlaskanJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_11_0 0.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_11_1 0.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_11_2 0.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_11_3
Pacific Islander or Native HawaiianJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_12_0 0.1%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_12_1 0.1%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_12_2 0.1%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_12_3
Two or more races (multiracial)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_13_0 2.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_13_1 2.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_13_2 2.5%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_13_3
Some other raceJacksonville, Florida_cell_1_14_0 5.2%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_14_1 3.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_14_2 3.6%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_1_14_3

Jacksonville, Florida_table_general_2

Demographic profileJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_2_0_0 2010Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_2_0_1 2000Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_2_0_2 1990Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_2_0_3 1970Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_2_0_4
WhiteJacksonville, Florida_cell_2_1_0 59.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_1_1 64.5%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_1_2 71.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_1_3 77.1%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_1_4
—Non-HispanicJacksonville, Florida_cell_2_2_0 55.1%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_2_1 62.2%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_2_2 70.3%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_2_3 75.8%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_2_4
Black or African AmericanJacksonville, Florida_cell_2_3_0 30.7%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_3_1 29.0%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_3_2 25.2%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_3_3 22.3%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_4_0 7.7%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_4_1 4.2%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_4_2 2.6%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_4_3 1.3%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_4_4
AsianJacksonville, Florida_cell_2_5_0 4.3%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_5_1 2.8%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_5_2 1.9%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_5_3 0.4%Jacksonville, Florida_cell_2_5_4

Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the twelfth most populous city in the United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_202

As of 2010, there were 821,784 people and 366,273 households in the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_203

Jacksonville has the country's tenth-largest Arab population, with a total population of 5,751 according to the 2000 United States Census. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_204

Jacksonville has Florida's largest Filipino American community, with 25,033 in the metropolitan area as of the 2010 Census. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_205

Much of Jacksonville's Filipino community served in or has ties to the United States Navy. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_206

As of 2010, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 7.7% of Jacksonville's population. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_207

Of these, 2.6% identified as Puerto Rican, 1.7% as Mexican, and 0.9% as Cuban. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_208

As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 30.7% of Jacksonville's population, which includes African Americans. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_209

Out of the 30.7%, 1.8% identified as Sub-Saharan African, 1.4% as West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American (0.5% Haitian, 0.4% Jamaican, 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian, 0.1% Bahamian, 0.1% Barbadian), and 0.6% as Black Hispanics. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_210

As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 55.1% of Jacksonville's population. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_211

Of these, 10.4% identified as ethnic German, 10.2% as Irish, 8.8% as English, 3.9% as Italian, 2.2% as French, 2.0% as Scottish, 2.0% as Scotch-Irish, 1.7% Polish, 1.1% Dutch, 0.6% Russian, 0.5% Norwegian, 0.5% Swedish, 0.5% Welsh, and 0.5% as French Canadian. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_212

As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 4.3% of Jacksonville's population. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_213

Out of the 4.3%, 1.8% were Filipino, 0.9% were Indian, 0.6% Other Asian, 0.5% Vietnamese, 0.3% Chinese, 0.2% Korean, and 0.1% were Japanese. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_214

In 2010, 6.7% of the population identified as of American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.) Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_215

Some 0.9% were of Arab ancestry, as of 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_216

As of 2010, there were 366,273 households, out of which 11.8% were vacant. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_217

23.9% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_218

29.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_219

The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.21. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_220

In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_221

The median age was 35.5 years. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_222

For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_223

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_224

In 2010, the median income for a household in the county was $48,829, and the median income for a family was $59,272. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_225

Males had a median income of $42,485 versus $34,209 for females. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_226

The per capita income for the county was $25,227. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_227

About 10.5% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those aged 65 or over. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_228

In 2010, 9.2% of the county's population was foreign born, with 49.6% being naturalized American citizens. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_229

Of foreign born residents, 38.0% were born in Latin America, 35.7% born in Asia, 17.9% were born in Europe, 5.9% born in Africa, 1.9% in North America, and 0.5% were born in Oceania. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_230

As of 2010, 87.1% of Jacksonville's population age five and over spoke only English at home while 5.8% of the population spoke Spanish at home. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_231

About 3.3% spoke other Indo-European languages at home. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_232

About 2.9% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_233

The remaining 0.9% of the population spoke other languages at home. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_234

In total, 12.9% spoke another language other than English. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_235

As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 90.60% of all residents, while those who spoke Spanish made up 4.13%, Tagalog 1.00%, French 0.47%, Arabic 0.44%, German 0.43%, Vietnamese at 0.31%, Russian was 0.21% and Italian made up 0.17% of the population. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_236

Religion Jacksonville, Florida_section_19

Jacksonville has a diverse religious population. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_237

The largest religious group is Protestant. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_238

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the Jacksonville metropolitan area had an estimated 365,267 Evangelical Protestants, 76,100 Mainline Protestants, and 56,769 Black Protestants, though figures for the latter were incomplete. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_239

There were around 1200 Protestant congregations in various denominations. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_240

Notable Protestant churches include Bethel Baptist Institutional Church and First Baptist Church, whose congregations separated after the Civil War and which are the city's oldest Baptist churches. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_241

Each has become very large. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_242

The Episcopal Diocese of Florida has its see at St. John's Cathedral; the current building was completed in 1906. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_243

Jacksonville is part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine, which covers seventeen counties in North Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_244

ARDA estimated 133,155 Catholics attending 25 parishes in the Jacksonville metropolitan area in 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_245

The Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in Jacksonville, defined as a minor basilica in 2013, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_246

There are also two Eastern Catholic parishes, one of the Syriac Catholic Church and one of the Maronite Church. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_247

In 2010 there were 2520 Eastern Orthodox Christians, representing four churches in the Eastern Orthodox communion, as well as congregations of Syriac Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Ethiopian Orthodox, and Coptic Orthodox Christians. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_248

ARDA estimated 14,886 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and 511 Unitarian Universalists in 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_249

There were an estimated 8,581 Muslims attending seven mosques, the largest being the Islamic Center of Northeast Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_250

The Jewish community, which numbered 6,028 in 2010, is largely centered in the neighborhood of Mandarin. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_251

There are five Orthodox, two Reform, two Conservative, and one Reconstructionist synagogues. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_252

The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute teaches courses for the community. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_253

ARDA also estimated 4,595 Hindus, 3,530 Buddhists and 650 Baháʼís in the Jacksonville area in 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_254

Economy Jacksonville, Florida_section_20

Further information: List of companies based in the Jacksonville area Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_255

Jacksonville's location on the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_256 Johns River and the Atlantic Ocean proved instrumental to the growth of the city and its industry. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_257

Jacksonville has a sizable deepwater port, which helps make it a leading port in the U.S. for automobile imports, as well as the leading transportation and distribution hub in the state. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_258

The strength of the city's economy lies in its broad diversification. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_259

While the area once had many thriving dairies, such as Gustafson's Farm and Skinner Dairy, this aspect of the economy has declined over time. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_260

The area's economy is balanced among distribution, financial services, biomedical technology, consumer goods, information services, manufacturing, insurance, and other industries. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_261

Jacksonville is home to the headquarters of four Fortune 500 companies: CSX Corporation, Fidelity National Financial, Fidelity National Information Services and Southeastern Grocers. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_262

Interline Brands is based in Jacksonville and is owned by The Home Depot. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_263

Other notable companies based in Jacksonville or with a large presence include Florida Blue, Swisher International Group, BOA Merrill Lynch, Fanatics, Crowley Maritime, Web.com, Firehouse Subs and Deutsche Bank. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_264

Naval Air Station Jacksonville, located SW of downtown, employs more than 25,000 people. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_265

In 2008, Jacksonville had 2.8 million visitors who stayed overnight, spending nearly $1 billion. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_266

A study by Research Data Services of Tampa quantified the importance of tourism. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_267

The total economic impact was $1.6 billion and supported nearly 43,000 jobs, 10% of the local workforce. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_268

Banking and financial services Jacksonville, Florida_section_21

Jacksonville has long had a regional legacy in banking and finance. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_269

Locally headquartered Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank and Barnett Bank dominated the industry in Florida from the turn of the 20th century through the 1980s, before all being acquired in a national wave of mergers and acquisitions throughout the entire financial sector. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_270

Acquired by NationsBank in 1997, Barnett Bank was the last of these banks to succumb to acquisition, and at the time was the largest banking merger in U.S. history. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_271

The city still holds distinction nationally and internationally, boosting two Fortune 500 financial services companies, Fidelity National Financial and FIS, FIS being well recognized as a global leader in financial technology. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_272

Headquartered on the banks of the St. Johns River in Downtown Jacksonville, EverBank holds the title of largest bank in the state by deposits. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_273

The city is home to other notable financial services institutions including Ameris Bancorp, Atlantic Coast Financial, Black Knight Financial Services, MedMal Direct Insurance Company, US Assure, and VyStar Credit Union. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_274

The city is also home to the Jacksonville Branch of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_275

Jacksonville's financial sector has benefited from a rapidly changing business culture, as have other Sunbelt cities such as Atlanta, Tampa, and Charlotte. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_276

In a concept known as nearshoring, financial institutions are shifting operations away from high-cost addresses such as Wall Street, and have shifted some trading functions to Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_277

With relatively low-cost real estate, easy access by planes to New York City, high quality of life, and 19,000 financial sector employees, Jacksonville has become an option for relocating staff. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_278

Deutsche Bank's growth in the city is an example of such change. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_279

Jacksonville is the site of Deutsche Bank's second largest US operation; only New York is larger. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_280

They also are an example of a business that has moved operations to the suburbs. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_281

Other institutions with a notable presence in Jacksonville include Macquarie Group, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, JPMorgan Chase, Citi, Citizens Property Insurance, Fidelity Investments, Ally Financial and Aetna. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_282

Logistics Jacksonville, Florida_section_22

Jacksonville is a rail, air, and highway focal point and a busy port of entry, with Jacksonville International Airport, ship repair yards and extensive freight-handling facilities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_283

Lumber, phosphate, paper, cigars and wood pulp are the principal exports; automobiles and coffee are among imports. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_284

The city's manufacturing base provides 4.5% of local jobs, versus 8.5% nationally. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_285

According to Forbes magazine in 2007, Jacksonville ranked 3rd among the top ten U.S. cities as destinations for jobs. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_286

Jacksonville was ranked as the 10th-fastest growing city in the U.S. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_287

To emphasize the city's transportation business and capabilities, the Jacksonville Regional Chamber of Commerce filed Jacksonville America's Logistics Center as a trademark on November 9, 2007. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_288

It was formally registered on August 4, 2009. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_289

Cornerstone began promoting the city as "Jacksonville: America's Logistics Center" in 2009. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_290

Signs were added to the existing city limit markers on Interstate 95. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_291

The Port of Jacksonville, a seaport on the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_292 Johns River, is a large component of the local economy. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_293

Approximately 50,000 jobs in Northeast Florida are related to port activity and the port has an economic impact of $2.7 billion in Northeast Florida: The three maritime shippers who ship to Puerto Rico are all headquartered in Jacksonville: TOTE Maritime, Crowley Maritime, and Trailer Bridge. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_294

Cecil Commerce Center is located on the site of the former Naval Air Station Cecil Field, which closed in 1999 following the 1993 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_295

Covering a total area of 22,939 acres (92.83 km), it was the largest military base in the Jacksonville area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_296

The parcel contains more than 3% of the total land area in Duval County (17,000 acres (69 km)). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_297

The industrial and commercial-zoned center offers mid to large-size parcels for development; it has excellent transportation and utility infrastructure, including the third-longest runway in Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_298

Media and technology Jacksonville, Florida_section_23

Main article: Media in Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_299

The Florida Times-Union is the major daily newspaper in Jacksonville and the First Coast. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_300

Jacksonville.com is its official website. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_301

The Financial News & Daily Record is a daily paper focused on the business and legal communities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_302

Weekly papers include the Jacksonville Business Journal, an American City Business Journals publication focused on business news, Folio Weekly, the city's chief alternative weekly, and The Florida Star and the Jacksonville Free Press, two weeklies catering to African Americans. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_303

Jax4Kids, a monthly newspaper, caters to parents. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_304

EU Jacksonville is a monthly entertainment magazine. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_305

The Coastal is a local online magazine that also publishes a quarterly paper edition. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_306

Jacksonville is the 47th-largest local television market in the United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_307

Despite its large population, Jacksonville has always been a medium-sized market because the surrounding suburbs and rural areas are not much larger than the city itself. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_308

It is served by television stations affiliated with major American networks including WTLV 12 (NBC) and its sister station WJXX 25 (ABC), WJAX-TV 47 (CBS) and WFOX-TV 30 (Fox; with MyNetworkTV/MeTV on DT2), which operates WJAX-TV under a joint sales and shared services agreement, WJCT 7 (PBS), and WCWJ 17 (CW). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_309

WJXT 4, WCWJ's sister station, is a former longtime CBS affiliate that turned independent in 2002. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_310

Jacksonville is the 46th-largest local radio market in the U.S., and is dominated by the same two large ownership groups that dominate the radio industry across it: Cox Radio and iHeartMedia. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_311

The dominant AM radio station in terms of ratings is WOKV 690AM, which is also the flagship station for the Jacksonville Jaguars. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_312

In May 2013, WOKV began simulcasting on 104.5 FM as WOKV FM. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_313

There are two radio stations broadcasting a primarily contemporary hits format; WAPE 95.1 has dominated this niche for over 20 years, and more recently has been challenged by WKSL 97.9 FM (KISS FM). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_314

WJBT 93.3 (The Beat) is a hip-hop/R&B station, 96.9 The Eagle WJGL operates a Classic Hits format while its HD subchannel WJGL-HD2 operates an Urban CHR format under the moniker Power 106.1, WWJK 107.3 is a Mainstream Rock station under the moniker "107.3 Planet Radio. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_315

WEZI 102.9 is an adult contemporary station branded as "Easy 102.9" along with 96.1 WEJZ branded as "96.1 WEJZ" WXXJ X106.5 is an alternative station, WQIK 99.1 is a country station as well as WGNE-FM 99.9, and WJCT 89.9 is the local National Public Radio affiliate. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_316

WJKV 90.9 FM is an Educational Media Foundation K-LOVE outlet. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_317

The NPR and PRX radio show State of the Re:Union, hosted by performance poet and playwright Al Letson, is headquartered and produced in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_318

Military and defense Jacksonville, Florida_section_24

Jacksonville is home to three US naval facilities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_319

Together with the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Jacksonville is the third-largest naval complex in the country. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_320

Only Norfolk, Virginia and San Diego, California are bigger. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_321

The United States military is the largest employer in Jacksonville and its total economic impact is approximately $6.1 billion annually. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_322

Several veterans' service organizations are also headquartered in Jacksonville, including Wounded Warrior Project. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_323

Naval Air Station Jacksonville is a military airport located 4 miles (6 km) south of the central business district. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_324

Approximately 23,000 civilian and active-duty personnel are employed on the base. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_325

There are 35 operational units/squadrons assigned there. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_326

Support facilities include an airfield for pilot training, and a maintenance depot capable of tasks ranging from changing a tire to intricate micro-electronics, or total engine disassembly. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_327

Also on-site is a Naval Hospital, a Fleet Industrial Supply Center, a Navy Family Service Center, and recreational facilities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_328

Naval Station Mayport is a Navy Ship Base that is the third-largest fleet concentration area in the U.S. Mayport has a busy harbor capable of accommodating 34 ships, and an 8,000-foot (2,400 m) runway capable of handling any aircraft used by the Department of Defense. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_329

Until 2007, it was home to the aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy, which locals called "Big John". Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_330

In January 2009, the Navy committed to stationing a nuclear-powered carrier at Mayport when the official Record of Decision was signed. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_331

The port will require approximately $500 million in facility enhancements to support the larger vessel, which would take several years to complete. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_332

The carrier was projected to arrive in 2019; however, an amphibious group was sent before the carrier. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_333

Blount Island Command is a Marine Corps Logistics Base whose mission is to support the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_334

This provides for rapid deployment of personnel to link up with pre-positioned equipment and supplies embarked aboard forward-deployed Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_335

USS Jacksonville, a nuclear-powered Los Angeles-class submarine, is a U.S. Navy ship named for the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_336

The ship's nickname is The Bold One and Pearl Harbor is her home port. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_337

The Florida Air National Guard is based at Jacksonville International Airport. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_338

Coast Guard Sector Jacksonville is located on the St. Johns River next to Naval Station Mayport. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_339

Sector Jacksonville controls operations from Kings Bay, Georgia, south to Cape Canaveral. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_340

CGC Kingfisher, CGC Maria Bray, and CGC Hammer are stationed at the Sector. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_341

Station Mayport is co-located with Sector Jacksonville and includes 25-foot (7.6 m) response boats, and 47-foot (14 m) motor lifeboats. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_342

Culture Jacksonville, Florida_section_25

Leisure and entertainment Jacksonville, Florida_section_26

See also: List of attractions and events in Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_343

Throughout the year, many annual events of various types are held in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_344

In sports, the annual Gate River Run has been held annually since March 1977. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_345

It has been the US National 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) road race Championship since 1994 and is the largest race of its distance in the country with over 13,000 runners, spectators, and volunteers, making it Jacksonville's largest participation sporting event. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_346

In college football, the Gator Bowl is held on January 1. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_347

It has been continuously held since 1946. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_348

Also, the Florida–Georgia game (also known as the "World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party"), the annual college football game between the rival Florida Gators and Georgia Bulldogs has been held in Jacksonville almost yearly since 1933. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_349

For six days in July the Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament is held for fishermen of all skills. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_350

With $500,000 of prizes up for grabs, up to 1000 boats participate with almost 30,000 spectators watching. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_351

Jacksonville is also home of River City Pride which is Northeast Florida's largest Gay Pride parade. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_352

The parade and festivities usually take place over the course of the weekend usually the first or second weekend in October in Jacksonville's Riverside neighborhood. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_353

The first pride parade was held in 1978. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_354

A number of cultural events are also held in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_355

The Jacksonville Jazz Festival, held downtown, is the second-largest jazz festival in the nation, while Springing the Blues, one of the oldest and largest blues festivals, has been held in Jacksonville Beach since 1990. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_356

The World of Nations Celebration has been held in Metropolitan Park since 1993, and features a number of events, food and souvenirs from various countries. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_357

The Art Walk, a monthly outdoor art festival on the first Wednesday of each month, is sponsored by Downtown Vision, Inc, an organization which works to promote artistic talent and venues on the First Coast. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_358

Jacksonville is home to many breweries and a growing number of distilleries. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_359

Other events include the Blessing of the Fleet held in March since 1985 and the Greater Jacksonville Agricultural Fair in November at the Jacksonville Fairgrounds and Exposition Center featuring games, rides, food, entertainment and livestock exhibition. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_360

One Spark is an annual and the largest crowdfunding event held for creators to showcase their ideas for a chance to win part of $300,000 in funding. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_361

Riverside Arts Market (RAM), an outdoor arts-and-crafts market on the Riverwalk, occurs every Saturday from March to December under the canopy of the Fuller Warren Bridge. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_362

Holiday celebrations include the Freedom, Fanfare & Fireworks celebration on July 4, the lighting of Jacksonville's official Christmas tree at the Jacksonville Landing (now removed) on the day after Thanksgiving and the Jacksonville Light Parade of boats the following day. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_363

The VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena, which opened in 2003, is a 16,000-seat performance venue that attracts national entertainment, sporting events and also houses the Jacksonville Sports Hall of Fame. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_364

It replaced the outdated Jacksonville Coliseum that was built in 1960 and demolished on June 26, 2003. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_365

The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens boasts the second largest animal collection in the state. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_366

The zoo features elephants, lions, and jaguars, with an exhibit, Range of the Jaguar, hosted by the former owners of the Jacksonville Jaguars, Delores and Wayne Weaver. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_367

It also has a multitude of reptile houses, free flight aviaries, and many other animals. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_368

Adventure Landing is an amusement park with locations in Jacksonville and Jacksonville Beach. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_369

The Jacksonville Beach location contains Shipwreck Island, Duval County's only waterpark. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_370

Theatre Jacksonville was organized in 1919 as the Little Theatre and is one of the oldest continually producing community theatres in the United States. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_371

The Alhambra Dinner Theatre, located on the Southside near the University of North Florida, has offered professional productions that frequently starred well-known actors since 1967. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_372

There are also a number of popular community theatres such as Players by the Sea located in Jacksonville Beach and The 5 & Dime Theatre Co. located in Downtown Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_373

The Murray Hill Art Center was reopened in February 2012 through a partnership of the Jacksonville Parks and Recreation (JaxParks) and the Art League of Jacksonville, a nonprofit dedicated to arts education. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_374

The center is located in the historic Murray Hill area and offers community arts classes as well as shared studio space for aspiring artists. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_375

Visitors are welcomed year around for events and classes. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_376

Jacksonville has two fully enclosed shopping malls. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_377

The oldest is the Regency Square Mall, which opened in 1967 and is located on former sand dunes in the Arlington area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_378

The other is The Avenues Mall. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_379

It opened in 1990 on the Southside at the intersection of I-95 and US 1. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_380

There is a 3rd indoor mall in the metropolitan area, The Orange Park Mall. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_381

But it's just outside of Jacksonville in Orange Park, Florida, in Clay County. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_382

The St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_383 Johns Town Center opened in 2005. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_384

On the north side of Jacksonville, the River City Marketplace opened in 2006. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_385

Both of these are "open air" malls, with a mix of stores but not contained under the same roof. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_386

Literature, film and television Jacksonville, Florida_section_27

Main article: Media in Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_387

A handful of significant literary works and authors are associated with Jacksonville and the surrounding area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_388

Perhaps the most important is James Weldon Johnson, who moved North and was influential in the Harlem Renaissance. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_389

In 1920 he also became the first African American to lead the NAACP civil rights organization. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_390

His first success as a writer was the poem "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing" (1899), which his brother Rosamond Johnson set to music; the song became unofficially known as the "Negro National Anthem." Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_391

Already famous for having written Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), northern writer Harriet Beecher Stowe published Palmetto Leaves in 1873. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_392

A travel guide and memoir about her winters in the town of Mandarin, Florida, it was one of the first guides written about Florida and stimulated the state's first boom in the 1880s of tourism and residential development. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_393

Jacksonville embraced the movies. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_394

Sun-Ray Cinema, also known as the 5 Points Theatre and Riverside Theatre, opened in 1927. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_395

It was the first theater in Florida equipped to show the new "talking pictures" and the third nationally. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_396

It is located in the Five Points section of town and was renamed as the Five Points Theater in 1949. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_397

The Florida Theatre, also opened in 1927, is located in downtown Jacksonville and is one of only four remaining high-style movie palaces that were built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural boom of the 1920s. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_398

Since that time, Jacksonville has been chosen by a number of film and television studios for location shooting. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_399

Notable motion pictures that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville since the silent film era include the classic thriller, Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_400

Since the late 20th century, the city has attracted numerous film companies, which shot The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking (1988), Brenda Starr (1989), G.I. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_401 Jane (1997), The Devil's Advocate (1997), Ride (1998), Why Do Fools Fall in Love (1998), Forces of Nature (1999), Tigerland (2000), Sunshine State (2002), Basic (2003), The Manchurian Candidate (2004), Lonely Hearts (2006), Moving McAllister (2007), The Year of Getting to Know Us (2008), The Ramen Girl and Like Dandelion Dust. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_402

Notable television series or made-for-television films that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville include Inherit the Wind (1988), Orpheus Descending (1990), Saved by the Light (1995), The Babysitter's Seduction (1996), First Time Felon (1997), Safe Harbor (2009), Recount (2008), American Idol (2009), and Ash vs Evil Dead (2015). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_403

Museums and art galleries Jacksonville, Florida_section_28

The Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens is an art museum in Jacksonville's Riverside neighborhood. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_404

It was founded in 1961, following the death of Ninah Mae Holden Cummer, who bequeathed her art collection, house and gardens to the museum. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_405

Its galleries display one of the world's three most comprehensive collections of Meissen porcelain, as well as large collections of American, European, and Japanese art. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_406

The grounds contain two acres of Italian and English gardens begun by Ninah Cummer. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_407

The Museum of Contemporary Art Jacksonville (MOCA Jacksonville) is a contemporary art museum funded and operated as a "cultural resource" of the University of North Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_408

Tracing its roots to the formation of Jacksonville's Fine Arts Society in 1924, it opened its current 60,000-square-foot (6,000 m) facility in 2003 next to the Main Library downtown. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_409

The museum features eclectic permanent and traveling exhibitions, and a collection of over 700 works. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_410

The Museum of Science & History (MOSH), located in downtown's Southbank Riverwalk, specializes in science and local history exhibits. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_411

It features a main exhibit that changes quarterly, plus three floors of nature exhibits, an extensive exhibit on the history of Northeast Florida, a hands-on science area, and the area's only astronomy theater, the Bryan Gooding Planetarium. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_412

Kingsley Plantation is a historic plantation built in 1798. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_413

The house of Zephaniah Kingsley, barn, kitchen, and slave cabins have been preserved. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_414

Alexander Brest, founder of Duval Engineering and Contracting Co., was the benefactor for the Alexander Brest Museum and Gallery on the campus of Jacksonville University. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_415

The exhibits are a diverse collection of carved ivory, Pre-Columbian artifacts, Steuben glass, Chinese porcelain and cloisonné, Tiffany glass, Boehm porcelain, and rotating exhibits of the work of local, regional, national and international artists. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_416

Three other art galleries are located at educational institutions in town. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_417

Florida State College at Jacksonville has the Kent Gallery on their westside campus and the Wilson Center for the Arts at their main campus. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_418

The University Gallery is located on the campus of the University of North Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_419

The Jacksonville Karpeles Manuscript Library Museum is a branch of the world's largest private collection of original manuscripts and documents. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_420

The museum in Jacksonville is in a 1921 neoclassical building on the outskirts of downtown. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_421

In addition to document displays, an antique-book library has numerous volumes dating from the late 19th century. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_422

The Catherine Street Fire Station building is on the National Register of Historic Places; it was relocated to Metropolitan Park in 1993. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_423

It houses the Jacksonville Fire Museum and features more than 500 artifacts, including an 1806 hand pumper. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_424

The LaVilla Museum opened in 1999 and features a permanent display of African-American history. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_425

In addition, the art exhibits are changed periodically. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_426

The city has several outstanding historical properties, some of which have been adapted to new uses. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_427

These include the Klutho Building, the Old Morocco Temple Building, the Palm and Cycad Arboretum, and the Prime F. Osborn III Convention Center, originally built as Union Station train depot. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_428

The Jacksonville Historical Society showcases two restoration projects: the 1887 St. Andrews Episcopal Church and the 1879 Merrill House, both located near the sports complex. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_429

Music Jacksonville, Florida_section_29

The Ritz Theatre, opened in 1929, is located in the LaVilla neighborhood of the northern part of Jacksonville's downtown. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_430

The Jacksonville music scene was active in the 1930s in LaVilla, which was known as "Harlem of the South". Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_431

Black musicians from across the country visited Jacksonville to play standing room only performances at the Ritz Theatre and the Knights of Pythias Hall. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_432

Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong were a few of the legendary performers who appeared. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_433

After his mother died when he was 15, Ray Charles lived with friends of his mother while he played piano at the Ritz for a year, before moving on to fame and fortune. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_434

The Ritz Theatre was rebuilt and opened in October 1999. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_435

Jacksonville native Pat Boone was a popular 1950s singer and teen idol. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_436

During the 1960s, the Classics IV was the most successful pop rock band from Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_437

Southern Rock was defined by the Allman Brothers Band, which formed in 1969 in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_438

Lynyrd Skynyrd achieved near cult status and inspired Blackfoot, Molly Hatchet and .38 Special, all successful in the 1970s. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_439

The 1980s were a quiet decade for musical talent in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_440

The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts consists of three distinct halls: the Jim & Jan Moran Theater, a venue for touring Broadway shows; the Jacoby Symphony Hall, home of the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra; and the Terry Theater, intended for small shows and recitals. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_441

The building was originally erected as the Civic Auditorium in 1962 and underwent a major renovation and construction in 1996. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_442

The next local group to achieve national success was the nu metal band Limp Bizkit, formed in 1994. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_443

Other popular hip hop acts in the 1990s included 95 South, 69 Boyz and the Quad City DJ's. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_444

The bands Inspection 12, Cold and Yellowcard were also well known and had a large following. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_445

Following the millennium, Fit For Rivals, Burn Season, Evergreen Terrace, Shinedown, The Red Jumpsuit Apparatus, and Black Kids became notable bands from the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_446

Sports Jacksonville, Florida_section_30

Main article: Sports in Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_447

Jacksonville, Florida_table_general_3

ClubJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_3_0_0 SportJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_3_0_1 LeagueJacksonville, Florida_header_cell_3_0_2 Venue (capacity)Jacksonville, Florida_header_cell_3_0_3
Jacksonville JaguarsJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_1_0 FootballJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_1_1 NFLJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_1_2 TIAA Bank Field (69,428)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_1_3
Jacksonville Jumbo ShrimpJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_2_0 BaseballJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_2_1 Southern (AA)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_2_2 121 Financial Ballpark (11,000)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_2_3
Jacksonville GiantsJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_3_0 BasketballJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_3_1 ABAJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_3_2 VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena (14,100)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_3_3
Jacksonville IcemenJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_4_0 Ice hockeyJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_4_1 ECHLJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_4_2 VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena (13,000)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_4_3
Jacksonville SharksJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_5_0 Indoor footballJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_5_1 NALJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_5_2 VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena (13,000)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_5_3
Jacksonville AxemenJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_6_0 Rugby leagueJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_6_1 USARLJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_6_2 Hodges Stadium (12,000)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_6_3
Jacksonville Armada FCJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_7_0 SoccerJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_7_1 NPSLJacksonville, Florida_cell_3_7_2 Hodges Stadium (12,000)Jacksonville, Florida_cell_3_7_3

Jacksonville is home to one major league sports team, the Jacksonville Jaguars of the National Football League (NFL). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_448

The Jaguars joined the NFL as an expansion team in the 1995 season; they play their home games at TIAA Bank Field. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_449

In 2005, Jacksonville hosted Super Bowl XXXIX. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_450

The PGA Tour, which organizes the main professional golf tournaments in the U.S., is headquartered in the suburb of Ponte Vedra Beach, where it holds The Players Championship every year. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_451

Jacksonville is also home to several minor league-level teams. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_452

The Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp, a class Double-A baseball team, have played in Jacksonville continuously since 1970, longer than any other Double-A team has been in its city, and are the top-selling franchise in the Southern League. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_453

The Jacksonville Sharks, who began play in 2010, were the champions of the Arena Football League's ArenaBowl XXIV in 2011 and now play in the National Arena League, where they have won two league championships. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_454

The Jacksonville Axemen are a semi-professional rugby league team founded in 2006, and now play in the USA Rugby League. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_455

The Jacksonville Giants basketball team started play in the new American Basketball Association in December 2010. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_456

The Giants won the 2012 ABA Championship in March 2012 in Tampa, Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_457

The Jacksonville Armada FC is a soccer team that began play in the North American Soccer League (NASL) in 2015. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_458

The Jacksonville Icemen is a minor league ice hockey team in the ECHL that began play in the 2017–18 season. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_459

The team plays its home games at VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_460

All Elite Wrestling (AEW) is a professional wrestling promotion based in Jacksonville and a competitor of WWE. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_461

College sports, especially college football, are popular in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_462

The city hosts the Florida–Georgia game, an annual college football game between the University of Florida and the University of Georgia and the TaxSlayer Gator Bowl, a post-season college football bowl game. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_463

Jacksonville's two universities compete in NCAA Division I: the University of North Florida Ospreys and the Jacksonville University Dolphins, both in the Atlantic Sun Conference. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_464

Government and politics Jacksonville, Florida_section_31

Government Jacksonville, Florida_section_32

Main article: Government of Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_465

In 1968 Jacksonville and Duval County consolidated their governments in the Jacksonville Consolidation. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_466

This eliminated a separate county executive or legislature, and supplanted these positions with the Mayor of Jacksonville and the City Council of the City of Jacksonville, respectively. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_467

Because of this, voters who live outside of the city limits of Jacksonville but inside Duval County may vote in elections for these positions and run for them. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_468

In 1995, John Delaney, a resident of Neptune Beach within Duval County, was elected as mayor of the city of Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_469

Jacksonville is organized under the city charter and provides for a "strong" mayor–council form of city government. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_470

The Mayor of Jacksonville is elected to four-year terms and serves as the head of the government's executive branch. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_471

The Jacksonville City Council comprises nineteen members, fourteen representing single-member electoral districts of roughly equal populations, and five elected for at-large seats. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_472

The mayor oversees most city departments, though some are independent or quasi-independent. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_473

Law enforcement is provided by the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office, headed by an elected sheriff; public schools are overseen by Duval County Public Schools, and several services are provided by largely independent authorities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_474

The mayor holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council and also has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_475

As before the consolidation, some government services are operated independently of city and county authority. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_476

In accordance with Florida law, the elected school board has nearly complete autonomy. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_477

Jacksonville also has several quasi-independent government agencies which only nominally answer to the consolidated authority, including electric authority, port authority, transportation authority, housing authority and airport authority. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_478

The main environmental and agricultural body is the Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works closely with other area, state, and federal agencies. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_479

The Jacksonville Housing Authority (JHA) is the quasi-independent agency responsible for public housing and subsidized housing in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_480

The Mayor and City Council of Jacksonville established the JHA in 1994 to create a community service-oriented, public housing agency with innovative ideas and a different attitude. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_481

The primary goal was to provide safe, clean, affordable housing for eligible low and moderate income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_482

The secondary goal was to provide effective social services, work with residents to improve their quality of life, encourage employment and self-sufficiency, and help residents move out of assisted housing. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_483

To that end, JHA works with HabiJax to help low and moderate income families to escape the public housing cycle and become successful, productive, homeowners and taxpayers. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_484

Politics Jacksonville, Florida_section_33

Main article: Politics of Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_485

The present mayor is Lenny Curry, who assumed office on July 1, 2015. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_486

The past mayor was Alvin Brown. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_487

Most of the city is in the Florida's 4th congressional district, and is represented by Republican John Rutherford. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_488

Most of central Jacksonville is in the 5th district, represented by Democrat Al Lawson. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_489

The 4th and 5th districts have been characterized by analysts as some of the most gerrymandered districts in the country In 2014, the Florida Supreme Court ordered the state legislature to redraw at least eight of the congressional districts to correct inequities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_490

In 2010, Duval County's crime rate was 5,106 per 100,000 people, according to the Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_491

The county's murder rate had been the highest among Florida's counties with a population of 500,000 or more for eleven years in 2009, leading to widespread discussion in the community about how to deal with the problem. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_492

In 2010 Duval County's violent crime rate decreased by 9.3% from the previous year, with total crime decreasing 7.3%, putting the murder rate behind that of Miami-Dade County. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_493

Jacksonville and Duval County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Jacksonville Police Department and Duval County Sheriff's Office. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_494

As part of consolidation in 1968, the two merged, creating the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office (JSO). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_495

The JSO is headed by the elected Sheriff of Jacksonville, currently Mike Williams. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_496

It is responsible for law enforcement and corrections in the county. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_497

Education Jacksonville, Florida_section_34

Main article: Education in Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_498

Primary and secondary education Jacksonville, Florida_section_35

Main article: Duval County Public Schools Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_499

See also: List of high schools in Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_500

Public primary and secondary schools in Jacksonville and Duval County are administered by Duval County Public Schools, which is governed by an elected, seven-member Duval County School Board. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_501

In the 2009–2010 school year the district enrolled 123,000 students. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_502

It administers 172 total schools, including 103 elementary schools, 25 middle schools, 19 high schools, three K–8 schools, and one 6–12 school, as well as 13 charter schools and a juvenile justice school program. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_503

Of these, 62 are designated magnet schools. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_504

Three of Jacksonville's high schools, Stanton College Preparatory School, Darnell-Cookman School of the Medical Arts and Paxon School for Advanced Studies regularly appear at the top of Newsweek magazine's annual list of the country's top public high schools, coming in respectively at No. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_505

3 #7, and No. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_506

8 in the 2010 edition. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_507

Five other schools, Douglas Anderson School of the Arts (#33), Mandarin High School (#97), Duncan U. Fletcher High School (#205), Sandalwood High School (#210), and Englewood High School (#1146) were also included in the list. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_508

The Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine operates a number of Catholic schools in Jacksonville, including two high schools, Bishop Kenny High School and Bishop John J. Snyder High School. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_509

Other private schools in Jacksonville include Arlington Country Day School, the Bolles School, Trinity Christian Academy, and the Episcopal School of Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_510

Colleges and universities Jacksonville, Florida_section_36

Further information: List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Jacksonville Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_511

Jacksonville is home to a number of institutions of higher education. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_512

The University of North Florida (UNF), opened in 1972, is a public institution and a member of the State University System of Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_513

Former mayor John Delaney has been president of UNF since 2003. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_514

Jacksonville University (JU) is a private institution founded in 1934. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_515

Edward Waters College, established in 1866, is the oldest college in Jacksonville and the state's oldest historically black college. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_516

Florida State College at Jacksonville is a state college and a member of the Florida College System, offering two-year associate's degrees as well as some four-year bachelor's degrees. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_517

The University of Florida has its second campus of the J. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_518 Hillis Miller Health Science Center in Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_519

Other colleges and universities in Jacksonville include Florida Coastal School of Law and Jones College. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_520

Also in the area are St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_521 Johns River State College, a state college with campuses in Clay, St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_522 Johns, and Putnam Counties, and Flagler College in St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_523 Augustine. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_524

The Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science also offers educational programs from its Mayo Clinic Jacksonville campus. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_525

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_7

  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_7_38
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_7_39
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_7_40
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_7_41
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_7_42

Public libraries Jacksonville, Florida_section_37

Main article: Jacksonville Public Library (Florida) Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_526

The Jacksonville Public Library had its beginnings when May Moore and Florence Murphy started the Jacksonville Library and Literary Association in 1878. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_527

The Association was populated by various prominent Jacksonville residents and sought to create a free public library and reading room for the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_528

Over the course of 127 years, the system has grown from that one room library to become one of the largest in the state. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_529

The Jacksonville library system has 20 branches, ranging in size from the 54,000 sq ft (5,000 m) West Regional Library to smaller neighborhood libraries like Westbrook and Eastside. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_530

The Library annually receives nearly 4 million visitors and circulates over 6 million items. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_531

Nearly 500,000 library cards are held by area residents. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_532

On November 12, 2005, the new 300,000 sq ft (30,000 m) Main Library opened to the public, replacing the 40-year-old Haydon Burns Library. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_533

The largest public library in the state, the opening of the new main library marked the completion of an unprecedented period of growth for the system under the Better Jacksonville Plan. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_534

The new Main Library offers specialized reading rooms, public access to hundreds of computers and public displays of art, an extensive collection of books, and special collections ranging from the African-American Collection to the recently opened Holocaust Collection. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_535

Infrastructure Jacksonville, Florida_section_38

Transportation Jacksonville, Florida_section_39

Main article: Transportation in Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_536

Roadways and bridges Jacksonville, Florida_section_40

There are seven bridges over the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_537 Johns River at Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_538

They include (starting from furthest downstream) the Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Bridge (Dames Point) (which carries Interstate 295 Eastern Beltway traffic), the John E. Mathews Bridge, the Isaiah D. Hart Bridge, the John T. Alsop Jr. Bridge (Main Street), the St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_539 Elmo W. Acosta Bridge, the Fuller Warren Bridge (which carries I-95 traffic) and the Henry Holland Buckman Bridge (which carries I-295 North/South traffic). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_540

Also, next to the Acosta Bridge is a large jackknife railroad bridge built in the 1920s by Henry flagler's FEC railroad. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_541

Beginning in 1953, tolls were charged on the Hart, Mathews, Fuller Warren and the Main Street bridges to pay for bridge construction, renovations and many other highway projects. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_542

As Jacksonville grew, toll plazas created bottlenecks and caused delays and accidents during rush hours. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_543

In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate toll collection and replace the revenue with a ½ cent local sales tax increase. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_544

In 1989, the toll booths were removed. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_545

Interstate 10 (I-10) and I-95 intersect in Jacksonville, forming the busiest freeway interchange in the region with 200,000 vehicles each day. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_546

I-10 ends at this intersection (the other end being in Santa Monica, California). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_547

Additionally, State Road 202 (J. Turner Butler Boulevard) provides freeway access to the Jacksonville beaches from I-95 on the Southside. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_548

. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_549

I-95 has a bypass route, I-295, which encircles the downtown area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_550

The major freeway interchange at I-295 and SR 202 was finally completed on December 24, 2008. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_551

SR 9B is under construction and will connect I-295's southeast corner to the Bayard Area. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_552

The SR 9B freeway will be called I-795 when it is completed. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_553

U.S. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_554 Highway 1 (US 1) and US 17 travel through the city from the south to the north, and US 23 enters the city running concurrently with US 1. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_555

In downtown, US 23 splits from US 1 and quickly runs to its southern terminus. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_556

The eastern terminus of US 90 is in nearby Jacksonville Beach near the Atlantic Ocean. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_557

US 23's other end is in Mackinaw City, Michigan. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_558

Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion on Jacksonville freeways. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_559

A$152 million project to create a high-speed interchange at the intersection of Interstates 10 and 95 began in February 2005, after the conclusion of Super Bowl XXXIX. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_560

Construction was expected to take nearly six years with multiple lane flyovers and the requirement that the interchange remain open throughout the project. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_561

The previous configuration used single lane, low speed, curved ramps which created backups during rush hours and contributed to accidents. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_562

Also, construction of 9B, future Interstate 795, is currently underway. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_563

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_8

  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_43
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_44
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_45
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_46
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_47
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_48
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_49
  • Jacksonville, Florida_item_8_50

Transit system Jacksonville, Florida_section_41

Main article: Jacksonville Transportation Authority Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_564

The Jacksonville Skyway is an automated people mover connecting Florida State College at Jacksonville downtown campus, the Northbank central business district, Convention Center, and Southbank locations. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_565

The system includes 8 stops connected by two lines. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_566

The existing train is a UMIII monorail built by Bombardier. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_567

The guideway consists of concrete beams which rest atop an unusually large support structure not used in most monorail systems. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_568

Maximum speed for the train is 48 km/h (30 mph). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_569

A monorail was first proposed in the 1970s as part of a mobility plan hoping to attract interest from the Urban Mass Transit Administration's Downtown Peoplemover Program. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_570

The initial study was undertaken by the Florida Department of Transportation and Jacksonville's planning department, who took the Skyway project to the Jacksonville Transportation Authority (JTA) in 1977. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_571

Following further development and a final 18-month feasibility study, the UMTA selected Jacksonville as one of seven cities to receive federal funding for an automated people mover. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_572

Two other related projects are Miami's Metromover and Detroit's People Mover. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_573

UMTA's approved plan called for the construction of a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) Phase I system to be built in three segments. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_574

Modal characteristics Jacksonville, Florida_section_42

In 2014, the Jacksonville was among the top large cities ranked by percentage of commuters who drove to work alone (80 percent). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_575

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 80 percent of city of Jacksonville residents commuted in single-occupancy vehicles, 8.6 percent carpooled, 2.6 percent used public transportation, and 2.7 percent walked. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_576

All other forms of transportation combined for 1.7 percent of the commuter modal share, while 4.5 percent worked out of the home. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_577

Some patterns of car ownership are similar to national averages. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_578

In 2015, 8.3 percent of city of Jacksonville households lacked a car, which increased slightly to 8.7 percent in 2016. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_579

The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_580

Jacksonville averaged 1.62 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_581

Rail Jacksonville, Florida_section_43

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides daily service from the Jacksonville Amtrak Station on Clifford Lane in the northwest section of the city. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_582

Two trains presently stop there, the Silver Meteor and Silver Star. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_583

Jacksonville was also served by the thrice-weekly Sunset Limited and the daily Silver Palm. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_584

Service on the Silver Palm was cut back to Savannah, Georgia in 2002. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_585

The Sunset Limited route was truncated at San Antonio, Texas as a result of the track damage in the Gulf Coast area caused by Hurricane Katrina on August 28, 2005. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_586

Service was restored as far east as New Orleans by late October 2005, but Amtrak has opted not to fully restore service into Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_587

Jacksonville is the headquarters of two significant freight railroads. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_588

CSX Transportation, owns a large building on the downtown riverbank that is a significant part of the skyline. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_589

Florida East Coast Railway and RailAmerica also call Jacksonville home. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_590

Airports Jacksonville, Florida_section_44

Main article: Jacksonville Aviation Authority Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_591

Jacksonville is served by Jacksonville International Airport (IATA: JAX, ICAO: KJAX, FAA LID: JAX), 13 miles north of downtown, with 82 departures a day to 27 nonstop destination cities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_592

Airports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority (JAA). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_593

Smaller aircraft use Jacksonville Executive at Craig Airport (IATA: CRG, ICAO: KCRG, FAA LID: CRG) in Arlington, Herlong Recreational Airport (ICAO: KHEG, FAA LID: HEG) on the Westside, and Cecil Airport (IATA: VQQ, ICAO: KVQQ, FAA LID: VQQ), at Cecil Commerce Center. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_594

The state of Florida has designated Cecil Airport a space port, allowing horizontal lift spacecraft to use the facility. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_595

Seaports Jacksonville, Florida_section_45

Main article: Jacksonville Port Authority Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_596

Public seaports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Port Authority, known as JAXPORT. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_597

Four modern deepwater (40 feet (12 m)) seaport facilities, including America's newest cruise port, make Jacksonville a full-service international seaport. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_598

In FY2006, JAXPORT handled 8.7 million tons of cargo, including nearly 610,000 vehicles, which ranks Jacksonville 2nd in the nation in automobile handling, behind only the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_599

The 20 other maritime facilities not managed by the Port Authority move about 10 million tons of additional cargo in and out of the St. Johns River. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_600

In terms of total tonnage, the Port of Jacksonville ranks 40th nationally; within Florida, it is 3rd behind Tampa and Port Everglades. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_601

In 2003, the JAXPORT Cruise Terminal opened, providing cruise service for 1,500 passengers to Key West, Florida, the Bahamas, and Mexico via Carnival Cruise Lines ship, Celebration, which was retired in April 2008. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_602

For almost five months, no cruises originated from Jacksonville until September 20, 2008, when the cruise ship Fascination departed with 2,079 passengers. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_603

In Fiscal year 2006, there were 78 cruise ship sailings with 128,745 passengers. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_604

A JaxPort spokesperson said in 2008 that they expect 170,000 passengers to sail each year. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_605

Jacksonville Fire and Rescue operates a fleet of three fireboats. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_606

Its vessels are called on to fight approximately 75 fires per year. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_607

The Mayport Ferry connects the north and south ends of State Road A1A between Mayport and Fort George Island, and is the last active ferry in Florida. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_608

The state of Florida transferred responsibility for ferry operations to JAXPORT on October 1, 2007. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_609

Utilities Jacksonville, Florida_section_46

Main article: Jacksonville Electric Authority Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_610

Basic utilities in Jacksonville (water, sewer, electric) are provided by JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority). Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_611

According to Article 21 of the Jacksonville City Charter, Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_612

People's Gas is Jacksonville's natural gas provider. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_613

Comcast is Jacksonville's local cable provider. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_614

AT&T (formerly BellSouth) is Jacksonville's local phone provider, and their U-Verse service offers TV, internet, and VoIP phone service to customers served by fiber-to-the-premises or fiber-to-the-node using a VRAD. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_615

The city has a successful recycling program with separate pickups for garbage, yard waste and recycling. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_616

Collection is provided by several private companies under contract to the City of Jacksonville. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_617

Health Jacksonville, Florida_section_47

Further information: List of hospitals in Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_618

Major players in the Jacksonville health care industry include St. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_619 Vincent's HealthCare, Baptist Health and UF Health Jacksonville for local residents. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_620

Additionally, Nemours Children's Clinic and Mayo Clinic Jacksonville each draw patients regionally. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_621

The TaxExemptWorld.com website, which compiles Internal Revenue Service data, reported that in 2007, there are 2,910 distinct, active, tax exempt/non-profit organizations in Jacksonville which, excluding Credit Unions, had a total income of $7.08 billion and assets of $9.54 billion. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_622

There are 333 charitable organizations with assets of over $1 million. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_623

The largest share of assets was tied to Medical facilities, $4.5 billion. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_624

The problems of the homeless are addressed by several non-profits, most notably the Sulzbacher Center and the Clara White Mission. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_625

Notable people Jacksonville, Florida_section_48

Main article: List of people from Jacksonville, Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_626

Sister cities Jacksonville, Florida_section_49

See also: List of sister cities in Florida Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_627

Jacksonville has eight sister cities. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_628

They are: Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_629

In 2000, Sister Cities International awarded Jacksonville the Innovation Arts & Culture Award for the city's program with Nantes. Jacksonville, Florida_sentence_630

See also Jacksonville, Florida_section_50

Jacksonville, Florida_unordered_list_9

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonville, Florida.