Japanese people

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Not to be confused with Javanese people. Japanese people_sentence_0

Japanese people_table_infobox_0

Japanese peopleJapanese people_table_caption_0
Total populationJapanese people_header_cell_0_1_0
Regions with significant populationsJapanese people_header_cell_0_2_0
Significant Japanese diaspora in:Japanese people_header_cell_0_3_0
United StatesJapanese people_header_cell_0_4_0 2,084,000Japanese people_cell_0_4_1
BrazilJapanese people_header_cell_0_5_0 242,643 - 1,469,637Japanese people_cell_0_5_1
Mainland ChinaJapanese people_header_cell_0_6_0 140,134Japanese people_cell_0_6_1
PhilippinesJapanese people_header_cell_0_7_0 120,000Japanese people_cell_0_7_1
CanadaJapanese people_header_cell_0_8_0 109,740Japanese people_cell_0_8_1
PeruJapanese people_header_cell_0_9_0 103,949Japanese people_cell_0_9_1
AustraliaJapanese people_header_cell_0_10_0 89,133 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_10_1
ThailandJapanese people_header_cell_0_11_0 70,337 (2016)Japanese people_cell_0_11_1
GermanyJapanese people_header_cell_0_12_0 70,000 (2016)Japanese people_cell_0_12_1
FranceJapanese people_header_cell_0_13_0 69,263 (2014)Japanese people_cell_0_13_1
United KingdomJapanese people_header_cell_0_14_0 67,998 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_14_1
ArgentinaJapanese people_header_cell_0_15_0 65,000Japanese people_cell_0_15_1
SingaporeJapanese people_header_cell_0_16_0 36,963 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_16_1
South KoreaJapanese people_header_cell_0_17_0 36,708 (2014)Japanese people_cell_0_17_1
MexicoJapanese people_header_cell_0_18_0 28,100Japanese people_cell_0_18_1
Hong KongJapanese people_header_cell_0_19_0 27,429 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_19_1
MalaysiaJapanese people_header_cell_0_20_0 22,000 (2014)Japanese people_cell_0_20_1
TaiwanJapanese people_header_cell_0_21_0 20,373Japanese people_cell_0_21_1
MicronesiaJapanese people_header_cell_0_22_0 20,000Japanese people_cell_0_22_1
New ZealandJapanese people_header_cell_0_23_0 17,991 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_23_1
IndonesiaJapanese people_header_cell_0_24_0 16,296 (2013)Japanese people_cell_0_24_1
BoliviaJapanese people_header_cell_0_25_0 14,000Japanese people_cell_0_25_1
VietnamJapanese people_header_cell_0_26_0 13,547 (2014)Japanese people_cell_0_26_1
ItalyJapanese people_header_cell_0_27_0 13,299 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_27_1
SwitzerlandJapanese people_header_cell_0_28_0 10,166 (2014)Japanese people_cell_0_28_1
IndiaJapanese people_header_cell_0_29_0 8,655 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_29_1
SpainJapanese people_header_cell_0_30_0 8,080 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_30_1
New CaledoniaJapanese people_header_cell_0_31_0 8,000Japanese people_cell_0_31_1
NetherlandsJapanese people_header_cell_0_32_0 7,550 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_32_1
ParaguayJapanese people_header_cell_0_33_0 7,000Japanese people_cell_0_33_1
BelgiumJapanese people_header_cell_0_34_0 6,232 (2015)Japanese people_cell_0_34_1
Marshall IslandsJapanese people_header_cell_0_35_0 6,000Japanese people_cell_0_35_1
PalauJapanese people_header_cell_0_36_0 5,000Japanese people_cell_0_36_1
MacauJapanese people_header_cell_0_37_0 4,200Japanese people_cell_0_37_1
UruguayJapanese people_header_cell_0_38_0 3,456Japanese people_cell_0_38_1
RussiaJapanese people_header_cell_0_39_0 2,137Japanese people_cell_0_39_1
FinlandJapanese people_header_cell_0_40_0 1,200Japanese people_cell_0_40_1
LanguagesJapanese people_header_cell_0_41_0
ReligionJapanese people_header_cell_0_42_0
Related ethnic groupsJapanese people_header_cell_0_43_0

Japanese people (Japanese: , Hepburn: nihonjin) are an ethnic group that is native to the Japanese archipelago and modern country of Japan, where they constitute 98.5% of the total population. Japanese people_sentence_1

Worldwide, approximately 129 million people are of Japanese descent; of these, approximately 125 million are residents of Japan. Japanese people_sentence_2

People of Japanese ancestry who live outside Japan are referred to as nikkeijin (日系人), the Japanese diaspora. Japanese people_sentence_3

The term ethnic Japanese is used to refer to mainland Japanese people, specifically the Yamato. Japanese people_sentence_4

Japanese people are one of the largest ethnic groups in the world. Japanese people_sentence_5

Language Japanese people_section_0

Main article: Japanese language Japanese people_sentence_6

The Japanese language is a Japonic language that is related to the Ryukyuan languages and was treated as a language isolate in the past. Japanese people_sentence_7

The earliest attested form of the language, Old Japanese, dates to the 8th century. Japanese people_sentence_8

Japanese phonology is characterized by a relatively small number of vowel phonemes, frequent gemination and a distinctive pitch accent system. Japanese people_sentence_9

The modern Japanese language has a tripartite writing system using hiragana, katakana and kanji. Japanese people_sentence_10

The language includes native Japanese words and a large number of words derived from the Chinese language. Japanese people_sentence_11

In Japan the adult literacy rate in the Japanese language exceeds 99%. Japanese people_sentence_12

Dozens of Japanese dialects are spoken in regions of Japan. Japanese people_sentence_13

Religion Japanese people_section_1

Main article: Religion in Japan Japanese people_sentence_14

Japanese religion has traditionally been syncretic in nature, combining elements of Buddhism and Shinto (Shinbutsu-shūgō). Japanese people_sentence_15

Shinto, a polytheistic religion with no book of religious canon, is Japan's native religion. Japanese people_sentence_16

Shinto was one of the traditional grounds for the right to the throne of the Japanese imperial family and was codified as the state religion in 1868 (State Shinto), but was abolished by the American occupation in 1945. Japanese people_sentence_17

Mahayana Buddhism came to Japan in the sixth century and evolved into many different sects. Japanese people_sentence_18

Today, the largest form of Buddhism among Japanese people is the Jōdo Shinshū sect founded by Shinran. Japanese people_sentence_19

A large majority of Japanese people profess to believe in both Shinto and Buddhism. Japanese people_sentence_20

Japanese people's religion functions mostly as a foundation for mythology, traditions and neighborhood activities, rather than as the single source of moral guidelines for one's life. Japanese people_sentence_21

According to the annual statistical research on religion in 2018 by the Agency for Culture Affairs, Government of Japan, about two million or slightly 1.5% of Japan's population are Christians. Japanese people_sentence_22

A larger proportion of members of the Japanese diaspora practice Christianity; about 60% of Japanese Brazilians and 90% of Japanese Mexicans are Roman Catholics, while about 37% of Japanese Americans are Christians (33% Protestant and 4% Catholic). Japanese people_sentence_23

Literature Japanese people_section_2

Main article: Japanese literature Japanese people_sentence_24

Certain genres of writing originated in and are often associated with Japanese society. Japanese people_sentence_25

These include the haiku, tanka, and I Novel, although modern writers generally avoid these writing styles. Japanese people_sentence_26

Historically, many works have sought to capture or codify traditional Japanese cultural values and aesthetics. Japanese people_sentence_27

Some of the most famous of these include Murasaki Shikibu's The Tale of Genji (1021), about Heian court culture; Miyamoto Musashi's The Book of Five Rings (1645), concerning military strategy; Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi (1691), a travelogue; and Jun'ichirō Tanizaki's essay "In Praise of Shadows" (1933), which contrasts Eastern and Western cultures. Japanese people_sentence_28

Following the opening of Japan to the West in 1854, some works of this style were written in English by natives of Japan; they include Bushido: The Soul of Japan by Nitobe Inazō (1900), concerning samurai ethics, and The Book of Tea by Okakura Kakuzō (1906), which deals with the philosophical implications of the Japanese tea ceremony. Japanese people_sentence_29

Western observers have often attempted to evaluate Japanese society as well, to varying degrees of success; one of the most well-known and controversial works resulting from this is Ruth Benedict's The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (1946). Japanese people_sentence_30

Twentieth-century Japanese writers recorded changes in Japanese society through their works. Japanese people_sentence_31

Some of the most notable authors included Natsume Sōseki, Jun'ichirō Tanizaki, Osamu Dazai, Fumiko Enchi, Akiko Yosano, Yukio Mishima, and Ryōtarō Shiba. Japanese people_sentence_32

Popular contemporary authors such as Ryū Murakami, Haruki Murakami, and Banana Yoshimoto have been translated into many languages and enjoy international followings, and Yasunari Kawabata and Kenzaburō Ōe were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Japanese people_sentence_33

Arts Japanese people_section_3

Main articles: Japanese art and Japanese architecture Japanese people_sentence_34

Decorative arts in Japan date back to prehistoric times. Japanese people_sentence_35

Jōmon pottery includes examples with elaborate ornamentation. Japanese people_sentence_36

In the Yayoi period, artisans produced mirrors, spears, and ceremonial bells known as dōtaku. Japanese people_sentence_37

Later burial mounds, or kofun, preserve characteristic clay haniwa, as well as wall paintings. Japanese people_sentence_38

Beginning in the Nara period, painting, calligraphy, and sculpture flourished under strong Confucian and Buddhist influences from China. Japanese people_sentence_39

Among the architectural achievements of this period are the Hōryū-ji and the Yakushi-ji, two Buddhist temples in Nara Prefecture. Japanese people_sentence_40

After the cessation of official relations with the Tang dynasty in the ninth century, Japanese art and architecture gradually became less influenced by China. Japanese people_sentence_41

Extravagant art and clothing was commissioned by nobles to decorate their court, and although the aristocracy was quite limited in size and power, many of these pieces are still extant. Japanese people_sentence_42

After the Tōdai-ji was attacked and burned during the Genpei War, a special office of restoration was founded, and the Tōdai-ji became an important artistic center. Japanese people_sentence_43

The leading masters of the time were Unkei and Kaikei. Japanese people_sentence_44

Painting advanced in the Muromachi period in the form of ink wash painting under the influence of Zen Buddhism as practiced by such masters as Sesshū Tōyō. Japanese people_sentence_45

Zen Buddhist tenets were also elaborated into the tea ceremony during the Sengoku period. Japanese people_sentence_46

During the Edo period, the polychrome painting screens of the Kanō school were made influential thanks to their powerful patrons (including the Tokugawas). Japanese people_sentence_47

Popular artists created ukiyo-e, woodblock prints for sale to commoners in the flourishing cities. Japanese people_sentence_48

Pottery such as Imari ware was highly valued as far away as Europe. Japanese people_sentence_49

In theater, Noh is a traditional, spare dramatic form that developed in tandem with kyōgen farce. Japanese people_sentence_50

In stark contrast to the restrained refinement of noh, kabuki, an "explosion of color", uses every possible stage trick for dramatic effect. Japanese people_sentence_51

Plays include sensational events such as suicides, and many such works were performed in both kabuki and bunraku puppet theaters. Japanese people_sentence_52

Since the Meiji Restoration, Japan has absorbed elements of Western culture and has given them a "Japanese" feel or modification into it. Japanese people_sentence_53

Its modern decorative, practical and performing arts works span a spectrum ranging from the traditions of Japan to purely Western modes. Japanese people_sentence_54

Products of popular culture, including J-pop, J-rock, manga and anime have found audiences and fans around the world. Japanese people_sentence_55

History Japanese people_section_4

Main article: History of Japan Japanese people_sentence_56

Theories of origins Japanese people_section_5

Main article: Genetic and anthropometric studies on Japanese people Japanese people_sentence_57

Archaeological evidence indicates that Stone Age people lived in the Japanese archipelago during the Paleolithic period between 39,000 and 21,000 years ago. Japanese people_sentence_58

Japan was then connected to mainland Asia by at least one land bridge, and nomadic hunter-gatherers crossed to Japan. Japanese people_sentence_59

Flint tools and bony implements of this era have been excavated in Japan. Japanese people_sentence_60

In the 18th century, Arai Hakuseki suggested that the ancient stone tools in Japan were left behind by the Shukushin. Japanese people_sentence_61

Later, Philipp Franz von Siebold argued that the Ainu people were indigenous to northern Japan. Japanese people_sentence_62

Iha Fuyū suggested that Japanese and Ryukyuan people have the same ethnic origin, based on his 1906 research on the Ryukyuan languages. Japanese people_sentence_63

In the Taishō period, Torii Ryūzō claimed that Yamato people used Yayoi pottery and Ainu used Jōmon pottery. Japanese people_sentence_64

After World War II, Kotondo Hasebe and Hisashi Suzuki claimed that the origin of Japanese people was not newcomers in the Yayoi period (300 BCE – 300 CE) but the people in the Jōmon period. Japanese people_sentence_65

However, Kazuro Hanihara announced a new racial admixture theory in 1984 and a "dual structure model" in 1991. Japanese people_sentence_66

According to Hanihara, modern Japanese lineages began with Jōmon people, who moved into the Japanese archipelago during Paleolithic times, followed by a second wave of immigration, from East Asia to Japan during the Yayoi period (300 BC). Japanese people_sentence_67

Following a population expansion in Neolithic times, these newcomers then found their way to the Japanese archipelago sometime during the Yayoi period. Japanese people_sentence_68

As a result, replacement of the hunter gatherers was common in the island regions of Kyūshū, Shikoku, and southern Honshū, but did not prevail in the outlying islands of Okinawa and Hokkaidō, and the Ryukyuan and Ainu people show mixed characteristics. Japanese people_sentence_69

Mark J. Hudson claims that the main ethnic image of Japanese people was biologically and linguistically formed from 400 BCE to 1,200 CE. Japanese people_sentence_70

Currently, the most well-regarded theory is that present-day Japanese people are predominantly descendants of the Japonic Yayoi people (who largely replaced the Jomon), with minor Jomon ancestry. Japanese people_sentence_71

A study by Lee and Hasegawa of the Waseda University, concluded that the "dual structure theory" regarding the population history of Japan must be revised and that the Jōmon people had more diversity than originally suggested. Japanese people_sentence_72

Jōmon period Japanese people_section_6

Main article: Jōmon people Japanese people_sentence_73

Some of the world's oldest known pottery pieces were developed by the Jōmon people in the Upper Paleolithic period, dating back as far as 16,000 years. Japanese people_sentence_74

The name "Jōmon" (縄文 Jōmon) means "cord-impressed pattern", and comes from the characteristic markings found on the pottery. Japanese people_sentence_75

The Jōmon people were Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, though at least one middle to late Jōmon site (Minami Mizote (南溝手), ca. 1200–1000 BC) had a primitive rice-growing agriculture. Japanese people_sentence_76

They relied primarily on fish for protein. Japanese people_sentence_77

Their primary descendants are the Ainu people of northernmost Japan. Japanese people_sentence_78

The existence of a second pre-Yayoi wave of immigration during the Jōmon period were suggested before. Japanese people_sentence_79

One study, published in the Cambridge University Press in 2020, suggests that the Jōmon people were rather heterogeneous, and that there was also an “Altaic-like” pre-Yayoi population (close to modern Northeast Asians) during Jōmon period Japan, which established itself over the local hunter gatherers. Japanese people_sentence_80

This “Altaic-like” population migrated from Northeast Asia sometimes before 6000BC, before the actual Yayoi migration. Japanese people_sentence_81

A study by Lee and Hasegawa of the Waseda University, concluded that the Jōmon period population consisted largely of a distinctive Paleolithic population and a Northeast Asian population from around the Sea of Okhotsk (related to Nivkhs and Itelmens but not being identical to them), with both arriving at different times during the Jōmon period in Japan. Japanese people_sentence_82

Lee and Hasegawa presented evidence that the Ainu-speakers originated from the Northeast Asian/Okhotsk population, which established themselves in northern Hokkaido and had significant impact on the formation of the Jōmon culture and ethnicities. Japanese people_sentence_83

Yayoi period Japanese people_section_7

Main article: Yayoi people Japanese people_sentence_84

Beginning around 300 BC, the Yayoi people from the Korean Peninsula entered the Japanese islands and displaced or intermingled with the Jōmon. Japanese people_sentence_85

The Yayoi brought wet-rice farming and advanced bronze and iron technology to Japan. Japanese people_sentence_86

The more productive paddy field systems allowed the communities to support larger populations and spread over time, in turn becoming the basis for more advanced institutions and heralding the new civilization of the succeeding Kofun period. Japanese people_sentence_87

The estimated population of Japan in the late Jōmon period was about one hundred thousand, compared to about three million by the Nara period. Japanese people_sentence_88

Taking the growth rates of hunting and agricultural societies into account, it is calculated that about one and half million immigrants moved to Japan in the period. Japanese people_sentence_89

According to Ann Kumar, the Yayoi created the "Japanese-hierarchical society". Japanese people_sentence_90

Colonialism Japanese people_section_8

See also: Japanese colonial empire and Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Japanese people_sentence_91

During the Japanese colonial period of 1895 to 1945, the phrase "Japanese people" was used to refer not only to residents of the Japanese archipelago, but also to people from colonies who held Japanese citizenship, such as Taiwanese people and Korean people. Japanese people_sentence_92

The official term used to refer to ethnic Japanese during this period was "inland people" (内地人, naichijin). Japanese people_sentence_93

Such linguistic distinctions facilitated forced assimilation of colonized ethnic identities into a single Imperial Japanese identity. Japanese people_sentence_94

After the end of World War II, many Nivkh people and Orok people from southern Sakhalin, who held Japanese citizenship in Karafuto Prefecture, were forced to repatriate to Hokkaidō by the Soviet Union as a part of the Japanese people. Japanese people_sentence_95

On the other hand, many Sakhalin Koreans who had held Japanese citizenship until the end of the war were left stateless by the Soviet occupation. Japanese people_sentence_96

Citizenship Japanese people_section_9

Article 10 of the Constitution of Japan defines the term "Japanese" based upon Japanese nationality. Japanese people_sentence_97

The concept of "ethnic groups" in Japanese census statistics differs from the concept applied in many other countries. Japanese people_sentence_98

For example, the United Kingdom Census queries the respondent's "ethnic or racial background", regardless of nationality. Japanese people_sentence_99

The Japanese Statistics Bureau, however, asks only about nationality in the census. Japanese people_sentence_100

The Government of Japan regards all naturalized Japanese citizens and native-born Japanese nationals with multi-ethnic background as Japanese. Japanese people_sentence_101

There is no distinction based on ethnicity. Japanese people_sentence_102

There's no official ethnicity census data. Japanese people_sentence_103

Because the census equates nationality with ethnicity, its figures erroneously assume that naturalized Japanese citizens and Japanese nationals with multi-ethnic backgrounds are ethnically Japanese. Japanese people_sentence_104

John Lie, Eiji Oguma, and other scholars problematize the widespread belief that Japan is ethnically homogeneous, arguing that it is more accurate to describe Japan as a multiethnic society, although such claims have long been rejected by conservative elements of Japanese society such as former Japanese Prime Minister Tarō Asō, who once described Japan as being a nation of "one race, one civilization, one language and one culture". Japanese people_sentence_105

There is an increase of hāfu (half Japanese) people, but the amount is relatively small. Japanese people_sentence_106

Studies from e.g. 2015 estimate that 1 in 30 children born in Japan are born to interracial couples. Japanese people_sentence_107

Diaspora Japanese people_section_10

Main article: Japanese diaspora Japanese people_sentence_108

The term nikkeijin (日系人) is used to refer to Japanese people who emigrated from Japan and their descendants. Japanese people_sentence_109

Emigration from Japan was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines and Borneo, and in the 16th and 17th centuries, thousands of traders from Japan also migrated to the Philippines and assimilated into the local population. Japanese people_sentence_110

However, migration of Japanese people did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji era, when Japanese people began to go to Canada, the United States, the Philippines, China, Brazil, and Peru. Japanese people_sentence_111

There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan during the colonial period, but most of these emigrants and settlers repatriated to Japan after the end of World War II in Asia. Japanese people_sentence_112

According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 2.5 million nikkeijin living in their adopted countries. Japanese people_sentence_113

The largest of these foreign communities are in the Brazilian states of São Paulo and Paraná. Japanese people_sentence_114

There are also significant cohesive Japanese communities in the Philippines, East Malaysia, Peru, Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Misiones in Argentina, the U.S. states of Hawaii, California, and Washington, and the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Toronto. Japanese people_sentence_115

Separately, the number of Japanese citizens living abroad is over one million according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Japanese people_sentence_116

See also Japanese people_section_11

Japanese people_unordered_list_0


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese people.