Japan

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"Nippon" redirects here. Japan_sentence_0

For other uses, see Japan (disambiguation) and Nippon (disambiguation). Japan_sentence_1

Japan_table_infobox_0

JapanJapan_header_cell_0_0_0
Capital

and largest cityJapan_header_cell_0_1_0

TokyoJapan_cell_0_1_1
National languageJapan_header_cell_0_2_0 JapaneseJapan_cell_0_2_1
GovernmentJapan_header_cell_0_3_0 Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchyJapan_cell_0_3_1
EmperorJapan_header_cell_0_4_0 NaruhitoJapan_cell_0_4_1
Prime MinisterJapan_header_cell_0_5_0 Yoshihide SugaJapan_cell_0_5_1
LegislatureJapan_header_cell_0_6_0 National DietJapan_cell_0_6_1
Upper houseJapan_header_cell_0_7_0 House of CouncillorsJapan_cell_0_7_1
Lower houseJapan_header_cell_0_8_0 House of RepresentativesJapan_cell_0_8_1
FormationJapan_header_cell_0_9_0
First constitutionJapan_header_cell_0_10_0 November 29, 1890Japan_cell_0_10_1
Current constitutionJapan_header_cell_0_11_0 May 3, 1947Japan_cell_0_11_1
Area Japan_header_cell_0_12_0
TotalJapan_header_cell_0_13_0 377,975 km (145,937 sq mi) (61st)Japan_cell_0_13_1
Water (%)Japan_header_cell_0_14_0 1.40 (as of 2015)Japan_cell_0_14_1
PopulationJapan_header_cell_0_15_0
2020 estimateJapan_header_cell_0_16_0 125,960,000 (11th)Japan_cell_0_16_1
2015 censusJapan_header_cell_0_17_0 127,094,745Japan_cell_0_17_1
DensityJapan_header_cell_0_18_0 334/km (865.1/sq mi) (24th)Japan_cell_0_18_1
GDP (PPP)Japan_header_cell_0_19_0 2019 estimateJapan_cell_0_19_1
TotalJapan_header_cell_0_20_0 $5.451 trillion (4th)Japan_cell_0_20_1
Per capitaJapan_header_cell_0_21_0 $43,194 (28th)Japan_cell_0_21_1
GDP (nominal)Japan_header_cell_0_22_0 2019 estimateJapan_cell_0_22_1
TotalJapan_header_cell_0_23_0 $5.080 trillion (3rd)Japan_cell_0_23_1
Per capitaJapan_header_cell_0_24_0 $40,256 (22nd)Japan_cell_0_24_1
Gini (2015)Japan_header_cell_0_25_0 33.9

medium · 78thJapan_cell_0_25_1

HDI (2018)Japan_header_cell_0_26_0 0.915

very high · 19thJapan_cell_0_26_1

CurrencyJapan_header_cell_0_27_0 Japanese yen (¥)Japan_cell_0_27_1
Time zoneJapan_header_cell_0_28_0 UTC+09:00 (JST)Japan_cell_0_28_1
Driving sideJapan_header_cell_0_29_0 leftJapan_cell_0_29_1
Calling codeJapan_header_cell_0_30_0 +81Japan_cell_0_30_1
ISO 3166 codeJapan_header_cell_0_31_0 JPJapan_cell_0_31_1
Internet TLDJapan_header_cell_0_32_0 .jpJapan_cell_0_32_1

Japan (Japanese: 日本, Nippon [ɲippoꜜɴ (listen) or Nihon [ɲihoꜜɴ (listen)) is an island country in East Asia located in the northwest Pacific Ocean. Japan_sentence_2

It is bordered by the Sea of Japan to the west and extends from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south. Japan_sentence_3

Part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan comprises an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the country's five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Japan_sentence_4

Tokyo is Japan's capital and largest city; other major cities include Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto. Japan_sentence_5

Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanized. Japan_sentence_6

About three-fourths of the country's terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of 126.2 million on narrow coastal plains. Japan_sentence_7

Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions. Japan_sentence_8

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than 37.4 million residents. Japan_sentence_9

Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period (30,000 BC), though the first mentions of the archipelago appear in Chinese chronicles from the 1st century AD. Japan_sentence_10

Between the 4th and 9th centuries, the kingdoms of Japan became unified under an emperor and his imperial court based in Heian-kyō. Japan_sentence_11

Beginning in the 12th century, however, political power was held by a series of military dictators (shōgun) and feudal lords (daimyō), and enforced by a class of warrior nobility (samurai). Japan_sentence_12

After a century-long period of civil war, the country was reunified in 1603 under the Tokugawa shogunate, which enacted an isolationist foreign policy. Japan_sentence_13

In 1854, a United States fleet forced Japan to open trade to the West, which led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in 1868. Japan_sentence_14

In the Meiji period, the Empire of Japan adopted a Western-styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization. Japan_sentence_15

In 1937, Japan invaded China; in 1941, it entered World War II as an Axis power. Japan_sentence_16

After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombings, Japan surrendered in 1945 and came under a seven-year Allied occupation, during which it adopted a new constitution. Japan_sentence_17

Since 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. Japan_sentence_18

Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations (since 1956), the OECD, and the Group of Seven. Japan_sentence_19

Although it has renounced its right to declare war, the country maintains Self-Defense Forces that are ranked as the world's fourth-most powerful military. Japan_sentence_20

After World War II, Japan experienced high economic growth, becoming the second-largest economy in the world by 1990 before being surpassed by China in 2010. Japan_sentence_21

Despite stagnant growth since the Lost Decade, the country's economy remains the third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by PPP. Japan_sentence_22

A leader in the automotive and electronics industries, Japan has made significant contributions to science and technology. Japan_sentence_23

Ranked the second-highest country on the Human Development Index in Asia after Singapore, Japan has the world's second-highest life expectancy, though it is experiencing a decline in population. Japan_sentence_24

Culture of Japan is well-known around the world, including its art, cuisine, music, and popular culture, which encompasses prominent animation and video game industries. Japan_sentence_25

Etymology Japan_section_0

Main article: Names of Japan Japan_sentence_26

Japan_table_infobox_1

JapanJapan_header_cell_1_0_0
Japanese nameJapan_header_cell_1_1_0
KanjiJapan_header_cell_1_2_0 Japan_cell_1_2_1
HiraganaJapan_header_cell_1_3_0 Japan_cell_1_3_1
KatakanaJapan_header_cell_1_4_0 Japan_cell_1_4_1
TranscriptionsRomanizationNippon-koku

Nihon-kokuJapan_cell_1_5_0

TranscriptionsJapan_header_cell_1_6_0
RomanizationJapan_header_cell_1_7_0 Nippon-koku

Nihon-kokuJapan_cell_1_7_1

The name for Japan in Japanese is written using the kanji 日本 and pronounced Nippon or Nihon. Japan_sentence_27

Before it was adopted in the early 8th century, the country was known in China as Wa (倭) and in Japan by the endonym Yamato. Japan_sentence_28

Nippon, the original Sino-Japanese reading of the characters, is favored today for official uses, including on banknotes and postage stamps. Japan_sentence_29

Nihon is typically used in everyday speech and reflects shifts in Japanese phonology during the Edo period. Japan_sentence_30

The characters 日本 mean "sun origin", in reference to Japan's relatively eastern location. Japan_sentence_31

It is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan_sentence_32

The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade. Japan_sentence_33

In the 13th century, Marco Polo recorded the early Mandarin or Wu Chinese pronunciation of the characters 日本國 as Cipangu. Japan_sentence_34

The old Malay name for Japan, Japang or Japun, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect and encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia, who brought the word to Europe in the early 16th century. Japan_sentence_35

The first version of the name in English appears in a book published in 1577, which spelled the name as Giapan in a translation of a 1565 Portuguese letter. Japan_sentence_36

History Japan_section_1

Main article: History of Japan Japan_sentence_37

Prehistoric to classical history Japan_section_2

A Paleolithic culture from around 30,000 BC constitutes the first known habitation of the islands of Japan. Japan_sentence_38

This was followed from around 14,500 BC (the start of the Jōmon period) by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer culture characterized by pit dwelling and rudimentary agriculture. Japan_sentence_39

Clay vessels from the period are among the oldest surviving examples of pottery. Japan_sentence_40

From around 1000 BC, Yayoi people began to enter the archipelago from Kyushu, intermingling with the Jōmon; the Yayoi period saw the introduction of practices including wet-rice farming, a new style of pottery, and metallurgy from China and Korea. Japan_sentence_41

According to legend, Emperor Jimmu (grandson of Amaterasu) founded a kingdom in central Japan in 660 BC, beginning a continuous imperial line. Japan_sentence_42

Japan first appears in written history in the Chinese Book of Han, completed in 111 AD. Japan_sentence_43

Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje (a Korean kingdom) in 552, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. Japan_sentence_44

Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class, including figures like Prince Shōtoku, and gained widespread acceptance beginning in the Asuka period (592–710). Japan_sentence_45

The far-reaching Taika Reforms in 645 nationalized all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a household registry as the basis for a new system of taxation. Japan_sentence_46

The Jinshin War of 672, a bloody conflict between Prince Ōama and his nephew Prince Ōtomo, became a major catalyst for further administrative reforms. Japan_sentence_47

These reforms culminated with the promulgation of the Taihō Code, which consolidated existing statutes and established the structure of the central and subordinate local governments. Japan_sentence_48

These legal reforms created the ritsuryō state, a system of Chinese-style centralized government that remained in place for half a millennium. Japan_sentence_49

The Nara period (710–784) marked an emergence of a Japanese state centered on the Imperial Court in Heijō-kyō (modern Nara). Japan_sentence_50

The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki (712) and Nihon Shoki (720), as well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture. Japan_sentence_51

A smallpox epidemic in 735–737 is believed to have killed as much as one-third of Japan's population. Japan_sentence_52

In 784, Emperor Kanmu moved the capital, settling on Heian-kyō (modern Kyoto) in 794. Japan_sentence_53

This marked the beginning of the Heian period (794–1185), during which a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged. Japan_sentence_54

Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem "Kimigayo" were written during this time. Japan_sentence_55

Feudal era Japan_section_3

Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. Japan_sentence_56

In 1185, following the defeat of the Taira clan in the Genpei War, samurai Minamoto no Yoritomo established a military government at Kamakura. Japan_sentence_57

After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to power as regents for the shōguns. Japan_sentence_58

The Zen school of Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. Japan_sentence_59

The Kamakura shogunate repelled Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281 but was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo. Japan_sentence_60

Go-Daigo was defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336, beginning the Muromachi period (1336–1573). Japan_sentence_61

However, the succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyōs) and a civil war began in 1467, opening the century-long Sengoku period ("Warring States"). Japan_sentence_62

During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West. Japan_sentence_63

Oda Nobunaga used European technology and firearms to conquer many other daimyōs; his consolidation of power began what was known as the Azuchi–Momoyama period. Japan_sentence_64

After the death of Nobunaga in 1582, his successor Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified the nation in the early 1590s and launched two unsuccessful invasions of Korea in 1592 and 1597. Japan_sentence_65

Tokugawa Ieyasu served as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori and used his position to gain political and military support. Japan_sentence_66

When open war broke out, Ieyasu defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Japan_sentence_67

He was appointed shōgun by Emperor Go-Yōzei in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). Japan_sentence_68

The shogunate enacted measures including buke shohatto, as a code of conduct to control the autonomous daimyōs, and in 1639 the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period (1603–1868). Japan_sentence_69

Modern Japan's economic growth began in this period, resulting in roads and water transportation routes, as well as financial instruments such as futures contracts, banking and insurance of the Osaka rice brokers. Japan_sentence_70

The study of Western sciences (rangaku) continued through contact with the Dutch enclave in Nagasaki. Japan_sentence_71

The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku ("national studies"), the study of Japan by the Japanese. Japan_sentence_72

Modern era Japan_section_4

In 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. Japan_sentence_73

Subsequent similar treaties with other Western countries brought economic and political crises. Japan_sentence_74

The resignation of the shōgun led to the Boshin War and the establishment of a centralized state nominally unified under the emperor (the Meiji Restoration). Japan_sentence_75

Adopting Western political, judicial, and military institutions, the Cabinet organized the Privy Council, introduced the Meiji Constitution, and assembled the Imperial Diet. Japan_sentence_76

During the Meiji era (1868–1912), the Empire of Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia and as an industrialized world power that pursued military conflict to expand its sphere of influence. Japan_sentence_77

After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Taiwan, Korea and the southern half of Sakhalin. Japan_sentence_78

The Japanese population doubled from 35 million in 1873 to 70 million by 1935, with a significant shift to urbanization. Japan_sentence_79

The early 20th century saw a period of Taishō democracy (1912–1926) overshadowed by increasing expansionism and militarization. Japan_sentence_80

World War I allowed Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to capture German possessions in the Pacific and in China. Japan_sentence_81

The 1920s saw a political shift towards statism, a period of lawlessness following the 1923 Great Tokyo Earthquake, the passing of laws against political dissent, and a series of attempted coups. Japan_sentence_82

This process accelerated during the 1930s, spawning a number of radical nationalist groups that shared a hostility to liberal democracy and a dedication to expansion in Asia. Japan_sentence_83

In 1931, Japan invaded and occupied Manchuria; following international condemnation of the occupation, it resigned from the League of Nations two years later. Japan_sentence_84

In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany; the 1940 Tripartite Pact made it one of the Axis Powers. Japan_sentence_85

The Empire of Japan invaded other parts of China in 1937, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). Japan_sentence_86

In 1940, the Empire invaded French Indochina, after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan. Japan_sentence_87

On December 7–8, 1941, Japanese forces carried out surprise attacks on Pearl Harbor, as well as on British forces in Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong, among others, beginning World War II in the Pacific. Japan_sentence_88

Throughout areas occupied by Japan during the war, numerous abuses were committed against local inhabitants, with many forced into sexual slavery. Japan_sentence_89

After Allied victories during the next four years, which culminated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria and the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender. Japan_sentence_90

The war cost Japan its colonies and millions of lives. Japan_sentence_91

The Allies (led by the United States) repatriated millions of Japanese settlers from their former colonies and military camps throughout Asia, largely eliminating the Japanese empire and its influence over the territories it conquered. Japan_sentence_92

The Allies also convened the International Military Tribunal for the Far East to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes. Japan_sentence_93

In 1947, Japan adopted a new constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. Japan_sentence_94

The Allied occupation ended with the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Japan_sentence_95

A period of record growth propelled Japan to become the second-largest economy in the world; this ended in the mid-1990s after the popping of an asset price bubble, beginning the "Lost Decade". Japan_sentence_96

On March 11, 2011, Japan suffered one of the largest earthquakes in its recorded history, triggering the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Japan_sentence_97

On May 1, 2019, after the historic abdication of Emperor Akihito, his son Naruhito became the new emperor, beginning the Reiwa era. Japan_sentence_98

Geography Japan_section_5

Main articles: Geography of Japan and Geology of Japan Japan_sentence_99

Japan comprises 6852 islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. Japan_sentence_100

It stretches over 3000 km (1900 mi) northeast–southwest from the Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea. Japan_sentence_101

The county's five main islands, from north to south, are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa. Japan_sentence_102

The Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, are a chain to the south of Kyushu. Japan_sentence_103

The Nanpō Islands are south and east of the main islands of Japan. Japan_sentence_104

Together they are often known as the Japanese archipelago. Japan_sentence_105

As of 2019, Japan's territory is 377,975.24 km (145,937.06 sq mi). Japan_sentence_106

Japan has the sixth longest coastline in the world (29,751 km (18,486 mi)). Japan_sentence_107

Because of its many far-flung outlying islands, Japan has the sixth largest Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, covering 4,470,000 km (1,730,000 sq mi). Japan_sentence_108

About 73 percent of Japan is forested, mountainous and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial or residential use. Japan_sentence_109

As a result, the habitable zones, mainly in coastal areas, have extremely high population densities: Japan is one of the most densely populated countries. Japan_sentence_110

Approximately 0.5% of Japan's total area is reclaimed land (umetatechi). Japan_sentence_111

Late 20th and early 21st century projects include artificial islands such as Chubu Centrair International Airport in Ise Bay, Kansai International Airport in the middle of Osaka Bay, Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise and Wakayama Marina City. Japan_sentence_112

Japan is substantially prone to earthquakes, tsunami and volcanoes because of its location along the Pacific Ring of Fire. Japan_sentence_113

It has the 17th highest natural disaster risk as measured in the 2016 World Risk Index. Japan_sentence_114

Japan has 111 active volcanoes. Japan_sentence_115

Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunami, occur several times each century; the 1923 Tokyo earthquake killed over 140,000 people. Japan_sentence_116

More recent major quakes are the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, which triggered a large tsunami. Japan_sentence_117

Climate Japan_section_6

Main article: Geography of Japan § Climate Japan_sentence_118

The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate but varies greatly from north to south. Japan_sentence_119

The northernmost region, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers. Japan_sentence_120

Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snowbanks in the winter. Japan_sentence_121

In the Sea of Japan region on Honshu's west coast, northwest winter winds bring heavy snowfall during winter. Japan_sentence_122

In the summer, the region sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures because of the foehn. Japan_sentence_123

The Central Highland has a typical inland humid continental climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter. Japan_sentence_124

The mountains of the Chūgoku and Shikoku regions shelter the Seto Inland Sea from seasonal winds, bringing mild weather year-round. Japan_sentence_125

The Pacific coast features a humid subtropical climate that experiences milder winters with occasional snowfall and hot, humid summers because of the southeast seasonal wind. Japan_sentence_126

The Ryukyu and Nanpō Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Japan_sentence_127

Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. Japan_sentence_128

The average winter temperature in Japan is 5.1 °C (41.2 °F) and the average summer temperature is 25.2 °C (77.4 °F). Japan_sentence_129

The highest temperature ever measured in Japan, 41.1 °C (106.0 °F), was recorded on July 23, 2018, and repeated on August 17, 2020. Japan_sentence_130

The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the rain front gradually moves north. Japan_sentence_131

In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain. Japan_sentence_132

According to the Environment Ministry, heavy rainfall and increasing temperatures have caused several problems in the agricultural industry and elsewhere. Japan_sentence_133

Biodiversity Japan_section_7

Main article: Wildlife of Japan Japan_sentence_134

Japan has nine forest ecoregions which reflect the climate and geography of the islands. Japan_sentence_135

They range from subtropical moist broadleaf forests in the Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands, to temperate broadleaf and mixed forests in the mild climate regions of the main islands, to temperate coniferous forests in the cold, winter portions of the northern islands. Japan_sentence_136

Japan has over 90,000 species of wildlife, including the brown bear, the Japanese macaque, the Japanese raccoon dog, the small Japanese field mouse, and the Japanese giant salamander. Japan_sentence_137

A large network of national parks has been established to protect important areas of flora and fauna as well as 52 Ramsar wetland sites. Japan_sentence_138

Four sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List for their outstanding natural value. Japan_sentence_139

Environment Japan_section_8

Main articles: Environmental issues in Japan and Climate change in Japan Japan_sentence_140

In the period of rapid economic growth after World War II, environmental policies were downplayed by the government and industrial corporations; as a result, environmental pollution was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Japan_sentence_141

Responding to rising concern, the government introduced several environmental protection laws in 1970. Japan_sentence_142

The oil crisis in 1973 also encouraged the efficient use of energy because of Japan's lack of natural resources. Japan_sentence_143

As of 2020, more than 22 coal-fired power plants are planned for construction in Japan, following the switching-off of Japan's nuclear fleet after the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster. Japan_sentence_144

Japan ranks 20th in the 2018 Environmental Performance Index, which measures a nation's commitment to environmental sustainability. Japan_sentence_145

Japan is the world's fifth largest emitter of carbon dioxide. Japan_sentence_146

As the host and signatory of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, Japan is under treaty obligation to reduce its carbon dioxide emissions and to take other steps to curb climate change. Japan_sentence_147

In 2020 the government of Japan announced a target of carbon-neutrality by 2050. Japan_sentence_148

Environmental issues include urban air pollution (NOx, suspended particulate matter, and toxics), waste management, water eutrophication, nature conservation, climate change, chemical management and international co-operation for conservation. Japan_sentence_149

Politics Japan_section_9

Main articles: Politics of Japan and Government of Japan Japan_sentence_150

Japan is a unitary state and constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited to a ceremonial role. Japan_sentence_151

Executive power is instead wielded by the Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet, whose sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. Japan_sentence_152

Naruhito is the Emperor of Japan, having succeeded his father Akihito upon his accession to the Chrysanthemum Throne in 2019. Japan_sentence_153

Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. Japan_sentence_154

It consists of a lower House of Representatives with 465 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved, and an upper House of Councillors with 245 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. Japan_sentence_155

There is universal suffrage for adults over 18 years of age, with a secret ballot for all elected offices. Japan_sentence_156

The prime minister as the head of government has the power to appoint and dismiss Ministers of State, and is appointed by the emperor after being designated from among the members of the Diet. Japan_sentence_157

Elected in the 2020 Japanese prime minister election, Yoshihide Suga is Japan's current prime minister. Japan_sentence_158

Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. Japan_sentence_159

However, since the late 19th century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably Germany. Japan_sentence_160

In 1896, Japan established a civil code based on the German Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, which remains in effect with post–World War II modifications. Japan_sentence_161

The Constitution of Japan, adopted in 1947, is the oldest unamended constitution in the world. Japan_sentence_162

Statutory law originates in the legislature, and the constitution requires that the emperor promulgate legislation passed by the Diet without giving him the power to oppose legislation. Japan_sentence_163

The main body of Japanese statutory law is called the Six Codes. Japan_sentence_164

Japan's court system is divided into four basic tiers: the Supreme Court and three levels of lower courts. Japan_sentence_165

Administrative divisions Japan_section_10

Main articles: Administrative divisions of Japan and Prefectures of Japan Japan_sentence_166

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, each overseen by an elected governor and legislature. Japan_sentence_167

In the following table, the prefectures are grouped by region: Japan_sentence_168

Foreign relations Japan_section_11

Main article: Foreign relations of Japan Japan_sentence_169

A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan is one of the G4 nations seeking reform of the Security Council. Japan_sentence_170

Japan is a member of the G7, APEC, and "ASEAN Plus Three", and is a participant in the East Asia Summit. Japan_sentence_171

Japan signed a security pact with Australia in March 2007 and with India in October 2008. Japan_sentence_172

It is the world's fifth largest donor of official development assistance, donating US$9.2 billion in 2014. Japan_sentence_173

In 2017, Japan had the fifth largest diplomatic network in the world. Japan_sentence_174

Japan has close economic and military relations with the United States, with which it maintains a security alliance. Japan_sentence_175

The United States is a major market for Japanese exports and a major source of Japanese imports, and is committed to defending the country, with military bases in Japan. Japan_sentence_176

After Japan's defeat in World War II, the Japanese-ruled Northern Mariana Islands came under control of the United States. Japan_sentence_177

Japan's relationship with South Korea had historically been strained because of Japan's treatment of Koreans during Japanese colonial rule, particularly over the issue of comfort women. Japan_sentence_178

In 2015, Japan agreed to settle the comfort women dispute with South Korea by issuing a formal apology and paying money to the surviving comfort women. Japan_sentence_179

The 1990s saw increased interest in Korean culture in Japan, particularly related to food, travel, and the World Cup. Japan_sentence_180

The spread of the Korean Wave in the early 2000s (called the hanryu or kanryu wave in Japan) accelerated this trend, manifesting for example in a cult following for Korean television series Winter Sonata. Japan_sentence_181

Japan is a major importer of Korean music (K-pop), television (K-dramas), and other cultural products. Japan_sentence_182

Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors. Japan_sentence_183

Japan contests Russia's control of the Southern Kuril Islands, which were occupied by the Soviet Union in 1945. Japan_sentence_184

South Korea's control of the Liancourt Rocks is acknowledged but not accepted as they are claimed by Japan. Japan_sentence_185

Japan has strained relations with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and the status of Okinotorishima. Japan_sentence_186

Military Japan_section_12

Main article: Japan Self-Defense Forces Japan_sentence_187

Japan is the second-highest-ranked Asian country in the Global Peace Index. Japan_sentence_188

Japan maintains one of the largest military budgets of any country in the world. Japan_sentence_189

The country's military (the Japan Self-Defense Forces) is restricted by Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force in international disputes. Japan_sentence_190

The military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force. Japan_sentence_191

The deployment of troops to Iraq and Afghanistan marked the first overseas use of Japan's military since World War II. Japan_sentence_192

The Government of Japan has been making changes to its security policy which include the establishment of the National Security Council, the adoption of the National Security Strategy, and the development of the National Defense Program Guidelines. Japan_sentence_193

In May 2014, Prime Minister Shinzō Abe said Japan wanted to shed the passiveness it has maintained since the end of World War II and take more responsibility for regional security. Japan_sentence_194

Recent tensions, particularly with North Korea and China, have reignited the debate over the status of the JSDF and its relation to Japanese society. Japan_sentence_195

Domestic law enforcement Japan_section_13

Main article: Law enforcement in Japan Japan_sentence_196

Domestic security in Japan is provided mainly by the prefectural police departments, under the oversight of the National Police Agency. Japan_sentence_197

As the central coordinating body for the Prefectural Police Departments, the National Police Agency is administered by the National Public Safety Commission. Japan_sentence_198

The Special Assault Team comprises national-level counter-terrorism tactical units that cooperate with territorial-level Anti-Firearms Squads and Counter-NBC Terrorism Squads. Japan_sentence_199

Additionally, there is the Japan Coast Guard which guards territorial waters. Japan_sentence_200

The coast guard patrols the sea surrounding Japan and uses surveillance and control countermeasures against smuggling, marine environmental crime, poaching, piracy, spy ships, unauthorized foreign fishing vessels, and illegal immigration. Japan_sentence_201

The Firearm and Sword Possession Control Law strictly regulates the civilian ownership of guns, swords and other weaponry. Japan_sentence_202

According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, among the member states of the UN that report statistics, the incidence rates of violent crimes such as murder, abduction, sexual violence and robbery are very low in Japan. Japan_sentence_203

Economy Japan_section_14

Main article: Economy of Japan Japan_sentence_204

Japan is the third largest national economy in the world, after the United States and China, in terms of nominal GDP, and the fourth largest national economy in the world, after the United States, China and India, in terms of purchasing power parity. Japan_sentence_205

As of 2019, Japan's public debt was estimated at around 230 percent of its annual gross domestic product, the largest of any rated nation. Japan_sentence_206

As of 2019, Japan's labor force consisted of some 67 million workers. Japan_sentence_207

Japan has a low unemployment rate of around 2.4 percent. Japan_sentence_208

Around 16 percent of the population were below the poverty line in 2017. Japan_sentence_209

Japan's exports amounted to 18.5% of GDP in 2018. Japan_sentence_210

As of 2019, Japan's main export markets were the United States (19.8 percent) and China (19.1 percent). Japan_sentence_211

Its main exports are transportation equipment, motor vehicles, iron and steel products, semiconductors and auto parts. Japan_sentence_212

Japan's main import markets as of 2019 were China (23.5 percent), the United States (11 percent), and Australia (6.3 percent). Japan_sentence_213

Japan's main imports are machinery and equipment, fossil fuels, foodstuffs, chemicals, and raw materials for its industries. Japan_sentence_214

Japan ranks 29th of 190 countries in the 2019 ease of doing business index. Japan_sentence_215

The Japanese variant of capitalism has many distinct features: keiretsu enterprises are influential, and lifetime employment and seniority-based career advancement are relatively common in the Japanese work environment. Japan_sentence_216

Japan also has a large cooperative sector, with three of the ten largest cooperatives in the world, including the largest consumer cooperative and the largest agricultural cooperative in the world. Japan_sentence_217

Japan ranks highly for competitiveness and economic freedom. Japan_sentence_218

It is ranked sixth in the Global Competitiveness Report for 2015–2016. Japan_sentence_219

Agriculture and fishery Japan_section_15

Main article: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing in Japan Japan_sentence_220

The Japanese agricultural sector accounts for about 1.2% of the total country's GDP. Japan_sentence_221

Only 11.5% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation. Japan_sentence_222

Because of this lack of arable land, a system of terraces is used to farm in small areas. Japan_sentence_223

This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area, with an agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 50%. Japan_sentence_224

Japan's small agricultural sector, however, is also highly subsidized and protected. Japan_sentence_225

There has been a growing concern about farming as farmers are aging with a difficult time finding successors. Japan_sentence_226

Japan ranked seventh in the world in tonnage of fish caught and captured 3,167,610 metric tons of fish in 2016, down from an annual average of 4,000,000 tons over the previous decade. Japan_sentence_227

Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch, prompting critiques that Japan's fishing is leading to depletion in fish stocks such as tuna. Japan_sentence_228

Japan has also sparked controversy by supporting commercial whaling. Japan_sentence_229

Industry Japan_section_16

Main articles: Manufacturing in Japan, Electronics industry in Japan, and Automotive industry in Japan Japan_sentence_230

Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the "largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemical substances, textiles, and processed foods". Japan_sentence_231

Japan's industrial sector makes up approximately 27.5% of its GDP. Japan_sentence_232

Some major Japanese industrial companies include Canon Inc., Toshiba and Nippon Steel. Japan_sentence_233

The country's manufacturing output is the third highest in the world. Japan_sentence_234

Japan is the third largest automobile producer in the world and is home to Toyota, the world's largest automobile company. Japan_sentence_235

The Japanese shipbuilding industry faces competition from South Korea and China; a 2020 government initiative identified this sector as a target for increasing exports. Japan_sentence_236

Services and tourism Japan_section_17

Main articles: Trade and services in Japan and Tourism in Japan Japan_sentence_237

Japan's service sector accounts for about 70% of its total economic output. Japan_sentence_238

Banking, retail, transportation, and telecommunications are all major industries, with companies such as Toyota, Mitsubishi UFJ, -NTT, ÆON, Softbank, Hitachi, and Itochu listed as some of the largest in the world. Japan_sentence_239

Japan attracted 31.9 million international tourists in 2019. Japan_sentence_240

For inbound tourism, Japan was ranked 11th in the world in 2019. Japan_sentence_241

The 2017 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Japan 4th out of 141 countries overall, which was the highest in Asia. Japan_sentence_242

Science and technology Japan_section_18

Main articles: Science and technology in Japan and Video gaming in Japan Japan_sentence_243

Japan is a leading nation in scientific research, particularly in the natural sciences and engineering. Japan_sentence_244

The country ranks twelfth among the most innovative countries in the Bloomberg Innovation Index. Japan_sentence_245

Relative to gross domestic product, Japan's research and development budget is the second highest in the world, with 867,000 researchers sharing a 19-trillion-yen research and development budget as of 2017. which The country has produced twenty-two Nobel laureates in either physics, chemistry or medicine and three Fields medalists. Japan_sentence_246

Japan leads the world in robotics production and use, supplying 55% of the world's 2017 total. Japan_sentence_247

Japan has the second highest number of researchers in science and technology per capita in the world with 14 per 1000 employees. Japan_sentence_248

The Japanese consumer electronics industry, once considered the strongest in the world, is in a state of decline as competition arises in countries like South Korea and China. Japan_sentence_249

However, video gaming in Japan remains a major industry. Japan_sentence_250

In 2014, Japan's consumer video game market grossed $9.6 billion, with $5.8 billion coming from mobile gaming. Japan_sentence_251

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency is Japan's national space agency; it conducts space, planetary, and aviation research, and leads development of rockets and satellites. Japan_sentence_252

It is a participant in the International Space Station: the Japanese Experiment Module (Kibō) was added to the station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2008. Japan_sentence_253

The space probe Akatsuki was launched in 2010 and achieved orbit around Venus in 2015. Japan_sentence_254

Japan's plans in space exploration include building a moon base and landing astronauts by 2030. Japan_sentence_255

In 2007, it launched lunar explorer SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer) from Tanegashima Space Center. Japan_sentence_256

The largest lunar mission since the Apollo program, its purpose was to gather data on the moon's origin and evolution. Japan_sentence_257

The explorer entered a lunar orbit on October 4, 2007, and was deliberately crashed into the Moon on June 11, 2009. Japan_sentence_258

Infrastructure Japan_section_19

Transportation Japan_section_20

Main article: Transport in Japan Japan_sentence_259

Japan has invested heavily in transportation infrastructure. Japan_sentence_260

The country has approximately 1,200,000 kilometers (750,000 miles) of roads made up of 1,000,000 kilometers (620,000 miles) of city, town and village roads, 130,000 kilometers (81,000 miles) of prefectural roads, 54,736 kilometers (34,011 miles) of general national highways and 7641 kilometers (4748 miles) of national expressways. Japan_sentence_261

Since privatization in 1987,dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; major companies include seven JR enterprises, Kintetsu, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Japan_sentence_262

The high-speed Shinkansen (bullet trains) that connect major cities are known for their safety and punctuality. Japan_sentence_263

There are 175 airports in Japan. Japan_sentence_264

The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport in Tokyo, is Asia's second-busiest airport. Japan_sentence_265

The Keihin and Hanshin superport hubs are among the largest in the world, at 7.98 and 5.22 million TEU respectively. Japan_sentence_266

Energy Japan_section_21

Main article: Energy in Japan Japan_sentence_267

As of 2017, 39% of energy in Japan was produced from petroleum, 25% from coal, 23% from natural gas, 3.5% from hydropower and 1.5% from nuclear power. Japan_sentence_268

Nuclear power was down from 11.2 percent in 2010. Japan_sentence_269

By May 2012 all of the country's nuclear power plants had been taken offline because of ongoing public opposition following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, though government officials continued to try to sway public opinion in favor of returning at least some to service. Japan_sentence_270

The Sendai Nuclear Power Plant restarted in 2015, and since then several other nuclear power plants have been restarted. Japan_sentence_271

Japan lacks significant domestic reserves and so has a heavy dependence on imported energy. Japan_sentence_272

The country has therefore aimed to diversify its sources and maintain high levels of energy efficiency. Japan_sentence_273

Water supply and sanitation Japan_section_22

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Japan Japan_sentence_274

Responsibility for the water and sanitation sector is shared between the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, in charge of water supply for domestic use; the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, in charge of water resources development as well as sanitation; the Ministry of the Environment, in charge of ambient water quality and environmental preservation; and the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, in charge of performance benchmarking of utilities. Japan_sentence_275

Access to an improved water source is universal in Japan. Japan_sentence_276

About 98% of the population receives piped water supply from public utilities. Japan_sentence_277

Demographics Japan_section_23

Main articles: Demographics of Japan, Japanese people, Ethnic groups of Japan, and List of metropolitan areas in Japan Japan_sentence_278

Japan has a population of 126.3 million, of which 124.8 million are Japanese nationals (2019). Japan_sentence_279

In 2019, 92% of the total Japanese population lived in cities. Japan_sentence_280

The capital city Tokyo has a population of 13.8 million (2018). Japan_sentence_281

It is part of the Greater Tokyo Area, the biggest metropolitan area in the world with 38,140,000 people (2016). Japan_sentence_282

Japan's population is 98.1% ethnic Japanese, with small populations of foreign workers. Japan_sentence_283

Primary minority groups include the indigenous Ainu and Ryukyuan people, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin. Japan_sentence_284

Zainichi Koreans, Chinese, Filipinos, Brazilians mostly of Japanese descent, and Peruvians mostly of Japanese descent are among the small minority groups in Japan. Japan_sentence_285

Japan has the second longest overall life expectancy at birth of any country in the world, at 84 years. Japan_sentence_286

The Japanese population is rapidly aging as a result of a post–World War II baby boom followed by a decrease in birth rates. Japan_sentence_287

As of 2019 over 20 percent of the population is over 65, and this is projected to rise to one in three by 2030. Japan_sentence_288

The changes in demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a decline in workforce population and increase in the cost of social security benefits. Japan_sentence_289

A growing number of younger Japanese are not marrying or remain childless. Japan_sentence_290

Japan's population is expected to drop to around 100 million by 2050. Japan_sentence_291

Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population. Japan_sentence_292

On April 1, 2019, Japan's revised immigration law was enacted, protecting the rights of foreign workers to help reduce labor shortages in certain sectors. Japan_sentence_293

Religion Japan_section_24

Main article: Religion in Japan Japan_sentence_294

Japan's constitution guarantees full religious freedom. Japan_sentence_295

Upper estimates suggest that 84–96 percent of the Japanese population subscribe to Shinto as its indigenous religion. Japan_sentence_296

However, these estimates are based on people affiliated with a temple, rather than the number of true believers. Japan_sentence_297

Many Japanese people practice both Shinto and Buddhism; they can either identify with both religions or describe themselves as non-religious or spiritual. Japan_sentence_298

The level of participation in religious ceremonies as a cultural tradition remains high, especially during festivals and occasions such as the first shrine visit of the New Year. Japan_sentence_299

Taoism and Confucianism from China have also influenced Japanese beliefs and customs. Japan_sentence_300

Christianity was first introduced into Japan by Jesuit missions starting in 1549. Japan_sentence_301

Today, 1% to 1.5% of the population are Christians. Japan_sentence_302

Throughout the latest century, some Western customs originally related to Christianity (including Western style weddings, Valentine's Day and Christmas) have become popular as secular customs among many Japanese. Japan_sentence_303

About 90% of those practicing Islam in Japan are foreign-born migrants. Japan_sentence_304

As of 2018 there were an estimated 105 mosques and 200,000 Muslims in Japan, 43,000 of which were ethnically Japanese. Japan_sentence_305

Other minority religions include Hinduism, Judaism, and Baháʼí Faith, as well as the animist beliefs of the Ainu. Japan_sentence_306

Languages Japan_section_25

Main articles: Languages of Japan and Japanese language Japan_sentence_307

More than 99 percent of the population speaks Japanese as their first language. Japan_sentence_308

Japanese writing uses kanji (Chinese characters) and two sets of kana (syllabaries based on cursive script and radical of kanji), as well as the Latin alphabet and Arabic numerals. Japan_sentence_309

English instruction was made mandatory in Japanese elementary schools in 2020. Japan_sentence_310

Besides Japanese, the Ryukyuan languages (Amami, Kunigami, Okinawan, Miyako, Yaeyama, Yonaguni), also part of the Japonic language family, are spoken in the Ryukyu Islands chain. Japan_sentence_311

Few children learn these languages, but local governments have sought to increase awareness of the traditional languages. Japan_sentence_312

The Ainu language, which is a language isolate, is moribund, with only a few native speakers remaining. Japan_sentence_313

Education Japan_section_26

Main article: Education in Japan Japan_sentence_314

Primary schools, secondary schools and universities were introduced in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Japan_sentence_315

Since the 1947 Fundamental Law of Education, compulsory education in Japan comprises elementary and junior high school, which together last for nine years. Japan_sentence_316

Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school. Japan_sentence_317

The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University. Japan_sentence_318

Starting in April 2016, various schools began the academic year with elementary school and junior high school integrated into one nine-year compulsory schooling program; MEXT plans for this approach to be adopted nationwide. Japan_sentence_319

The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OECD ranks the overall knowledge and skills of Japanese 15-year-olds as the third best in the world. Japan_sentence_320

Japan is one of the top-performing OECD countries in reading literacy, math and sciences with the average student scoring 529 and has one of the world's highest-educated labor forces among OECD countries. Japan_sentence_321

As of 2017, Japan's public spending on education amounted to just 3.3 percent of its GDP, below the OECD average of 4.9 percent. Japan_sentence_322

In 2017, the country ranked third for the percentage of 25- to 64-year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 51 percent. Japan_sentence_323

In addition, 60.4 percent Japanese aged 25 to 34 have some form of tertiary education qualification and bachelor's degrees are held by 30.4 percent of Japanese aged 25 to 64, the second most in the OECD after South Korea. Japan_sentence_324

Health Japan_section_27

Main articles: Health in Japan and Health care system in Japan Japan_sentence_325

Health care is provided by national and local governments. Japan_sentence_326

Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. Japan_sentence_327

People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Japan_sentence_328

Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. Japan_sentence_329

Japan has one of the world's highest suicide rates. Japan_sentence_330

Another significant public health issue is smoking among Japanese men. Japan_sentence_331

Japan has the lowest rate of heart disease in the OECD, and the lowest level of dementia in the developed world. Japan_sentence_332

Culture Japan_section_28

Main article: Culture of Japan Japan_sentence_333

See also: Japanese popular culture Japan_sentence_334

Contemporary Japanese culture combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Japan_sentence_335

Traditional Japanese arts include crafts such as ceramics, textiles, lacquerware, swords and dolls; performances of bunraku, kabuki, noh, dance, and rakugo; and other practices, the tea ceremony, ikebana, martial arts, calligraphy, origami, onsen, Geisha and games. Japan_sentence_336

Japan has a developed system for the protection and promotion of both tangible and intangible Cultural Properties and National Treasures. Japan_sentence_337

Twenty-two sites have been inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, eighteen of which are of cultural significance. Japan_sentence_338

Art and architecture Japan_section_29

Main article: Japanese art Japan_sentence_339

Further information: Japanese garden, Japanese esthetics, Manga, and Japanese sculpture Japan_sentence_340

The history of Japanese painting exhibits synthesis and competition between native Japanese esthetics and imported ideas. Japan_sentence_341

The interaction between Japanese and European art has been significant: for example ukiyo-e prints, which began to be exported in the 19th century in the movement known as Japonism, had a significant influence on the development of modern art in the West, most notably on post-Impressionism. Japan_sentence_342

Japanese manga developed in the 20th century and have become popular worldwide. Japan_sentence_343

Japanese architecture is a combination between local and other influences. Japan_sentence_344

It has traditionally been typified by wooden or mud plaster structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Japan_sentence_345

The Shrines of Ise have been celebrated as the prototype of Japanese architecture. Japan_sentence_346

Traditional housing and many temple buildings see the use of tatami mats and sliding doors that break down the distinction between rooms and indoor and outdoor space. Japan_sentence_347

Since the 19th century, however, Japan has incorporated much of Western modern architecture into construction and design. Japan_sentence_348

However, it was not until after World War II that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzō Tange and then with movements like Metabolism. Japan_sentence_349

Literature and philosophy Japan_section_30

Main articles: Japanese literature, Japanese poetry, and Japanese philosophy Japan_sentence_350

The earliest works of Japanese literature include the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles and the Man'yōshū poetry anthology, all from the 8th century and written in Chinese characters. Japan_sentence_351

In the early Heian period, the system of phonograms known as kana (hiragana and katakana) was developed. Japan_sentence_352

The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter is considered the oldest extant Japanese narrative. Japan_sentence_353

An account of court life is given in The Pillow Book by Sei Shōnagon, while The Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu is often described as the world's first novel. Japan_sentence_354

During the Edo period, the chōnin ("townspeople") overtook the samurai aristocracy as producers and consumers of literature. Japan_sentence_355

The popularity of the works of Saikaku, for example, reveals this change in readership and authorship, while Bashō revivified the poetic tradition of the Kokinshū with his haikai (haiku) and wrote the poetic travelogue Oku no Hosomichi. Japan_sentence_356

The Meiji era saw the decline of traditional literary forms as Japanese literature integrated Western influences. Japan_sentence_357

Natsume Sōseki and Mori Ōgai were significant novelists in the early 20th century, followed by Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Kafū Nagai and, more recently, Haruki Murakami and Kenji Nakagami. Japan_sentence_358

Japan has two Nobel Prize-winning authors – Yasunari Kawabata (1968) and Kenzaburō Ōe (1994). Japan_sentence_359

Japanese philosophy has historically been a fusion of both foreign, particularly Chinese and Western, and uniquely Japanese elements. Japan_sentence_360

In its literary forms, Japanese philosophy began about fourteen centuries ago. Japan_sentence_361

Confucian ideals are still evident today in the Japanese concept of society and the self, and in the organization of the government and the structure of society. Japan_sentence_362

Buddhism has profoundly impacted Japanese psychology, metaphysics, and esthetics. Japan_sentence_363

Performing arts Japan_section_31

Main articles: Music of Japan and Theatre of Japan Japan_sentence_364

Japanese music is eclectic and diverse. Japan_sentence_365

Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the 9th and 10th centuries. Japan_sentence_366

The popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, dates from the 16th century. Japan_sentence_367

Western classical music, introduced in the late 19th century, forms an integral part of Japanese culture. Japan_sentence_368

Kumi-daiko (ensemble drumming) was developed in postwar Japan and became very popular in North America. Japan_sentence_369

Popular music in post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European trends, which has led to the evolution of J-pop. Japan_sentence_370

Karaoke is a significant cultural activity. Japan_sentence_371

The four traditional theaters from Japan are noh, kyōgen, kabuki, and bunraku. Japan_sentence_372

Noh is one of the oldest continuous theater traditions in the world. Japan_sentence_373

Customs and holidays Japan_section_32

Main articles: Etiquette in Japan, Public holidays in Japan, and Japanese festivals Japan_sentence_374

Ishin-denshin (以心伝心) is a Japanese idiom which denotes a form of interpersonal communication through unspoken mutual understanding. Japan_sentence_375

Isagiyosa (潔さ) is a virtue of the capability of accepting death with composure. Japan_sentence_376

Cherry blossoms are a symbol of isagiyosa in the sense of embracing the transience of the world. Japan_sentence_377

Hansei (反省) is a central idea in Japanese culture, meaning to acknowledge one's own mistake and to pledge improvement. Japan_sentence_378

Kotodama (言霊) refers to the Japanese belief that mystical powers dwell in words and names. Japan_sentence_379

Officially, Japan has 16 national, government-recognized holidays. Japan_sentence_380

Public holidays in Japan are regulated by the Public Holiday Law (国民の祝日に関する法律, Kokumin no Shukujitsu ni Kansuru Hōritsu) of 1948. Japan_sentence_381

Beginning in 2000, Japan implemented the Happy Monday System, which moved a number of national holidays to Monday in order to obtain a long weekend. Japan_sentence_382

The national holidays in Japan are New Year's Day on January 1, Coming of Age Day on the second Monday of January, National Foundation Day on February 11, The Emperor's Birthday on February 23, Vernal Equinox Day on March 20 or 21, Shōwa Day on April 29, Constitution Memorial Day on May 3, Greenery Day on May 4, Children's Day on May 5, Marine Day on the third Monday of July, Mountain Day on August 11, Respect for the Aged Day on the third Monday of September, Autumnal Equinox on September 23 or 24, Health and Sports Day on the second Monday of October, Culture Day on November 3, and Labor Thanksgiving Day on November 23. Japan_sentence_383

Cuisine Japan_section_33

Main article: Japanese cuisine Japan_sentence_384

Japanese cuisine offers a vast array of regional specialties that use traditional recipes and local ingredients. Japan_sentence_385

Seafood and Japanese rice or noodles are traditional staples. Japan_sentence_386

Japanese curry, since its introduction to Japan from British India, is so widely consumed that it can be termed a national dish, alongside ramen and sushi. Japan_sentence_387

Traditional Japanese sweets are known as wagashi. Japan_sentence_388

Ingredients such as red bean paste and mochi are used. Japan_sentence_389

More modern-day tastes includes green tea ice cream. Japan_sentence_390

Popular Japanese beverages include sake, which is a brewed rice beverage that typically contains 14–17% alcohol and is made by multiple fermentation of rice. Japan_sentence_391

Beer has been brewed in Japan since the late 17th century. Japan_sentence_392

Green tea is produced in Japan and prepared in various forms such as matcha, used in the Japanese tea ceremony. Japan_sentence_393

Media Japan_section_34

Main articles: Cinema of Japan, Anime, and Media of Japan Japan_sentence_394

According to the 2015 NHK survey on television viewing in Japan, 79 percent of Japanese watch television daily. Japan_sentence_395

Japanese television dramas are viewed both within Japan and internationally; other popular shows are in the genres of variety shows, comedy, and news programs. Japan_sentence_396

Japanese newspapers are among the most circulated in the world. Japan_sentence_397

Japan has one of the oldest and largest film industries globally. Japan_sentence_398

Ishirō Honda's Godzilla became an international icon of Japan and spawned an entire subgenre of kaiju films, as well as the longest-running film franchise in history. Japan_sentence_399

Japanese animated films and television series, known as anime, were largely influenced by Japanese manga and have been extensively popular in the West. Japan_sentence_400

Japan is a world-renowned powerhouse of animation. Japan_sentence_401

Sports Japan_section_35

Main article: Sport in Japan Japan_sentence_402

Traditionally, sumo is considered Japan's national sport. Japan_sentence_403

Japanese martial arts such as judo and kendo are taught as part of the compulsory junior high school curriculum. Japan_sentence_404

Baseball is the most popular spectator sport in the country. Japan_sentence_405

Japan's top professional league, Nippon Professional Baseball, was established in 1936. Japan_sentence_406

Since the establishment of the Japan Professional Football League in 1992, association football has also gained a wide following. Japan_sentence_407

The country co-hosted the 2002 FIFA World Cup with South Korea. Japan_sentence_408

Japan has one of the most successful football teams in Asia, winning the Asian Cup four times, and the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2011. Japan_sentence_409

Golf is also popular in Japan. Japan_sentence_410

Japan has significant involvement in motorsport. Japan_sentence_411

Japanese automotive manufacturers have been successful in multiple different categories, with titles and victories in series such as Formula One, MotoGP, IndyCar, World Rally Championship, World Endurance Championship, World Touring Car Championship, British Touring Car Championship and the IMSA SportsCar Championship. Japan_sentence_412

Three Japanese drivers have achieved podium finishes in Formula One, and drivers from Japan also have victories at the Indianapolis 500 and the 24 Hours of Le Mans, in addition to success in domestic championships. Japan_sentence_413

Super GT is the most popular national series in Japan, while Super Formula is the top level domestic open-wheel series. Japan_sentence_414

The country also hosts major races such as the Japanese Grand Prix. Japan_sentence_415

Japan hosted the Summer Olympics in Tokyo in 1964 and the Winter Olympics in Sapporo in 1972 and Nagano in 1998. Japan_sentence_416

Further, the country hosted the official 2006 Basketball World Championship and will co-host the 2023 Basketball World Championship. Japan_sentence_417

Tokyo will host the 2020 Summer Olympics, making Tokyo the first Asian city to host the Olympics twice. Japan_sentence_418

The country gained the hosting rights for the official Women's Volleyball World Championship on five occasions, more than any other nation. Japan_sentence_419

Japan is the most successful Asian Rugby Union country and hosted the 2019 IRB Rugby World Cup. Japan_sentence_420

See also Japan_section_36

Japan_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan.