Jazz standard

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This article is about the song type. Jazz standard_sentence_0

For the jazz club, see Jazz Standard. Jazz standard_sentence_1

Jazz standards are musical compositions that are an important part of the musical repertoire of jazz musicians, in that they are widely known, performed, and recorded by jazz musicians, and widely known by listeners. Jazz standard_sentence_2

There is no definitive list of jazz standards, and the list of songs deemed to be standards changes over time. Jazz standard_sentence_3

Songs included in major fake book publications (sheet music collections of popular tunes) and jazz reference works offer a rough guide to which songs are considered standards. Jazz standard_sentence_4

Not all jazz standards were written by jazz composers. Jazz standard_sentence_5

Many are originally Tin Pan Alley popular songs, Broadway show tunes or songs from Hollywood musicals – the Great American Songbook. Jazz standard_sentence_6

In Europe, jazz standards and "fake books" may even include some traditional folk songs (such as in Scandinavia) or pieces of ethnic music (such as gypsy melodies) that have been played with a jazz feel by well known jazz players. Jazz standard_sentence_7

A commonly played song can only be considered a jazz standard if it is widely played among jazz musicians. Jazz standard_sentence_8

The jazz standard repertoire has some overlap with blues and pop standards. Jazz standard_sentence_9

The most recorded jazz standard was W. Jazz standard_sentence_10 C. Handy's "St. Louis Blues" for over 20 years from the 1930s onward, after which Hoagy Carmichael's "Stardust" replaced it. Jazz standard_sentence_11

Today, the place is held by "Body and Soul" by Johnny Green. Jazz standard_sentence_12

The most recorded standard composed by a jazz musician is Thelonious Monk's "'Round Midnight". Jazz standard_sentence_13

Before 1920 Jazz standard_section_0

Main article: List of pre-1920 jazz standards Jazz standard_sentence_14

From its conception at the change of the twentieth century, jazz was music intended for dancing. Jazz standard_sentence_15

This influenced the choice of material played by early jazz groups: King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band, New Orleans Rhythm Kings and others included a large number of Tin Pan Alley popular songs in their repertoire, and record companies often used their power to dictate which songs were to be recorded by their artists. Jazz standard_sentence_16

Certain songs were pushed by recording executives and therefore quickly achieved standard status; this started with the first jazz recordings in 1916, with That Funny Jas Band from Dixieland (1916) by Collins and Harlan for Thomas A. Edison, Inc. on Blue Amberol in December 1916 and in 1917, when the Original Dixieland Jass Band recorded "Darktown Strutters' Ball" and "Indiana". Jazz standard_sentence_17

The first record with 'Jass' on the label, The Original Dixieland One-Step was issue 18255 by Victor Talking Machine Company in 1917. Jazz standard_sentence_18

Originally simply called "jazz", the music of early jazz bands is today often referred to as "Dixieland" or "New Orleans jazz", to distinguish it from more recent subgenres. Jazz standard_sentence_19

The origins of jazz are in the musical traditions of early twentieth-century New Orleans, including brass band music, the blues, ragtime and spirituals, and some of the most popular early standards come from these influences. Jazz standard_sentence_20

Ragtime songs "Twelfth Street Rag" and "Tiger Rag" have become popular numbers for jazz artists, as have blues tunes "St. Louis Blues" and "St. Jazz standard_sentence_21 James Infirmary". Jazz standard_sentence_22

Tin Pan Alley songwriters contributed several songs to the jazz standard repertoire, including "Indiana" and "After You've Gone". Jazz standard_sentence_23

Others, such as "Some of These Days" and "Darktown Strutters' Ball", were introduced by vaudeville performers. Jazz standard_sentence_24

The most often recorded standards of this period are W. Jazz standard_sentence_25 C. Handy's "St. Louis Blues", Turner Layton and Henry Creamer's "After You've Gone" and James Hanley and Ballard MacDonald's "Indiana". Jazz standard_sentence_26

1920s Jazz standard_section_1

Main article: List of 1920s jazz standards Jazz standard_sentence_27

A period known as the "Jazz Age" started in the United States in the 1920s. Jazz standard_sentence_28

Jazz had become popular music in the country, although older generations considered the music immoral and threatening to old cultural values. Jazz standard_sentence_29

Dances such as the Charleston and the Black Bottom were very popular during the period, and jazz bands typically consisted of seven to twelve musicians. Jazz standard_sentence_30

Important orchestras in New York were led by Fletcher Henderson, Paul Whiteman and Duke Ellington. Jazz standard_sentence_31

Many New Orleans jazzmen had moved to Chicago during the late 1910s in search of employment; among others, the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band and Jelly Roll Morton recorded in the city. Jazz standard_sentence_32

However, Chicago's importance as a center of jazz music started to diminish toward the end of the 1920s in favor of New York. Jazz standard_sentence_33

In the early years of jazz, record companies were often eager to decide what songs were to be recorded by their artists. Jazz standard_sentence_34

Popular numbers in the 1920s were pop hits such as "Sweet Georgia Brown", "Dinah" and "Bye Bye Blackbird". Jazz standard_sentence_35

The first jazz artist to be given some liberty in choosing his material was Louis Armstrong, whose band helped popularize many of the early standards in the 1920s and 1930s. Jazz standard_sentence_36

Some compositions written by jazz artists have endured as standards, including Fats Waller's "Honeysuckle Rose" and "Ain't Misbehavin'". Jazz standard_sentence_37

The most recorded 1920s standard is Hoagy Carmichael and Mitchell Parish's "Stardust". Jazz standard_sentence_38

Several songs written by Broadway composers in the 1920s have become standards, such as George and Ira Gershwin's "The Man I Love" (1924), Irving Berlin's "Blue Skies" (1927) and Cole Porter's "What Is This Thing Called Love?" Jazz standard_sentence_39

(1929). Jazz standard_sentence_40

However, it was not until the 1930s that musicians became comfortable with the harmonic and melodic sophistication of Broadway tunes and started including them regularly in their repertoire. Jazz standard_sentence_41

1930s Jazz standard_section_2

Main article: List of 1930s jazz standards Jazz standard_sentence_42

Broadway theatre contributed some of the most popular standards of the 1930s, including George and Ira Gershwin's "Summertime" (1935), Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's "My Funny Valentine" (1937) and Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein II's "All the Things You Are" (1939). Jazz standard_sentence_43

These songs still rank among the most recorded standards of all time. Jazz standard_sentence_44

The most popular 1930s standard, Johnny Green's "Body and Soul", was introduced in Broadway and became a huge hit after Coleman Hawkins's 1939 recording. Jazz standard_sentence_45

1930s saw the rise of swing jazz as a dominant form in American music. Jazz standard_sentence_46

Duke Ellington and his band members composed numerous swing era hits that have later become standards: "It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing)" (1932), "Sophisticated Lady" (1933) and "Caravan" (1936), among others. Jazz standard_sentence_47

Other influential band leaders of this period were Benny Goodman and Count Basie. Jazz standard_sentence_48

1940s Jazz standard_section_3

Main article: List of 1940s jazz standards Jazz standard_sentence_49

The swing era lasted until the mid-1940s, and produced popular tunes such as Duke Ellington's "Cotton Tail" (1940) and Billy Strayhorn's "Take the 'A' Train" (1941). Jazz standard_sentence_50

With the big bands struggling to keep going during World War II, a shift was happening in jazz in favor of smaller groups. Jazz standard_sentence_51

Some swing era musicians, such as Louis Jordan, later found popularity in a new kind of music, called "rhythm and blues", that would evolve into rock and roll in the 1950s. Jazz standard_sentence_52

Bebop emerged in the early 1940s, with Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and Thelonious Monk leading the way. Jazz standard_sentence_53

It appealed to a more specialized audiences than earlier forms of jazz, with sophisticated harmonies, fast tempos and often virtuoso musicianship. Jazz standard_sentence_54

Bebop musicians often used 1930s standards, especially those from Broadway musicals, as part of their repertoire. Jazz standard_sentence_55

Among standards written by bebop musicians are Gillespie's "Salt Peanuts" (1941) and "A Night in Tunisia" (1942), Parker's "Anthropology" (1946), "Yardbird Suite" (1946) and "Scrapple from the Apple" (1947), and Monk's "'Round Midnight" (1944), which is currently the most recorded jazz standard composed by a jazz musician. Jazz standard_sentence_56

1950s and later Jazz standard_section_4

Main article: List of post-1950 jazz standards Jazz standard_sentence_57

Modal jazz recordings, such as Miles Davis's Kind of Blue, became popular in the late 1950s. Jazz standard_sentence_58

Popular modal standards include Davis's "All Blues" and "So What" (both 1959), John Coltrane's "Impressions" (1963) and Herbie Hancock's "Maiden Voyage" (1965). Jazz standard_sentence_59

Later, Davis's "second great quintet", which included saxophonist Wayne Shorter and pianist Herbie Hancock, recorded a series of highly acclaimed albums in the mid-to-late 1960s. Jazz standard_sentence_60

Standards from these sessions include Shorter's "Footprints" (1966) and "Freedom Jazz Dance" by Eddie Harris (1966). Jazz standard_sentence_61

In Brazil, a new style of music called bossa nova evolved in the late 1950s. Jazz standard_sentence_62

Based on the Brazilian samba as well as jazz, bossa nova was championed by João Gilberto, Antonio Carlos Jobim and Luiz Bonfá. Jazz standard_sentence_63

Gilberto and Stan Getz started a bossa nova craze in the United States with their 1963 album Getz/Gilberto. Jazz standard_sentence_64

Among the genre's songs that are now considered standards are Bonfá's "Manhã de Carnaval" (1959), Marcos Valle's "Summer Samba" (1966), and numerous Jobim's songs, including "Desafinado" (1959), "The Girl from Ipanema" (1962) and "Corcovado" (1962). Jazz standard_sentence_65

Later, composers such as Edu Lobo and Egberto Gismonti contributed a great deal to the Brazilian jazz repertoire, with tunes that include "Casa Forte", "Frevo Rasgado" and "Loro". Jazz standard_sentence_66

The jazz fusion movement fused jazz with other musical styles, most famously funk and rock. Jazz standard_sentence_67

Its golden age was from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s. Jazz standard_sentence_68

Top fusion artists, such as Weather Report, Chick Corea and Return to Forever, Herbie Hancock and The Headhunters, The Manhattan Transfer, and the Mahavishnu Orchestra, achieved cross-over popularity, although public interest in the genre faded at the turn of the 1980s. Jazz standard_sentence_69

Fusion's biggest hits, Corea's "Spain" (1971), Hancock's "Chameleon" (1973) and Joe Zawinul's "Birdland" (1977), have been covered numerous times thereafter and are considered modern jazz standards. Jazz standard_sentence_70

A number of songs written by pop and rock artists have become standards, such as "Somewhere Out There" by Linda Ronstadt & James Ingram, "Yesterday" by The Beatles, "God Only Knows" by The Beach Boys, and "Moondance" by Van Morrison. Jazz standard_sentence_71

See also Jazz standard_section_5

Jazz standard_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz standard.