Jazz band

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A jazz band (jazz ensemble or jazz combo) is a musical ensemble that plays jazz music. Jazz band_sentence_0

Jazz bands vary in the quantity of its members and the style of jazz that they play but it is common to find a jazz band made up of a rhythm section and a horn section. Jazz band_sentence_1

The size of a jazz band is closely related to the style of jazz they play as well as the type of venues in which they play. Jazz band_sentence_2

Smaller jazz bands, also known as combos, are common in night clubs and other small venues and will be made up of three to seven musicians; whereas big bands are found in dance halls and other larger venues. Jazz band_sentence_3

Jazz bands can vary in size from a big band, to a smaller trio or quartet. Jazz band_sentence_4

Some bands use vocalists, while others are purely instrumental groups. Jazz band_sentence_5

Jazz bands and their composition have changed many times throughout the years, just as the music itself changes with personal interpretation and improvisation of its performers. Jazz band_sentence_6

Ensemble types Jazz band_section_0

Combos Jazz band_section_1

It is common for musicians in a combo to perform their music from memory. Jazz band_sentence_7

The improvisational nature of these performances make every show unique. Jazz band_sentence_8

Instrumentation Jazz band_section_2

The rhythm section consists of the percussion, double bass or bass guitar, and usually at least one instrument capable of playing chords, such as a piano, guitar, Hammond organ or vibraphone; most will usually have more than one of these. Jazz band_sentence_9

The standard rhythm section is piano, bass, and drums. Jazz band_sentence_10

The horn section consists of a woodwind section and a brass section, which play the melody. Jazz band_sentence_11

Rhythm section Jazz band_section_3

Main article: Rhythm section § Jazz Jazz band_sentence_12

Banjo Jazz band_section_4

Main article: Banjo Jazz band_sentence_13

The banjo has been used in jazz since the earliest jazz bands. Jazz band_sentence_14

The earliest use of the banjo in a jazz band was by Frank Duson in 1917, however Laurence Marrero claims it became popular in 1915. Jazz band_sentence_15

There are three common types of banjo, the plectrum banjo, tenor banjo, and cello banjo. Jazz band_sentence_16

Over time, the four-stringed tenor banjo became the most common banjo used in jazz. Jazz band_sentence_17

The drum-like sound box on the banjo made it louder than the acoustic guitars that were common with early jazz bands, and banjos were popular for recording. Jazz band_sentence_18

Bass Jazz band_section_5

Main article: Jazz bass Jazz band_sentence_19

Beginning in the early 1950s, some jazz bass players began to use the electric bass guitar in place of the double bass. Jazz band_sentence_20

Drums Jazz band_section_6

Main article: Jazz drumming Jazz band_sentence_21

Jazz drumming is the art of playing percussion, usually the drum set, in jazz styles ranging from 1910s-style Dixieland jazz to 1970s-era jazz-rock fusion and 1980s-era Latin jazz. Jazz band_sentence_22

Stylistically, this aspect of performance was shaped by its starting place, New Orleans, as well as numerous other regions of the world, including other parts of the United States, the Caribbean, and Africa. Jazz band_sentence_23

Jazz required a method of playing percussion different from traditional European styles, one that was easily adaptable to the different rhythms of the new genre, fostering the creation of jazz drumming's hybrid technique. Jazz band_sentence_24

Woodwind section Jazz band_section_7

Clarinet Jazz band_section_8

Main article: Clarinet § Jazz Jazz band_sentence_25

The clarinet is a woodwind instrument with a single-reed mouthpiece. Jazz band_sentence_26

A clarinet player is known as a clarinetist. Jazz band_sentence_27

Originally, the clarinet was a central instrument in jazz, beginning with the New Orleans players in the 1910s. Jazz band_sentence_28

It remained a signature instrument of jazz through much of the big band era into the 1940s. Jazz band_sentence_29

Larry Shields was the clarinetist for the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, the first jazz band to record commercially in 1917. Jazz band_sentence_30

The American players Ted Lewis and Jimmie Noone were pioneers of the instrument in jazz bands. Jazz band_sentence_31

The B♭ soprano clarinet was the most common instrument, but a few early jazz musicians such as Alcide Nunez preferred the C soprano clarinet, and many New Orleans jazz brass bands have used an E♭ soprano clarinet. Jazz band_sentence_32

Swing clarinetists such as Benny Goodman, Artie Shaw, and Woody Herman led successful big bands and smaller groups from the 1930s onward. Jazz band_sentence_33

With the decline of the big bands' popularity in the late 1940s, the clarinet faded from its prominent position in jazz and the saxophone rose in importance in many jazz bands, probably because it uses a less complicated fingering system. Jazz band_sentence_34

But the clarinet did not entirely disappear. Jazz band_sentence_35

In the late 50s, traditional jazz experienced a revival, with the notable example of clarinetist Acker Bilk's Bristol Paramount Jazz Band. Jazz band_sentence_36

Some of the works of Bilk's jazz band reached the pop charts. Jazz band_sentence_37

Saxophone section Jazz band_section_9

In the saxophone section, all of the saxophones will play a similar melodic line, but the baritone sax doubles by occasionally joining in with the bass trombone and bass to play the bass line. Jazz band_sentence_38

A big band saxophone section typically consists of two alto saxophones, two tenor saxophones, and one baritone saxophone. Jazz band_sentence_39

String section Jazz band_section_10

Main article: String section Jazz band_sentence_40

Violin Jazz band_section_11

Main article: Jazz violin Jazz band_sentence_41

Jazz violin is the use of the violin or electric violin to improvise solo lines. Jazz band_sentence_42

Although the violin has been used in jazz recordings since the first decades of the 20th century, it is more commonly associated with folk music than jazz. Jazz band_sentence_43

Jazz musician Milt Hinton claimed that the decline in violin players coincided with the introduction of sound movies, as many violin players were used as accompaniment for silent films. Jazz band_sentence_44

Vocalists Jazz band_section_12

Main article: Vocal jazz Jazz band_sentence_45

The definition of a jazz vocalist can be unclear because jazz has shared a great deal with blues and pop music since the 1920s. Jazz band_sentence_46

In their book Essential Jazz, Henry Martin and Keith Waters identify five main characteristics that identify jazz singing, three of which are: "Loose phrasing [...], use of blue notes [...], [and] free melodic embellishment." Jazz band_sentence_47

Often the human voice can act in place of a brass section in playing melodies, both written and improvised. Jazz band_sentence_48

Scat singing is vocal improvisation with wordless vocables, nonsense syllables or without words at all. Jazz band_sentence_49

Though scat singing is improvised, the melodic lines are often variations on scale and arpeggio fragments, stock patterns and riffs, as is the case with instrumental improvisers. Jazz band_sentence_50

The deliberate choice of scat syllables is also a key element in vocal jazz improvisation. Jazz band_sentence_51

Syllable choice influences the pitch articulation, coloration, and resonance of the performance. Jazz band_sentence_52

Repertoire Jazz band_section_13

Another important aspect of jazz is improvisation ("jams"). Jazz band_sentence_53

Bands playing in this fashion fall under the category of jam bands. Jazz band_sentence_54

A common way to incorporate improvisation is to feature solo performances from band members made up on the spot, allowing them to showcase their skill. Jazz band_sentence_55

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz band.