James Brown

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This article is about the American singer. James Brown_sentence_0

For other people named James Brown, see James Brown (disambiguation). James Brown_sentence_1

James Brown_table_infobox_0

James BrownJames Brown_header_cell_0_0_0
BornJames Brown_header_cell_0_1_0 James Joseph Brown Jr.

(1933-05-03)May 3, 1933 Barnwell, South Carolina, U.S.James Brown_cell_0_1_1

DiedJames Brown_header_cell_0_2_0 December 25, 2006(2006-12-25) (aged 73)

Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.James Brown_cell_0_2_1

OccupationJames Brown_header_cell_0_3_0 James Brown_cell_0_3_1
Spouse(s)James Brown_header_cell_0_4_0 James Brown_cell_0_4_1
ChildrenJames Brown_header_cell_0_5_0 9 (possibly 13; see below)James Brown_cell_0_5_1
GenresJames Brown_header_cell_0_6_0 James Brown_cell_0_6_1
InstrumentsJames Brown_header_cell_0_7_0 James Brown_cell_0_7_1
Years activeJames Brown_header_cell_0_8_0 James Brown_cell_0_8_1
LabelsJames Brown_header_cell_0_9_0 James Brown_cell_0_9_1
Associated actsJames Brown_header_cell_0_10_0 James Brown_cell_0_10_1
WebsiteJames Brown_header_cell_0_11_0 James Brown_cell_0_11_1

James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader. James Brown_sentence_2

A progenitor of funk music and a major figure of 20th century music and dance, he is often referred to by the honorific nicknames "Godfather of Soul", "Mr. Dynamite", and "Soul Brother No. James Brown_sentence_3

1". James Brown_sentence_4

In a career that lasted over 50 years, he influenced the development of several music genres. James Brown_sentence_5

Brown was one of the first ten inductees into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural induction dinner in New York on January 23, 1986. James Brown_sentence_6

Brown began his career as a gospel singer in Toccoa, Georgia. James Brown_sentence_7

He first came to national public attention in the mid-1950s as the lead singer of The Famous Flames, a rhythm and blues vocal group founded by Bobby Byrd. James Brown_sentence_8

With the hit ballads "Please, Please, Please" and "Try Me", Brown built a reputation as a tireless live performer with the Famous Flames and his backing band, sometimes known as the James Brown Band or the James Brown Orchestra. James Brown_sentence_9

His success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag", "I Got You (I Feel Good)" and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World". James Brown_sentence_10

During the late 1960s, Brown moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms and styles to a profoundly "Africanized" approach to music-making, emphasizing stripped-down and interlocking rhythms, that influenced the development of funk music. James Brown_sentence_11

By the early 1970s, Brown had fully established the funk sound after the formation of the J.B.s with records such as "Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine" and "The Payback". James Brown_sentence_12

He also became noted for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud". James Brown_sentence_13

Brown continued to perform and record until his death from pneumonia in 2006. James Brown_sentence_14

Brown recorded 17 singles that reached No. James Brown_sentence_15

1 on the Billboard R&B charts. James Brown_sentence_16

He also holds the record for the most singles listed on the Billboard Hot 100 chart which did not reach No. James Brown_sentence_17

1. James Brown_sentence_18

Brown was inducted into the first class of the Rhythm & Blues Music Hall of Fame in 2013 as an artist and then in 2017 as a songwriter. James Brown_sentence_19

He also received honors from several other institutions, including inductions into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. James Brown_sentence_20

In Joel Whitburn's analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, Brown is ranked No. James Brown_sentence_21

1 in The Top 500 Artists. James Brown_sentence_22

He is ranked No. James Brown_sentence_23

7 on Rolling Stone's list of its 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. James Brown_sentence_24

Early life James Brown_section_0

Brown was born on May 3, 1933, in Barnwell, South Carolina, to 16-year-old Susie (née Behling; 1916–2004) and 21-year-old Joseph Gardner Brown (1912–1993) in a small wooden shack. James Brown_sentence_25

Brown's name was supposed to have been Joseph James Brown Jr., but his first and middle names were mistakenly reversed on his birth certificate. James Brown_sentence_26

He later legally changed his name to remove "Jr." In his autobiography, Brown stated that he had Chinese and Native American ancestry and that his father was of mixed African American and Native American descent, while his mother was of mixed African American and Asian descent. James Brown_sentence_27

The Brown family lived in extreme poverty in Elko, South Carolina, which was an impoverished town at the time. James Brown_sentence_28

They later moved to Augusta, Georgia, when James was four or five. James Brown_sentence_29

His family first settled at one of his aunts' brothels. James Brown_sentence_30

They later moved into a house shared with another aunt. James Brown_sentence_31

Brown's mother eventually left the family after a contentious and abusive marriage and moved to New York. James Brown_sentence_32

Brown spent long stretches of time on his own, hanging out in the streets and hustling to get by. James Brown_sentence_33

He managed to stay in school until the sixth grade. James Brown_sentence_34

He began singing in talent shows as a young child, first appearing at Augusta's Lenox Theater in 1944, winning the show after singing the ballad "So Long". James Brown_sentence_35

While in Augusta, Brown performed buck dances for change to entertain troops from Camp Gordon at the start of World War II as their convoys traveled over a canal bridge near his aunt's home. James Brown_sentence_36

He learned to play the piano, guitar, and harmonica during this period. James Brown_sentence_37

He became inspired to become an entertainer after hearing "Caldonia" by Louis Jordan and his Tympany Five. James Brown_sentence_38

In his teen years, Brown briefly had a career as a boxer. James Brown_sentence_39

At the age of 16, he was convicted of robbery and sent to a juvenile detention center in Toccoa. James Brown_sentence_40

There, he formed a gospel quartet with four fellow cellmates, including Johnny Terry. James Brown_sentence_41

Brown met singer Bobby Byrd when the two played against each other in a baseball game outside the detention center. James Brown_sentence_42

Byrd also discovered that Brown could sing after hearing of "a guy called Music Box", which was Brown's musical nickname at the prison. James Brown_sentence_43

Byrd has since claimed he and his family helped to secure an early release, which led to Brown promising the court he would "sing for the Lord". James Brown_sentence_44

Brown was released on a work sponsorship with Toccoa business owner S.C. Lawson. James Brown_sentence_45

Lawson was impressed with Brown's work ethic and secured his release with a promise to keep him employed for two years. James Brown_sentence_46

Brown was paroled on June 14, 1952. James Brown_sentence_47

He would go on to work with both of Lawson's sons, and would come back to visit the family from time to time throughout his career. James Brown_sentence_48

Shortly after being paroled he joined the gospel group the Ever-Ready Gospel Singers, featuring Byrd's sister Sarah. James Brown_sentence_49

Music career James Brown_section_1

1953–1961: The Famous Flames James Brown_section_2

Main article: The Famous Flames James Brown_sentence_50

Brown eventually joined Byrd's group in 1954. James Brown_sentence_51

The group had evolved from the Gospel Starlighters, an a cappella gospel group, to an R&B group with the name the Avons. James Brown_sentence_52

He reputedly joined the band after one of its members, Troy Collins, died in a car crash. James Brown_sentence_53

Along with Brown and Byrd, the group consisted of Sylvester Keels, Doyle Oglesby, Fred Pulliam, Nash Knox and Nafloyd Scott. James Brown_sentence_54

Influenced by R&B groups such as Hank Ballard and the Midnighters, the Orioles and Billy Ward and his Dominoes, the group changed its name, first to the Toccoa Band and then to the Flames. James Brown_sentence_55

Nafloyd's brother Baroy later joined the group on bass guitar, and Brown, Byrd and Keels switched lead positions and instruments, often playing drums and piano. James Brown_sentence_56

Johnny Terry later joined, by which time Pulliam and Oglesby had long left. James Brown_sentence_57

Berry Trimier became the group's first manager, booking them at parties near college campuses in Georgia and South Carolina. James Brown_sentence_58

The group had already gained a reputation as a good live act when they renamed themselves the Famous Flames. James Brown_sentence_59

In 1955, the group had contacted Little Richard while performing in Macon. James Brown_sentence_60

Richard convinced the group to get in contact with his manager at the time, Clint Brantley, at his nightclub. James Brown_sentence_61

Brantley agreed to manage them after seeing the group audition. James Brown_sentence_62

He then sent them to a local radio station to record a demo session, where they performed their own composition "Please, Please, Please", which was inspired when Little Richard wrote the words of the title on a napkin and Brown was determined to make a song out of it. James Brown_sentence_63

The Famous Flames eventually signed with King Records' Federal subsidiary in Cincinnati, Ohio, and issued a re-recorded version of "Please, Please, Please" in March 1956. James Brown_sentence_64

The song became the group's first R&B hit, selling over a million copies. James Brown_sentence_65

None of their follow-ups gained similar success. James Brown_sentence_66

By 1957, Brown had replaced Clint Brantley as manager and hired Ben Bart, chief of Universal Attractions Agency. James Brown_sentence_67

That year the original Flames broke up, after Bart changed the name of the group to "James Brown and The Famous Flames". James Brown_sentence_68

In October 1958, Brown released the ballad "Try Me", which hit number one on the R&B chart in the beginning of 1959, becoming the first of seventeen chart-topping R&B hits. James Brown_sentence_69

Shortly afterwards, he recruited his first band, led by J. C. Davis, and reunited with Bobby Byrd who joined a revived Famous Flames lineup that included Eugene "Baby" Lloyd Stallworth and Bobby Bennett, with Johnny Terry sometimes coming in as the "fifth Flame". James Brown_sentence_70

Brown, the Flames, and his entire band debuted at the Apollo Theater on April 24, 1959, opening for Brown's idol, Little Willie John. James Brown_sentence_71

Federal Records issued two albums credited to Brown and the Famous Flames (both contained previously released singles). James Brown_sentence_72

By 1960, Brown began multi-tasking in the recording studio involving himself, his singing group, the Famous Flames, and his band, a separate entity from The Flames, sometimes named the James Brown Orchestra or the James Brown Band. James Brown_sentence_73

That year the band released the top ten R&B hit "(Do the) Mashed Potatoes" on Dade Records, owned by Henry Stone, billed under the pseudonym "Nat Kendrick & the Swans" due to label issues. James Brown_sentence_74

As a result of its success, King president Syd Nathan shifted Brown's contract from Federal to the parent label, King, which according to Brown in his autobiography meant "you got more support from the company". James Brown_sentence_75

While with King, Brown, under the Famous Flames lineup, released the hit-filled album Think! James Brown_sentence_76

and the following year released two albums with the James Brown Band earning second billing. James Brown_sentence_77

With the Famous Flames, Brown sang lead on several more hits, including "I'll Go Crazy" and "Think", songs that hinted at his emerging style. James Brown_sentence_78

1962–1966: Mr. Dynamite James Brown_section_3

In 1962, Brown and his band scored a hit with their cover of the instrumental "Night Train", becoming a top five R&B single. James Brown_sentence_79

That same year, the ballads "Lost Someone" and "Baby You're Right", the latter a Joe Tex composition, added to his repertoire and increased his reputation with R&B audiences. James Brown_sentence_80

On October 24, 1962, Brown financed a live recording of a performance at the Apollo and convinced Syd Nathan to release the album, despite Nathan's belief that no one would buy a live album due to the fact that Brown's singles had already been bought and that live albums were usually bad sellers. James Brown_sentence_81

Live at the Apollo was released the following June and became an immediate hit, eventually reaching number two on the Top LPs chart and selling over a million copies, staying on the charts for 14 months. James Brown_sentence_82

In 1963, Brown scored his first top 20 pop hit with his rendition of the standard "Prisoner of Love". James Brown_sentence_83

He also launched his first label, Try Me Records, which included recordings by the likes of Tammy Montgomery (later to be famous as Tammi Terrell), Johnny & Bill (Famous Flames associates Johnny Terry and Bill Hollings) and the Poets, which was another name used for Brown's backing band. James Brown_sentence_84

During this time Brown began an ill-fated two-year relationship with 17-year-old Tammi Terrell when she sang in his revue. James Brown_sentence_85

Terrell ended their personal and professional relationship because of his abusive behavior. James Brown_sentence_86

In 1964, seeking bigger commercial success, Brown and Bobby Byrd formed the production company, Fair Deal, linking the operation to the Mercury imprint, Smash Records. James Brown_sentence_87

King Records, however, fought against this and was granted an injunction preventing Brown from releasing any recordings for the label. James Brown_sentence_88

Prior to the injunction, Brown had released three vocal singles, including the blues-oriented hit "Out of Sight", which further indicated the direction his music was going to take. James Brown_sentence_89

Touring throughout the year, Brown and the Famous Flames grabbed more national attention after giving an explosive show-stopping performance on the live concert film The T.A.M.I. James Brown_sentence_90 Show. James Brown_sentence_91

The Flames' dynamic gospel-tinged vocals, polished choreography and timing as well as Brown's energetic dance moves and high-octane singing upstaged the proposed closing act, the Rolling Stones. James Brown_sentence_92

Having signed a new deal with King, Brown released his song "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag" in 1965, which became his first top ten pop hit and won him his first Grammy Award. James Brown_sentence_93

Brown also signed a production deal with Loma Records. James Brown_sentence_94

Later in 1965, he issued "I Got You", which became his second single in a row to reach number-one on the R&B chart and top ten on the pop chart. James Brown_sentence_95

Brown followed that up with the ballad "It's a Man's Man's Man's World", a third Top 10 Pop hit (No. James Brown_sentence_96

1 R&B) which confirmed his stance as a top-ranking performer, especially with R&B audiences from that point on. James Brown_sentence_97

1967–1970: Soul Brother No. 1 James Brown_section_4

By 1967, Brown's emerging sound had begun to be defined as funk music. James Brown_sentence_98

That year he released what some critics cited as the first true funk song, "Cold Sweat", which hit number-one on the R&B chart (Top 10 Pop) and became one of his first recordings to contain a drum break and also the first that featured a harmony that was reduced to a single chord. James Brown_sentence_99

The instrumental arrangements on tracks such as "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" and "Licking Stick-Licking Stick" (both recorded in 1968) and "Funky Drummer" (recorded in 1969) featured a more developed version of Brown's mid-1960s style, with the horn section, guitars, bass and drums meshed together in intricate rhythmic patterns based on multiple interlocking riffs. James Brown_sentence_100

Changes in Brown's style that started with "Cold Sweat" also established the musical foundation for Brown's later hits, such as "I Got the Feelin'" (1968) and "Mother Popcorn" (1969). James Brown_sentence_101

By this time Brown's vocals frequently took the form of a kind of rhythmic declamation, not quite sung but not quite spoken, that only intermittently featured traces of pitch or melody. James Brown_sentence_102

This would become a major influence on the techniques of rapping, which would come to maturity along with hip hop music in the coming decades. James Brown_sentence_103

Brown's style of funk in the late 1960s was based on interlocking syncopated parts: strutting bass lines, syncopated drum patterns, and iconic percussive guitar riffs. James Brown_sentence_104

The main guitar ostinatos for "Ain't It Funky" and "Give It Up or Turn It Loose" (both 1969), are examples of Brown's refinement of New Orleans funk; irresistibly danceable riffs, stripped down to their rhythmic essence. James Brown_sentence_105

On both recordings the tonal structure is bare bones. James Brown_sentence_106

The pattern of attack-points is the emphasis, not the pattern of pitches, as if the guitar were an African drum, or idiophone. James Brown_sentence_107

Alexander Stewart states that this popular feel was passed along from "New Orleans—through James Brown's music, to the popular music of the 1970s". James Brown_sentence_108

Those same tracks were later resurrected by countless hip-hop musicians from the 1970s onward. James Brown_sentence_109

As a result, James Brown remains to this day the world's most sampled recording artist, but, two tracks that he wrote, are also synonymous with modern dance, especially with house music, jungle music, and drum and bass music, (which were sped up exponentially, in the latter two genres). James Brown_sentence_110

"Bring it Up" has an Afro-Cuban guajeo-like structure. James Brown_sentence_111

All three of these guitar riffs are based on an onbeat/offbeat structure. James Brown_sentence_112

Stewart says that it "is different from a time line (such as clave and tresillo) in that it is not an exact pattern, but more of a loose organizing principle." James Brown_sentence_113

It was around this time as the musician's popularity increased that he acquired the nickname "Soul Brother No. James Brown_sentence_114

1", after failing to win the title "King of Soul" from Solomon Burke during a Chicago gig two years prior. James Brown_sentence_115

Brown's recordings during this period influenced musicians across the industry, most notably groups such as Sly and the Family Stone, Funkadelic, Charles Wright & the Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band, Booker T. & the M.G.s as well as vocalists such as Edwin Starr, David Ruffin and Dennis Edwards from The Temptations, and Michael Jackson, who, throughout his career, cited Brown as his ultimate idol. James Brown_sentence_116

Brown's band during this period employed musicians and arrangers who had come up through the jazz tradition. James Brown_sentence_117

He was noted for his ability as a bandleader and songwriter to blend the simplicity and drive of R&B with the rhythmic complexity and precision of jazz. James Brown_sentence_118

Trumpeter Lewis Hamlin and saxophonist/keyboardist Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis (the successor to previous bandleader Nat Jones) led the band. James Brown_sentence_119

Guitarist Jimmy Nolen provided percussive, deceptively simple riffs for each song, and Maceo Parker's prominent saxophone solos provided a focal point for many performances. James Brown_sentence_120

Other members of Brown's band included stalwart Famous Flames singer and sideman Bobby Byrd, trombonist Fred Wesley, drummers John "Jabo" Starks, Clyde Stubblefield and Melvin Parker, saxophonist St. James Brown_sentence_121 Clair Pinckney, guitarist Alphonso "Country" Kellum and bassist Bernard Odum. James Brown_sentence_122

In addition to a torrent of singles and studio albums, Brown's output during this period included two more successful live albums, Live at the Garden (1967) and Live at the Apollo, Volume II (1968), and a 1968 television special, James Brown: Man to Man. James Brown_sentence_123

His music empire expanded along with his influence on the music scene. James Brown_sentence_124

As Brown's music empire grew, his desire for financial and artistic independence grew as well. James Brown_sentence_125

Brown bought radio stations during the late 1960s, including WRDW in his native Augusta, where he shined shoes as a boy. James Brown_sentence_126

In November 1967, James Brown purchased radio station WGYW in Knoxville, Tennessee, for a reported $75,000, according to the January 20, 1968 Record World magazine. James Brown_sentence_127

The call letters were changed to WJBE reflecting his initials. James Brown_sentence_128

WJBE began on January 15, 1968, and broadcast a Rhythm & Blues format. James Brown_sentence_129

The station slogan was "WJBE 1430 Raw Soul". James Brown_sentence_130

Brown also bought WEBB in Baltimore in 1970. James Brown_sentence_131

Brown branched out to make several recordings with musicians outside his own band. James Brown_sentence_132

In an attempt to appeal to the older, more affluent, and predominantly white adult contemporary audience, Brown recorded Gettin' Down To It (1969) and Soul on Top (1970)—two albums consisting mostly of romantic ballads, jazz standards, and homologous reinterpretations of his earlier hits—with the Dee Felice Trio and the Louie Bellson Orchestra. James Brown_sentence_133

In 1968, he recorded a number of funk-oriented tracks with The Dapps, a white Cincinnati band, including the hit "I Can't Stand Myself". James Brown_sentence_134

He also released three albums of Christmas music with his own band. James Brown_sentence_135

1970–1975: Godfather of Soul James Brown_section_5

Main article: The J.B.'s James Brown_sentence_136

In March 1970, most of Brown's mid-to-late 1960s road band walked out on him due to money disputes, a development augured by the prior disbandment of The Famous Flames singing group for the same reason in 1968. James Brown_sentence_137

Brown and erstwhile Famous Flames singer Bobby Byrd (who chose to remain in the band during this tumultuous period) subsequently recruited several members of the Cincinnati-based The Pacemakers, which included Bootsy Collins and his brother Phelps "Catfish" Collins; augmented by the remaining members of the 1960s road band (including Fred Wesley, who rejoined Brown's outfit in December 1970) and other newer musicians, they would form the nucleus of The J.B.'s, Brown's new backing ensemble. James Brown_sentence_138

Shortly following their first performance together, the band entered the studio to record the Brown-Byrd composition, "Get Up (I Feel Like Being a) Sex Machine"; the song and other contemporaneous singles would further cement Brown's influence in the nascent genre of funk music. James Brown_sentence_139

This iteration of the J.B.'s dissolved after a March 1971 European tour (documented on the 1991 archival release Love Power Peace) due to additional money disputes and Bootsy Collins' use of LSD; the Collins brothers would soon become integral members of Parliament-Funkadelic, while a new lineup of the J.B.'s coalesced around Wesley, St. Clair Pinckney and drummer John Starks. James Brown_sentence_140

In 1971, Brown began recording for Polydor Records which also took over distribution of Brown's King Records catalog. James Brown_sentence_141

Many of his sidemen and supporting players, including Fred Wesley & the J.B.'s, Bobby Byrd, Lyn Collins, Vicki Anderson and former rival Hank Ballard, released records on the People label, an imprint founded by Brown that was purchased by Polydor as part of Brown's new contract. James Brown_sentence_142

The recordings on the People label, almost all of which were produced by Brown himself, exemplified the mature flowering of his "house style". James Brown_sentence_143

Several tracks thought by critics to be excessively sexual were released at this time. James Brown_sentence_144

He would later soften his vocal approach. James Brown_sentence_145

Songs such as "I Know You Got Soul" by Bobby Byrd, "Think" by Lyn Collins and "Doing It to Death" by Fred Wesley & the J.B.'s are considered as much a part of Brown's recorded legacy as the recordings released under his own name. James Brown_sentence_146

That year, he also began touring African countries and was received well by audiences there. James Brown_sentence_147

During the 1972 presidential election, James Brown openly proclaimed his support of Richard Nixon for reelection to the presidency over Democratic candidate George McGovern. James Brown_sentence_148

The decision led to a boycott of his performances and, according to Brown, cost him a big portion of his black audience. James Brown_sentence_149

As a result, Brown's record sales and concerts in the United States reached a lull in 1973 as he failed to land a number-one R&B single that year. James Brown_sentence_150

Brown relied more on touring outside the United States where he continued to perform for sold-out crowds in cities such as London, Paris and Lausanne. James Brown_sentence_151

That year he also faced problems with the IRS for failure to pay back taxes, charging he hadn't paid upwards of $4.5 million; five years earlier, the IRS had claimed he owed nearly $2 million. James Brown_sentence_152

In 1973, Brown provided the score for the blaxploitation film Black Caesar. James Brown_sentence_153

He also recorded another soundtrack for the film, Slaughter's Big Rip-Off. James Brown_sentence_154

Following the release of these soundtracks, Brown acquired a self-styled nickname, "The Godfather of Soul", which remains his most popular nickname. James Brown_sentence_155

In 1974 he returned to the No. James Brown_sentence_156

1 spot on the R&B charts with "The Payback", with the parent album reaching the same spot on the album charts; he would reach No. James Brown_sentence_157

1 two more times in 1974, with "My Thang" and "Papa Don't Take No Mess". James Brown_sentence_158

Later that year, he returned to Africa and performed in Kinshasa as part of the buildup to The Rumble in the Jungle fight between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman. James Brown_sentence_159

Admirers of Brown's music, including Miles Davis and other jazz musicians, began to cite him as a major influence on their own styles. James Brown_sentence_160

However, Brown, like others who were influenced by his music, also "borrowed" from other musicians. James Brown_sentence_161

His 1976 single, "Hot (I Need To Be Loved, Loved, Loved, Loved)" (R&B No. James Brown_sentence_162

31), interpolated the main riff from "Fame" by David Bowie while omitting any attribution to the latter song's composers (including Bowie, John Lennon and guitarist Carlos Alomar), not the other way around as was often believed. James Brown_sentence_163

The riff was composed by Alomar, who had briefly been a member of Brown's band in the late 1960s. James Brown_sentence_164

"Papa Don't Take No Mess" would prove to be his final single to reach the No. James Brown_sentence_165

1 spot on the R&B charts and his final Top 40 pop single of the 1970s, though he continued to occasionally have Top 10 R&B recordings. James Brown_sentence_166

Among his top ten R&B hits during this latter period included "Funky President" (R&B No. James Brown_sentence_167

4) and "Get Up Offa That Thing" (R&B No. James Brown_sentence_168

4), the latter song released in 1976 and aimed at musical rivals such as Barry White, The Ohio Players and K.C. James Brown_sentence_169 and the Sunshine Band. James Brown_sentence_170

Brown credited his then-wife and two of their children as writers of the song to avoid concurrent tax problems with the IRS. James Brown_sentence_171

Starting in October 1975, Brown produced, directed, and hosted Future Shock, an Atlanta-based television variety show that ran for three years. James Brown_sentence_172

1975–1991: Decline and resurgence James Brown_section_6

Although his records were mainstays of the vanguard New York underground disco scene (exemplified by DJs such as David Mancuso and Francis Grasso) from 1969 onwards, Brown did not consciously yield to the trend until 1975's Sex Machine Today. James Brown_sentence_173

By 1977, he was no longer a dominant force in R&B. James Brown_sentence_174

After "Get Up Offa That Thing", thirteen of Brown's late 1970s recordings for Polydor failed to reach the Top 10 of the R&B chart, with only "Bodyheat" in 1976 and the disco-oriented "It's Too Funky in Here" in 1979 reaching the R&B Top 15 and the ballad "Kiss in '77" reaching the Top 20. James Brown_sentence_175

After 1976's "Bodyheat", he also failed to appear on the Billboard Hot 100. James Brown_sentence_176

As a result, Brown's concert attendance began dropping and his reported disputes with the IRS caused his business empire to collapse. James Brown_sentence_177

In addition, Brown's former bandmates, including Fred Wesley, Maceo Parker and the Collins brothers, had found bigger success as members of George Clinton's Parliament-Funkadelic collective. James Brown_sentence_178

The emergence of disco also stopped Brown's success on the R&B charts because its slicker, more commercial style had superseded his more raw funk productions. James Brown_sentence_179

By the release of 1979's The Original Disco Man, Brown was not providing much production or writing, leaving most of it to producer Brad Shapiro, resulting in the song "It's Too Funky in Here" becoming Brown's most successful single in this period. James Brown_sentence_180

After two more albums failed to chart, Brown left Polydor in 1981. James Brown_sentence_181

It was around this time that Brown changed the name of his band from the J.B.'s to the Soul Generals (or Soul G's). James Brown_sentence_182

The band retained that name until his death. James Brown_sentence_183

Despite the decline in his record sales and inability to garnish a live fee from promoters, enough to put his large entourage on the road,Promoters Gary LoConti and Jim Rissmiller came up shooting and sold out sucessive, multi night shows at the Country Club in Reseda. James Brown_sentence_184

Because of the success and returned successes of these shows, Brown was back on top in Hollywood. James Brown_sentence_185

Movies followed and Brown enjoyed something of a resurgence in this period, starting with appearances in the feature films The Blues Brothers, Doctor Detroit and Rocky IV, as well as guest-starring in the Miami Vice episode "Missing Hours" (1987). James Brown_sentence_186

In 1984, he teamed with rap musician Afrika Bambaattaa on the song "Unity". James Brown_sentence_187

A year later he signed with Scotti Brothers Records and issued the moderately successful album Gravity in 1986. James Brown_sentence_188

It included Brown's final Top 10 pop hit, "Living in America", marking his first Top 40 entry since 1974 and his first Top 10 pop entry since 1968. James Brown_sentence_189

Produced and written by Dan Hartman, it was also featured prominently on the Rocky IV film and soundtrack. James Brown_sentence_190

Brown performed the song in the film at Apollo Creed's final fight, shot in the Ziegfeld Room at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas, and was credited in the film as "The Godfather of Soul". James Brown_sentence_191

1986 also saw the publication of his autobiography, James Brown: The Godfather of Soul, co-written with Bruce Tucker. James Brown_sentence_192

In 1987, Brown won the Grammy for Best Male R&B Vocal Performance for "Living in America". James Brown_sentence_193

In 1988, Brown worked with the production team Full Force on the new jack swing-influenced I'm Real. James Brown_sentence_194

It spawned his final two Top 10 R&B hits, "I'm Real" and "Static", which peaked at No. James Brown_sentence_195

2 and No. James Brown_sentence_196

5, respectively, on the R&B charts. James Brown_sentence_197

Meanwhile, the drum break from the second version of the original 1969 hit "Give It Up Or Turnit A Loose" (the recording included on the compilation album In the Jungle Groove) became so popular at hip hop dance parties (especially for breakdance) during the early 1980s that hip hop pioneer Kurtis Blow called the song "the national anthem of hip hop". James Brown_sentence_198

1991–2006: Final years James Brown_section_7

After his stint in prison during the late 1980s, Brown met Larry Fridie and Thomas Hart who produced the first James Brown biopic, entitled James Brown: The Man, the Message, the Music, released in 1992. James Brown_sentence_199

He returned to music with the album Love Over-Due in 1991. James Brown_sentence_200

It included the single "(So Tired of Standing Still We Got to) Move On", which peaked at No. James Brown_sentence_201

48 on the R&B chart. James Brown_sentence_202

His former record label Polydor also released the four-CD box set Star Time, spanning Brown's career to date. James Brown_sentence_203

Brown's release from prison also prompted his former record labels to reissue his albums on CD, featuring additional tracks and commentary by music critics and historians. James Brown_sentence_204

That same year, Brown appeared on rapper MC Hammer's video for "Too Legit to Quit". James Brown_sentence_205

Hammer had been noted, alongside Big Daddy Kane, for bringing Brown's unique stage shows and their own energetic dance moves to the hip-hop generation; both listed Brown as their idol. James Brown_sentence_206

Both musicians also sampled his work, with Hammer having sampled the rhythms from "Super Bad" for his song "Here Comes the Hammer", from his best-selling album Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em. James Brown_sentence_207

Big Daddy Kane sampled many times. James Brown_sentence_208

Before the year was over, Brown–who had immediately returned to work with his band following his release–organized a pay-per-view concert following a show at Los Angeles' Wiltern Theatre, that was well received. James Brown_sentence_209

On June 10, 1991, James Brown and a star-filled line up performed before a crowd at the Wiltern Theatre for a live pay-per-view at-home audience. James Brown_sentence_210

James Brown: Living in America – Live! James Brown_sentence_211

was the brainchild of Indiana producer Danny Hubbard. James Brown_sentence_212

It featured M.C. James Brown_sentence_213 Hammer as well as Bell Biv Devoe, Heavy D & the Boys, En Vogue, C+C Music Factory, Quincy Jones, Sherman Hemsley and Keenen Ivory Wayans. James Brown_sentence_214

Ice-T, Tone Loc and Kool Moe Dee performed paying homage to Brown. James Brown_sentence_215

This was Brown's first public performance since his parole from the South Carolina prison system in February. James Brown_sentence_216

He had served two-and-a-half years of two concurrent six-year sentences for aggravated assault and other felonies. James Brown_sentence_217

Brown continued making recordings. James Brown_sentence_218

In 1993 his album Universal James was released. James Brown_sentence_219

It included his final Billboard charting single, "Can't Get Any Harder", which peaked at No. James Brown_sentence_220

76 on the US R&B chart and reached No. James Brown_sentence_221

59 on the UK chart. James Brown_sentence_222

Its brief charting in the UK was probably due to the success of a remixed version of "I Feel Good" featuring Dakeyne. James Brown_sentence_223

Brown also released the singles "How Long" and "Georgia-Lina", which failed to chart. James Brown_sentence_224

In 1995, Brown returned to the Apollo and recorded Live at the Apollo 1995. James Brown_sentence_225

It included a studio track titled "Respect Me", which was released as a single; again it failed to chart. James Brown_sentence_226

Brown's final studio albums, I'm Back and The Next Step, were released in 1998 and 2002 respectively. James Brown_sentence_227

I'm Back featured the song "Funk on Ah Roll", which peaked at No. James Brown_sentence_228

40 in the UK but did not chart in his native US. James Brown_sentence_229

The Next Step included Brown's final single, "Killing Is Out, School Is In". James Brown_sentence_230

Both albums were produced by Derrick Monk. James Brown_sentence_231

Brown's concert success, however, remained unabated and he kept up with a grueling schedule throughout the remainder of his life, living up to his previous nickname, "The Hardest Working Man in Show Business", in spite of his advanced age. James Brown_sentence_232

In 2003, Brown participated in the PBS American Masters television documentary James Brown: Soul Survivor, which was directed by Jeremy Marre. James Brown_sentence_233

Brown performed in the Super Bowl XXXI halftime show. James Brown_sentence_234

Brown celebrated his status as an icon by appearing in a variety of entertainment and sports events, including an appearance on the WCW pay-per-view event, SuperBrawl X, where he danced alongside wrestler Ernest "The Cat" Miller, who based his character on Brown, during his in-ring skit with The Maestro. James Brown_sentence_235

Brown then appeared in Tony Scott's short film Beat the Devil in 2001. James Brown_sentence_236

He was featured alongside Clive Owen, Gary Oldman, Danny Trejo and Marilyn Manson. James Brown_sentence_237

Brown also made a cameo appearance in the 2002 Jackie Chan film The Tuxedo, in which Chan was required to finish Brown's act after having accidentally knocked out the singer. James Brown_sentence_238

In 2002, Brown appeared in Undercover Brother, playing himself. James Brown_sentence_239

In 2004, Brown performed in Hyde Park, London as a support act for Red Hot Chili Peppers concerts. James Brown_sentence_240

The beginning of 2005 saw the publication of Brown's second book, I Feel Good: A Memoir of a Life of Soul, written with Marc Eliot. James Brown_sentence_241

In February and March, he participated in recording sessions for an intended studio album with Fred Wesley, Pee Wee Ellis, and other longtime collaborators. James Brown_sentence_242

Though he lost interest in the album, which remains unreleased, a track from the sessions, "Gut Bucket", appeared on a compilation CD included with the August 2006 issue of MOJO. James Brown_sentence_243

He appeared at Edinburgh 50,000 – The Final Push, the final Live 8 concert on July 6, 2005, where he performed a duet with British pop star Will Young on "Papa's Got A Brand New Bag". James Brown_sentence_244

The previous week he had performed a duet with another British pop star, Joss Stone, on the United Kingdom chat show Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. James Brown_sentence_245

In 2006, Brown continued his "Seven Decades of Funk World Tour", his last concert tour where he performed all over the world. James Brown_sentence_246

His final U.S. performances were in San Francisco on August 20, 2006, as headliner at the Festival of the Golden Gate (Foggfest) on the Great Meadow at Fort Mason. James Brown_sentence_247

The following day, August 21, he performed at Humboldt State University in Arcata, CA, at a small theatre (800 seats) on campus. James Brown_sentence_248

His last shows were greeted with positive reviews, and one of his final concert appearances at the Irish Oxegen festival in Punchestown in 2006 was performed for a record crowd of 80,000 people. James Brown_sentence_249

He played a full concert as part of the BBC's Electric Proms on October 27, 2006, at The Roundhouse, supported by The Zutons, with special appearances from Max Beasley and The Sugababes. James Brown_sentence_250

Brown's last televised appearance was at his induction into the UK Music Hall of Fame in November 2006, before his death the following month. James Brown_sentence_251

Before his death, Brown had been scheduled to perform a duet with singer Annie Lennox on the song "Vengeance" for her new album Venus, which was released in 2007. James Brown_sentence_252

Later life and death James Brown_section_8

Illness James Brown_section_9

On December 23, 2006, Brown became very ill and arrived at his dentist's office in Atlanta, Georgia, several hours late. James Brown_sentence_253

His appointment was for dental implant work. James Brown_sentence_254

During that visit, Brown's dentist observed that he looked "very bad ... weak and dazed". James Brown_sentence_255

Instead of performing the work, the dentist advised Brown to see a doctor right away about his medical condition. James Brown_sentence_256

Brown went to the Emory Crawford Long Memorial Hospital the next day for medical evaluation and was admitted for observation and treatment. James Brown_sentence_257

According to Charles Bobbit, his longtime personal manager and friend, Brown had been struggling with a noisy cough since returning from a November trip to Europe. James Brown_sentence_258

Yet, Bobbit said, the singer had a history of never complaining about being sick and often performed while ill. James Brown_sentence_259

Although Brown had to cancel upcoming concerts in Waterbury, Connecticut, and Englewood, New Jersey, he was confident that the doctor would discharge him from the hospital in time for his scheduled New Year's Eve shows at the Count Basie Theatre in New Jersey and the B. James Brown_sentence_260 B. James Brown_sentence_261 King Blues Club in New York, in addition to performing a song live on CNN for the Anderson Cooper New Year's Eve special. James Brown_sentence_262

Brown remained hospitalized, however, and his condition worsened throughout the day. James Brown_sentence_263

Death James Brown_section_10

On Christmas Day 2006, Brown died at approximately 1:45 a.m. EST (06:45 UTC), at age 73, from congestive heart failure, resulting from complications of pneumonia. James Brown_sentence_264

Bobbit was at his bedside and later reported that Brown stuttered, "I'm going away tonight", then took three long, quiet breaths and fell asleep before dying. James Brown_sentence_265

In 2019, an investigation by CNN and other journalists led to suggestions that Brown had been murdered. James Brown_sentence_266

Memorial services James Brown_section_11

After Brown's death, his relatives, a host of celebrities, and thousands of fans gathered, on December 28, 2006, for a public memorial service at the Apollo Theater in New York City and, on December 30, 2006, at the James Brown Arena in Augusta, Georgia. James Brown_sentence_267

A separate, private ceremony was held in North Augusta, South Carolina, on December 29, 2006, with Brown's family in attendance. James Brown_sentence_268

Celebrities at these various memorial events included Michael Jackson, Jimmy Cliff, Joe Frazier, Buddy Guy, Ice Cube, Ludacris, Dr. James Brown_sentence_269 Dre, Little Richard, Dick Gregory, MC Hammer, Prince, Jesse Jackson, Ice-T, Jerry Lee Lewis, Bootsy Collins, LL Cool J, Lil Wayne, Lenny Kravitz, 50 Cent, Stevie Wonder, and Don King. James Brown_sentence_270

Rev. James Brown_sentence_271 Al Sharpton officiated at all of Brown's public and private memorial services. James Brown_sentence_272

Brown's memorial ceremonies were all elaborate, complete with costume changes for the deceased and videos featuring him in concert. James Brown_sentence_273

His body, placed in a Promethean casket—bronze polished to a golden shine—was driven through the streets of New York to the Apollo Theater in a white, glass-encased horse-drawn carriage. James Brown_sentence_274

In Augusta, Georgia, his memorial procession stopped to pay respects at his statue, en route to the James Brown Arena. James Brown_sentence_275

During the public memorial there, a video showed Brown's last performance in Augusta, Georgia, with the Ray Charles version of "Georgia on My Mind" playing soulfully in the background. James Brown_sentence_276

His last backup band, The Soul Generals, also played some of his hits during that tribute at the arena. James Brown_sentence_277

The group was joined by Bootsy Collins on bass, with MC Hammer performing a dance in James Brown style. James Brown_sentence_278

Former Temptations lead singer Ali-Ollie Woodson performed "Walk Around Heaven All Day" at the memorial services. James Brown_sentence_279

Last will and testament James Brown_section_12

Brown signed his last will and testament on August 1, 2000, before J. James Brown_sentence_280 Strom Thurmond Jr., an attorney for the estate. James Brown_sentence_281

The irrevocable trust, separate and apart from Brown's will, was created on his behalf, that same year, by his attorney, Albert "Buddy" Dallas, one of three personal representatives of Brown's estate. James Brown_sentence_282

His will covered the disposition of his personal assets, such as clothing, cars, and jewelry, while the irrevocable trust covered the disposition of the music rights, business assets of James Brown Enterprises, and his Beech Island, South Carolina estate. James Brown_sentence_283

During the reading of the will on January 11, 2007, Thurmond revealed that Brown's six adult living children (Terry Brown, Larry Brown, Daryl Brown, Yamma Brown Lumar, Deanna Brown Thomas and Venisha Brown) were named in the document, while Hynie and James II were not mentioned as heirs. James Brown_sentence_284

Brown's will had been signed 10 months before James II was born and more than a year before Brown's marriage to Tomi Rae Hynie. James Brown_sentence_285

Like Brown's will, his irrevocable trust omitted Hynie and James II as recipients of Brown's property. James Brown_sentence_286

The irrevocable trust had also been established before, and not amended since, the birth of James II. James Brown_sentence_287

On January 24, 2007, Brown's children filed a lawsuit, petitioning the court to remove the personal representatives from the estate (including Brown's attorney, as well as trustee Albert "Buddy" Dallas) and appoint a special administrator because of perceived impropriety and alleged mismanagement of Brown's assets. James Brown_sentence_288

On January 31, 2007, Hynie also filed a lawsuit against Brown's estate, challenging the validity of the will and the irrevocable trust. James Brown_sentence_289

Hynie's suit asked the court both to recognize her as Brown's widow and to appoint a special administrator for the estate. James Brown_sentence_290

On January 27, 2015, Judge Doyet Early III ruled that Tomi Rae Hynie Brown was officially the widow of James Brown. James Brown_sentence_291

The decision was based on the grounds that Hynie's previous marriage was invalid and that James Brown had abandoned his efforts to annul his own marriage to Hynie. James Brown_sentence_292

On February 19, 2015, the South Carolina Supreme Court intervened, halting all lower court actions in the estate and undertaking to review previous actions itself. James Brown_sentence_293

The South Carolina Court of Appeals in July 2018 ruled that Hynie was, in fact, Mr. Brown's wife. James Brown_sentence_294

Artistry and band James Brown_section_13

For many years, Brown's touring show was one of the most extravagant productions in American popular music. James Brown_sentence_295

At the time of Brown's death, his band included three guitarists, two bass guitar players, two drummers, three horns and a percussionist. James Brown_sentence_296

The bands that he maintained during the late 1960s and 1970s were of comparable size, and the bands also included a three-piece amplified string section that played during the ballads. James Brown_sentence_297

Brown employed between 40 and 50 people for the James Brown Revue, and members of the revue traveled with him in a bus to cities and towns all over the country, performing upwards of 330 shows a year with almost all of the shows as one-nighters. James Brown_sentence_298

Concert introduction James Brown_section_14

Before James Brown appeared on stage, his personal MC gave him an elaborate introduction accompanied by drumrolls, as the MC worked in Brown's various sobriquets along with the names of many of his hit songs. James Brown_sentence_299

The introduction by Fats Gonder, captured on Brown's 1963 album Live at the Apollo is a representative example: James Brown_sentence_300

Concert repertoire and format James Brown_section_15

James Brown's performances were famous for their intensity and length. James Brown_sentence_301

His own stated goal was to "give people more than what they came for — make them tired, 'cause that's what they came for.'" James Brown_sentence_302

Brown's concert repertoire consisted mostly of his own hits and recent songs, with a few R&B covers mixed in. James Brown_sentence_303

Brown danced vigorously as he sang, working popular dance steps such as the Mashed Potato into his routine along with dramatic leaps, splits and slides. James Brown_sentence_304

In addition, his horn players and singing group (The Famous Flames) typically performed choreographed dance routines, and later incarnations of the Revue included backup dancers. James Brown_sentence_305

Male performers in the Revue were required to wear tuxedoes and cummerbunds long after more casual concert wear became the norm among the younger musical acts. James Brown_sentence_306

Brown's own extravagant outfits and his elaborate processed hairdo completed the visual impression. James Brown_sentence_307

A James Brown concert typically included a performance by a featured vocalist, such as Vicki Anderson or Marva Whitney, and an instrumental feature for the band, which sometimes served as the opening act for the show. James Brown_sentence_308

Cape routine James Brown_section_16

A trademark feature of Brown's stage shows, usually during the song "Please, Please, Please", involved Brown dropping to his knees while clutching the microphone stand in his hands, prompting the show's longtime MC, Danny Ray, to come out, drape a cape over Brown's shoulders and escort him off the stage after he had worked himself to exhaustion during his performance. James Brown_sentence_309

As Brown was escorted off the stage by the MC, Brown's vocal group, the Famous Flames (Bobby Byrd, Lloyd Stallworth, and Bobby Bennett), continued singing the background vocals "Please, please don't go-oh". James Brown_sentence_310

Brown would then shake off the cape and stagger back to the microphone to perform an encore. James Brown_sentence_311

Brown's routine was inspired by a similar one used by the professional wrestler Gorgeous George, as well as Little Richard. James Brown_sentence_312

In his 2005 autobiography I Feel Good: A Memoir in a Life of Soul, Brown, who was a fan of Gorgeous George, credited the wrestler as the inspiration for both his cape routine and concert attire, stating, "Seeing him on TV helped create the James Brown you see on stage". James Brown_sentence_313

Brown performs a version of the cape routine in the film of the T.A.M.I. James Brown_sentence_314 Show (1964) in which he and The Famous Flames upstaged The Rolling Stones, and over the closing credits of the film Blues Brothers 2000. James Brown_sentence_315

The Police refer to "James Brown on the T.A.M.I. James Brown_sentence_316

Show" in their 1980 song "When the World Is Running Down, You Make the Best of What's Still Around". James Brown_sentence_317

As band leader James Brown_section_17

Brown demanded extreme discipline, perfection and precision from his musicians and dancers – performers in his Revue showed up for rehearsals and members wore the right "uniform" or "costume" for concert performances. James Brown_sentence_318

During an interview conducted by Terri Gross during the NPR segment "Fresh Air" with Maceo Parker, a former saxophonist in Brown's band for most of the 1960s and part of the 1970s and 1980s, Parker offered his experience with the discipline that Brown demanded of the band: James Brown_sentence_319

Brown also had a practice of directing, correcting and assessing fines on members of his band who broke his rules, such as wearing unshined shoes, dancing out of sync or showing up late on stage. James Brown_sentence_320

During some of his concert performances, Brown danced in front of his band with his back to the audience as he slid across the floor, flashing hand signals and splaying his pulsating fingers to the beat of the music. James Brown_sentence_321

Although audiences thought Brown's dance routine was part of his act, this practice was actually his way of pointing to the offending member of his troupe who played or sang the wrong note or committed some other infraction. James Brown_sentence_322

Brown used his splayed fingers and hand signals to alert the offending person of the fine that person must pay to him for breaking his rules. James Brown_sentence_323

Brown's demands of his support acts were, meanwhile, quite the reverse. James Brown_sentence_324

As Fred Wesley recalled of his time as musical director of the JBs, if Brown felt intimidated by a support act he would try to "undermine their performances by shortening their sets without notice, demanding that they not do certain showstopping songs, and even insisting on doing the unthinkable, playing drums on some of their songs. James Brown_sentence_325

A sure set killer." James Brown_sentence_326

Social activism James Brown_section_18

Education advocacy and humanitarianism James Brown_section_19

Brown's main social activism was in preserving the need for education among youths, influenced by his own troubled childhood and his being forced to drop out of the seventh grade for wearing "insufficient clothes". James Brown_sentence_327

Due to heavy dropout rates in the 1960s, Brown released the pro-education song, "Don't Be a Drop-Out". James Brown_sentence_328

Royalties of the song were donated to dropout-prevention charity programs. James Brown_sentence_329

The success of this led to Brown meeting with President Lyndon B. Johnson at the White House. James Brown_sentence_330

Johnson cited Brown for being a positive role model to the youth. James Brown_sentence_331

A lifelong Republican, Brown gained the confidence of President Richard Nixon, to whom he found he had to explain the plight of Black Americans. James Brown_sentence_332

Throughout the remainder of his life, Brown made public speeches in schools and continued to advocate the importance of education in school. James Brown_sentence_333

Upon filing his will in 2002, Brown advised that most of the money in his estate go into creating the I Feel Good, Inc. Trust to benefit disadvantaged children and provide scholarships for his grandchildren. James Brown_sentence_334

His final single, "Killing Is Out, School Is In", advocated against murders of young children in the streets. James Brown_sentence_335

Brown often gave out money and other items to children while traveling to his childhood hometown of Augusta. James Brown_sentence_336

A week before his death, while looking gravely ill, Brown gave out toys and turkeys to kids at an Atlanta orphanage, something he had done several times over the years. James Brown_sentence_337

Civil rights and self-reliance James Brown_section_20

Though Brown performed at benefit rallies for civil rights organizations in the mid-1960s, Brown often shied away from discussing civil rights in his songs in fear of alienating his crossover audience. James Brown_sentence_338

In 1968, in response to a growing urge of anti-war advocacy during the Vietnam War, Brown recorded the song, "America Is My Home". James Brown_sentence_339

In the song, Brown performed a rap, advocating patriotism and exhorting listeners to "stop pitying yoursel[ves] and get up and fight". James Brown_sentence_340

At the time of the song's release, Brown had been participating in performing for troops stationed in Vietnam. James Brown_sentence_341

The Boston Garden concert James Brown_section_21

On April 5, 1968, a day after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee, Brown provided a free citywide televised concert at the Boston Garden to maintain public order and calm concerned Boston residents (over the objections of the police chief, who wanted to call off the concert, which he thought would incite violence). James Brown_sentence_342

The show was later released on DVD as Live at the Boston Garden: April 5, 1968. James Brown_sentence_343

According to the documentary The Night James Brown Saved Boston, then-mayor Kevin White had strongly restrained the Boston police from cracking down on minor violence and protests after the assassination, while religious and community leaders worked to keep tempers from flaring. James Brown_sentence_344

White arranged to have Brown's performance broadcast multiple times on Boston's public television station, WGBH, thus keeping potential rioters off the streets, watching the concert for free. James Brown_sentence_345

Angered by not being told of this, Brown demanded $60,000 for "gate" fees (money he thought would be lost from ticket sales on account of the concert being broadcast for free) and then threatened to go public about the secret arrangement when the city balked at paying up afterwards, news of which would have been a political death blow to White and spark riots of its own. James Brown_sentence_346

White eventually lobbied the behind-the-scenes power-brokering group known as "The Vault" to come up with money for Brown's gate fee and other social programs, contributing $100,000. James Brown_sentence_347

Brown received $15,000 from them via the city. James Brown_sentence_348

White also persuaded management at the Garden to give up their share of receipts to make up the differences. James Brown_sentence_349

Following this successful performance, Brown was counseled by President Johnson to urge cities ravaged from riots following King's assassination to not resort to violence, telling them to "cool it, there's another way". James Brown_sentence_350

Responding to pressure from black activists, including H. James Brown_sentence_351 Rap Brown, to take a bigger stance on their issues and from footage of black on black crime committed in inner cities, Brown wrote the lyrics to the song "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud", which his bandleader Alfred "Pee Wee" Ellis accompanied with a musical composition. James Brown_sentence_352

Released late that summer, the song's lyrics helped to make it an anthem for the civil rights movement. James Brown_sentence_353

Brown only performed the song sporadically following its initial release and later stated he had regrets about recording it, saying in 1984, "Now 'Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud' has done more for the black race than any other record, but if I had my choice, I wouldn't have done it, because I don't like defining anyone by race. James Brown_sentence_354

To teach race is to teach separatism." James Brown_sentence_355

In his autobiography he stated: James Brown_sentence_356

In 1969, Brown recorded two more songs of social commentary, "World" and "I Don't Want Nobody to Give Me Nothing", the latter song pleading for equal opportunity and self-reliance rather than entitlement. James Brown_sentence_357

In 1970, in response to some black leaders for not being outspoken enough, he recorded "Get Up, Get into It, Get Involved" and "Talkin' Loud and Sayin' Nothing". James Brown_sentence_358

In 1971, he began touring Africa, including Zambia and Nigeria. James Brown_sentence_359

He was made "freeman of the city" in Lagos, Nigeria, by Oba Adeyinka Oyekan, for his "influence on black people all over the world". James Brown_sentence_360

With his company, James Brown Enterprises, Brown helped to provide jobs for blacks in business in the communities. James Brown_sentence_361

As the 1970s continued, Brown continued to record songs of social commentary, most prominently 1972's "King Heroin" and the two-part ballad "Public Enemy", which dealt with drug addiction. James Brown_sentence_362

Political views James Brown_section_22

During the 1968 presidential campaign, Brown endorsed Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey and appeared with Humphrey at political rallies. James Brown_sentence_363

Brown was labeled an "Uncle Tom" for supporting Humphrey and also for releasing the pro-American funk song, "America Is My Home", in which Brown had lambasted protesters of the Vietnam War as well as the politics of pro-black activists. James Brown_sentence_364

Brown began supporting Republican president Richard Nixon after being invited to perform at Nixon's inaugural ball in January 1969. James Brown_sentence_365

Brown's endorsement of Nixon during the 1972 presidential election negatively impacted his career during that period with several national Black organizations boycotting his records and protesting at his concert shows; a November 1972 show in Cincinnati was picketed with signs saying, "James Brown: Nixon's Clown". James Brown_sentence_366

Brown initially was invited to perform at a Youth Concert following Nixon's inauguration in January 1973 but bailed out due to the backlash he suffered from supporting Nixon. James Brown_sentence_367

Brown joined fellow black entertainer Sammy Davis Jr., who faced similar backlash, to back out of the concert. James Brown_sentence_368

Brown blamed it on "fatigue". James Brown_sentence_369

Brown later reversed his support of Nixon and composed the song, "You Can Have Watergate (Just Gimme Some Bucks And I'll Be Straight)" as a result. James Brown_sentence_370

After Nixon resigned from office, Brown composed the 1974 hit, "Funky President (People It's Bad)", right after Gerald Ford took Nixon's place. James Brown_sentence_371

Brown later supported Democratic President Jimmy Carter, attending one of Carter's inaugural balls in 1977. James Brown_sentence_372

Brown also openly supported President Ronald Reagan's reelection in 1984. James Brown_sentence_373

Brown stated he was neither Democratic nor Republican despite his support of Republican presidents such as Nixon and Reagan as well as Democratic presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson and Carter. James Brown_sentence_374

In 1999, when being interviewed by Rolling Stone, the magazine asked him to name a hero in the 20th century; Brown mentioned John F. Kennedy and then-96-year-old U.S. James Brown_sentence_375

Senator, and former Dixiecrat, Strom Thurmond, stating "when the young whippersnappers get out of line, whether Democratic or Republican, an old man can walk up and say 'Wait a minute, son, it goes this way.' James Brown_sentence_376

And that's great for our country. James Brown_sentence_377

He's like a grandfather to me." James Brown_sentence_378

In 2003, Brown was the featured attraction of a Washington D.C. fundraiser for the National Republican Senatorial Committee. James Brown_sentence_379

Following the deaths of Ronald Reagan and his friend Ray Charles, Brown said to CNN, "I'm kind of in an uproar. James Brown_sentence_380

I love the country and I got – you know I've been around a long time, through many presidents and everything. James Brown_sentence_381

So after losing Mr. Reagan, who I knew very well, then Mr. Ray Charles, who I worked with and lived with like, all our life, we had a show together in Oakland many, many years ago and it's like you found the placard." James Brown_sentence_382

Despite his contrarian political views, Brown mentored black activist Rev. James Brown_sentence_383 Al Sharpton during the 1970s. James Brown_sentence_384

Personal life James Brown_section_23

At the end of his life, James Brown lived in Beech Island, South Carolina, directly across the Savannah River from Augusta, Georgia. James Brown_sentence_385

Brown had diabetes that went undiagnosed for years, according to his longtime manager Charles Bobbit. James Brown_sentence_386

In 2004, Brown was successfully treated for prostate cancer. James Brown_sentence_387

Regardless of his health, Brown maintained his reputation as the "hardest working man in show business" by keeping up with his grueling performance schedule. James Brown_sentence_388

In 1962, Tammi Terrell joined the James Brown Revue. James Brown_sentence_389

Brown became sexually involved with Terrell even though she was only 17 in a relationship that continued until she escaped his abuse. James Brown_sentence_390

Bobby Bennett, former member of the Famous Flames, told Rolling Stone about the abuse he witnessed: "He beat Tammi Terrell terrible", said Bennett. James Brown_sentence_391

"She was bleeding, shedding blood." James Brown_sentence_392

Terrell, who died in 1970, was Brown's girlfriend before she became famous as Marvin Gaye's singing partner in the mid-Sixties. James Brown_sentence_393

"Tammi left him because she didn't want her butt whipped", said Bennett, who also claimed he saw Brown kick one pregnant girlfriend down a flight of stairs. James Brown_sentence_394

Marriages and children James Brown_section_24

Brown was married four times. James Brown_sentence_395

His first marriage was to Velma Warren in 1953, and they had three sons together. James Brown_sentence_396

Over a decade later, the couple had separated and the final divorce decree was issued 1969. James Brown_sentence_397

They maintained a close friendship that lasted until Brown's death. James Brown_sentence_398

Brown's second marriage was to Deidre "Deedee" Jenkins, on October 22, 1970. James Brown_sentence_399

They had two daughters together. James Brown_sentence_400

The couple were separated by 1979, after what his daughter describes as years of domestic abuse, and the final divorce decree was issued on January 10, 1981. James Brown_sentence_401

His third marriage was to Adrienne Lois Rodriguez (March 9, 1950 – January 6, 1996), in 1984. James Brown_sentence_402

It was a contentious marriage that made headlines due to domestic abuse complaints. James Brown_sentence_403

Rodriguez filed for divorce in 1988, "citing years of cruelty treatment", but they reconciled. James Brown_sentence_404

Less than a year after Rodriguez died in 1996, Brown hired Tomi Rae Hynie to be a background singer for his band and she later became his fourth wife. James Brown_sentence_405

On December 23, 2002, Brown and Hynie held a wedding ceremony that was officiated by the Rev. James Brown_sentence_406

Larry Flyer. James Brown_sentence_407

Following Brown's death, controversy surrounded the circumstances of the marriage, with Brown's attorney, Albert "Buddy" Dallas, reporting that the marriage was not valid; Hynie was still married to Javed Ahmed, a man from Bangladesh. James Brown_sentence_408

Hynie claimed Ahmed married her to obtain residency through a Green Card and that the marriage was annulled but the annulment did not occur until April 2004. James Brown_sentence_409

In an attempt to prove her marriage to Brown was valid, Hynie produced a 2001 marriage certificate as proof of her marriage to Brown, but she did not provide King with court records pointing to an annulment of her marriage to him or to Ahmed. James Brown_sentence_410

According to Dallas, Brown was angry and hurt that Hynie had concealed her prior marriage from him and Brown moved to file for annulment from Hynie. James Brown_sentence_411

Dallas added that though Hynie's marriage to Ahmed was annulled after she married Brown, the Brown–Hynie marriage was not valid under South Carolina law because Brown and Hynie did not remarry after the annulment. James Brown_sentence_412

In August 2003, Brown took out a full-page public notice in Variety featuring Hynie, James II and himself on vacation at Disney World to announce that he and Hynie were going their separate ways. James Brown_sentence_413

In 2015, a judge ruled Hynie as Brown's legal widow. James Brown_sentence_414

Brown had numerous children and acknowledged nine of them including five sons – Teddy (1954–1973), Terry, Larry, Daryl and James Joseph Brown Jr. and four daughters – Lisa, Dr. Yamma Noyola Brown Lumar, Deanna Brown Thomas and Venisha Brown (1964–2018). James Brown_sentence_415

Brown also had eight grandchildren and four great-grandchildren. James Brown_sentence_416

Brown's eldest son, Teddy, died in a car crash on June 14, 1973. James Brown_sentence_417

According to an August 22, 2007, article published in the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph, DNA tests indicate that Brown also fathered at least three extramarital children. James Brown_sentence_418

The first one of them to be identified is LaRhonda Pettit (born 1962), a retired air stewardess and teacher who lives in Houston. James Brown_sentence_419

During contesting of Brown's will, another of the Brown family attorneys, Debra Opri, revealed to Larry King that Brown wanted a DNA test performed after his death to confirm the paternity of James Brown Jr. (born 2001)—not for Brown's sake but for the sake of the other family members. James Brown_sentence_420

In April 2007, Hynie selected a guardian ad litem whom she wanted appointed by the court to represent her son, James Brown Jr., in the paternity proceedings. James Brown_sentence_421

James Brown Jr. was confirmed to be his biological son. James Brown_sentence_422

Drug abuse James Brown_section_25

For most of his career, Brown had a strict drug- and alcohol-free policy for any member in his entourage, including band members, and would fire people who disobeyed orders, particularly those who used or abused drugs. James Brown_sentence_423

Some early members of Brown's vocal group the Famous Flames were fired for using alcohol, although Brown often served a highball consisting of Delaware Punch and moonshine at his St. James Brown_sentence_424 Albans, Queens house in the mid-1960s. James Brown_sentence_425

Despite the policy, some of the original members of Brown's 1970s band, the J.B.'s, including Catfish and Bootsy Collins, intentionally took LSD during a performance in 1971, causing Brown to fire them after the show because he had suspected them of being on drugs all along. James Brown_sentence_426

Aide Bob Patton has asserted that he accidentally shared a PCP-laced cannabis joint with Brown in the mid-1970s and "hallucinated for hours", although Brown "talked about it as if it was only marijuana he was smoking". James Brown_sentence_427

By the mid-1980s, it was widely alleged that Brown was using drugs, with Vicki Anderson confirming to journalist Barney Hoskyns that Brown's regular use of PCP (colloquially known as "angel dust") "began before 1982". James Brown_sentence_428

After he met and later married Adrienne Rodriguez in 1984, she and Brown began using PCP together. James Brown_sentence_429

This drug usage resulted in violent outbursts from him and he was arrested several times for domestic violence against Rodriguez while high on the drug. James Brown_sentence_430

By January 1988, Brown faced four criminal charges within a 12-month span relating to driving, PCP, and gun possession. James Brown_sentence_431

After an April 1988 arrest for domestic abuse, Brown went on the CNN program Sonya Live in L.A. with host Sonya Friedman. James Brown_sentence_432

The interview went viral due to Brown's irreverent demeanor with some asserting that Brown was high. James Brown_sentence_433

One of Brown's former mistresses recalled in a GQ magazine article on Brown some years after his death that Brown would smoke PCP "until that got hard to find", and cocaine, mixed with tobacco in Kool cigarettes. James Brown_sentence_434

He also engaged in the off-label use of sildenafil, maintaining that it gave him "extra energy". James Brown_sentence_435

While under the influence of PCP (which he continued to procure contingent on its availability) when traveling, Brown would allege that passing trees contained psychotronic surveillance technology. James Brown_sentence_436

In January 1998, he spent a week in rehab to deal with an addiction to unspecified prescription drugs. James Brown_sentence_437

A week after his release, he was arrested for an unlawful use of a handgun and possession of cannabis. James Brown_sentence_438

Prior to his death in December 2006, when Brown entered Emory University Hospital, traces of cocaine were found in the singer's urine. James Brown_sentence_439

His widow suggested Brown would "do crack" with a female acquaintance. James Brown_sentence_440

Theft and assault convictions James Brown_section_26

Brown's personal life was marred by several brushes with the law. James Brown_sentence_441

At the age of 16, he was convicted of theft and served three years in juvenile prison. James Brown_sentence_442

During a concert held at Club 15 in Macon, Georgia in 1963, while Otis Redding was performing alongside his former band Johnny Jenkins and the Pinetoppers, Brown reportedly tried to shoot his musical rival Joe Tex. James Brown_sentence_443

The incident led to multiple people being shot and stabbed. James Brown_sentence_444

Since Brown was still on parole at the time, he relied on his agent Clint Brantley "and a few thousand dollars to make the situation disappear". James Brown_sentence_445

According to Jenkins, "seven people got shot", and after the shootout ended, a man appeared and gave "each one of the injured a hundred dollars apiece not to carry it no further and not to talk to the press". James Brown_sentence_446

Brown was never charged for the incident. James Brown_sentence_447

On July 16, 1978, after performing at the Apollo, Brown was arrested for reportedly failing to turn in records from one of his radio stations after the station was forced to file for bankruptcy. James Brown_sentence_448

Brown was arrested on April 3, 1988, for assault, and again in May 1988 on drug and weapons charges, and again on September 24, 1988, following a high-speed car chase on Interstate 20 near the GeorgiaSouth Carolina state border. James Brown_sentence_449

He was convicted of carrying an unlicensed pistol and assaulting a police officer, along with various drug-related and driving offenses. James Brown_sentence_450

Although he was sentenced to six years in prison, he was eventually released on parole on February 27, 1991, after serving two years of his sentence. James Brown_sentence_451

Brown's FBI file, released to The Washington Post in 2007 under the Freedom of Information Act, related Brown's claim that the high-speed chase did not occur as claimed by the police, and that local police shot at his car several times during an incident of police harassment and assaulted him after his arrest. James Brown_sentence_452

Local authorities found no merit to Brown's accusations. James Brown_sentence_453

In 1998, a woman named Mary Simons accused Brown in a civil suit of holding her captive for three days, demanding oral sex and firing a gun in his office; Simons' charge was eventually dismissed. James Brown_sentence_454

In another civil suit, filed by former background singer Lisa Rushton alleged that between 1994 and 1999, Brown allegedly demanded sexual favors and when refused, would cut off her pay and kept her offstage. James Brown_sentence_455

She also claimed Brown would "place a hand on her buttocks and loudly told her in a crowded restaurant to not look or speak to any other man besides himself;" Rushton eventually withdrew her lawsuit. James Brown_sentence_456

In yet another civil suit, a woman named Lisa Agbalaya, who worked for Brown, said the singer would tell her he had "bull testicles", handed her a pair of zebra-print underwear, told her to wear them while he massaged her with oil, and fired her after she refused. James Brown_sentence_457

A Los Angeles jury cleared the singer of sexual harassment but found him liable for wrongful termination. James Brown_sentence_458

The police were summoned to Brown's residence on July 3, 2000, after he was accused of charging at an electric company repairman with a steak knife when the repairman visited Brown's house to investigate a complaint about having no lights at the residence. James Brown_sentence_459

In 2003, Brown was pardoned by the South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services for past crimes that he was convicted of committing in South Carolina. James Brown_sentence_460

Domestic violence arrests James Brown_section_27

Brown was repeatedly arrested for domestic violence. James Brown_sentence_461

Adrienne Rodriguez, his third wife, had him arrested four times between 1987 and 1995 on charges of assault. James Brown_sentence_462

In one incident, Rodriguez reported to authorities that Brown beat her with an iron pipe and shot at her car. James Brown_sentence_463

Rodriguez was hospitalized after the last assault in October 1995, but charges were dropped after she died in January 1996. James Brown_sentence_464

In January 2004, Brown was arrested in South Carolina on a domestic violence charge after Tomi Rae Hynie accused him of pushing her to the floor during an argument at their home, where she suffered scratches and bruises to her right arm and hip. James Brown_sentence_465

In June, Brown pleaded no contest to the domestic violence incident, but served no jail time. James Brown_sentence_466

Instead, Brown was required to forfeit a US$1,087 bond as punishment. James Brown_sentence_467

Rape accusation James Brown_section_28

In January 2005, a woman named Jacque Hollander filed a lawsuit against James Brown, which stemmed from an alleged 1988 rape. James Brown_sentence_468

When the case was initially heard before a judge in 2002, Hollander's claims against Brown were dismissed by the court as the limitations period for filing the suit had expired. James Brown_sentence_469

Hollander claimed that stress from the alleged assault later caused her to contract Graves' disease, a thyroid condition. James Brown_sentence_470

Hollander claimed that the incident took place in South Carolina while she was employed by Brown as a publicist. James Brown_sentence_471

Hollander alleged that, during her ride in a van with Brown, Brown pulled over to the side of the road and sexually assaulted her while he threatened her with a shotgun. James Brown_sentence_472

In her case against Brown, Hollander entered as evidence a DNA sample and a polygraph result, but the evidence was not considered due to the limitations defense. James Brown_sentence_473

Hollander later attempted to bring her case before the Supreme Court, but nothing came of her complaint. James Brown_sentence_474

Legacy James Brown_section_29

Brown received awards and honors throughout his lifetime and after his death. James Brown_sentence_475

In 1993 the City Council of Steamboat Springs, Colorado, conducted a poll of residents to choose a new name for the bridge that crossed the Yampa River on Shield Drive. James Brown_sentence_476

The winning name, with 7,717 votes, was "James Brown Soul Center of the Universe Bridge". James Brown_sentence_477

The bridge was officially dedicated in September 1993, and Brown appeared at the ribbon-cutting ceremony for the event. James Brown_sentence_478

A petition was started by local ranchers to return the name to "Stockbridge" for historical reasons, but they backed off after citizens defeated their efforts because of the popularity of Brown's name. James Brown_sentence_479

Brown returned to Steamboat Springs, Colorado, on July 4, 2002, for an outdoor festival, performing with bands such as The String Cheese Incident. James Brown_sentence_480

During his long career, Brown received many prestigious music industry awards and honors. James Brown_sentence_481

In 1983 he was inducted into the Georgia Music Hall of Fame. James Brown_sentence_482

Brown was one of the first inductees into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural induction dinner in New York on January 23, 1986. James Brown_sentence_483

At that time, the members of his original vocal group, The Famous Flames (Bobby Byrd, Johnny Terry, Bobby Bennett, and Lloyd Stallworth) were not inducted. James Brown_sentence_484

However, on April 14, 2012, The Famous Flames were automatically and retroactively inducted into the Hall of Fame alongside Brown, without the need for nomination and voting, on the basis that they should have been inducted with him in 1986. James Brown_sentence_485

On February 25, 1992, Brown was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 34th annual Grammy Awards. James Brown_sentence_486

Exactly a year later, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 4th annual Rhythm & Blues Foundation Pioneer Awards. James Brown_sentence_487

A ceremony was held for Brown on January 10, 1997, to honor him with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. James Brown_sentence_488

On June 15, 2000, Brown was honored as an inductee to the New York Songwriters Hall of Fame. James Brown_sentence_489

On August 6, 2002, he was honored as the first BMI Urban Icon at the BMI Urban Awards. James Brown_sentence_490

His BMI accolades include an impressive ten R&B Awards and six Pop Awards. James Brown_sentence_491

On November 14, 2006, Brown was inducted into the UK Music Hall of Fame, and he was one of several inductees to perform at the ceremony. James Brown_sentence_492

In recognition of his accomplishments as an entertainer, Brown was a recipient of Kennedy Center Honors on December 7, 2003. James Brown_sentence_493

In 2004 Rolling Stone magazine ranked James Brown as No. James Brown_sentence_494

7 on its list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. James Brown_sentence_495

In an article for Rolling Stone, critic Robert Christgau cited Brown as "the greatest musician of the rock era". James Brown_sentence_496

He appeared on the BET Awards June 24, 2003, and received the Lifetime Achievement Award presented by Michael Jackson, and performed with him. James Brown_sentence_497

Brown was also honored in his hometown of Augusta, Georgia, for his philanthropy and civic activities. James Brown_sentence_498

On November 20, 1993, Mayor Charles DeVaney of Augusta held a ceremony to dedicate a section of 9th Street between Broad and Twiggs Streets, renamed "James Brown Boulevard", in the entertainer's honor. James Brown_sentence_499

On May 6, 2005, as a 72nd birthday present for Brown, the city of Augusta unveiled a life-sized bronze James Brown statue on Broad Street. James Brown_sentence_500

The statue was to have been dedicated a year earlier, but the ceremony was put on hold because of a domestic abuse charge that Brown faced at the time. James Brown_sentence_501

In 2005, Charles "Champ" Walker and the We Feel Good Committee went before the County commission and received approval to change Augusta's slogan to "We Feel Good". James Brown_sentence_502

Afterward, officials renamed the city's civic center the James Brown Arena, and James Brown attended a ceremony for the unveiling of the namesake center on October 15, 2006. James Brown_sentence_503

On December 30, 2006, during the public memorial service at the James Brown Arena, Dr. Shirley A.R. James Brown_sentence_504

Lewis, president of Paine College, a historically black college in Augusta, Georgia, bestowed posthumously upon Brown an honorary doctorate in recognition and honor of his many contributions to the school in its times of need. James Brown_sentence_505

Brown had originally been scheduled to receive the honorary doctorate from Paine College during its May 2007 commencement. James Brown_sentence_506

During the 49th Annual Grammy Awards presentation on February 11, 2007, James Brown's famous cape was draped over a microphone by Danny Ray at the end of a montage in honor of notable people in the music industry who died during the previous year. James Brown_sentence_507

Earlier that evening, Christina Aguilera delivered an impassioned performance of Brown's hit "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" followed by a standing ovation, while Chris Brown performed a dance routine in honor of James Brown. James Brown_sentence_508

On August 17, 2013, the official R&B Music Hall of Fame honored and inducted James Brown at a ceremony held at the Waetjen Auditorium at Cleveland State University. James Brown_sentence_509

ART THE BOX began in early 2015 as a collaboration between three organizations: the City of Augusta, the Downtown Development Authority and the Greater Augusta Arts Council. James Brown_sentence_510

19 local artists were selected by a committee to create art on 23 local traffic signal control cabinets (TSCCs). James Brown_sentence_511

A competition was held to create the James Brown Tribute Box on the corner of James Brown Blvd. James Brown_sentence_512

(9th Ave.) and Broad St. James Brown_sentence_513

This box was designed and painted by local artist, Ms. Robbie Pitts Bellamy and has become a favorite photo opportunity to visitors and locals in Augusta, Georgia. James Brown_sentence_514

"I have a lot of musical heroes but I think James Brown is at the top of the list", remarked Public Enemy's Chuck D. James Brown_sentence_515

"Absolutely the funkiest man on Earth ... James Brown_sentence_516

In a black household, James Brown is part of the fabric – Motown, Stax, Atlantic and James Brown." James Brown_sentence_517

Tributes James Brown_section_30

As a tribute to James Brown, the Rolling Stones covered the song, "I'll Go Crazy" from Brown's Live at the Apollo album, during their 2007 European tour. James Brown_sentence_518

Jimmy Page has remarked, "He [James Brown] was almost a musical genre in his own right and he changed and moved forward the whole time so people were able to learn from him." James Brown_sentence_519

On December 22, 2007, the first annual "Tribute Fit For the King of King Records" in honor of James Brown was held at the Madison Theater in Covington, Kentucky. James Brown_sentence_520

The tribute, organized by Bootsy Collins, featured appearances by Afrika Bambaataa, Chuck D of Public Enemy, The Soul Generals, Buckethead, Freekbass, Triage and many of Brown's surviving family members. James Brown_sentence_521

Comedian Michael Coyer was the MC for the event. James Brown_sentence_522

During the show, the mayor of Cincinnati proclaimed December 22 as James Brown Day. James Brown_sentence_523

As of 2019, a significant collection of James Brown clothing, memorabilia, and personal artifacts are on exhibit in downtown Augusta, Georgia at the Augusta History Museum. James Brown_sentence_524

Discography James Brown_section_31

For an extended list of albums, compilations, and charting singles, see James Brown discography. James Brown_sentence_525

Studio albums James Brown_sentence_526

Filmography James Brown_section_32

James Brown_unordered_list_0

Biopics James Brown_section_33

James Brown_unordered_list_1

  • Mr. Dynamite: The Rise of James Brown (2014), released in April 2014, written and directed by Alex Gibney, produced by Mick Jagger.James Brown_item_1_31
  • Get on Up (2014), released in theaters on August 1, 2014. Chadwick Boseman plays the role of James Brown in the film. Originally, Mick Jagger and Brian Grazer had begun producing a documentary film on Brown in 2013. A fiction film had been in the planning stages for many years and was revived when Jagger read the script by Jez and John-Henry Butterworth.James Brown_item_1_32

In other media James Brown_section_34

Games James Brown_sentence_527

James Brown_unordered_list_2

  • In the video game World of Warcraft, the first boss character of the Forge of Souls dungeon is Bronjahm, "the Godfather of Souls". His quotes during the fight are musical references, and he has a chance of dropping an item called "Papa's Brand New Bag".James Brown_item_2_33

Television James Brown_sentence_528

James Brown_unordered_list_3

  • As himself (voice) in the 1993 The Simpsons episode "Bart's Inner Child".James Brown_item_3_34
  • In 1991, Brown did a Pay Per View Special with top celebrities such as Quincy Jones, Rick James, Dan Aykroyd, Gladys Knight, Denzel Washington, Mc Hammer and others attended or were opening acts. This was produced with boxing promoter Buddy Dallas. 15.5 million households tuned in at a cost $19.99.James Brown_item_3_35
  • In 2002, Brown starred in the Jackie Chan movie The Tuxedo as himselfJames Brown_item_3_36


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James Brown.