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For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). Jazz_sentence_0


Stylistic originsJazz_header_cell_0_1_0 Jazz_cell_0_1_1
Cultural originsJazz_header_cell_0_2_0 Late 19th century, New Orleans, U.S.Jazz_cell_0_2_1
Regional scenesJazz_header_cell_0_4_0
Other topicsJazz_header_cell_0_5_0

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz_sentence_1

Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognized as a major form of musical expression in traditional and popular music, linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage. Jazz_sentence_2

Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, complex chords, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz_sentence_3

Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions. Jazz_sentence_4

As jazz spread around the world, it drew on national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. Jazz_sentence_5

New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine, ragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. Jazz_sentence_6

In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz (a style that emphasized musette waltzes) were the prominent styles. Jazz_sentence_7

Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music" which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Jazz_sentence_8

Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines. Jazz_sentence_9

The mid-1950s saw the emergence of hard bop, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Jazz_sentence_10

Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation, as did free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures. Jazz_sentence_11

Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, and highly amplified stage sound. Jazz_sentence_12

In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Jazz_sentence_13

Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin and Afro-Cuban jazz. Jazz_sentence_14

Etymology and definition Jazz_section_0

Main article: Jazz (word) Jazz_sentence_15

The origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. Jazz_sentence_16

It is believed to be related to jasm, a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". Jazz_sentence_17

The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you simply can't do anything with it". Jazz_sentence_18

The use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Jazz_sentence_19

Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916, Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". Jazz_sentence_20

In an interview with National Public Radio, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying: "When Broadway picked it up, they called it 'J-A-Z-Z'. Jazz_sentence_21

It wasn't called that. Jazz_sentence_22

It was spelled 'J-A-S-S'. Jazz_sentence_23

That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies." Jazz_sentence_24

The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the 20th Century. Jazz_sentence_25

Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Jazz_sentence_26

Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music. Jazz_sentence_27

But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as 'swing'". Jazz_sentence_28

Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". Jazz_sentence_29

In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz". Jazz_sentence_30

A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities". Jazz_sentence_31

Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". Jazz_sentence_32

In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Jazz_sentence_33

Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Jazz_sentence_34

Elements and issues Jazz_section_1

Improvisation Jazz_section_2

Main article: Jazz improvisation Jazz_sentence_35

Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. Jazz_sentence_36

The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations. Jazz_sentence_37

These work songs were commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also improvisational. Jazz_sentence_38

Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation, ornamentation, and accompaniment. Jazz_sentence_39

The classical performer's goal is to play the composition as it was written. Jazz_sentence_40

In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, placing less value on the contribution of the composer, if there is one, and more on the performer. Jazz_sentence_41

The jazz performer interprets a tune in individual ways, never playing the same composition twice. Jazz_sentence_42

Depending on the performer's mood, experience, and interaction with band members or audience members, the performer may change melodies, harmonies, and time signatures. Jazz_sentence_43

In early Dixieland, a.k.a. New Orleans jazz, performers took turns playing melodies and improvising countermelodies. Jazz_sentence_44

In the swing era of the 1920s–'40s, big bands relied more on arrangements which were written or learned by ear and memorized. Jazz_sentence_45

Soloists improvised within these arrangements. Jazz_sentence_46

In the bebop era of the 1940s, big bands gave way to small groups and minimal arrangements in which the melody was stated briefly at the beginning and most of the piece was improvised. Jazz_sentence_47

Modal jazz abandoned chord progressions to allow musicians to improvise even more. Jazz_sentence_48

In many forms of jazz, a soloist is supported by a rhythm section of one or more chordal instruments (piano, guitar), double bass, and drums. Jazz_sentence_49

The rhythm section plays chords and rhythms that outline the composition structure and complement the soloist. Jazz_sentence_50

In avant-garde and free jazz, the separation of soloist and band is reduced, and there is license, or even a requirement, for the abandoning of chords, scales, and meters. Jazz_sentence_51

Tradition and race Jazz_section_3

Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized. Jazz_sentence_52

According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form". Jazz_sentence_53

Traditional jazz enthusiasts have dismissed bebop, free jazz, and jazz fusion as forms of debasement and betrayal. Jazz_sentence_54

An alternative view is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles. Jazz_sentence_55

By avoiding the creation of norms, jazz allows avant-garde styles to emerge. Jazz_sentence_56

For some African Americans, jazz has drawn attention to African-American contributions to culture and history. Jazz_sentence_57

For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions". Jazz_sentence_58

Amiri Baraka argues that there is a "white jazz" genre that expresses whiteness. Jazz_sentence_59

White jazz musicians appeared in the midwest and in other areas throughout the U.S. Papa Jack Laine, who ran the Reliance band in New Orleans in the 1910s, was called "the father of white jazz". Jazz_sentence_60

The Original Dixieland Jazz Band, whose members were white, were the first jazz group to record, and Bix Beiderbecke was one of the most prominent jazz soloists of the 1920s. Jazz_sentence_61

The Chicago Style was developed by white musicians such as Eddie Condon, Bud Freeman, Jimmy McPartland, and Dave Tough. Jazz_sentence_62

Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the 1930s. Jazz_sentence_63

Many bands included both black and white musicians. Jazz_sentence_64

These musicians helped change attitudes toward race in the U.S. Jazz_sentence_65

Roles of women Jazz_section_4

Main article: Women in jazz Jazz_sentence_66

Female jazz performers and composers have contributed to jazz throughout its history. Jazz_sentence_67

Although Betty Carter, Ella Fitzgerald, Adelaide Hall, Billie Holiday, Abbey Lincoln, Anita O'Day, Dinah Washington, and Ethel Waters were recognized for their vocal talent, less familiar were bandleaders, composers, and instrumentalists such as pianist Lil Hardin Armstrong, trumpeter Valaida Snow, and songwriters Irene Higginbotham and Dorothy Fields. Jazz_sentence_68

Women began playing instruments in jazz in the early 1920s, drawing particular recognition on piano. Jazz_sentence_69

When male jazz musicians were drafted during World War II, many all-female bands replaced them. Jazz_sentence_70

The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, which was founded in 1937, was a popular band that became the first all-female integrated band in the U.S. and the first to travel with the USO, touring Europe in 1945. Jazz_sentence_71

Women were members of the big bands of Woody Herman and Gerald Wilson. Jazz_sentence_72

Beginning in the 1950s, many women jazz instrumentalists were prominent, some sustaining long careers. Jazz_sentence_73

Some of the most distinctive improvisers, composers, and bandleaders in jazz have been women. Jazz_sentence_74

Trombonist Melba Liston is acknowledged as the first female horn player to work in major bands and to make a real impact on jazz, not only as a musician but also as a respected composer and arranger, particularly through her collaborations with Randy Weston from the late 1950s into the 1990s. Jazz_sentence_75

Origins and early history Jazz_section_5

Jazz originated in the late-19th to early-20th century as interpretations of American and European classical music entwined with African and slave folk songs and the influences of West African culture. Jazz_sentence_76

Its composition and style have changed many times throughout the years with each performer's personal interpretation and improvisation, which is also one of the greatest appeals of the genre. Jazz_sentence_77

Blended African and European music sensibilities Jazz_section_6

By the 18th century, slaves in the New Orleans area gathered socially at a special market, in an area which later became known as Congo Square, famous for its African dances. Jazz_sentence_78

By 1866, the Atlantic slave trade had brought nearly 400,000 Africans to North America. Jazz_sentence_79

The slaves came largely from West Africa and the greater Congo River basin and brought strong musical traditions with them. Jazz_sentence_80

The African traditions primarily use a single-line melody and call-and-response pattern, and the rhythms have a counter-metric structure and reflect African speech patterns. Jazz_sentence_81

An 1885 account says that they were making strange music (Creole) on an equally strange variety of 'instruments'—washboards, washtubs, jugs, boxes beaten with sticks or bones and a drum made by stretching skin over a flour-barrel. Jazz_sentence_82

Lavish festivals with African-based dances to drums were organized on Sundays at Place Congo, or Congo Square, in New Orleans until 1843. Jazz_sentence_83

There are historical accounts of other music and dance gatherings elsewhere in the southern United States. Jazz_sentence_84

Robert Palmer said of percussive slave music: Jazz_sentence_85

Another influence came from the harmonic style of hymns of the church, which black slaves had learned and incorporated into their own music as spirituals. Jazz_sentence_86

The origins of the blues are undocumented, though they can be seen as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. Jazz_sentence_87

However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, whereas the spirituals are homophonic, rural blues and early jazz "was largely based on concepts of heterophony." Jazz_sentence_88

During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. Jazz_sentence_89

In turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized the music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment. Jazz_sentence_90

In the mid-1800s the white New Orleans composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted slave rhythms and melodies from Cuba and other Caribbean islands into piano salon music. Jazz_sentence_91

New Orleans was the main nexus between the Afro-Caribbean and African-American cultures. Jazz_sentence_92

African rhythmic retention Jazz_section_7

See also: Traditional sub-Saharan African harmony Jazz_sentence_93

The Black Codes outlawed drumming by slaves, which meant that African drumming traditions were not preserved in North America, unlike in Cuba, Haiti, and elsewhere in the Caribbean. Jazz_sentence_94

African-based rhythmic patterns were retained in the United States in large part through "body rhythms" such as stomping, clapping, and patting juba dancing. Jazz_sentence_95

In the opinion of jazz historian Ernest Borneman, what preceded New Orleans jazz before 1890 was "Afro-Latin music", similar to what was played in the Caribbean at the time. Jazz_sentence_96

A three-stroke pattern known in Cuban music as tresillo is a fundamental rhythmic figure heard in many different slave musics of the Caribbean, as well as the Afro-Caribbean folk dances performed in New Orleans Congo Square and Gottschalk's compositions (for example "Souvenirs From Havana" (1859)). Jazz_sentence_97

Tresillo (shown below) is the most basic and most prevalent duple-pulse rhythmic cell in sub-Saharan African music traditions and the music of the African Diaspora. Jazz_sentence_98


  • Jazz_item_0_0

Tresillo is heard prominently in New Orleans second line music and in other forms of popular music from that city from the turn of the 20th century to present. Jazz_sentence_99

"By and large the simpler African rhythmic patterns survived in jazz ... because they could be adapted more readily to European rhythmic conceptions," jazz historian Gunther Schuller observed. Jazz_sentence_100

"Some survived, others were discarded as the Europeanization progressed." Jazz_sentence_101

In the post-Civil War period (after 1865), African Americans were able to obtain surplus military bass drums, snare drums and fifes, and an original African-American drum and fife music emerged, featuring tresillo and related syncopated rhythmic figures. Jazz_sentence_102

This was a drumming tradition that was distinct from its Caribbean counterparts, expressing a uniquely African-American sensibility. Jazz_sentence_103

"The snare and bass drummers played syncopated cross-rhythms," observed the writer Robert Palmer, speculating that "this tradition must have dated back to the latter half of the nineteenth century, and it could have not have developed in the first place if there hadn't been a reservoir of polyrhythmic sophistication in the culture it nurtured." Jazz_sentence_104

Afro-Cuban influence Jazz_section_8

Further information: Music of African heritage in Cuba Jazz_sentence_105

African-American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 19th century when the habanera (Cuban contradanza) gained international popularity. Jazz_sentence_106

Musicians from Havana and New Orleans would take the twice-daily ferry between both cities to perform, and the habanera quickly took root in the musically fertile Crescent City. Jazz_sentence_107

John Storm Roberts states that the musical genre habanera "reached the U.S. twenty years before the first rag was published." Jazz_sentence_108

For the more than quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime, and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the habanera was a consistent part of African-American popular music. Jazz_sentence_109

Habaneras were widely available as sheet music and were the first written music which was rhythmically based on an African motif (1803). Jazz_sentence_110

From the perspective of African-American music, the "habanera rhythm" (also known as "congo"), "tango-congo", or tango. Jazz_sentence_111

can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat. Jazz_sentence_112

The habanera was the first of many Cuban music genres which enjoyed periods of popularity in the United States and reinforced and inspired the use of tresillo-based rhythms in African-American music. Jazz_sentence_113


  • Jazz_item_1_1

New Orleans native Louis Moreau Gottschalk's piano piece "Ojos Criollos (Danse Cubaine)" (1860) was influenced by the composer's studies in Cuba: the habanera rhythm is clearly heard in the left hand. Jazz_sentence_114

In Gottschalk's symphonic work "A Night in the Tropics" (1859), the tresillo variant cinquillo appears extensively. Jazz_sentence_115

The figure was later used by Scott Joplin and other ragtime composers. Jazz_sentence_116


  • Jazz_item_2_2

Comparing the music of New Orleans with the music of Cuba, Wynton Marsalis observes that tresillo is the New Orleans "clavé", a Spanish word meaning "code" or "key", as in the key to a puzzle, or mystery. Jazz_sentence_117

Although the pattern is only half a clave, Marsalis makes the point that the single-celled figure is the guide-pattern of New Orleans music. Jazz_sentence_118

Jelly Roll Morton called the rhythmic figure the Spanish tinge and considered it an essential ingredient of jazz. Jazz_sentence_119

Ragtime Jazz_section_9

Main article: Ragtime Jazz_sentence_120

The abolition of slavery in 1865 led to new opportunities for the education of freed African Americans. Jazz_sentence_121

Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in entertainment. Jazz_sentence_122

Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel shows, and in vaudeville, during which time many marching bands were formed. Jazz_sentence_123

Black pianists played in bars, clubs, and brothels, as ragtime developed. Jazz_sentence_124

Ragtime appeared as sheet music, popularized by African-American musicians such as the entertainer Ernest Hogan, whose hit songs appeared in 1895. Jazz_sentence_125

Two years later, Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these songs as a banjo solo known as "Rag Time Medley". Jazz_sentence_126

Also in 1897, the white composer William Krell published his "Mississippi Rag" as the first written piano instrumental ragtime piece, and Tom Turpin published his "Harlem Rag", the first rag published by an African-American. Jazz_sentence_127

Classically trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his "Original Rags" in 1898 and, in 1899, had an international hit with "Maple Leaf Rag", a multi-strain ragtime march with four parts that feature recurring themes and a bass line with copious seventh chords. Jazz_sentence_128

Its structure was the basis for many other rags, and the syncopations in the right hand, especially in the transition between the first and second strain, were novel at the time. Jazz_sentence_129

The last four measures of Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag" (1899) are shown below. Jazz_sentence_130


  • Jazz_item_3_3

African-based rhythmic patterns such as tresillo and its variants, the habanera rhythm and cinquillo, are heard in the ragtime compositions of Joplin and Turpin. Jazz_sentence_131

Joplin's "Solace" (1909) is generally considered to be in the habanera genre: both of the pianist's hands play in a syncopated fashion, completely abandoning any sense of a march rhythm. Jazz_sentence_132

Ned Sublette postulates that the tresillo/habanera rhythm "found its way into ragtime and the cakewalk," whilst Roberts suggests that "the habanera influence may have been part of what freed black music from ragtime's European bass." Jazz_sentence_133

Blues Jazz_section_10

Main article: Blues Jazz_sentence_134

African genesis Jazz_section_11

Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre, which originated in African-American communities of primarily the Deep South of the United States at the end of the 19th century from their spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts and chants and rhymed simple narrative ballads. Jazz_sentence_135

The African use of pentatonic scales contributed to the development of blue notes in blues and jazz. Jazz_sentence_136

As Kubik explains: Jazz_sentence_137

W. C. Handy: early published blues Jazz_section_12

W. Jazz_sentence_138 C. Handy became interested in folk blues of the Deep South while traveling through the Mississippi Delta. Jazz_sentence_139

In this folk blues form, the singer would improvise freely within a limited melodic range, sounding like a field holler, and the guitar accompaniment was slapped rather than strummed, like a small drum which responded in syncopated accents, functioning as another "voice". Jazz_sentence_140

Handy and his band members were formally trained African-American musicians who had not grown up with the blues, yet he was able to adapt the blues to a larger band instrument format and arrange them in a popular music form. Jazz_sentence_141

Handy wrote about his adopting of the blues: Jazz_sentence_142

The publication of his "Memphis Blues" sheet music in 1912 introduced the 12-bar blues to the world (although Gunther Schuller argues that it is not really a blues, but "more like a cakewalk"). Jazz_sentence_143

This composition, as well as his later "St. Louis Blues" and others, included the habanera rhythm, and would become jazz standards. Jazz_sentence_144

Handy's music career began in the pre-jazz era and contributed to the codification of jazz through the publication of some of the first jazz sheet music. Jazz_sentence_145

New Orleans Jazz_section_13

Main article: Dixieland Jazz_sentence_146

The music of New Orleans had a profound effect on the creation of early jazz. Jazz_sentence_147

In New Orleans, slaves could practice elements of their culture such as voodoo and playing drums. Jazz_sentence_148

Many early jazz musicians played in the bars and brothels of the red-light district around Basin Street called Storyville. Jazz_sentence_149

In addition to dance bands, there were marching bands which played at lavish funerals (later called jazz funerals). Jazz_sentence_150

The instruments used by marching bands and dance bands became the instruments of jazz: brass, drums, and reeds tuned in the European 12-tone scale. Jazz_sentence_151

Small bands contained a combination of self-taught and formally educated musicians, many from the funeral procession tradition. Jazz_sentence_152

These bands traveled in black communities in the deep south. Jazz_sentence_153

Beginning in 1914, Creole and African-American musicians played in vaudeville shows which carried jazz to cities in the northern and western parts of the U.S. Jazz_sentence_154

In New Orleans, a white bandleader named Papa Jack Laine integrated blacks and whites in his marching band. Jazz_sentence_155

He was known as "the father of white jazz" because of the many top players he employed, such as George Brunies, Sharkey Bonano, and future members of the Original Dixieland Jass Band. Jazz_sentence_156

During the early 1900s, jazz was mostly performed in African-American and mulatto communities due to segregation laws. Jazz_sentence_157

Storyville brought jazz to a wider audience through tourists who visited the port city of New Orleans. Jazz_sentence_158

Many jazz musicians from African-American communities were hired to perform in bars and brothels. Jazz_sentence_159

These included Buddy Bolden and Jelly Roll Morton in addition to those from other communities, such as Lorenzo Tio and Alcide Nunez. Jazz_sentence_160

Louis Armstrong started his career in Storyville and found success in Chicago. Jazz_sentence_161

Storyville was shut down by the U.S. government in 1917. Jazz_sentence_162

Syncopation Jazz_section_14

Cornetist Buddy Bolden played in New Orleans from 1895 to 1906. Jazz_sentence_163

No recordings by him exist. Jazz_sentence_164

His band is credited with creating the big four: the first syncopated bass drum pattern to deviate from the standard on-the-beat march. Jazz_sentence_165

As the example below shows, the second half of the big four pattern is the habanera rhythm. Jazz_sentence_166


  • Jazz_item_4_4

Afro-Creole pianist Jelly Roll Morton began his career in Storyville. Jazz_sentence_167

Beginning in 1904, he toured with vaudeville shows to southern cities, Chicago, and New York City. Jazz_sentence_168

In 1905, he composed "Jelly Roll Blues", which became the first jazz arrangement in print when it was published in 1915. Jazz_sentence_169

In introduced more musicians to the New Orleans style. Jazz_sentence_170

Morton considered the tresillo/habanera, which he called the Spanish tinge, an essential ingredient of jazz. Jazz_sentence_171

"Now in one of my earliest tunes, "New Orleans Blues," you can notice the Spanish tinge. Jazz_sentence_172

In fact, if you can't manage to put tinges of Spanish in your tunes, you will never be able to get the right seasoning, I call it, for jazz." Jazz_sentence_173

An excerpt of "New Orleans Blues" is shown below. Jazz_sentence_174

In the excerpt, the left hand plays the tresillo rhythm, while the right hand plays variations on cinquillo. Jazz_sentence_175


  • Jazz_item_5_5

Morton was a crucial innovator in the evolution from the early jazz form known as ragtime to jazz piano, and could perform pieces in either style; in 1938, Morton made a series of recordings for the Library of Congress in which he demonstrated the difference between the two styles. Jazz_sentence_176

Morton's solos, however, were still close to ragtime, and were not merely improvisations over chord changes as in later jazz, but his use of the blues was of equal importance. Jazz_sentence_177

Swing in the early 20th century Jazz_section_15

Morton loosened ragtime's rigid rhythmic feeling, decreasing its embellishments and employing a swing feeling. Jazz_sentence_178

Swing is the most important and enduring African-based rhythmic technique used in jazz. Jazz_sentence_179

An oft quoted definition of swing by Louis Armstrong is: "if you don't feel it, you'll never know it." Jazz_sentence_180

The New Harvard Dictionary of Music states that swing is: "An intangible rhythmic momentum in jazz...Swing defies analysis; claims to its presence may inspire arguments." Jazz_sentence_181

The dictionary does nonetheless provide the useful description of triple subdivisions of the beat contrasted with duple subdivisions: swing superimposes six subdivisions of the beat over a basic pulse structure or four subdivisions. Jazz_sentence_182

This aspect of swing is far more prevalent in African-American music than in Afro-Caribbean music. Jazz_sentence_183

One aspect of swing, which is heard in more rhythmically complex Diaspora musics, places strokes in-between the triple and duple-pulse "grids". Jazz_sentence_184

New Orleans brass bands are a lasting influence, contributing horn players to the world of professional jazz with the distinct sound of the city whilst helping black children escape poverty. Jazz_sentence_185

The leader of New Orleans' Camelia Brass Band, D'Jalma Ganier, taught Louis Armstrong to play trumpet; Armstrong would then popularize the New Orleans style of trumpet playing, and then expand it. Jazz_sentence_186

Like Jelly Roll Morton, Armstrong is also credited with the abandonment of ragtime's stiffness in favor of swung notes. Jazz_sentence_187

Armstrong, perhaps more than any other musician, codified the rhythmic technique of swing in jazz and broadened the jazz solo vocabulary. Jazz_sentence_188

The Original Dixieland Jass Band made the music's first recordings early in 1917, and their "Livery Stable Blues" became the earliest released jazz record. Jazz_sentence_189

That year, numerous other bands made recordings featuring "jazz" in the title or band name, but most were ragtime or novelty records rather than jazz. Jazz_sentence_190

In February 1918 during World War I, James Reese Europe's "Hellfighters" infantry band took ragtime to Europe, then on their return recorded Dixieland standards including "Darktown Strutters' Ball". Jazz_sentence_191

Other regions Jazz_section_16

In the northeastern United States, a "hot" style of playing ragtime had developed, notably James Reese Europe's symphonic Clef Club orchestra in New York City, which played a benefit concert at Carnegie Hall in 1912. Jazz_sentence_192

The Baltimore rag style of Eubie Blake influenced James P. Johnson's development of stride piano playing, in which the right hand plays the melody, while the left hand provides the rhythm and bassline. Jazz_sentence_193

In Ohio and elsewhere in the mid-west the major influence was ragtime, until about 1919. Jazz_sentence_194

Around 1912, when the four-string banjo and saxophone came in, musicians began to improvise the melody line, but the harmony and rhythm remained unchanged. Jazz_sentence_195

A contemporary account states that blues could only be heard in jazz in the gut-bucket cabarets, which were generally looked down upon by the Black middle-class. Jazz_sentence_196

The Jazz Age Jazz_section_17

Main article: Jazz Age Jazz_sentence_197

From 1920 to 1933, Prohibition in the United States banned the sale of alcoholic drinks, resulting in illicit speakeasies which became lively venues of the "Jazz Age", hosting popular music, dance songs, novelty songs, and show tunes. Jazz_sentence_198

Jazz began to get a reputation as immoral, and many members of the older generations saw it as a threat to the old cultural values by promoting the decadent values of the Roaring 20s. Jazz_sentence_199

Henry van Dyke of Princeton University wrote, "... it is not music at all. Jazz_sentence_200

It's merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion." Jazz_sentence_201

The New York Times reported that Siberian villagers used jazz to scare away bears, but the villagers had used pots and pans; another story claimed that the fatal heart attack of a celebrated conductor was caused by jazz. Jazz_sentence_202

In 1919, Kid Ory's Original Creole Jazz Band of musicians from New Orleans began playing in San Francisco and Los Angeles, where in 1922 they became the first black jazz band of New Orleans origin to make recordings. Jazz_sentence_203

During the same year, Bessie Smith made her first recordings. Jazz_sentence_204

Chicago was developing "Hot Jazz", and King Oliver joined Bill Johnson. Jazz_sentence_205

Bix Beiderbecke formed The Wolverines in 1924. Jazz_sentence_206

Despite its Southern black origins, there was a larger market for jazzy dance music played by white orchestras. Jazz_sentence_207

In 1918, Paul Whiteman and his orchestra became a hit in San Francisco. Jazz_sentence_208

He signed a contract with Victor and became the top bandleader of the 1920s, giving hot jazz a white component, hiring white musicians such as Bix Beiderbecke, Jimmy Dorsey, Tommy Dorsey, Frankie Trumbauer, and Joe Venuti. Jazz_sentence_209

In 1924, Whiteman commissioned George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, which was premiered by his orchestra. Jazz_sentence_210

Jazz began to be recognized as a notable musical form. Jazz_sentence_211

Olin Downes, reviewing the concert in The New York Times, wrote, "This composition shows extraordinary talent, as it shows a young composer with aims that go far beyond those of his ilk, struggling with a form of which he is far from being master. Jazz_sentence_212

... Jazz_sentence_213

In spite of all this, he has expressed himself in a significant and, on the whole, highly original form. Jazz_sentence_214

... His first theme ... is no mere dance-tune ... it is an idea, or several ideas, correlated and combined in varying and contrasting rhythms that immediately intrigue the listener." Jazz_sentence_215

After Whiteman's band successfully toured Europe, huge hot jazz orchestras in theater pits caught on with other whites, including Fred Waring, Jean Goldkette, and Nathaniel Shilkret. Jazz_sentence_216

According to Mario Dunkel, Whiteman's success was based on a "rhetoric of domestication" according to which he had elevated and rendered valuable (read "white") a previously inchoate (read "black") kind of music. Jazz_sentence_217

Whiteman's success caused blacks to follow suit, including Earl Hines (who opened in The Grand Terrace Cafe in Chicago in 1928), Duke Ellington (who opened at the Cotton Club in Harlem in 1927), Lionel Hampton, Fletcher Henderson, Claude Hopkins, and Don Redman, with Henderson and Redman developing the "talking to one another" formula for "hot" swing music. Jazz_sentence_218

In 1924, Louis Armstrong joined the Fletcher Henderson dance band for a year, as featured soloist. Jazz_sentence_219

The original New Orleans style was polyphonic, with theme variation and simultaneous collective improvisation. Jazz_sentence_220

Armstrong was a master of his hometown style, but by the time he joined Henderson's band, he was already a trailblazer in a new phase of jazz, with its emphasis on arrangements and soloists. Jazz_sentence_221

Armstrong's solos went well beyond the theme-improvisation concept and extemporized on chords, rather than melodies. Jazz_sentence_222

According to Schuller, by comparison, the solos by Armstrong's bandmates (including a young Coleman Hawkins), sounded "stiff, stodgy," with "jerky rhythms and a grey undistinguished tone quality." Jazz_sentence_223

The following example shows a short excerpt of the straight melody of "Mandy, Make Up Your Mind" by George W. Meyer and Arthur Johnston (top), compared with Armstrong's solo improvisations (below) (recorded 1924). Jazz_sentence_224

Armstrong's solos were a significant factor in making jazz a true 20th-century language. Jazz_sentence_225

After leaving Henderson's group, Armstrong formed his Hot Five band, where he popularized scat singing. Jazz_sentence_226

Swing in the 1920s and 1930s Jazz_section_18

Main articles: Swing music and 1930s in jazz Jazz_sentence_227

The 1930s belonged to popular swing big bands, in which some virtuoso soloists became as famous as the band leaders. Jazz_sentence_228

Key figures in developing the "big" jazz band included bandleaders and arrangers Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, Harry James, Jimmie Lunceford, Glenn Miller and Artie Shaw. Jazz_sentence_229

Although it was a collective sound, swing also offered individual musicians a chance to "solo" and improvise melodic, thematic solos which could at times be complex "important" music. Jazz_sentence_230

Over time, social strictures regarding racial segregation began to relax in America: white bandleaders began to recruit black musicians and black bandleaders white ones. Jazz_sentence_231

In the mid-1930s, Benny Goodman hired pianist Teddy Wilson, vibraphonist Lionel Hampton and guitarist Charlie Christian to join small groups. Jazz_sentence_232

In the 1930s, Kansas City Jazz as exemplified by tenor saxophonist Lester Young marked the transition from big bands to the bebop influence of the 1940s. Jazz_sentence_233

An early 1940s style known as "jumping the blues" or jump blues used small combos, uptempo music and blues chord progressions, drawing on boogie-woogie from the 1930s. Jazz_sentence_234

The influence of Duke Ellington Jazz_section_19

While swing was reaching the height of its popularity, Duke Ellington spent the late 1920s and 1930s developing an innovative musical idiom for his orchestra. Jazz_sentence_235

Abandoning the conventions of swing, he experimented with orchestral sounds, harmony, and musical form with complex compositions that still translated well for popular audiences; some of his tunes became hits, and his own popularity spanned from the United States to Europe. Jazz_sentence_236

Ellington called his music American Music, rather than jazz, and liked to describe those who impressed him as "beyond category." Jazz_sentence_237

These included many musicians from his orchestra, some of whom are considered among the best in jazz in their own right, but it was Ellington who melded them into one of the most popular jazz orchestras in the history of jazz. Jazz_sentence_238

He often composed for the style and skills of these individuals, such as "Jeep's Blues" for Johnny Hodges, "Concerto for Cootie" for Cootie Williams (which later became "Do Nothing Till You Hear from Me" with Bob Russell's lyrics), and "The Mooche" for Tricky Sam Nanton and Bubber Miley. Jazz_sentence_239

He also recorded compositions written by his bandsmen, such as Juan Tizol's "Caravan" and "Perdido", which brought the "Spanish Tinge" to big-band jazz. Jazz_sentence_240

Several members of the orchestra remained with him for several decades. Jazz_sentence_241

The band reached a creative peak in the early 1940s, when Ellington and a small hand-picked group of his composers and arrangers wrote for an orchestra of distinctive voices who displayed tremendous creativity. Jazz_sentence_242

Beginnings of European jazz Jazz_section_20

As only a limited number of American jazz records were released in Europe, European jazz traces many of its roots to American artists such as James Reese Europe, Paul Whiteman, and Lonnie Johnson, who visited Europe during and after World War I. Jazz_sentence_243

It was their live performances which inspired European audiences' interest in jazz, as well as the interest in all things American (and therefore exotic) which accompanied the economic and political woes of Europe during this time. Jazz_sentence_244

The beginnings of a distinct European style of jazz began to emerge in this interwar period. Jazz_sentence_245

British jazz began with a tour by the Original Dixieland Jazz Band in 1919. Jazz_sentence_246

In 1926, Fred Elizalde and His Cambridge Undergraduates began broadcasting on the BBC. Jazz_sentence_247

Thereafter jazz became an important element in many leading dance orchestras, and jazz instrumentalists became numerous. Jazz_sentence_248

This style entered full swing in France with the Quintette du Hot Club de France, which began in 1934. Jazz_sentence_249

Much of this French jazz was a combination of African-American jazz and the symphonic styles in which French musicians were well-trained; in this, it is easy to see the inspiration taken from Paul Whiteman since his style was also a fusion of the two. Jazz_sentence_250

Belgian guitarist Django Reinhardt popularized gypsy jazz, a mix of 1930s American swing, French dance hall "musette", and Eastern European folk with a languid, seductive feel; the main instruments were steel stringed guitar, violin, and double bass. Jazz_sentence_251

Solos pass from one player to another as guitar and bass form the rhythm section. Jazz_sentence_252

Some researchers believe Eddie Lang and Joe Venuti pioneered the guitar-violin partnership characteristic of the genre, which was brought to France after they had been heard live or on Okeh Records in the late 1920s. Jazz_sentence_253

Post-war jazz Jazz_section_21

See also: 1940s in jazz, 1950s in jazz, 1960s in jazz, and 1970s in jazz Jazz_sentence_254

The outbreak of World War II marked a turning point for jazz. Jazz_sentence_255

The swing-era jazz of the previous decade had challenged other popular music as being representative of the nation's culture, with big bands reaching the height of the style's success by the early 1940s; swing acts and big bands traveled with U.S. military overseas to Europe, where it also became popular. Jazz_sentence_256

Stateside, however, the war presented difficulties for the big-band format: conscription shortened the number of musicians available; the military's need for shellac (commonly used for pressing gramophone records) limited record production; a shortage of rubber (also due to the war effort) discouraged bands from touring via road travel; and a demand by the musicians' union for a commercial recording ban limited music distribution between 1942 and 1944. Jazz_sentence_257

Many of the big bands who were deprived of experienced musicians because of the war effort began to enlist young players who were below the age for conscription, as was the case with saxophonist Stan Getz's entry in a band as a teenager. Jazz_sentence_258

This coincided with a nationwide resurgence in the Dixieland style of pre-swing jazz; performers such as clarinetist George Lewis, cornetist Bill Davison, and trombonist Turk Murphy were hailed by conservative jazz critics as more authentic than the big bands. Jazz_sentence_259

Elsewhere, with the limitations on recording, small groups of young musicians developed a more uptempo, improvisational style of jazz, collaborating and experimenting with new ideas for melodic development, rhythmic language, and harmonic substitution, during informal, late-night jam sessions hosted in small clubs and apartments. Jazz_sentence_260

Key figures in this development were largely based in New York and included pianists Thelonious Monk and Bud Powell, drummers Max Roach and Kenny Clarke, saxophonist Charlie Parker, and trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. Jazz_sentence_261

This musical development became known as bebop. Jazz_sentence_262

Bebop and subsequent post-war jazz developments featured a wider set of notes, played in more complex patterns and at faster tempos than previous jazz. Jazz_sentence_263

According to Clive James, bebop was "the post-war musical development which tried to ensure that jazz would no longer be the spontaneous sound of joy ... Students of race relations in America are generally agreed that the exponents of post-war jazz were determined, with good reason, to present themselves as challenging artists rather than tame entertainers." Jazz_sentence_264

The end of the war marked "a revival of the spirit of experimentation and musical pluralism under which it had been conceived", along with "the beginning of a decline in the popularity of jazz music in America", according to American academic Michael H. Burchett. Jazz_sentence_265

With the rise of bebop and the end of the swing era after the war, jazz lost its cachet as pop music. Jazz_sentence_266

Vocalists of the famous big bands moved on to being marketed and performing as solo pop singers; these included Frank Sinatra, Peggy Lee, Dick Haymes, and Doris Day. Jazz_sentence_267

Older musicians who still performed their pre-war jazz, such as Armstrong and Ellington, were gradually viewed in the mainstream as passé. Jazz_sentence_268

Other younger performers, such as singer Big Joe Turner and saxophonist Louis Jordan, who were discouraged by bebop's increasing complexity pursued more lucrative endeavors in rhythm and blues, jump blues, and eventually rock and roll. Jazz_sentence_269

Some, including Gillespie, composed intricate yet danceable pieces for bebop musicians in an effort to make them more accessible, but bebop largely remained on the fringes of American audiences' purview. Jazz_sentence_270

"The new direction of postwar jazz drew a wealth of critical acclaim, but it steadily declined in popularity as it developed a reputation as an academic genre that was largely inaccessible to mainstream audiences", Burchett said. Jazz_sentence_271

"The quest to make jazz more relevant to popular audiences, while retaining its artistic integrity, is a constant and prevalent theme in the history of postwar jazz." Jazz_sentence_272

During its swing period, jazz had been an uncomplicated musical scene; according to Paul Trynka, this changed in the post-war years: Jazz_sentence_273

Bebop Jazz_section_22

Main article: Bebop Jazz_sentence_274

In the early 1940s, bebop-style performers began to shift jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music". Jazz_sentence_275

The most influential bebop musicians included saxophonist Charlie Parker, pianists Bud Powell and Thelonious Monk, trumpeters Dizzy Gillespie and Clifford Brown, and drummer Max Roach. Jazz_sentence_276

Divorcing itself from dance music, bebop established itself more as an art form, thus lessening its potential popular and commercial appeal. Jazz_sentence_277

Composer Gunther Schuller wrote: "In 1943 I heard the great Earl Hines band which had Bird in it and all those other great musicians. Jazz_sentence_278

They were playing all the flatted fifth chords and all the modern harmonies and substitutions and Dizzy Gillespie runs in the trumpet section work. Jazz_sentence_279

Two years later I read that that was 'bop' and the beginning of modern jazz ... but the band never made recordings." Jazz_sentence_280

Dizzy Gillespie wrote: "People talk about the Hines band being 'the incubator of bop' and the leading exponents of that music ended up in the Hines band. Jazz_sentence_281

But people also have the erroneous impression that the music was new. Jazz_sentence_282

It was not. Jazz_sentence_283

The music evolved from what went before. Jazz_sentence_284

It was the same basic music. Jazz_sentence_285

The difference was in how you got from here to here to here...naturally each age has got its own shit." Jazz_sentence_286

Since bebop was meant to be listened to, not danced to, it could use faster tempos. Jazz_sentence_287

Drumming shifted to a more elusive and explosive style, in which the ride cymbal was used to keep time while the snare and bass drum were used for accents. Jazz_sentence_288

This led to a highly syncopated music with a linear rhythmic complexity. Jazz_sentence_289

Bebop musicians employed several harmonic devices which were not previously typical in jazz, engaging in a more abstracted form of chord-based improvisation. Jazz_sentence_290

Bebop scales are traditional scales with an added chromatic passing note; bebop also uses "passing" chords, substitute chords, and altered chords. Jazz_sentence_291

New forms of chromaticism and dissonance were introduced into jazz, and the dissonant tritone (or "flatted fifth") interval became the "most important interval of bebop" Chord progressions for bebop tunes were often taken directly from popular swing-era tunes and reused with a new and more complex melody and/or reharmonized with more complex chord progressions to form new compositions, a practice which was already well-established in earlier jazz, but came to be central to the bebop style. Jazz_sentence_292

Bebop made use of several relatively common chord progressions, such as blues (at base, I-IV-V, but often infused with ii-V motion) and "rhythm changes" (I-VI-ii-V) – the chords to the 1930s pop standard "I Got Rhythm". Jazz_sentence_293

Late bop also moved towards extended forms that represented a departure from pop and show tunes. Jazz_sentence_294

The harmonic development in bebop is often traced back to a moment experienced by Charlie Parker while performing "Cherokee" at Clark Monroe's Uptown House, New York, in early 1942. Jazz_sentence_295

"I'd been getting bored with the stereotyped changes that were being used...and I kept thinking there's bound to be something else. Jazz_sentence_296

I could hear it sometimes. Jazz_sentence_297

I couldn't play it...I was working over 'Cherokee,' and, as I did, I found that by using the higher intervals of a chord as a melody line and backing them with appropriately related changes, I could play the thing I'd been hearing. Jazz_sentence_298

It came alive." Jazz_sentence_299

Gerhard Kubik postulates that harmonic development in bebop sprang from blues and African-related tonal sensibilities rather than 20th-century Western classical music. Jazz_sentence_300

"Auditory inclinations were the African legacy in [Parker's] life, reconfirmed by the experience of the blues tonal system, a sound world at odds with the Western diatonic chord categories. Jazz_sentence_301

Bebop musicians eliminated Western-style functional harmony in their music while retaining the strong central tonality of the blues as a basis for drawing upon various African matrices." Jazz_sentence_302

Samuel Floyd states that blues was both the bedrock and propelling force of bebop, bringing about a new harmonic conception using extended chord structures that led to unprecedented harmonic and melodic variety, a developed and even more highly syncopated, linear rhythmic complexity and a melodic angularity in which the blue note of the fifth degree was established as an important melodic-harmonic device; and reestablishment of the blues as the primary organizing and functional principle. Jazz_sentence_303

Kubik wrote: Jazz_sentence_304

These divergences from the jazz mainstream of the time met a divided, sometimes hostile response among fans and musicians, especially swing players who bristled at the new harmonic sounds. Jazz_sentence_305

To hostile critics, bebop seemed filled with "racing, nervous phrases". Jazz_sentence_306

But despite the friction, by the 1950s bebop had become an accepted part of the jazz vocabulary. Jazz_sentence_307

Afro-Cuban jazz (cu-bop) Jazz_section_23

Main article: Afro-Cuban jazz Jazz_sentence_308

Machito and Mario Bauza Jazz_section_24

The general consensus among musicians and musicologists is that the first original jazz piece to be overtly based in clave was "Tanga" (1943), composed by Cuban-born Mario Bauza and recorded by Machito and his Afro-Cubans in New York City. Jazz_sentence_309

"Tanga" began as a spontaneous descarga (Cuban jam session), with jazz solos superimposed on top. Jazz_sentence_310

This was the birth of Afro-Cuban jazz. Jazz_sentence_311

The use of clave brought the African timeline, or key pattern, into jazz. Jazz_sentence_312

Music organized around key patterns convey a two-celled (binary) structure, which is a complex level of African cross-rhythm. Jazz_sentence_313

Within the context of jazz, however, harmony is the primary referent, not rhythm. Jazz_sentence_314

The harmonic progression can begin on either side of clave, and the harmonic "one" is always understood to be "one". Jazz_sentence_315

If the progression begins on the "three-side" of clave, it is said to be in 3–2 clave (shown below). Jazz_sentence_316

If the progression begins on the "two-side", it is in 2–3 clave. Jazz_sentence_317


  • Jazz_item_6_6

Dizzy Gillespie and Chano Pozo Jazz_section_25

Mario Bauzá introduced bebop innovator Dizzy Gillespie to Cuban conga drummer and composer Chano Pozo. Jazz_sentence_318

Gillespie and Pozo's brief collaboration produced some of the most enduring Afro-Cuban jazz standards. Jazz_sentence_319

"Manteca" (1947) is the first jazz standard to be rhythmically based on clave. Jazz_sentence_320

According to Gillespie, Pozo composed the layered, contrapuntal guajeos (Afro-Cuban ostinatos) of the A section and the introduction, while Gillespie wrote the bridge. Jazz_sentence_321

Gillespie recounted: "If I'd let it go like [Chano] wanted it, it would have been strictly Afro-Cuban all the way. Jazz_sentence_322

There wouldn't have been a bridge. Jazz_sentence_323

I thought I was writing an eight-bar bridge, but ... Jazz_sentence_324

I had to keep going and ended up writing a sixteen-bar bridge." Jazz_sentence_325

The bridge gave "Manteca" a typical jazz harmonic structure, setting the piece apart from Bauza's modal "Tanga" of a few years earlier. Jazz_sentence_326

Gillespie's collaboration with Pozo brought specific African-based rhythms into bebop. Jazz_sentence_327

While pushing the boundaries of harmonic improvisation, cu-bop also drew from African rhythm. Jazz_sentence_328

Jazz arrangements with a Latin A section and a swung B section, with all choruses swung during solos, became common practice with many Latin tunes of the jazz standard repertoire. Jazz_sentence_329

This approach can be heard on pre-1980 recordings of "Manteca", "A Night in Tunisia", "Tin Tin Deo", and "On Green Dolphin Street". Jazz_sentence_330

African cross-rhythm Jazz_section_26

Cuban percussionist Mongo Santamaria first recorded his composition "Afro Blue" in 1959. Jazz_sentence_331

"Afro Blue" was the first jazz standard built upon a typical African three-against-two (3:2) cross-rhythm, or hemiola. Jazz_sentence_332

The piece begins with the bass repeatedly playing 6 cross-beats per each measure of 8, or 6 cross-beats per 4 main beats—6:4 (two cells of 3:2). Jazz_sentence_333

The following example shows the original ostinato "Afro Blue" bass line. Jazz_sentence_334

The cross noteheads indicate the main beats (not bass notes). Jazz_sentence_335


When John Coltrane covered "Afro Blue" in 1963, he inverted the metric hierarchy, interpreting the tune as a 4 jazz waltz with duple cross-beats superimposed (2:3). Jazz_sentence_336

Originally a B♭ pentatonic blues, Coltrane expanded the harmonic structure of "Afro Blue." Jazz_sentence_337

Perhaps the most respected Afro-cuban jazz combo of the late 1950s was vibraphonist Cal Tjader's band. Jazz_sentence_338

Tjader had Mongo Santamaria, Armando Peraza, and Willie Bobo on his early recording dates. Jazz_sentence_339

Dixieland revival Jazz_section_27

In the late 1940s, there was a revival of Dixieland, harking back to the contrapuntal New Orleans style. Jazz_sentence_340

This was driven in large part by record company reissues of jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the 1930s. Jazz_sentence_341

There were two types of musicians involved in the revival: the first group was made up of those who had begun their careers playing in the traditional style and were returning to it (or continuing what they had been playing all along), such as Bob Crosby's Bobcats, Max Kaminsky, Eddie Condon, and Wild Bill Davison. Jazz_sentence_342

Most of these players were originally Midwesterners, although there were a small number of New Orleans musicians involved. Jazz_sentence_343

The second group of revivalists consisted of younger musicians, such as those in the Lu Watters band, Conrad Janis, and Ward Kimball and his Firehouse Five Plus Two Jazz Band. Jazz_sentence_344

By the late 1940s, Louis Armstrong's Allstars band became a leading ensemble. Jazz_sentence_345

Through the 1950s and 1960s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention to it. Jazz_sentence_346

Hard bop Jazz_section_28

Main article: Hard bop Jazz_sentence_347

Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that incorporates influences from blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel, especially in saxophone and piano playing. Jazz_sentence_348

Hard bop was developed in the mid-1950s, coalescing in 1953 and 1954; it developed partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early 1950s and paralleled the rise of rhythm and blues. Jazz_sentence_349

Miles Davis' 1954 performance of "Walkin'" at the first Newport Jazz Festival announced the style to the jazz world. Jazz_sentence_350

The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, led by Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford Brown, were leaders in the hard bop movement with Davis. Jazz_sentence_351

Modal jazz Jazz_section_29

Main article: Modal jazz Jazz_sentence_352

Modal jazz is a development which began in the later 1950s which takes the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz_sentence_353

Previously, a solo was meant to fit into a given chord progression, but with modal jazz, the soloist creates a melody using one (or a small number of) modes. Jazz_sentence_354

The emphasis is thus shifted from harmony to melody: "Historically, this caused a seismic shift among jazz musicians, away from thinking vertically (the chord), and towards a more horizontal approach (the scale)," explained pianist Mark Levine. Jazz_sentence_355

The modal theory stems from a work by George Russell. Jazz_sentence_356

Miles Davis introduced the concept to the greater jazz world with Kind of Blue (1959), an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz which would become the best selling jazz album of all time. Jazz_sentence_357

In contrast to Davis' earlier work with hard bop and its complex chord progression and improvisation, Kind of Blue was composed as a series of modal sketches in which the musicians were given scales that defined the parameters of their improvisation and style. Jazz_sentence_358

"I didn't write out the music for Kind of Blue, but brought in sketches for what everybody was supposed to play because I wanted a lot of spontaneity," recalled Davis. Jazz_sentence_359

The track "So What" has only two chords: D-7 and E♭-7. Jazz_sentence_360

Other innovators in this style include Jackie McLean, and two of the musicians who had also played on Kind of Blue: John Coltrane and Bill Evans. Jazz_sentence_361

Free jazz Jazz_section_30

Main article: Free jazz Jazz_sentence_362

Free jazz, and the related form of avant-garde jazz, broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of world music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing. Jazz_sentence_363

While loosely inspired by bebop, free jazz tunes gave players much more latitude; the loose harmony and tempo was deemed controversial when this approach was first developed. Jazz_sentence_364

The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw from myriad styles and genres. Jazz_sentence_365

The first major stirrings came in the 1950s with the early work of Ornette Coleman (whose 1960 album Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation coined the term) and Cecil Taylor. Jazz_sentence_366

In the 1960s, exponents included Albert Ayler, Gato Barbieri, Carla Bley, Don Cherry, Larry Coryell, John Coltrane, Bill Dixon, Jimmy Giuffre, Steve Lacy, Michael Mantler, Sun Ra, Roswell Rudd, Pharoah Sanders, and John Tchicai. Jazz_sentence_367

In developing his late style, Coltrane was especially influenced by the dissonance of Ayler's trio with bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Sunny Murray, a rhythm section honed with Cecil Taylor as leader. Jazz_sentence_368

In November 1961, Coltrane played a gig at the Village Vanguard, which resulted in the classic Chasin' the 'Trane, which Down Beat magazine panned as "anti-jazz". Jazz_sentence_369

On his 1961 tour of France, he was booed, but persevered, signing with the new Impulse! Jazz_sentence_370 Records in 1960 and turning it into "the house that Trane built", while championing many younger free jazz musicians, notably Archie Shepp, who often played with trumpeter Bill Dixon, who organized the 4-day "October Revolution in Jazz" in Manhattan in 1964, the first free jazz festival. Jazz_sentence_371

A series of recordings with the Classic Quartet in the first half of 1965 show Coltrane's playing becoming increasingly abstract, with greater incorporation of devices like multiphonics, utilization of overtones, and playing in the altissimo register, as well as a mutated return to Coltrane's sheets of sound. Jazz_sentence_372

In the studio, he all but abandoned his soprano to concentrate on the tenor saxophone. Jazz_sentence_373

In addition, the quartet responded to the leader by playing with increasing freedom. Jazz_sentence_374

The group's evolution can be traced through the recordings The John Coltrane Quartet Plays, Living Space and Transition (both June 1965), New Thing at Newport (July 1965), Sun Ship (August 1965), and First Meditations (September 1965). Jazz_sentence_375

In June 1965, Coltrane and 10 other musicians recorded Ascension, a 40-minute-long piece without breaks that included adventurous solos by young avante-garde musicians as well as Coltrane, and was controversial primarily for the collective improvisation sections that separated the solos. Jazz_sentence_376

Dave Liebman later called it "the torch that lit the free jazz thing.". Jazz_sentence_377

After recording with the quartet over the next few months, Coltrane invited Pharoah Sanders to join the band in September 1965. Jazz_sentence_378

While Coltrane used over-blowing frequently as an emotional exclamation-point, Sanders would opt to overblow his entire solo, resulting in a constant screaming and screeching in the altissimo range of the instrument. Jazz_sentence_379

Free jazz in Europe Jazz_section_31

Free jazz was played in Europe in part because musicians such as Ayler, Taylor, Steve Lacy, and Eric Dolphy spent extended periods of time there, and European musicians such as Michael Mantler and John Tchicai traveled to the U.S. to experience American music firsthand. Jazz_sentence_380

European contemporary jazz was shaped by Peter Brötzmann, John Surman, Krzysztof Komeda, Zbigniew Namysłowski, Tomasz Stanko, Lars Gullin, Joe Harriott, Albert Mangelsdorff, Kenny Wheeler, Graham Collier, Michael Garrick and Mike Westbrook. Jazz_sentence_381

They were eager to develop approaches to music that reflected their heritage. Jazz_sentence_382

Since the 1960s, creative centers of jazz in Europe have developed, such as the creative jazz scene in Amsterdam. Jazz_sentence_383

Following the work of drummer Han Bennink and pianist Misha Mengelberg, musicians started to explore by improvising collectively until a form (melody, rhythm, a famous song) is found Jazz critic Kevin Whitehead documented the free jazz scene in Amsterdam and some of its main exponents such as the ICP (Instant Composers Pool) orchestra in his book New Dutch Swing. Jazz_sentence_384

Since the 1990s Keith Jarrett has defended free jazz from criticism. Jazz_sentence_385

British writer Stuart Nicholson has argued European contemporary jazz has an identity different from American jazz and follows a different trajectory. Jazz_sentence_386

Latin jazz Jazz_section_32

Main article: Latin jazz Jazz_sentence_387

Latin jazz is jazz that employs Latin American rhythms and is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply jazz from Latin America. Jazz_sentence_388

A more precise term might be Afro-Latin jazz, as the jazz subgenre typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa or exhibit an African rhythmic influence beyond what is ordinarily heard in other jazz. Jazz_sentence_389

The two main categories of Latin jazz are Afro-Cuban jazz and Brazilian jazz. Jazz_sentence_390

In the 1960s and 1970s, many jazz musicians had only a basic understanding of Cuban and Brazilian music, and jazz compositions which used Cuban or Brazilian elements were often referred to as "Latin tunes", with no distinction between a Cuban son montuno and a Brazilian bossa nova. Jazz_sentence_391

Even as late as 2000, in Mark Gridley's Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, a bossa nova bass line is referred to as a "Latin bass figure." Jazz_sentence_392

It was not uncommon during the 1960s and 1970s to hear a conga playing a Cuban tumbao while the drumset and bass played a Brazilian bossa nova pattern. Jazz_sentence_393

Many jazz standards such as "Manteca", "On Green Dolphin Street" and "Song for My Father" have a "Latin" A section and a swung B section. Jazz_sentence_394

Typically, the band would only play an even-eighth "Latin" feel in the A section of the head and swing throughout all of the solos. Jazz_sentence_395

Latin jazz specialists like Cal Tjader tended to be the exception. Jazz_sentence_396

For example, on a 1959 live Tjader recording of "A Night in Tunisia", pianist Vince Guaraldi soloed through the entire form over an authentic mambo. Jazz_sentence_397

Afro-Cuban jazz renaissance Jazz_section_33

For most of its history, Afro-Cuban jazz had been a matter of superimposing jazz phrasing over Cuban rhythms. Jazz_sentence_398

But by the end of the 1970s, a new generation of New York City musicians had emerged who were fluent in both salsa dance music and jazz, leading to a new level of integration of jazz and Cuban rhythms. Jazz_sentence_399

This era of creativity and vitality is best represented by the Gonzalez brothers Jerry (congas and trumpet) and Andy (bass). Jazz_sentence_400

During 1974–1976, they were members of one of Eddie Palmieri's most experimental salsa groups: salsa was the medium, but Palmieri was stretching the form in new ways. Jazz_sentence_401

He incorporated parallel fourths, with McCoy Tyner-type vamps. Jazz_sentence_402

The innovations of Palmieri, the Gonzalez brothers and others led to an Afro-Cuban jazz renaissance in New York City. Jazz_sentence_403

This occurred in parallel with developments in Cuba The first Cuban band of this new wave was Irakere. Jazz_sentence_404

Their "Chékere-son" (1976) introduced a style of "Cubanized" bebop-flavored horn lines that departed from the more angular guajeo-based lines which were typical of Cuban popular music and Latin jazz up until that time. Jazz_sentence_405

It was based on Charlie Parker's composition "Billie's Bounce", jumbled together in a way that fused clave and bebop horn lines. Jazz_sentence_406

In spite of the ambivalence of some band members towards Irakere's Afro-Cuban folkloric / jazz fusion, their experiments forever changed Cuban jazz: their innovations are still heard in the high level of harmonic and rhythmic complexity in Cuban jazz and in the jazzy and complex contemporary form of popular dance music known as timba. Jazz_sentence_407

Afro-Brazilian jazz Jazz_section_34

Brazilian jazz, such as bossa nova, is derived from samba, with influences from jazz and other 20th-century classical and popular music styles. Jazz_sentence_408

Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English, whilst the related jazz-samba is an adaptation of street samba into jazz. Jazz_sentence_409

The bossa nova style was pioneered by Brazilians João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim and was made popular by Elizete Cardoso's recording of "Chega de Saudade" on the Canção do Amor Demais LP. Jazz_sentence_410

Gilberto's initial releases, and the 1959 film Black Orpheus, achieved significant popularity in Latin America; this spread to North America via visiting American jazz musicians. Jazz_sentence_411

The resulting recordings by Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz cemented bossa nova's popularity and led to a worldwide boom, with 1963's Getz/Gilberto, numerous recordings by famous jazz performers such as Ella Fitzgerald and Frank Sinatra, and the eventual entrenchment of the bossa nova style as a lasting influence in world music. Jazz_sentence_412

Brazilian percussionists such as Airto Moreira and Naná Vasconcelos also influenced jazz internationally by introducing Afro-Brazilian folkloric instruments and rhythms into a wide variety of jazz styles, thus attracting a greater audience to them. Jazz_sentence_413

African-inspired Jazz_section_35

Rhythm Jazz_section_36

The first jazz standard composed by a non-Latino to use an overt African 8 cross-rhythm was Wayne Shorter's "Footprints" (1967). Jazz_sentence_414

On the version recorded on Miles Smiles by Miles Davis, the bass switches to a 4 tresillo figure at 2:20. Jazz_sentence_415

"Footprints" is not, however, a Latin jazz tune: African rhythmic structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter (bass) and Tony Williams (drums) via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Jazz_sentence_416

Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent. Jazz_sentence_417

The following example shows the 8 and 4 forms of the bass line. Jazz_sentence_418

The slashed noteheads indicate the main beats (not bass notes), where one ordinarily taps their foot to "keep time." Jazz_sentence_419


Pentatonic scales Jazz_section_37

The use of pentatonic scales was another trend associated with Africa. Jazz_sentence_420

The use of pentatonic scales in Africa probably goes back thousands of years. Jazz_sentence_421

McCoy Tyner perfected the use of the pentatonic scale in his solos, and also used parallel fifths and fourths, which are common harmonies in West Africa. Jazz_sentence_422

The minor pentatonic scale is often used in blues improvisation, and like a blues scale, a minor pentatonic scale can be played over all of the chords in a blues. Jazz_sentence_423

The following pentatonic lick was played over blues changes by Joe Henderson on Horace Silver's "African Queen" (1965). Jazz_sentence_424

Jazz pianist, theorist, and educator Mark Levine refers to the scale generated by beginning on the fifth step of a pentatonic scale as the V pentatonic scale. Jazz_sentence_425

Levine points out that the V pentatonic scale works for all three chords of the standard II-V-I jazz progression. Jazz_sentence_426

This is a very common progression, used in pieces such as Miles Davis' "Tune Up." Jazz_sentence_427

The following example shows the V pentatonic scale over a II-V-I progression. Jazz_sentence_428

Accordingly, John Coltrane's "Giant Steps" (1960), with its 26 chords per 16 bars, can be played using only three pentatonic scales. Jazz_sentence_429

Coltrane studied Nicolas Slonimsky's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns, which contains material that is virtually identical to portions of "Giant Steps". Jazz_sentence_430

The harmonic complexity of "Giant Steps" is on the level of the most advanced 20th-century art music. Jazz_sentence_431

Superimposing the pentatonic scale over "Giant Steps" is not merely a matter of harmonic simplification, but also a sort of "Africanizing" of the piece, which provides an alternate approach for soloing. Jazz_sentence_432

Mark Levine observes that when mixed in with more conventional "playing the changes", pentatonic scales provide "structure and a feeling of increased space." Jazz_sentence_433

Sacred and liturgical jazz Jazz_section_38

Main article: Sacred jazz Jazz_sentence_434

As noted above, jazz has incorporated from its inception aspects of African-American sacred music including spirituals and hymns. Jazz_sentence_435

Secular jazz musicians often performed renditions of spirituals and hymns as part of their repertoire or isolated compositions such as "Come Sunday," part of "Black and Beige Suite" by Duke Ellington. Jazz_sentence_436

Later many other jazz artists borrowed from black gospel music. Jazz_sentence_437

However, it was only after World War II that a few jazz musicians began to compose and perform extended works intended for religious settings and/or as religious expression. Jazz_sentence_438

Since the 1950s, sacred and liturgical music has been performed and recorded by many prominent jazz composers and musicians. Jazz_sentence_439

The "Abyssinian Mass" by Wynton Marsalis (Blueengine Records, 2016) is a recent example. Jazz_sentence_440

Unfortunately, relatively little has been written about sacred and liturgical jazz. Jazz_sentence_441

In a 2013 doctoral dissertation, Angelo Versace examined the development of sacred jazz in the 1950s using disciplines of musicology and history. Jazz_sentence_442

He noted that the traditions of black gospel music and jazz were combined in the 1950s to produce a new genre, "sacred jazz." Jazz_sentence_443

Versace maintained that the religious intent separates sacred from secular jazz. Jazz_sentence_444

Most prominent in initiating the sacred jazz movement were pianist and composer Mary Lou Williams, known for her jazz masses in the 1950s and Duke Ellington. Jazz_sentence_445

Prior to his death in 1974 in response to contacts from Grace Cathedral in San Francisco, Duke Ellington wrote three Sacred Concerts: 1965 - A Concert of Sacred Music; 1968 - Second Sacred Concert; 1973 - Third Sacred Concert. Jazz_sentence_446

The most prominent form of sacred and liturgical jazz is the jazz mass. Jazz_sentence_447

Although most often performed in a concert setting rather than church worship setting, this form has many examples. Jazz_sentence_448

An eminent example of composers of the jazz mass was Mary Lou Williams. Jazz_sentence_449

Williams converted to Catholicism in 1957, and proceeded to compose three masses in the jazz idiom. Jazz_sentence_450

One was composed in 1968 to honor the recently assassinated Martin Luther King Jr. and the third was commissioned by a pontifical commission. Jazz_sentence_451

It was performed once in 1975 in St Patrick's Cathedral in New York City. Jazz_sentence_452

However the Catholic church has not embraced jazz as appropriate for worship. Jazz_sentence_453

In 1966 Joe Masters recorded "Jazz Mass" for Columbia Records. Jazz_sentence_454

A jazz ensemble was joined by soloists and choir using the English text of the Roman Catholic Mass. Jazz_sentence_455

Other examples include "Jazz Mass in Concert" by Lalo Schiffrin(Aleph Records, 1998, UPC 0651702632725) and "Jazz Mass" by Vince Guaraldi (Fantasy Records, 1965). Jazz_sentence_456

In England, classical composer Will Todd recorded his "Jazz Missa Brevis" with a jazz ensemble, soloists and the St Martin's Voices on a 2018 Signum Records release, "Passion Music/Jazz Missa Brevis" also released as "Mass in Blue," and jazz organist James Taylor composed "The Rochester Mass" (Cherry Red Records, 2015). Jazz_sentence_457

In 2013, Versace put forth bassist Ike Sturm and New York composer Deanna Witkowski as contemporary exemplars of sacred and liturgical jazz. Jazz_sentence_458

Jazz fusion Jazz_section_39

Main article: Jazz fusion Jazz_sentence_459

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa. Jazz_sentence_460

Jazz fusion often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, complex chords, and harmonies. Jazz_sentence_461

According to AllMusic: Jazz_sentence_462

Miles Davis' new directions Jazz_section_40

In 1969, Davis fully embraced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way, which can be considered his first fusion album. Jazz_sentence_463

Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero, this quiet, static album would be equally influential to the development of ambient music. Jazz_sentence_464

As Davis recalls: Jazz_sentence_465

Two contributors to In a Silent Way also joined organist Larry Young to create one of the early acclaimed fusion albums: Emergency! Jazz_sentence_466

(1969) by The Tony Williams Lifetime. Jazz_sentence_467

Psychedelic-jazz Jazz_section_41

Weather Report Jazz_section_42

Weather Report's self-titled electronic and psychedelic Weather Report debut album caused a sensation in the jazz world on its arrival in 1971, thanks to the pedigree of the group's members (including percussionist Airto Moreira), and their unorthodox approach to music. Jazz_sentence_468

The album featured a softer sound than would be the case in later years (predominantly using acoustic bass with Shorter exclusively playing soprano saxophone, and with no synthesizers involved), but is still considered a classic of early fusion. Jazz_sentence_469

It built on the avant-garde experiments which Joe Zawinul and Shorter had pioneered with Miles Davis on Bitches Brew, including an avoidance of head-and-chorus composition in favour of continuous rhythm and movement – but took the music further. Jazz_sentence_470

To emphasise the group's rejection of standard methodology, the album opened with the inscrutable avant-garde atmospheric piece "Milky Way", which featured by Shorter's extremely muted saxophone inducing vibrations in Zawinul's piano strings while the latter pedalled the instrument. Jazz_sentence_471

Down Beat described the album as "music beyond category", and awarded it Album of the Year in the magazine's polls that year. Jazz_sentence_472

Weather Report's subsequent releases were creative funk-jazz works. Jazz_sentence_473

Jazz-rock Jazz_section_43

Although some jazz purists protested against the blend of jazz and rock, many jazz innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. Jazz_sentence_474

As well as the electric instruments of rock (such as electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano and synthesizer keyboards), fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals, wah-wah pedals and other effects that were used by 1970s-era rock bands. Jazz_sentence_475

Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis, Eddie Harris, keyboardists Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, and Herbie Hancock, vibraphonist Gary Burton, drummer Tony Williams (drummer), violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, guitarists Larry Coryell, Al Di Meola, John McLaughlin, Ryo Kawasaki, and Frank Zappa, saxophonist Wayne Shorter and bassists Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke. Jazz_sentence_476

Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan, where the band Casiopea released more than thirty fusion albums. Jazz_sentence_477

According to jazz writer Stuart Nicholson, "just as free jazz appeared on the verge of creating a whole new musical language in the 1960s ... jazz-rock briefly suggested the promise of doing the same" with albums such as Williams' Emergency! Jazz_sentence_478

(1970) and Davis' Agharta (1975), which Nicholson said "suggested the potential of evolving into something that might eventually define itself as a wholly independent genre quite apart from the sound and conventions of anything that had gone before." Jazz_sentence_479

This development was stifled by commercialism, Nicholson said, as the genre "mutated into a peculiar species of jazz-inflected pop music that eventually took up residence on FM radio" at the end of the 1970s. Jazz_sentence_480

Jazz-funk Jazz_section_44

Main article: Jazz-funk Jazz_sentence_481

By the mid-1970s, the sound known as jazz-funk had developed, characterized by a strong back beat (groove), electrified sounds and, often, the presence of electronic analog synthesizers. Jazz_sentence_482

Jazz-funk also draws influences from traditional African music, Afro-Cuban rhythms and Jamaican reggae, notably Kingston bandleader Sonny Bradshaw. Jazz_sentence_483

Another feature is the shift of emphasis from improvisation to composition: arrangements, melody and overall writing became important. Jazz_sentence_484

The integration of funk, soul, and R&B music into jazz resulted in the creation of a genre whose spectrum is wide and ranges from strong jazz improvisation to soul, funk or disco with jazz arrangements, jazz riffs and jazz solos, and sometimes soul vocals. Jazz_sentence_485

Early examples are Herbie Hancock's Headhunters band and Miles Davis' On the Corner album, which, in 1972, began Davis' foray into jazz-funk and was, he claimed, an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. Jazz_sentence_486

While there is a discernible rock and funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tambora and tablas and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape. Jazz_sentence_487

The album was a culmination of sorts of the musique concrète approach that Davis and producer Teo Macero had begun to explore in the late 1960s. Jazz_sentence_488

Traditionalism in the 1980s Jazz_section_45

Main article: 1980s in jazz Jazz_sentence_489

The 1980s saw something of a reaction against the fusion and free jazz that had dominated the 1970s. Jazz_sentence_490

Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis emerged early in the decade, and strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, rejecting both fusion and free jazz and creating extensions of the small and large forms initially pioneered by artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, as well as the hard bop of the 1950s. Jazz_sentence_491

It is debatable whether Marsalis' critical and commercial success was a cause or a symptom of the reaction against Fusion and Free Jazz and the resurgence of interest in the kind of jazz pioneered in the 1960s (particularly modal jazz and post-bop); nonetheless there were many other manifestations of a resurgence of traditionalism, even if fusion and free jazz were by no means abandoned and continued to develop and evolve. Jazz_sentence_492

For example, several musicians who had been prominent in the fusion genre during the 1970s began to record acoustic jazz once more, including Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock. Jazz_sentence_493

Other musicians who had experimented with electronic instruments in the previous decade had abandoned them by the 1980s; for example, Bill Evans, Joe Henderson, and Stan Getz. Jazz_sentence_494

Even the 1980s music of Miles Davis, although certainly still fusion, adopted a far more accessible and recognisably jazz-oriented approach than his abstract work of the mid-1970s, such as a return to a theme-and-solos approach. Jazz_sentence_495

The emergence of young jazz talent beginning to perform in older, established musicians' groups further impacted the resurgence of traditionalism in the jazz community. Jazz_sentence_496

In the 1970s, the groups of Betty Carter and Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers retained their conservative jazz approaches in the midst of fusion and jazz-rock, and in addition to difficulty booking their acts, struggled to find younger generations of personnel to authentically play traditional styles such as hard bop and bebop. Jazz_sentence_497

In the late 1970s, however, a resurgence of younger jazz players in Blakey's band began to occur. Jazz_sentence_498

This movement included musicians such as Valery Ponomarev and Bobby Watson, Dennis Irwin and James Williams. Jazz_sentence_499

In the 1980s, in addition to Wynton and Branford Marsalis, the emergence of pianists in the Jazz Messengers such as Donald Brown, Mulgrew Miller, and later, Benny Green, bassists such as Charles Fambrough, Lonnie Plaxico (and later, Peter Washington and Essiet Essiet) horn players such as Bill Pierce, Donald Harrison and later Javon Jackson and Terence Blanchard emerged as talented jazz musicians, all of whom made significant contributions in the 1990s and 2000s. Jazz_sentence_500

The young Jazz Messengers' contemporaries, including Roy Hargrove, Marcus Roberts, Wallace Roney and Mark Whitfield were also influenced by Wynton Marsalis's emphasis toward jazz tradition. Jazz_sentence_501

These younger rising stars rejected avant-garde approaches and instead championed the acoustic jazz sound of Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk and early recordings of the first Miles Davis quintet. Jazz_sentence_502

This group of "Young Lions" sought to reaffirm jazz as a high art tradition comparable to the discipline of classical music. Jazz_sentence_503

In addition, Betty Carter's rotation of young musicians in her group foreshadowed many of New York's preeminent traditional jazz players later in their careers. Jazz_sentence_504

Among these musicians were Jazz Messenger alumni Benny Green, Branford Marsalis and Ralph Peterson Jr., as well as Kenny Washington, Lewis Nash, Curtis Lundy, Cyrus Chestnut, Mark Shim, Craig Handy, Greg Hutchinson and Marc Cary, Taurus Mateen and Geri Allen. Jazz_sentence_505

O.T.B. Jazz_sentence_506

ensemble included a rotation of young jazz musicians such as Kenny Garrett, Steve Wilson, Kenny Davis, Renee Rosnes, Ralph Peterson Jr., Billy Drummond, and Robert Hurst. Jazz_sentence_507

A similar reaction took place against free jazz. Jazz_sentence_508

According to Ted Gioia: Jazz_sentence_509

Pianist Keith Jarrett—whose bands of the 1970s had played only original compositions with prominent free jazz elements—established his so-called 'Standards Trio' in 1983, which, although also occasionally exploring collective improvisation, has primarily performed and recorded jazz standards. Jazz_sentence_510

Chick Corea similarly began exploring jazz standards in the 1980s, having neglected them for the 1970s. Jazz_sentence_511

In 1987, the United States House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill proposed by Democratic Representative John Conyers Jr. to define jazz as a unique form of American music, stating "jazz is hereby designated as a rare and valuable national American treasure to which we should devote our attention, support and resources to make certain it is preserved, understood and promulgated." Jazz_sentence_512

It passed in the House on September 23, 1987, and in the Senate on November 4, 1987. Jazz_sentence_513

Smooth jazz Jazz_section_46

Main article: Smooth jazz Jazz_sentence_514

In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called "pop fusion" or "smooth jazz" became successful, garnering significant radio airplay in "quiet storm" time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the U.S. Jazz_sentence_515

This helped to establish or bolster the careers of vocalists including Al Jarreau, Anita Baker, Chaka Khan, and Sade, as well as saxophonists including Grover Washington Jr., Kenny G, Kirk Whalum, Boney James, and David Sanborn. Jazz_sentence_516

In general, smooth jazz is downtempo (the most widely played tracks are of 90–105 beats per minute), and has a lead melody-playing instrument (saxophone, especially soprano and tenor, and legato electric guitar are popular). Jazz_sentence_517

In his Newsweek article "The Problem With Jazz Criticism", Stanley Crouch considers Miles Davis' playing of fusion to be a turning point that led to smooth jazz. Jazz_sentence_518

Critic Aaron J. West has countered the often negative perceptions of smooth jazz, stating: Jazz_sentence_519

Acid jazz, nu jazz, and jazz rap Jazz_section_47

Main articles: Acid jazz, Nu jazz, and Jazz rap Jazz_sentence_520

Acid jazz developed in the UK in the 1980s and 1990s, influenced by jazz-funk and electronic dance music. Jazz_sentence_521

Acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition (sometimes including Sampling (music) or a live DJ cutting and scratching), but it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance. Jazz_sentence_522

Richard S. Ginell of AllMusic considers Roy Ayers "one of the prophets of acid jazz." Jazz_sentence_523

Nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies, and there are usually no improvisational aspects. Jazz_sentence_524

It can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept. Jazz_sentence_525

It ranges from the combination of live instrumentation with the beats of jazz house (as exemplified by St Germain, Jazzanova, and Fila Brazillia) to more band-based improvised jazz with electronic elements (for example, The Cinematic Orchestra, Kobol and the Norwegian "future jazz" style pioneered by Bugge Wesseltoft, Jaga Jazzist, and Nils Petter Molvær). Jazz_sentence_526

Jazz rap developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s and incorporates jazz influences into hip hop. Jazz_sentence_527

In 1988, Gang Starr released the debut single "Words I Manifest", which sampled Dizzy Gillespie's 1962 "Night in Tunisia", and Stetsasonic released "Talkin' All That Jazz", which sampled Lonnie Liston Smith. Jazz_sentence_528

Gang Starr's debut LP No More Mr. Nice Guy (1989) and their 1990 track "Jazz Thing" sampled Charlie Parker and Ramsey Lewis. Jazz_sentence_529

The groups which made up the Native Tongues Posse tended toward jazzy releases: these include the Jungle Brothers' debut Straight Out the Jungle (1988), and A Tribe Called Quest's People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm (1990) and The Low End Theory (1991). Jazz_sentence_530

Rap duo Pete Rock & CL Smooth incorporated jazz influences on their 1992 debut Mecca and the Soul Brother. Jazz_sentence_531

Rapper Guru's Jazzmatazz series began in 1993 using jazz musicians during the studio recordings. Jazz_sentence_532

Although jazz rap had achieved little mainstream success, Miles Davis' final album Doo-Bop (released posthumously in 1992) was based on hip hop beats and collaborations with producer Easy Mo Bee. Jazz_sentence_533

Davis' ex-bandmate Herbie Hancock also absorbed hip-hop influences in the mid-1990s, releasing the album Dis Is Da Drum in 1994. Jazz_sentence_534

Punk jazz and jazzcore Jazz_section_48

The relaxation of orthodoxy which was concurrent with post-punk in London and New York City led to a new appreciation of jazz. Jazz_sentence_535

In London, the Pop Group began to mix free jazz and dub reggae into their brand of punk rock. Jazz_sentence_536

In New York, No Wave took direct inspiration from both free jazz and punk. Jazz_sentence_537

Examples of this style include Lydia Lunch's Queen of Siam, Gray, the work of James Chance and the Contortions (who mixed Soul with free jazz and punk) and the Lounge Lizards (the first group to call themselves "punk jazz"). Jazz_sentence_538

John Zorn took note of the emphasis on speed and dissonance that was becoming prevalent in punk rock, and incorporated this into free jazz with the release of the Spy vs. Spy album in 1986, a collection of Ornette Coleman tunes done in the contemporary thrashcore style. Jazz_sentence_539

In the same year, Sonny Sharrock, Peter Brötzmann, Bill Laswell, and Ronald Shannon Jackson recorded the first album under the name Last Exit, a similarly aggressive blend of thrash and free jazz. Jazz_sentence_540

These developments are the origins of jazzcore, the fusion of free jazz with hardcore punk. Jazz_sentence_541

M-Base Jazz_section_49

Main article: M-Base Jazz_sentence_542

The M-Base movement started in the 1980s, when a loose collective of young African-American musicians in New York which included Steve Coleman, Greg Osby, and Gary Thomas developed a complex but grooving sound. Jazz_sentence_543

In the 1990s, most M-Base participants turned to more conventional music, but Coleman, the most active participant, continued developing his music in accordance with the M-Base concept. Jazz_sentence_544

Coleman's audience decreased, but his music and concepts influenced many musicians, according to pianist Vijay Iver and critic Ben Ratlifff of The New York Times. Jazz_sentence_545

M-Base changed from a movement of a loose collective of young musicians to a kind of informal Coleman "school", with a much advanced but already originally implied concept. Jazz_sentence_546

Steve Coleman's music and M-Base concept gained recognition as "next logical step" after Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, and Ornette Coleman. Jazz_sentence_547

1990s–present Jazz_section_50

Since the 1990s, jazz has been characterized by a pluralism in which no one style dominates, but rather a wide range of styles and genres are popular. Jazz_sentence_548

Individual performers often play in a variety of styles, sometimes in the same performance. Jazz_sentence_549

Pianist Brad Mehldau and The Bad Plus have explored contemporary rock music within the context of the traditional jazz acoustic piano trio, recording instrumental jazz versions of songs by rock musicians. Jazz_sentence_550

The Bad Plus have also incorporated elements of free jazz into their music. Jazz_sentence_551

A firm avant-garde or free jazz stance has been maintained by some players, such as saxophonists Greg Osby and Charles Gayle, while others, such as James Carter, have incorporated free jazz elements into a more traditional framework. Jazz_sentence_552

Harry Connick Jr. began his career playing stride piano and the dixieland jazz of his home, New Orleans, beginning with his first recording when he was 10 years old. Jazz_sentence_553

Some of his earliest lessons were at the home of pianist Ellis Marsalis. Jazz_sentence_554

Connick had success on the pop charts after recording the soundtrack to the movie When Harry Met Sally, which sold over two million copies. Jazz_sentence_555

Crossover success has also been achieved by Diana Krall, Norah Jones, Cassandra Wilson, Kurt Elling, and Jamie Cullum. Jazz_sentence_556

A number of players who usually perform in largely straight-ahead settings have emerged since the 1990s, including pianists Jason Moran and Vijay Iyer, guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel, vibraphonist Stefon Harris, trumpeters Roy Hargrove and Terence Blanchard, saxophonists Chris Potter and Joshua Redman, clarinetist Ken Peplowski and bassist Christian McBride. Jazz_sentence_557

Although jazz-rock fusion reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s, the use of electronic instruments and rock-derived musical elements in jazz continued in the 1990s and 2000s. Jazz_sentence_558

Musicians using this approach include Pat Metheny, John Abercrombie, John Scofield and the Swedish group e.s.t. Jazz_sentence_559

Since the beginning of the 1990s, electronic music had significant technical improvements that popularized and created new possibilities for the genre. Jazz_sentence_560

Jazz elements such as improvisation, rhythmic complexities and harmonic textures were introduced to the genre and consequently had a big impact in new listeners and in some ways kept the versatility of jazz relatable to a newer generation that did not necessarily relate to what the traditionalists call real jazz (bebop, cool and modal jazz). Jazz_sentence_561

Artists such as Squarepusher, Aphex Twin, Flying Lotus and sub genres like IDM, Drum n' Bass, Jungle and Techno ended up incorporating a lot of these elements. Jazz_sentence_562

Squarepusher being cited as one big influence for jazz performers drummer Mark Guiliana and pianist Brad Mehldau, showing the correlations between jazz and electronic music are a two-way street. Jazz_sentence_563

In 2001, Ken Burns's documentary Jazz was premiered on PBS, featuring Wynton Marsalis and other experts reviewing the entire history of American jazz to that time. Jazz_sentence_564

It received some criticism, however, for its failure to reflect the many distinctive non-American traditions and styles in jazz that had developed, and its limited representation of US developments in the last quarter of the 20th century. Jazz_sentence_565

The mid-2010s saw an increasing influence of R&B, hip-hop, and pop music on jazz. Jazz_sentence_566

In 2015, Kendrick Lamar released his third studio album, To Pimp a Butterfly. Jazz_sentence_567

The album heavily featured prominent contemporary jazz artists such as Thundercat and redefined jazz rap with a larger focus on improvisation and live soloing rather than simply sampling. Jazz_sentence_568

In that same year, saxophonist Kamasi Washington released his nearly three-hour long debut, The Epic. Jazz_sentence_569

Its hip-hop inspired beats and R&B vocal interludes was not only acclaimed by critics for being innovative in keeping jazz relevant, but also sparked a small resurgence in jazz on the internet. Jazz_sentence_570

Another internet-aided trend of 2010's jazz was that of extreme reharmonization, inspired by both virtuosic players known for their speed and rhythm such as Art Tatum, as well as players known for their ambitious voicings and chords such as Bill Evans. Jazz_sentence_571

Supergroup Snarky Puppy adopted this trend, allowing players like Cory Henry to shape the grooves and harmonies of modern jazz soloing. Jazz_sentence_572

YouTube phenomenon Jacob Collier also gained recognition for his ability to play an incredibly large number of instruments and his ability to use microtones, advanced polyrhythms, and blend a spectrum of genres in his largely homemade production process. Jazz_sentence_573

See also Jazz_section_51

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz.