"Jacksonville" redirects here.
For other uses, see Jacksonville (disambiguation).
|Named for||Andrew Jackson|
|Body||Jacksonville City Council|
|Mayor||Lenny Curry (R)|
|Total||874.67 sq mi (2,265.39 km)|
|Land||747.48 sq mi (1,935.97 km)|
|Water||127.19 sq mi (329.42 km)|
|Elevation||16 ft (5 m)|
|Rank||1st in Florida
12th in United States
|Density||1,219.44/sq mi (470.83/km)|
|Urban||1,065,219 (US: 40th)|
|Metro||1,504,980 (US: 39th)|
|CSA||1,631,488 (US: 34th)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))|
|Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|ZIP Codes||32099, 32201–32212, 32214–32241, 32244–32247, 32250, 32254–32260, 32266, 32267, 32277, 32290|
|GNIS feature ID||0295003|
|Airport||Jacksonville International Airport|
|Waterways||St. Johns River, Fall Creek, Arlington River|
Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits.
As of 2019, Jacksonville's population was estimated to be 911,507, making it the 12th most populous city in the U.S., the most populous city in the Southeast, and the most populous city in the South outside of the state of Texas.
The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,523,615 and is the fourth largest metropolitan area in Florida.
Jacksonville is centered on the banks of the St. in the Johns RiverFirst Coast region of northeast Florida, about 25 miles (40 km) south of the Georgia state line and 328 miles (528 km) north of Miami.
The Jacksonville Beaches communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast.
The area was originally inhabited by the Timucua people, and in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States.
A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain; it was named after Andrew Jackson, the first military governor of the Florida Territory and seventh President of the United States.
Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port.
Jacksonville's military bases and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay form the third largest military presence in the United States.
Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance, healthcare and logistics.
As with much of Florida, tourism is important to the Jacksonville area, particularly tourism related to golf.
People from Jacksonville are sometimes called "Jacksonvillians" or "Jaxsons" (also spelled "Jaxons").
The area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years.
On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC.
One early French map shows a village called Ossachite at the site of what is now downtown Jacksonville; this may be the earliest recorded name for that area.
Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France.
In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement on the St. Johns River, Fort Caroline, near the main village of the Saturiwa.
The Spanish renamed the fort as San Mateo and, following the expulsion of the French, St. Augustine became the most important European settlement in Florida.
The location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate, but a reconstruction of the fort was established in 1964 along the St. Johns River.
The road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; these names reflected the use of the ford for moving cattle across the river there.
A large number of British colonists who were "energetic and of good character" were given land grants in the region and emigrated to the region, becoming the first English-speaking population in Florida.
These colonists came from England, Georgia, South Carolina and Bermuda.
The settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow.
Founding and 19th century
After Spain ceded the Florida Territory to the United States in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats.
They named the town Jacksonville, after celebrated war hero and first Territorial Governor (later U.S. President) Andrew Jackson.
Led by Isaiah D. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, which was approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832.
Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces.
In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state.
However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Johns Bluff, and occupied Jacksonville in 1862.
Slaves escaped to freedom in Union lines.
Union forces retreated to Jacksonville and held the city for the remainder of the war.
In March 1864 a Confederate cavalry confronted a Union expedition in the Battle of Cedar Creek.
Warfare and the long occupation left the city disrupted after the war.
Visitors arrived by steamboat and later by railroad.
President Grover Cleveland attended the Sub-Tropical Exposition in the city on February 22, 1888, during his trip to Florida.
This highlighted the visibility of the state as a worthy place for tourism.
The city's tourism, however, was dealt major blows in the late 19th century by yellow fever outbreaks.
Extending the Florida East Coast Railway further south drew visitors to other areas.
From 1893 to 1938, Jacksonville was the site of the Florida Old Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Home; it operated a nearby cemetery.
20th and 21st centuries
1900 to 1939
On May 3, 1901, downtown Jacksonville was ravaged by a fire that started as a kitchen fire.
Spanish moss at a nearby mattress factory was quickly engulfed in flames and enabled the fire to spread rapidly.
In merely eight hours, it swept through 146 city blocks, destroyed over 2,000 buildings, left about 10,000 homeless and killed seven residents.
The Confederate Monument in Hemming Park was one of the few landmarks to survive the fire.
Governor William Sherman Jennings declared martial law and sent the state militia to maintain order; on May 17, municipal authority resumed.
Known as the "Great Fire of 1901", it was one of the worst disasters in Florida history and the largest urban fire in the southeastern United States.
Architect Henry John Klutho was a primary figure in the reconstruction of the city.
The first multi-story structure built by Klutho was the Dyal-Upchurch Building in 1902.
The St. , built on the previous site of the St. James Hotel that burned down, was built in 1912 as Klutho's crowning achievement. James Building
In the 1910s, northern film studios headquartered in New York City, Philadelphia, and Chicago were attracted to Jacksonville's warm climate, exotic landscapes, excellent rail access, and cheap labor.
However, the emergence of Hollywood as a major film production center ended the city's film industry.
During this time, Jacksonville also became a banking and insurance center, with companies such as Barnett Bank, Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank, Prudential, Gulf Life, Afro-American Insurance, Independent Life and American Heritage Life thriving in the business district.
1940 to 1979
The construction of federal highways essentially subsidized development of suburban housing, and wealthier, better established residents moved to newer housing in the suburbs.
After World War II, the government of the city of Jacksonville began to increase spending to fund new public building projects in the postwar economic boom.
Mayor W. ' Jacksonville Story resulted in the construction of a new city hall, civic auditorium, public library and other projects that created a dynamic sense of civic pride. Haydon Burns
Development of suburbs led to a growing middle class who lived outside the urban core.
An increasing proportion of residents in Jacksonville's urban core had a higher than average rate of poverty, especially as businesses and jobs also migrated to the suburbs.
Given the postwar migration of residents, businesses, and jobs, the city's tax base declined.
It had difficulty funding education, sanitation, and traffic control within the city limits.
In addition, residents in unincorporated suburbs had difficulty obtaining municipal services, such as sewage and building code enforcement.
In 1958, a study recommended that the city of Jacksonville begin annexing outlying communities to create the needed larger geographic tax base to improve services throughout the county.
Voters outside the city limits rejected annexation plans in six referendums between 1960 and 1965.
The police largely stood by.
In 1962, a federal court ordered the city to prepare a plan for integration of public schools, in accordance with the ruling of the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education (1954).
A study found that schools were in poor condition and poorly equipped.
On December 29, 1963, the Hotel Roosevelt fire killed 22 people, the highest one-day death toll in Jacksonville.
Hurricane Dora was the first hurricane to make a direct hit to North Florida.
In the mid-1960s, corruption scandals arose among city and some county officials, who were mainly part of a traditional white, conservative Democratic network that had dominated politics for the decades since the disenfranchisement of most African Americans since the turn of the century.
After a grand jury was convened to investigate, 11 officials were indicted and more were forced to resign.
In 1963 the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools threatened to withdraw accreditation of area schools in a year because of "instructional deficiencies."
But voters refused to approve new taxes to improve school conditions.
In late 1963, Duval County was spending $299 per student compared to the state average spending of $372 per student.
In 1964 all 15 of Duval County's public high schools lost their accreditation.
This added momentum to proposals for government reform.
Jacksonville Consolidation, led by J. and J. DanielClaude Yates, began to win more support during this period, from both inner-city blacks, who wanted more involvement in government after passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, that provided federal oversight and enforcement of their right to vote, and whites in the suburbs, who wanted more services and more control over the central city.
Lower taxes, increased economic development, unification of the community, better public spending, and effective administration by a more central authority were all cited as reasons for a new consolidated government.
When a consolidation referendum was held in 1967, voters approved the plan.
On October 1, 1968, the city and county governments merged to create the Consolidated City of Jacksonville.
Fire, police, health & welfare, recreation, public works, and housing & urban development were all combined under the new government.
The consolidation created a 900-square-mile entity.
1980 to present
Tommy Hazouri supported passage of environmental regulations and reduced pollution odor during his single term as mayor, which began in 1987.
Ed Austin was elected as mayor in 1991.
His most lasting contribution is the River City Renaissance program, a $235 million bond issued in 1993 by the city of Jacksonville which funded urban renewal and revamped the city's historic downtown neighborhoods.
The Better Jacksonville Plan, promoted as a "blueprint for Jacksonville's future" and approved by Jacksonville voters in 2000, authorized a half-penny sales tax.
This generated most of the revenue required for the $2.25 billion package of major projects, which have included road & infrastructure improvements, environmental preservation, targeted economic development, and new or improved public facilities.
In 2005, Jacksonville hosted Super Bowl XXXIX, which was seen by an estimated 86 million viewers.
The city has suffered damage in natural disasters.
In September 2017, Hurricane Irma caused record-breaking floods in Jacksonville, with a severity not seen since 1846.
As has been typical of other metropolitan areas across the country, suburban growth has continued around Jacksonville, where large areas of land were available for development, drawing more residents, businesses and jobs from the city.
This has resulted in further demographic changes.
The city's largest ethnic group, non-Hispanic white, declined from 75.8% of the population in 1970 to 55.1% by 2010.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 874.3 square miles (2,264 km), making Jacksonville the largest city in land area in the contiguous United States; of this, 86.66% (757.7 sq mi or 1,962 km) is land and 13.34% (116.7 sq mi or 302 km) is water.
Jacksonville surrounds the town of Baldwin.
The city developed along both sides of the St. . Johns River
The Trout River, a major tributary of the St. Johns River, is located entirely within Jacksonville.
Just south of Jacksonville and north of Saint Augustine is the boundary of where the Floridian Peninsula ends and Continental North America begins; Jacksonville is north of that line.
While still in the North American Coastal plain, the topography begins to take on slight Piedmont characteristics.
Like the Central Florida ridge and the Piedmont, the area begins sloping several miles inland.
On the west side of Jacksonville, a series of low ridges predominate.
The high point of Jacksonville rises to 190 feet above sea level on Trail Ridge, along the boundary with Baker County.
Soil composition is primarily sand and clay rather than limestone, so few sinkholes develop; however, deep, large diameter sinkholes do occur.
The architecture of Jacksonville varies in style.
Few structures in the city center predate the Great Fire of 1901.
The city is home to one of the largest collections of Prairie School style buildings outside the Midwest.
Following the Great Fire of 1901, Henry John Klutho would come to influence generations of local designers with his works by both the Chicago School, championed by Louis Sullivan, and the Prairie School of architecture, popularized by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Jacksonville is also home to a notable collection of Mid-Century modern architecture.
Local architects Robert C. Broward, Taylor Hardwick, and William Morgan adapted a range design principles, including International style, Brutalism, Futurism and Organicism, all applied with an American interpretation generally referred to today as Mid-century modern design.
Jacksonville's early predominant position as a regional center of business left an indelible mark on the city's skyline.
Many of the earliest skyscrapers in the state were constructed in Jacksonville, dating to 1902.
The city last held the state height record from 1974 to 1981.
It has a height of 617 ft (188 m) and includes 42 floors.
Other notable structures include the 37-story Wells Fargo Center (with its distinctive flared base making it the defining building in the Jacksonville skyline), originally built in 1972–74 by the Independent Life and Accident Insurance Company, and the 28-floor Riverplace Tower.
When this tower was completed in 1967, it was the tallest precast, post-tensioned concrete structure in the world.
Main article: Neighborhoods of Jacksonville, Florida
There are more than 500 neighborhoods within Jacksonville's vast area.
Additionally, greater Jacksonville is traditionally divided into several amorphous areas, comprising large parts of Duval County.
There are four municipalities that have retained their own governments since consolidation; these are Baldwin and the three Jacksonville Beaches towns of Atlantic Beach, Neptune Beach, and Jacksonville Beach.
Seasonal rainfall is concentrated in the warmest months from May through September, when brief but intense downpours with thunder and lightning are common, while the driest months are from November through April.
Rainfall averages around 52 inches (1,300 mm) a year.
Normal monthly mean temperatures range from 53.1 °F (11.7 °C) in January to 82.3 °F (27.9 °C) in July; high temperatures average 64 to 92 °F (18 to 33 °C) throughout the year.
High heat indices are common for the summer months in the area, with indices above 110 °F (43.3 °C) possible.
The highest temperature recorded was 104 °F (40 °C) on July 28, 1872, and July 11, 1879 .
The city of Jacksonville averages only about 10 to 15 nights at or below freezing.
Such cold weather is usually short lived.
Jacksonville has recorded three days with measurable snow since 1911, most recently a one-inch (2.5 cm) snowfall in December 1989 and flurries in December 2010.
Jacksonville has only received one direct hit from a hurricane since 1871.
The rarity of direct strikes is attributed to chance.
However, the city has experienced hurricane or near-hurricane conditions more than a dozen times due to storms crossing the state from the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean, or passing to the north or south in the Atlantic and brushing past the area.
The strongest effect on Jacksonville was from Hurricane Dora in 1964, the only recorded storm to hit the First Coast with sustained hurricane-force winds.
The eye crossed St. Augustine with winds that had just barely diminished to 110 mph (180 km/h), making it a strong Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Scale.
In 1979, Hurricane David passed offshore by 40 miles (64 kilometres), bringing winds around 95 mph (150 km/h).
Hurricane Floyd in 1999 caused damage mainly to Jacksonville Beach; the Jacksonville Beach pier was severely damaged and later demolished.
In 2004, Jacksonville was inundated by Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne, which made landfall south of the area, and suffered minor damage from Tropical Storm Bonnie, which spawned a minor tornado.
Jacksonville also suffered damage from 2008's Tropical Storm Fay which crisscrossed the state, bringing parts of Jacksonville under darkness for four days.
Fay damaged, but did not destroy, the Jacksonville Beach pier that had been rebuilt after Floyd.
Hurricane Matthew passed 37 mi (60 km) to the east with winds of 110 miles per hour.
It caused storm surge, extensive flooding of the Atlantic Ocean and St. Johns River, and wind damage; the storm knocked out power for 250,000 people.
In 2017, Hurricane Irma passed 75 mi (121 km) to the west with 65 mph (100 km/h) winds.
It caused severe storm surge and flooding, passing the flood record of Hurricane Dora in 1964.
Jacksonville operates the largest urban park system in the United States, providing facilities and services at more than 337 locations on more than 80,000 acres (320 km) located throughout the city.
A number of parks provide access for people to boat, swim, fish, sail, jetski, surf and waterski.
Main article: National Park Service
Main article: Florida State Parks
There are several state parks within the city limits of Jacksonville, these include Amelia Island State Park, Big Talbot Island State Park, Fort George Island Cultural State Park, George Crady Bridge Fishing Pier State Park, Little Talbot Island State Park, Pumpkin Hill Creek Preserve State Park and Yellow Bluff Fort Historic State Park.
See also: List of parks in Jacksonville
- Springfield Park is a public park on the southern bounds of the historic neighborhood of Springfield (for which it is named), and is part of a network of parks that parallel Hogans Creek. The park opened in 1907 as Dignan Park, named for a former chairman of the city's Board of Public Works. In 1914, the park hosted the annual reunion of the United Confederate Veterans, a gathering of former Confederate soldiers. Five months after the reunion, the city renamed the park "Confederate Park". A Confederate monument was erected in 1915 honoring the Women of the Southland. On August 11, 2020, the city council voted to change the name of the park to "Springfield Park".
- Friendship Fountain is a large fountain in St. Johns River Park at the west end of Downtown Jacksonville's Southbank Riverwalk. It opened in 1965 as the world's largest and tallest fountain, and has been one of Jacksonville's most recognizable and popular attractions. The fountain's three pumps could push 17,000 US gallons (64,000 L) of water per minute up to 100 feet (30 m) in height. Designed by Jacksonville architect Taylor Hardwick in 1963 and, in 2011 the city completed a $3.2 million renovation to the fountain and the surrounding park. It features a light show and music each evening.
- Hanna Park is a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) public beach and city park near Mayport in the Jacksonville Beaches area. It consists of 447 acres (1.81 km) of mature coastal hammock, and was known as Manhattan Beach, Florida's first beach community for African Americans during the period of segregation in the United States.
- Hemming Park is a 1.54-acre (6,200 m) public park in the heart of the government center in downtown. Originally a village green, it was the first and is the oldest park in the city. The area was established as a public square in 1857 by Isaiah Hart, founder of Jacksonville. The first Wednesday of every month, Hemming Park is converted into the centerpiece of Jacksonville's Downtown Art Walk. The third Thursday of every month Hemming Park hosts a night market called Jaxsons Night Market.
- Klutho Park is an 18.34-acre (74,200 m) public park, between downtownand the historic neighborhood of Springfield. It is part of a network of parks that parallel Hogans Creek, Klutho Park being the largest. Created between 1899 and 1901 on land donated by the Springfield Company. The park also housed the City's first zoo, opening at the park in 1914. The Hogans Creek Improvement Project of 1929–30, designed by architect Henry J. Klutho, turned much of the park grounds into a Venetian-style promenade.
- Jacksonville-Baldwin Rail Trail is a 14.5-mile (23.3 km) Rail Trail that extends northwest to Baldwin, Florida. It includes three separate paths; a multi-use asphalt trail for hiking, jogging, in-line skating or cycling; an off-road bike trail; and a horseback riding trail.
- Jessie Ball DuPont Park is a 7-acre (2.8 ha) park, home to Treaty Oak, a massive 250-year-old tree in the Southbank.
- Metropolitan Park is a 32-acre (13 ha) waterfront park on the St. Johns River, in the Sports Complex area of downtown. The multi-purpose facility contains an exhibition area, picnic and playground area, and a performance pavilion which has a capacity of 10,000 persons.
- Memorial Park is a 5.85-acre (23,700 m) public park, on the St. Johns River in the historic neighborhoods Riverside. Completed in 1924, it is the third oldest park in the city. Built to honor of the 1,200 Floridians who died serving during World War I, the notable Olmsted Brothers were commissioned to design the park, along with local architect Roy A. Benjamin. Charles Adrian Pillars designed the bronze sculpture, 'Life', prominently showcased in the park.
- Riverside Park is an 11.4-acre (4.6 ha) public park, in the historic neighborhood of Riverside. It is the second oldest park in the city.
- Riverwalk 2.0 miles (3.2 km) along the St. Johns from Berkman Plaza to I-95 at the Fuller Warren Bridge while the Southbank Riverwalk stretches 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from the Radisson Hotel to Museum Circle. Adjacent to Museum Circle is St. Johns River Park, also known as Friendship Park. It is the location of Friendship Fountain, one of the most recognizable and popular attractions in Jacksonville. This landmark was built in 1965 and promoted as the "World's Tallest and Largest" fountain at the time.
- Veterans Memorial Wall is a tribute to local servicemen and women killed while serving in US armed forces. A ceremony is held each Memorial Day recognizing any service woman or man from Jacksonville who died in the previous year.
- Evergreen Cemetery is a large historic cemetery added to the National Register of Historic Places on April 8, 2011.
- Jacksonville Arboretum & Gardens broke ground on a new center in April 2007 and held their grand opening on November 15, 2008.
- Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
- Jacksonville National Cemetery
- Old City Cemetery
- Tree Hill Nature Center is a nature preserve and environmental education center located five minutes from Downtown Jacksonville.
|City compared to county & state|
|2010 Census||Jacksonville||Duval County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||+11.7%||+11.0%||+17.6%|
|Population density||1,100.1/sq mi||1,133.9/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)||59.4%||60.9%||75.0%|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||55.1%||56.6%||57.9%|
|Black or African-American||30.7%||29.5%||16.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||7.7%||7.6%||22.5%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.4%||0.4%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.1%||0.1%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (multiracial)||2.9%||2.9%||2.5%|
|Some other race||5.2%||3.9%||3.6%|
|Black or African American||30.7%||29.0%||25.2%||22.3%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||7.7%||4.2%||2.6%||1.3%|
Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, and the twelfth most populous city in the United States.
As of 2010, there were 821,784 people and 366,273 households in the city.
Jacksonville has the country's tenth-largest Arab population, with a total population of 5,751 according to the 2000 United States Census.
Jacksonville has Florida's largest Filipino American community, with 25,033 in the metropolitan area as of the 2010 Census.
Much of Jacksonville's Filipino community served in or has ties to the United States Navy.
As of 2010, those of Hispanic or Latino ancestry accounted for 7.7% of Jacksonville's population.
As of 2010, those of African ancestry accounted for 30.7% of Jacksonville's population, which includes African Americans.
Out of the 30.7%, 1.8% identified as Sub-Saharan African, 1.4% as West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American (0.5% Haitian, 0.4% Jamaican, 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian, 0.1% Bahamian, 0.1% Barbadian), and 0.6% as Black Hispanics.
As of 2010, those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 55.1% of Jacksonville's population.
Of these, 10.4% identified as ethnic German, 10.2% as Irish, 8.8% as English, 3.9% as Italian, 2.2% as French, 2.0% as Scottish, 2.0% as Scotch-Irish, 1.7% Polish, 1.1% Dutch, 0.6% Russian, 0.5% Norwegian, 0.5% Swedish, 0.5% Welsh, and 0.5% as French Canadian.
As of 2010, those of Asian ancestry accounted for 4.3% of Jacksonville's population.
In 2010, 6.7% of the population identified as of American ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity.)
Some 0.9% were of Arab ancestry, as of 2010.
As of 2010, there were 366,273 households, out of which 11.8% were vacant.
23.9% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families.
29.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.21.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.9% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 26.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 35.5 years.
For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males.
In 2010, the median income for a household in the county was $48,829, and the median income for a family was $59,272.
Males had a median income of $42,485 versus $34,209 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $25,227.
About 10.5% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.4% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those aged 65 or over.
Of foreign born residents, 38.0% were born in Latin America, 35.7% born in Asia, 17.9% were born in Europe, 5.9% born in Africa, 1.9% in North America, and 0.5% were born in Oceania.
As of 2010, 87.1% of Jacksonville's population age five and over spoke only English at home while 5.8% of the population spoke Spanish at home.
About 3.3% spoke other Indo-European languages at home.
The remaining 0.9% of the population spoke other languages at home.
In total, 12.9% spoke another language other than English.
As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 90.60% of all residents, while those who spoke Spanish made up 4.13%, Tagalog 1.00%, French 0.47%, Arabic 0.44%, German 0.43%, Vietnamese at 0.31%, Russian was 0.21% and Italian made up 0.17% of the population.
Jacksonville has a diverse religious population.
The largest religious group is Protestant.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the Jacksonville metropolitan area had an estimated 365,267 Evangelical Protestants, 76,100 Mainline Protestants, and 56,769 Black Protestants, though figures for the latter were incomplete.
There were around 1200 Protestant congregations in various denominations.
Each has become very large.
ARDA estimated 133,155 Catholics attending 25 parishes in the Jacksonville metropolitan area in 2010.
In 2010 there were 2520 Eastern Orthodox Christians, representing four churches in the Eastern Orthodox communion, as well as congregations of Syriac Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Ethiopian Orthodox, and Coptic Orthodox Christians.
There were an estimated 8,581 Muslims attending seven mosques, the largest being the Islamic Center of Northeast Florida.
The Jewish community, which numbered 6,028 in 2010, is largely centered in the neighborhood of Mandarin.
The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute teaches courses for the community.
Further information: List of companies based in the Jacksonville area
Jacksonville's location on the St. and the Atlantic Ocean proved instrumental to the growth of the city and its industry. Johns River
The strength of the city's economy lies in its broad diversification.
Other notable companies based in Jacksonville or with a large presence include Florida Blue, Swisher International Group, BOA Merrill Lynch, Fanatics, Crowley Maritime, Web.com, Firehouse Subs and Deutsche Bank.
Naval Air Station Jacksonville, located SW of downtown, employs more than 25,000 people.
In 2008, Jacksonville had 2.8 million visitors who stayed overnight, spending nearly $1 billion.
A study by Research Data Services of Tampa quantified the importance of tourism.
The total economic impact was $1.6 billion and supported nearly 43,000 jobs, 10% of the local workforce.
Banking and financial services
Jacksonville has long had a regional legacy in banking and finance.
Locally headquartered Atlantic National Bank, Florida National Bank and Barnett Bank dominated the industry in Florida from the turn of the 20th century through the 1980s, before all being acquired in a national wave of mergers and acquisitions throughout the entire financial sector.
Acquired by NationsBank in 1997, Barnett Bank was the last of these banks to succumb to acquisition, and at the time was the largest banking merger in U.S. history.
The city still holds distinction nationally and internationally, boosting two Fortune 500 financial services companies, Fidelity National Financial and FIS, FIS being well recognized as a global leader in financial technology.
The city is home to other notable financial services institutions including Ameris Bancorp, Atlantic Coast Financial, Black Knight Financial Services, MedMal Direct Insurance Company, US Assure, and VyStar Credit Union.
With relatively low-cost real estate, easy access by planes to New York City, high quality of life, and 19,000 financial sector employees, Jacksonville has become an option for relocating staff.
Deutsche Bank's growth in the city is an example of such change.
Jacksonville is the site of Deutsche Bank's second largest US operation; only New York is larger.
They also are an example of a business that has moved operations to the suburbs.
Other institutions with a notable presence in Jacksonville include Macquarie Group, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, JPMorgan Chase, Citi, Citizens Property Insurance, Fidelity Investments, Ally Financial and Aetna.
The city's manufacturing base provides 4.5% of local jobs, versus 8.5% nationally.
According to Forbes magazine in 2007, Jacksonville ranked 3rd among the top ten U.S. cities as destinations for jobs.
Jacksonville was ranked as the 10th-fastest growing city in the U.S.
To emphasize the city's transportation business and capabilities, the Jacksonville Regional Chamber of Commerce filed Jacksonville America's Logistics Center as a trademark on November 9, 2007.
It was formally registered on August 4, 2009.
Cornerstone began promoting the city as "Jacksonville: America's Logistics Center" in 2009.
Signs were added to the existing city limit markers on Interstate 95.
Approximately 50,000 jobs in Northeast Florida are related to port activity and the port has an economic impact of $2.7 billion in Northeast Florida: The three maritime shippers who ship to Puerto Rico are all headquartered in Jacksonville: TOTE Maritime, Crowley Maritime, and Trailer Bridge.
Covering a total area of 22,939 acres (92.83 km), it was the largest military base in the Jacksonville area.
The parcel contains more than 3% of the total land area in Duval County (17,000 acres (69 km)).
The industrial and commercial-zoned center offers mid to large-size parcels for development; it has excellent transportation and utility infrastructure, including the third-longest runway in Florida.
Media and technology
Main article: Media in Jacksonville, Florida
The Florida Times-Union is the major daily newspaper in Jacksonville and the First Coast.
Jacksonville.com is its official website.
The Financial News & Daily Record is a daily paper focused on the business and legal communities.
Weekly papers include the Jacksonville Business Journal, an American City Business Journals publication focused on business news, Folio Weekly, the city's chief alternative weekly, and The Florida Star and the Jacksonville Free Press, two weeklies catering to African Americans.
Jax4Kids, a monthly newspaper, caters to parents.
EU Jacksonville is a monthly entertainment magazine.
The Coastal is a local online magazine that also publishes a quarterly paper edition.
Jacksonville is the 47th-largest local television market in the United States.
Despite its large population, Jacksonville has always been a medium-sized market because the surrounding suburbs and rural areas are not much larger than the city itself.
It is served by television stations affiliated with major American networks including WTLV 12 (NBC) and its sister station WJXX 25 (ABC), WJAX-TV 47 (CBS) and WFOX-TV 30 (Fox; with MyNetworkTV/MeTV on DT2), which operates WJAX-TV under a joint sales and shared services agreement, WJCT 7 (PBS), and WCWJ 17 (CW).
The dominant AM radio station in terms of ratings is WOKV 690AM, which is also the flagship station for the Jacksonville Jaguars.
In May 2013, WOKV began simulcasting on 104.5 FM as WOKV FM.
WJBT 93.3 (The Beat) is a hip-hop/R&B station, 96.9 The Eagle WJGL operates a Classic Hits format while its HD subchannel WJGL-HD2 operates an Urban CHR format under the moniker Power 106.1, WWJK 107.3 is a Mainstream Rock station under the moniker "107.3 Planet Radio.
WEZI 102.9 is an adult contemporary station branded as "Easy 102.9" along with 96.1 WEJZ branded as "96.1 WEJZ" WXXJ X106.5 is an alternative station, WQIK 99.1 is a country station as well as WGNE-FM 99.9, and WJCT 89.9 is the local National Public Radio affiliate.
Military and defense
Jacksonville is home to three US naval facilities.
Together with the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Jacksonville is the third-largest naval complex in the country.
Only Norfolk, Virginia and San Diego, California are bigger.
The United States military is the largest employer in Jacksonville and its total economic impact is approximately $6.1 billion annually.
Several veterans' service organizations are also headquartered in Jacksonville, including Wounded Warrior Project.
Naval Air Station Jacksonville is a military airport located 4 miles (6 km) south of the central business district.
Approximately 23,000 civilian and active-duty personnel are employed on the base.
There are 35 operational units/squadrons assigned there.
Support facilities include an airfield for pilot training, and a maintenance depot capable of tasks ranging from changing a tire to intricate micro-electronics, or total engine disassembly.
Also on-site is a Naval Hospital, a Fleet Industrial Supply Center, a Navy Family Service Center, and recreational facilities.
Naval Station Mayport is a Navy Ship Base that is the third-largest fleet concentration area in the U.S. Mayport has a busy harbor capable of accommodating 34 ships, and an 8,000-foot (2,400 m) runway capable of handling any aircraft used by the Department of Defense.
In January 2009, the Navy committed to stationing a nuclear-powered carrier at Mayport when the official Record of Decision was signed.
The port will require approximately $500 million in facility enhancements to support the larger vessel, which would take several years to complete.
The carrier was projected to arrive in 2019; however, an amphibious group was sent before the carrier.
Blount Island Command is a Marine Corps Logistics Base whose mission is to support the Maritime Prepositioning Force (MPF).
This provides for rapid deployment of personnel to link up with pre-positioned equipment and supplies embarked aboard forward-deployed Maritime Prepositioning Ships (MPS).
The ship's nickname is The Bold One and Pearl Harbor is her home port.
Coast Guard Sector Jacksonville is located on the St. Johns River next to Naval Station Mayport.
CGC Kingfisher, CGC Maria Bray, and CGC Hammer are stationed at the Sector.
Station Mayport is co-located with Sector Jacksonville and includes 25-foot (7.6 m) response boats, and 47-foot (14 m) motor lifeboats.
Leisure and entertainment
Throughout the year, many annual events of various types are held in Jacksonville.
In sports, the annual Gate River Run has been held annually since March 1977.
It has been the US National 15 kilometers (9.3 mi) road race Championship since 1994 and is the largest race of its distance in the country with over 13,000 runners, spectators, and volunteers, making it Jacksonville's largest participation sporting event.
In college football, the Gator Bowl is held on January 1.
It has been continuously held since 1946.
Also, the Florida–Georgia game (also known as the "World's Largest Outdoor Cocktail Party"), the annual college football game between the rival Florida Gators and Georgia Bulldogs has been held in Jacksonville almost yearly since 1933.
For six days in July the Jacksonville Kingfish Tournament is held for fishermen of all skills.
With $500,000 of prizes up for grabs, up to 1000 boats participate with almost 30,000 spectators watching.
Jacksonville is also home of River City Pride which is Northeast Florida's largest Gay Pride parade.
The parade and festivities usually take place over the course of the weekend usually the first or second weekend in October in Jacksonville's Riverside neighborhood.
The first pride parade was held in 1978.
A number of cultural events are also held in Jacksonville.
The Jacksonville Jazz Festival, held downtown, is the second-largest jazz festival in the nation, while Springing the Blues, one of the oldest and largest blues festivals, has been held in Jacksonville Beach since 1990.
The Art Walk, a monthly outdoor art festival on the first Wednesday of each month, is sponsored by Downtown Vision, Inc, an organization which works to promote artistic talent and venues on the First Coast.
Jacksonville is home to many breweries and a growing number of distilleries.
Other events include the Blessing of the Fleet held in March since 1985 and the Greater Jacksonville Agricultural Fair in November at the Jacksonville Fairgrounds and Exposition Center featuring games, rides, food, entertainment and livestock exhibition.
Riverside Arts Market (RAM), an outdoor arts-and-crafts market on the Riverwalk, occurs every Saturday from March to December under the canopy of the Fuller Warren Bridge.
Holiday celebrations include the Freedom, Fanfare & Fireworks celebration on July 4, the lighting of Jacksonville's official Christmas tree at the Jacksonville Landing (now removed) on the day after Thanksgiving and the Jacksonville Light Parade of boats the following day.
The VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena, which opened in 2003, is a 16,000-seat performance venue that attracts national entertainment, sporting events and also houses the Jacksonville Sports Hall of Fame.
It replaced the outdated Jacksonville Coliseum that was built in 1960 and demolished on June 26, 2003.
The Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens boasts the second largest animal collection in the state.
It also has a multitude of reptile houses, free flight aviaries, and many other animals.
The Jacksonville Beach location contains Shipwreck Island, Duval County's only waterpark.
There are also a number of popular community theatres such as Players by the Sea located in Jacksonville Beach and The 5 & Dime Theatre Co. located in Downtown Jacksonville.
The Murray Hill Art Center was reopened in February 2012 through a partnership of the Jacksonville Parks and Recreation (JaxParks) and the Art League of Jacksonville, a nonprofit dedicated to arts education.
The center is located in the historic Murray Hill area and offers community arts classes as well as shared studio space for aspiring artists.
Visitors are welcomed year around for events and classes.
Jacksonville has two fully enclosed shopping malls.
The oldest is the Regency Square Mall, which opened in 1967 and is located on former sand dunes in the Arlington area.
The other is The Avenues Mall.
It opened in 1990 on the Southside at the intersection of I-95 and US 1.
There is a 3rd indoor mall in the metropolitan area, The Orange Park Mall.
The St. opened in 2005. Johns Town Center
On the north side of Jacksonville, the River City Marketplace opened in 2006.
Both of these are "open air" malls, with a mix of stores but not contained under the same roof.
Literature, film and television
Main article: Media in Jacksonville, Florida
A handful of significant literary works and authors are associated with Jacksonville and the surrounding area.
In 1920 he also became the first African American to lead the NAACP civil rights organization.
A travel guide and memoir about her winters in the town of Mandarin, Florida, it was one of the first guides written about Florida and stimulated the state's first boom in the 1880s of tourism and residential development.
Jacksonville embraced the movies.
Sun-Ray Cinema, also known as the 5 Points Theatre and Riverside Theatre, opened in 1927.
It was the first theater in Florida equipped to show the new "talking pictures" and the third nationally.
It is located in the Five Points section of town and was renamed as the Five Points Theater in 1949.
The Florida Theatre, also opened in 1927, is located in downtown Jacksonville and is one of only four remaining high-style movie palaces that were built in Florida during the Mediterranean Revival architectural boom of the 1920s.
Since that time, Jacksonville has been chosen by a number of film and television studios for location shooting.
Notable motion pictures that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville since the silent film era include the classic thriller, Creature from the Black Lagoon (1954).
Since the late 20th century, the city has attracted numerous film companies, which shot The New Adventures of Pippi Longstocking (1988), Brenda Starr (1989), G.I. (1997), JaneThe Devil's Advocate (1997), Ride (1998), Why Do Fools Fall in Love (1998), Forces of Nature (1999), Tigerland (2000), Sunshine State (2002), Basic (2003), The Manchurian Candidate (2004), Lonely Hearts (2006), Moving McAllister (2007), The Year of Getting to Know Us (2008), The Ramen Girl and Like Dandelion Dust.
Notable television series or made-for-television films that have been partially or completely shot in Jacksonville include Inherit the Wind (1988), Orpheus Descending (1990), Saved by the Light (1995), The Babysitter's Seduction (1996), First Time Felon (1997), Safe Harbor (2009), Recount (2008), American Idol (2009), and Ash vs Evil Dead (2015).
Museums and art galleries
It was founded in 1961, following the death of Ninah Mae Holden Cummer, who bequeathed her art collection, house and gardens to the museum.
Its galleries display one of the world's three most comprehensive collections of Meissen porcelain, as well as large collections of American, European, and Japanese art.
The grounds contain two acres of Italian and English gardens begun by Ninah Cummer.
Tracing its roots to the formation of Jacksonville's Fine Arts Society in 1924, it opened its current 60,000-square-foot (6,000 m) facility in 2003 next to the Main Library downtown.
The museum features eclectic permanent and traveling exhibitions, and a collection of over 700 works.
It features a main exhibit that changes quarterly, plus three floors of nature exhibits, an extensive exhibit on the history of Northeast Florida, a hands-on science area, and the area's only astronomy theater, the Bryan Gooding Planetarium.
The house of Zephaniah Kingsley, barn, kitchen, and slave cabins have been preserved.
The exhibits are a diverse collection of carved ivory, Pre-Columbian artifacts, Steuben glass, Chinese porcelain and cloisonné, Tiffany glass, Boehm porcelain, and rotating exhibits of the work of local, regional, national and international artists.
Three other art galleries are located at educational institutions in town.
Florida State College at Jacksonville has the Kent Gallery on their westside campus and the Wilson Center for the Arts at their main campus.
The University Gallery is located on the campus of the University of North Florida.
The Jacksonville Karpeles Manuscript Library Museum is a branch of the world's largest private collection of original manuscripts and documents.
The museum in Jacksonville is in a 1921 neoclassical building on the outskirts of downtown.
In addition to document displays, an antique-book library has numerous volumes dating from the late 19th century.
It houses the Jacksonville Fire Museum and features more than 500 artifacts, including an 1806 hand pumper.
The LaVilla Museum opened in 1999 and features a permanent display of African-American history.
In addition, the art exhibits are changed periodically.
The city has several outstanding historical properties, some of which have been adapted to new uses.
The Jacksonville music scene was active in the 1930s in LaVilla, which was known as "Harlem of the South".
Black musicians from across the country visited Jacksonville to play standing room only performances at the Ritz Theatre and the Knights of Pythias Hall.
After his mother died when he was 15, Ray Charles lived with friends of his mother while he played piano at the Ritz for a year, before moving on to fame and fortune.
The Ritz Theatre was rebuilt and opened in October 1999.
Jacksonville native Pat Boone was a popular 1950s singer and teen idol.
During the 1960s, the Classics IV was the most successful pop rock band from Jacksonville.
The 1980s were a quiet decade for musical talent in Jacksonville.
The Times-Union Center for the Performing Arts consists of three distinct halls: the Jim & Jan Moran Theater, a venue for touring Broadway shows; the Jacoby Symphony Hall, home of the Jacksonville Symphony Orchestra; and the Terry Theater, intended for small shows and recitals.
The building was originally erected as the Civic Auditorium in 1962 and underwent a major renovation and construction in 1996.
Main article: Sports in Jacksonville
|Jacksonville Jaguars||Football||NFL||TIAA Bank Field (69,428)|
|Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp||Baseball||Southern (AA)||121 Financial Ballpark (11,000)|
|Jacksonville Giants||Basketball||ABA||VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena (14,100)|
|Jacksonville Icemen||Ice hockey||ECHL||VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena (13,000)|
|Jacksonville Sharks||Indoor football||NAL||VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena (13,000)|
|Jacksonville Axemen||Rugby league||USARL||Hodges Stadium (12,000)|
|Jacksonville Armada FC||Soccer||NPSL||Hodges Stadium (12,000)|
In 2005, Jacksonville hosted Super Bowl XXXIX.
Jacksonville is also home to several minor league-level teams.
The Jacksonville Jumbo Shrimp, a class Double-A baseball team, have played in Jacksonville continuously since 1970, longer than any other Double-A team has been in its city, and are the top-selling franchise in the Southern League.
The Jacksonville Sharks, who began play in 2010, were the champions of the Arena Football League's ArenaBowl XXIV in 2011 and now play in the National Arena League, where they have won two league championships.
The team plays its home games at VyStar Veterans Memorial Arena.
The city hosts the Florida–Georgia game, an annual college football game between the University of Florida and the University of Georgia and the TaxSlayer Gator Bowl, a post-season college football bowl game.
Government and politics
Main article: Government of Jacksonville
In 1968 Jacksonville and Duval County consolidated their governments in the Jacksonville Consolidation.
This eliminated a separate county executive or legislature, and supplanted these positions with the Mayor of Jacksonville and the City Council of the City of Jacksonville, respectively.
Because of this, voters who live outside of the city limits of Jacksonville but inside Duval County may vote in elections for these positions and run for them.
The Mayor of Jacksonville is elected to four-year terms and serves as the head of the government's executive branch.
The mayor oversees most city departments, though some are independent or quasi-independent.
Law enforcement is provided by the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office, headed by an elected sheriff; public schools are overseen by Duval County Public Schools, and several services are provided by largely independent authorities.
The mayor holds veto power over all resolutions and ordinances made by the city council and also has the power to hire and fire the head of various city departments.
As before the consolidation, some government services are operated independently of city and county authority.
In accordance with Florida law, the elected school board has nearly complete autonomy.
Jacksonville also has several quasi-independent government agencies which only nominally answer to the consolidated authority, including electric authority, port authority, transportation authority, housing authority and airport authority.
The main environmental and agricultural body is the Duval County Soil and Water Conservation District, which works closely with other area, state, and federal agencies.
The Mayor and City Council of Jacksonville established the JHA in 1994 to create a community service-oriented, public housing agency with innovative ideas and a different attitude.
The primary goal was to provide safe, clean, affordable housing for eligible low and moderate income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities.
The secondary goal was to provide effective social services, work with residents to improve their quality of life, encourage employment and self-sufficiency, and help residents move out of assisted housing.
To that end, JHA works with HabiJax to help low and moderate income families to escape the public housing cycle and become successful, productive, homeowners and taxpayers.
Main article: Politics of Jacksonville
The present mayor is Lenny Curry, who assumed office on July 1, 2015.
The past mayor was Alvin Brown.
The 4th and 5th districts have been characterized by analysts as some of the most gerrymandered districts in the country In 2014, the Florida Supreme Court ordered the state legislature to redraw at least eight of the congressional districts to correct inequities.
The county's murder rate had been the highest among Florida's counties with a population of 500,000 or more for eleven years in 2009, leading to widespread discussion in the community about how to deal with the problem.
In 2010 Duval County's violent crime rate decreased by 9.3% from the previous year, with total crime decreasing 7.3%, putting the murder rate behind that of Miami-Dade County.
Jacksonville and Duval County historically maintained separate police agencies: the Jacksonville Police Department and Duval County Sheriff's Office.
As part of consolidation in 1968, the two merged, creating the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office (JSO).
The JSO is headed by the elected Sheriff of Jacksonville, currently Mike Williams.
It is responsible for law enforcement and corrections in the county.
Main article: Education in Jacksonville, Florida
Primary and secondary education
Main article: Duval County Public Schools
See also: List of high schools in Jacksonville
In the 2009–2010 school year the district enrolled 123,000 students.
It administers 172 total schools, including 103 elementary schools, 25 middle schools, 19 high schools, three K–8 schools, and one 6–12 school, as well as 13 charter schools and a juvenile justice school program.
Of these, 62 are designated magnet schools.
Three of Jacksonville's high schools, Stanton College Preparatory School, Darnell-Cookman School of the Medical Arts and Paxon School for Advanced Studies regularly appear at the top of Newsweek magazine's annual list of the country's top public high schools, coming in respectively at No.
3 #7, and No.
8 in the 2010 edition.
Five other schools, Douglas Anderson School of the Arts (#33), Mandarin High School (#97), Duncan U. Fletcher High School (#205), Sandalwood High School (#210), and Englewood High School (#1146) were also included in the list.
Colleges and universities
Further information: List of colleges and universities in metropolitan Jacksonville
Jacksonville is home to a number of institutions of higher education.
Former mayor John Delaney has been president of UNF since 2003.
Jacksonville University (JU) is a private institution founded in 1934.
Main article: Jacksonville Public Library (Florida)
The Jacksonville Public Library had its beginnings when May Moore and Florence Murphy started the Jacksonville Library and Literary Association in 1878.
The Association was populated by various prominent Jacksonville residents and sought to create a free public library and reading room for the city.
Over the course of 127 years, the system has grown from that one room library to become one of the largest in the state.
The Jacksonville library system has 20 branches, ranging in size from the 54,000 sq ft (5,000 m) West Regional Library to smaller neighborhood libraries like Westbrook and Eastside.
The Library annually receives nearly 4 million visitors and circulates over 6 million items.
Nearly 500,000 library cards are held by area residents.
The largest public library in the state, the opening of the new main library marked the completion of an unprecedented period of growth for the system under the Better Jacksonville Plan.
The new Main Library offers specialized reading rooms, public access to hundreds of computers and public displays of art, an extensive collection of books, and special collections ranging from the African-American Collection to the recently opened Holocaust Collection.
Main article: Transportation in Jacksonville, Florida
Roadways and bridges
There are seven bridges over the St. at Jacksonville. Johns River
They include (starting from furthest downstream) the Napoleon Bonaparte Broward Bridge (Dames Point) (which carries Interstate 295 Eastern Beltway traffic), the John E. Mathews Bridge, the Isaiah D. Hart Bridge, the John T. Alsop Jr. Bridge (Main Street), the St. , the Elmo W. Acosta BridgeFuller Warren Bridge (which carries I-95 traffic) and the Henry Holland Buckman Bridge (which carries I-295 North/South traffic).
Also, next to the Acosta Bridge is a large jackknife railroad bridge built in the 1920s by Henry flagler's FEC railroad.
Beginning in 1953, tolls were charged on the Hart, Mathews, Fuller Warren and the Main Street bridges to pay for bridge construction, renovations and many other highway projects.
As Jacksonville grew, toll plazas created bottlenecks and caused delays and accidents during rush hours.
In 1988, Jacksonville voters chose to eliminate toll collection and replace the revenue with a ½ cent local sales tax increase.
In 1989, the toll booths were removed.
I-10 ends at this intersection (the other end being in Santa Monica, California).
Additionally, State Road 202 (J. Turner Butler Boulevard) provides freeway access to the Jacksonville beaches from I-95 on the Southside.
The major freeway interchange at I-295 and SR 202 was finally completed on December 24, 2008.
SR 9B is under construction and will connect I-295's southeast corner to the Bayard Area.
The SR 9B freeway will be called I-795 when it is completed.
In downtown, US 23 splits from US 1 and quickly runs to its southern terminus.
US 23's other end is in Mackinaw City, Michigan.
Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion on Jacksonville freeways.
A$152 million project to create a high-speed interchange at the intersection of Interstates 10 and 95 began in February 2005, after the conclusion of Super Bowl XXXIX.
Construction was expected to take nearly six years with multiple lane flyovers and the requirement that the interchange remain open throughout the project.
The previous configuration used single lane, low speed, curved ramps which created backups during rush hours and contributed to accidents.
Also, construction of 9B, future Interstate 795, is currently underway.
Main article: Jacksonville Transportation Authority
The Jacksonville Skyway is an automated people mover connecting Florida State College at Jacksonville downtown campus, the Northbank central business district, Convention Center, and Southbank locations.
The system includes 8 stops connected by two lines.
The existing train is a UMIII monorail built by Bombardier.
The guideway consists of concrete beams which rest atop an unusually large support structure not used in most monorail systems.
Maximum speed for the train is 48 km/h (30 mph).
A monorail was first proposed in the 1970s as part of a mobility plan hoping to attract interest from the Urban Mass Transit Administration's Downtown Peoplemover Program.
The initial study was undertaken by the Florida Department of Transportation and Jacksonville's planning department, who took the Skyway project to the Jacksonville Transportation Authority (JTA) in 1977.
Following further development and a final 18-month feasibility study, the UMTA selected Jacksonville as one of seven cities to receive federal funding for an automated people mover.
Two other related projects are Miami's Metromover and Detroit's People Mover.
UMTA's approved plan called for the construction of a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) Phase I system to be built in three segments.
In 2014, the Jacksonville was among the top large cities ranked by percentage of commuters who drove to work alone (80 percent).
According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 80 percent of city of Jacksonville residents commuted in single-occupancy vehicles, 8.6 percent carpooled, 2.6 percent used public transportation, and 2.7 percent walked.
All other forms of transportation combined for 1.7 percent of the commuter modal share, while 4.5 percent worked out of the home.
Some patterns of car ownership are similar to national averages.
In 2015, 8.3 percent of city of Jacksonville households lacked a car, which increased slightly to 8.7 percent in 2016.
The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016.
Jacksonville averaged 1.62 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.
Service on the Silver Palm was cut back to Savannah, Georgia in 2002.
Service was restored as far east as New Orleans by late October 2005, but Amtrak has opted not to fully restore service into Florida.
Jacksonville is the headquarters of two significant freight railroads.
CSX Transportation, owns a large building on the downtown riverbank that is a significant part of the skyline.
Main article: Jacksonville Aviation Authority
Airports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Aviation Authority (JAA).
Smaller aircraft use Jacksonville Executive at Craig Airport (IATA: CRG, ICAO: KCRG, FAA LID: CRG) in Arlington, Herlong Recreational Airport (ICAO: KHEG, FAA LID: HEG) on the Westside, and Cecil Airport (IATA: VQQ, ICAO: KVQQ, FAA LID: VQQ), at Cecil Commerce Center.
The state of Florida has designated Cecil Airport a space port, allowing horizontal lift spacecraft to use the facility.
Main article: Jacksonville Port Authority
Public seaports in Jacksonville are managed by the Jacksonville Port Authority, known as JAXPORT.
Four modern deepwater (40 feet (12 m)) seaport facilities, including America's newest cruise port, make Jacksonville a full-service international seaport.
In FY2006, JAXPORT handled 8.7 million tons of cargo, including nearly 610,000 vehicles, which ranks Jacksonville 2nd in the nation in automobile handling, behind only the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
The 20 other maritime facilities not managed by the Port Authority move about 10 million tons of additional cargo in and out of the St. Johns River.
In terms of total tonnage, the Port of Jacksonville ranks 40th nationally; within Florida, it is 3rd behind Tampa and Port Everglades.
In 2003, the JAXPORT Cruise Terminal opened, providing cruise service for 1,500 passengers to Key West, Florida, the Bahamas, and Mexico via Carnival Cruise Lines ship, Celebration, which was retired in April 2008.
For almost five months, no cruises originated from Jacksonville until September 20, 2008, when the cruise ship Fascination departed with 2,079 passengers.
In Fiscal year 2006, there were 78 cruise ship sailings with 128,745 passengers.
A JaxPort spokesperson said in 2008 that they expect 170,000 passengers to sail each year.
Its vessels are called on to fight approximately 75 fires per year.
The Mayport Ferry connects the north and south ends of State Road A1A between Mayport and Fort George Island, and is the last active ferry in Florida.
The state of Florida transferred responsibility for ferry operations to JAXPORT on October 1, 2007.
Main article: Jacksonville Electric Authority
Basic utilities in Jacksonville (water, sewer, electric) are provided by JEA (formerly the Jacksonville Electric Authority).
According to Article 21 of the Jacksonville City Charter,
People's Gas is Jacksonville's natural gas provider.
Comcast is Jacksonville's local cable provider.
AT&T (formerly BellSouth) is Jacksonville's local phone provider, and their U-Verse service offers TV, internet, and VoIP phone service to customers served by fiber-to-the-premises or fiber-to-the-node using a VRAD.
The city has a successful recycling program with separate pickups for garbage, yard waste and recycling.
Collection is provided by several private companies under contract to the City of Jacksonville.
Further information: List of hospitals in Florida
The TaxExemptWorld.com website, which compiles Internal Revenue Service data, reported that in 2007, there are 2,910 distinct, active, tax exempt/non-profit organizations in Jacksonville which, excluding Credit Unions, had a total income of $7.08 billion and assets of $9.54 billion.
There are 333 charitable organizations with assets of over $1 million.
The largest share of assets was tied to Medical facilities, $4.5 billion.
Main article: List of people from Jacksonville, Florida
See also: List of sister cities in Florida
Jacksonville has eight sister cities.
In 2000, Sister Cities International awarded Jacksonville the Innovation Arts & Culture Award for the city's program with Nantes.
- Duval County, Florida
- Greater Jacksonville
- List of people from Jacksonville, Florida
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Duval County, Florida
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacksonville, Florida.