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"Ir Hakodesh", "Al-Quds", and "Bayt al-Maqdis" redirect here. Jerusalem_sentence_0

For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation), Al-Quds (disambiguation), and Bayt al-Maqdis (disambiguation). Jerusalem_sentence_1


Administered byJerusalem_header_cell_0_1_0 IsraelJerusalem_cell_0_1_1
Claimed byJerusalem_header_cell_0_2_0 Israel and PalestineJerusalem_cell_0_2_1
Israeli districtJerusalem_header_cell_0_3_0 JerusalemJerusalem_cell_0_3_1
Palestinian governorateJerusalem_header_cell_0_4_0 QudsJerusalem_cell_0_4_1
Gihon Spring settlementJerusalem_header_cell_0_5_0 3000–2800 BCEJerusalem_cell_0_5_1
City of DavidJerusalem_header_cell_0_6_0 c. 1000 BCEJerusalem_cell_0_6_1
Present Old City walls builtJerusalem_header_cell_0_7_0 1541Jerusalem_cell_0_7_1
East-West Jerusalem divisionJerusalem_header_cell_0_8_0 1948Jerusalem_cell_0_8_1
ReunificationJerusalem_header_cell_0_9_0 1967Jerusalem_cell_0_9_1
Jerusalem LawJerusalem_header_cell_0_10_0 1980Jerusalem_cell_0_10_1
TypeJerusalem_header_cell_0_12_0 Mayor–councilJerusalem_cell_0_12_1
BodyJerusalem_header_cell_0_13_0 Jerusalem MunicipalityJerusalem_cell_0_13_1
Israeli mayorJerusalem_header_cell_0_14_0 Moshe Lion (Likud)Jerusalem_cell_0_14_1
CityJerusalem_header_cell_0_16_0 125,156 dunams (125.156 km or 48.323 sq mi)Jerusalem_cell_0_16_1
MetroJerusalem_header_cell_0_17_0 652,000 dunams (652 km or 252 sq mi)Jerusalem_cell_0_17_1
ElevationJerusalem_header_cell_0_18_0 754 m (2,474 ft)Jerusalem_cell_0_18_1
Population (2019)Jerusalem_header_cell_0_19_0
CityJerusalem_header_cell_0_20_0 936,425Jerusalem_cell_0_20_1
DensityJerusalem_header_cell_0_21_0 7,500/km (19,000/sq mi)Jerusalem_cell_0_21_1
MetroJerusalem_header_cell_0_22_0 1,253,900Jerusalem_cell_0_22_1
DemonymsJerusalem_header_cell_0_23_0 Jerusalemite (Yerushalmi)


Demographics (2017)Jerusalem_header_cell_0_24_0
JewishJerusalem_header_cell_0_25_0 60.8%Jerusalem_cell_0_25_1
ArabJerusalem_header_cell_0_26_0 37.9%Jerusalem_cell_0_26_1
othersJerusalem_header_cell_0_27_0 1.3%Jerusalem_cell_0_27_1
Time zoneJerusalem_header_cell_0_28_0 UTC+02:00 (IST, PST)Jerusalem_cell_0_28_1
Summer (DST)Jerusalem_header_cell_0_29_0 UTC+03:00 (IDT, PDT)Jerusalem_cell_0_29_1
Postal codeJerusalem_header_cell_0_30_0 9XXXXXXJerusalem_cell_0_30_1
Area codeJerusalem_header_cell_0_31_0 +972-2Jerusalem_cell_0_31_1
HDI (2018)Jerusalem_header_cell_0_32_0 0.704 – highJerusalem_cell_0_32_1
WebsiteJerusalem_header_cell_0_33_0 Jerusalem_cell_0_33_1
UNESCO World Heritage SiteJerusalem_header_cell_0_34_0
Official nameJerusalem_header_cell_0_35_0 Old City of Jerusalem and its WallsJerusalem_cell_0_35_1
TypeJerusalem_header_cell_0_36_0 CulturalJerusalem_cell_0_36_1
CriteriaJerusalem_header_cell_0_37_0 ii, iii, viJerusalem_cell_0_37_1
DesignatedJerusalem_header_cell_0_38_0 1981Jerusalem_cell_0_38_1
Reference no.Jerusalem_header_cell_0_39_0 Jerusalem_cell_0_39_1
RegionJerusalem_header_cell_0_40_0 Arab StatesJerusalem_cell_0_40_1
EndangeredJerusalem_header_cell_0_41_0 1982–presentJerusalem_cell_0_41_1

Jerusalem (/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎ al-Quds or Bayt al-Maqdis, also spelled Baitul Muqaddas) is a city in the Middle East, on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. Jerusalem_sentence_2

It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religionsJudaism, Christianity, and Islam. Jerusalem_sentence_3

Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. Jerusalem_sentence_4

Throughout its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, and attacked 52 times. Jerusalem_sentence_5

The part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem_sentence_6

In the Canaanite period (14th century BCE), Jerusalem was named as Urusalim on ancient Egyptian tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity. Jerusalem_sentence_7

During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem_sentence_8

In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Jerusalem_sentence_9

Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four-quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters. Jerusalem_sentence_10

The Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Jerusalem_sentence_11

Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. Jerusalem_sentence_12

In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising approximately 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. Jerusalem_sentence_13

In 2016, the population was 882,700, of which Jews comprised 536,600 (60.8%), Muslims 319,800 (36.2%), Christians 15,800 (1.8%), and 10,300 unclassified (1.2%). Jerusalem_sentence_14

According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Jerusalem_sentence_15

Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous – and later monotheistic – religion centered on El/Yahweh, These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. Jerusalem_sentence_16

The sobriquet of holy city (עיר הקודש, transliterated 'ir haqodesh) was probably attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times. Jerusalem_sentence_17

The holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. Jerusalem_sentence_18

In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. Jerusalem_sentence_19

In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (salat), and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran. Jerusalem_sentence_20

As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi), the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem_sentence_21

Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Jerusalem_sentence_22

Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Jerusalem_sentence_23

During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Jerusalem_sentence_24

Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. Jerusalem_sentence_25

One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. Jerusalem_sentence_26

All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Beit Aghion) and President (Beit HaNassi), and the Supreme Court. Jerusalem_sentence_27

While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_28

Names: history and etymology Jerusalem_section_0

Further information: Names of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_29

Ancient Egyptian sources Jerusalem_section_1

A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (c. 19th century BCE) is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_30

Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba (1330s BCE). Jerusalem_sentence_31

Etymology Jerusalem_section_2

The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation (Semitic yry' 'to found, to lay a cornerstone') of the god Shalem"; the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age city. Jerusalem_sentence_32

Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew). Jerusalem_sentence_33

The name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace" ("founded in safety"), alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. Jerusalem_sentence_34

The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city initially sat on two hills. Jerusalem_sentence_35

Hebrew Bible and Jewish sources Jerusalem_section_3

The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Bible, in the Book of Joshua. Jerusalem_sentence_36

According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of two names united by God, Yireh ("the abiding place", the name given by Abraham to the place where he planned to sacrifice his son) and Shalem ("Place of Peace", the name given by high priest Shem). Jerusalem_sentence_37

Oldest written mention of "Jerusalem" Jerusalem_section_4

One of the earliest extra-biblical Hebrew writing of the word Jerusalem is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. Jerusalem_sentence_38

The inscription states: "I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem", or as other scholars suggest: "Yahweh is the God of the whole earth. Jerusalem_sentence_39

The mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God of Jerusalem". Jerusalem_sentence_40

An older example on papyrus is known from the previous century. Jerusalem_sentence_41

In extra-biblical inscriptions, the earliest known example of the -ayim ending was discovered on a column about 3 km west of ancient Jerusalem, dated to the first century BCE. Jerusalem_sentence_42

Jebus, Zion, City of David Jerusalem_section_5

An ancient settlement of Jerusalem, founded as early as the Bronze Age on the hill above the Gihon Spring, was, according to the Bible named Jebus (e.g., : יְב֔וּס הִ֖יא יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם: "Jebus, it [is] Jerusalem"). Jerusalem_sentence_43

Called the "Fortress of Zion" (metsudat Zion), it was renamed by David as the City of David, and was known by this name in antiquity. Jerusalem_sentence_44

Another name, "Zion", initially referred to a distinct part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and to represent the biblical Land of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_45

Greek, Roman and Byzantine names Jerusalem_section_6

In Greek and Latin the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek: Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ἱερός, means holy), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history. Jerusalem_sentence_46

Salem Jerusalem_section_7

The Aramaic Apocryphon of Genesis of the Dead Sea Scrolls (1QapGen 22:13) equates Jerusalem with the earlier "Salem" (שלם), said to be the kingdom of Melchizedek in . Jerusalem_sentence_47

Other early Hebrew sources, early Christian renderings of the verse and targumim, however, put Salem in Northern Israel near Shechem (Sichem), now Nablus, a city of some importance in early sacred Hebrew writing. Jerusalem_sentence_48

Possibly the redactor of the Apocryphon of Genesis wanted to dissociate Melchizedek from the area of Shechem, which at the time was in possession of the Samaritans. Jerusalem_sentence_49

However that may be, later Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link Melchizedek to later Temple traditions. Jerusalem_sentence_50

Arabic names Jerusalem_section_8

In Arabic, Jerusalem is most commonly known as القُدس, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning "The Holy" or "The Holy Sanctuary". Jerusalem_sentence_51

Official Israeli government policy mandates that أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس. Jerusalem_sentence_52

أُورُشَلِيمَ-القُدس. Jerusalem_sentence_53

Palestinian Arab families who hail from this city are often called "Qudsi" or "Maqdisi", while Palestinian Muslim Jerusalemites may use these terms as a demonym. Jerusalem_sentence_54

History Jerusalem_section_9

Main article: History of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_55

See also: Historical maps of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_56

Given the city's central position in both Jewish nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarize some 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background. Jerusalem_sentence_57

Israeli or Jewish nationalists claim a right to the city based on Jewish indigeneity to the land, particularly their origins in and descent from the Israelites, for whom Jerusalem is their capital, and their yearning for return. Jerusalem_sentence_58

In contrast, Palestinian nationalists claim the right to the city based on modern Palestinians' longstanding presence and descent from many different peoples who have settled or lived in the region over the centuries. Jerusalem_sentence_59

Both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city, and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history. Jerusalem_sentence_60

Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods Jerusalem_section_10

Further information: Timeline of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_61

Age Jerusalem_section_11

Jerusalem proper Jerusalem_section_12

For historians and archaeologists, it is Jerusalem's South-East Hill, known as the City of David, that is taken into consideration when discussing the age of Jerusalem, since it is the most widely accepted site considered to be where permanent settlement began in ancient Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_62

Shuafat Jerusalem_section_13

There have been confusing press headings claiming that the age of Jerusalem has to be pushed back, when in fact the respective articles were dealing with findings from nearby Shuafat, a town that historically and archaeologically cannot be equated with Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_63

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Shuafat was incorporated into the Jerusalem municipal district, in a move not internationally recognized. Jerusalem_sentence_64

Shuafat lies about 6 kilometres north of Jerusalem's oldest historical part, the so-called City of David, and about 5 kilometres north of the walled Old City. Jerusalem_sentence_65

What is today Shuafat laid outside the settlement area of its neighbour, Jerusalem, throughout the Bronze Age and until Jerusalem's destruction in 70 CE, and even outside Jerusalem's main Second Temple period northern necropolis. Jerusalem_sentence_66

Shuafat is officially described in archaeological terms as being "in the vicinity of Jerusalem". Jerusalem_sentence_67

Shuafat has an intermittent settlement history, in part from periods other than Jerusalem's, with 7,000-year-old architectural findings from the Chalcolithic, then from the Second Temple period (2nd–1st century BCE, a fortified agricultural settlement) and the short period between the end of the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70) and the Bar Kokhba revolt (132–135), being re-inhabited on a smaller scale during the 2nd–4th centuries CE. Jerusalem_sentence_68

Prehistory Jerusalem_section_14

The South-Eastern Hill, also known as the City of David, is the initial nucleus of historical Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_69

There, the Gihon Spring attracted shepherds who camped near the water between 6 and 7000 years ago, leaving behind ceramics and flint artifacts during the Chalcolithic, or Copper Age (c. 4500–3500 BCE). Jerusalem_sentence_70

Ancient period Jerusalem_section_15

Further information: City of David and History of ancient Israel and Judah Jerusalem_sentence_71

Permanent houses only appeared on the South-Eastern Hill several centuries later, with a small village emerging around 3000–2800 BCE, during the Early Bronze Age I or II. Jerusalem_sentence_72

Some call the site of this first settlement, the Ophel ridge. Jerusalem_sentence_73

The city's inhabitants at this time were Canaanites, who are believed by scholars to have evolved into the Israelites via the development of a distinct Yahweh-centric monotheistic belief system. Jerusalem_sentence_74

The Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city called rwš3lmm, variously transcribed as Rušalimum/Urušalimum/Rôsh-ramen and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the city. Jerusalem_sentence_75

Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BCE. Jerusalem_sentence_76

In the Late Bronze Age, Jerusalem was the capital of an Egyptian vassal city-state, a modest settlement governing a few outlying villages and pastoral areas, with a small Egyptian garrison and ruled by appointees such as king Abdi-Heba, At the time of Seti I (r. 1290–1279 BCE) and Ramesses II (r. 1279–1213 BCE), major construction took place as prosperity increased. Jerusalem_sentence_77

Archaeological remains from the ancient Israelite period include the Siloam Tunnel, an aqueduct built by Judahite king Hezekiah and once containing an ancient Hebrew inscription, known as the Siloam Inscription; the so-called Broad Wall, a defensive fortification built in the 8th century BCE, also by Hezekiah; the Silwan necropolis with the Monolith of Silwan and the Tomb of the Royal Steward, which were decorated with monumental Hebrew inscriptions; and the so-called Israelite Tower, remnants of ancient fortifications, built from large, sturdy rocks with carved cornerstones. Jerusalem_sentence_78

A huge water reservoir dating from this period was discovered in 2012 near Robinson's Arch, indicating the existence of a densely built-up quarter across the area west of the Temple Mount during the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem_sentence_79

The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as Nebuchadnezzar's Neo-Babylonian Empire conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's Temple and the city. Jerusalem_sentence_80

Biblical account Jerusalem_section_16

This period, when Canaan formed part of the Egyptian empire, corresponds in biblical accounts to Joshua's invasion, but almost all scholars agree that the Book of Joshua holds little historical value for early Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_81

In the Bible, Jerusalem is defined as lying within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin though occupied by Jebusites. Jerusalem_sentence_82

David is said to have conquered these in the Siege of Jebus, and transferred his capital from Hebron to Jerusalem which then became the capital of a united Kingdom of Israel, and one of its several religious centres. Jerusalem_sentence_83

The choice was perhaps dictated by the fact that Jerusalem did not form part of Israel's tribal system, and was thus suited to serve as the centre of its confederation. Jerusalem_sentence_84

Opinion is divided over whether the so-called Large Stone Structure and the nearby Stepped Stone Structure may be identified with King David's palace, or dates to a later period. Jerusalem_sentence_85

According to the Bible, King David reigned for 40 years and was succeeded by his son Solomon, who built the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah. Jerusalem_sentence_86

Solomon's Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish religion as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant. Jerusalem_sentence_87

On Solomon's death, ten of the northern Tribes of Israel broke with the United Monarchy to form their own nation, with its kings, prophets, priests, traditions relating to religion, capitals and temples in northern Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_88

The southern tribes, together with the Aaronid priesthood, remained in Jerusalem, with the city becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Judah. Jerusalem_sentence_89

When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. Jerusalem_sentence_90

Classical antiquity Jerusalem_section_17

Main articles: Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period and Aelia Capitolina Jerusalem_sentence_91

In 538 BCE, the Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews of Babylon to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple. Jerusalem_sentence_92

Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple. Jerusalem_sentence_93

Sometime soon after 485 BCE Jerusalem was besieged, conquered and largely destroyed by a coalition of neighbouring states. Jerusalem_sentence_94

In about 445 BCE, King Artaxerxes I of Persia issued a decree allowing the city (including its walls) to be rebuilt. Jerusalem_sentence_95

Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship. Jerusalem_sentence_96

Many Jewish tombs from the Second Temple period have been rediscovered in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_97

One example, discovered north of the Old City, contains human remains in an ossuary decorated with the Aramaic inscription "Simon the Temple Builder." Jerusalem_sentence_98

The Tomb of Abba, also located north of the Old City, bears an Aramaic inscription with Paleo-Hebrew letters reading: "I, Abba, son of the priest Eleaz(ar), son of Aaron the high (priest), Abba, the oppressed and the persecuted, who was born in Jerusalem, and went into exile into Babylonia and brought (back to Jerusalem) Mattathi(ah), son of Jud(ah), and buried him in a cave which I bought by deed." Jerusalem_sentence_99

The Tomb of Benei Hezir located in Kidron Valley is decorated by monumental Doric columns and Hebrew inscription, identifying it as the burial site of Second Temple priests. Jerusalem_sentence_100

The Tombs of the Sanhedrin, an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs, is located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Sanhedria. Jerusalem_sentence_101

These tombs, probably reserved for members of the Sanhedrin and inscribed by ancient Hebrew and Aramaic writings, are dated to between 100 BCE and 100 CE. Jerusalem_sentence_102

When Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem and Judea came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. Jerusalem_sentence_103

In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V Epiphanes lost Jerusalem and Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. Jerusalem_sentence_104

The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem as a Hellenized city-state came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias and his five sons against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem as its capital. Jerusalem_sentence_105

In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great intervened in a struggle for the Hasmonean throne and captured Jerusalem, extending the influence of the Roman Republic over Judea. Jerusalem_sentence_106

Following a short invasion by Parthians, backing the rival Hasmonean rulers, Judea became a scene of struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian forces, eventually leading to the emergence of an Edomite named Herod. Jerusalem_sentence_107

As Rome became stronger, it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Jerusalem_sentence_108

Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. Jerusalem_sentence_109

He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Jerusalem_sentence_110

Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size. Jerusalem_sentence_111

Shortly after Herod's death, in 6 CE Judea came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province, although the Herodian dynasty through Agrippa II remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Jerusalem_sentence_112

Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region was challenged in the First Jewish–Roman War, which ended with a Roman victory. Jerusalem_sentence_113

The Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, and the entire city was destroyed in the war. Jerusalem_sentence_114

The contemporary Jewish historian Josephus wrote that the city "was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation." Jerusalem_sentence_115

Roman rule was again challenged during the Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE and suppressed by the Romans in 135 CE. Jerusalem_sentence_116

The more recent research has indicates that the Romans had founded Aelia Capitolina before the outbreak of the revolt, and found no evidence for Bar Kokhba ever managing to hold the city. Jerusalem_sentence_117

Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor Hadrian combined Iudaea Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria Palaestina, replacing the name of Judea. Jerusalem_sentence_118

The city was renamed Aelia Capitolina, and rebuilt it in the style of a typical Roman town. Jerusalem_sentence_119

Jews were prohibited from entering the city on pain of death, except for one day each year, during the holiday of Tisha B'Av. Jerusalem_sentence_120

Taken together, these measures (which also affected Jewish Christians) essentially "secularized" the city. Jerusalem_sentence_121

The ban was maintained until the 7th century, though Christians would soon be granted an exemption: during the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I ordered the construction of Christian holy sites in the city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem_sentence_122

Burial remains from the Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem in Byzantine times probably consisted only of Christians. Jerusalem_sentence_123

In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, ruled from the recently renamed Constantinople, maintained control of the city. Jerusalem_sentence_124

Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule, then back to Roman-Byzantine dominion. Jerusalem_sentence_125

Following Sassanid Khosrau II's early 7th century push through Syria, his generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked Jerusalem (Persian: Dej Houdkh‎) aided by the Jews of Palaestina Prima, who had risen up against the Byzantines. Jerusalem_sentence_126

In the Siege of Jerusalem of 614, after 21 days of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem was captured. Jerusalem_sentence_127

Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanids and Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, many at the Mamilla Pool, and destroyed their monuments and churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem_sentence_128

This episode has been the subject of much debate between historians. Jerusalem_sentence_129

The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius reconquered it in 629. Jerusalem_sentence_130

Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period, when the city covered two km (0.77 square miles) and had a population of 200,000. Jerusalem_sentence_131

Early Muslim period Jerusalem_section_18

Main article: History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages Jerusalem_sentence_132

Byzantine Jerusalem was conquered by the Arab armies of Umar ibn al-Khattab in 638 CE. Jerusalem_sentence_133

Among the first Muslims, it was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis ("City of the Temple"), a name restricted to the Temple Mount. Jerusalem_sentence_134

The rest of the city "... was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city following the destruction of 70 CE: Aelia Capitolina". Jerusalem_sentence_135

Later the Temple Mount became known as al-Haram al-Sharif, "The Noble Sanctuary", while the city around it became known as Bayt al-Maqdis, and later still, al-Quds al-Sharif "The Holy, Noble". Jerusalem_sentence_136

The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. Jerusalem_sentence_137

(623 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. Jerusalem_sentence_138

After 13 years, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca. Jerusalem_sentence_139

In 638 CE the Islamic Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_140

With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city. Jerusalem_sentence_141

The Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Christian Patriarch of Jerusalem Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem's Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule. Jerusalem_sentence_142

Christian-Arab tradition records that, when led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request conversion of the church to a mosque. Jerusalem_sentence_143

He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque of Umar (Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem_sentence_144

According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers. Jerusalem_sentence_145

When the Arab armies under Umar went to Bayt Al-Maqdes in 637 CE, they searched for the site of the Al-Aqsa Mosque ("The Farthest Mosque") that was mentioned in Quran and Hadith according to Islamic beliefs. Jerusalem_sentence_146

Contemporary Arabic and Hebrew sources say the site was full of rubbish, and that Arabs and Jews cleaned it. Jerusalem_sentence_147

The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of a shrine on the Temple Mount, now known as the Dome of the Rock, in the late 7th century. Jerusalem_sentence_148

Two of the city's most-distinguished Arab citizens of the 10th-century were Al-Muqaddasi, the geographer, and Al-Tamimi, the physician. Jerusalem_sentence_149

Al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the edifice on the Temple Mount in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches. Jerusalem_sentence_150

Over the next four hundred years, Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region vied for control of the city. Jerusalem_sentence_151

Jerusalem was captured in 1073 by the Seljuk Turkish commander Atsız. Jerusalem_sentence_152

After Atsız was killed, the Seljuk prince Tutush I granted the city to Artuk Bey, another Seljuk commander. Jerusalem_sentence_153

After Artuk's death in 1091 his sons Sökmen and Ilghazi governed in the city up to 1098 when the Fatimids recaptured the city. Jerusalem_sentence_154

A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades. Jerusalem_sentence_155

Crusader/Ayyubid period Jerusalem_section_19

In 1099, the Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population before Jerusalem was besieged by the soldiers of the First Crusade. Jerusalem_sentence_156

After taking the solidly defended city by assault, the Crusaders massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, and made it the capital of their Kingdom of Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_157

The city, which had been virtually emptied, was recolonized by a variegated inflow of Greeks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Georgians, Armenians, Syrians, Egyptians, Nestorians, Maronites, Jacobite Miaphysites, Copts and others, to block the return of the surviving Muslims and Jews. Jerusalem_sentence_158

The north-eastern quarter was repopulated with Eastern Christians from the Transjordan. Jerusalem_sentence_159

As a result, by 1099 Jerusalem's population had climbed back to some 30,000. Jerusalem_sentence_160

In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_161

Under the terms of surrender, once ransomed, 60,000 Franks were expelled. Jerusalem_sentence_162

The Eastern Christian populace was permitted to stay. Jerusalem_sentence_163

Under the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. Jerusalem_sentence_164

However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles. Jerusalem_sentence_165

From 1229 to 1244, Jerusalem peacefully reverted to Christian control as a result of a 1229 treaty agreed between the crusading Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and al-Kamil, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, that ended the Sixth Crusade. Jerusalem_sentence_166

The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim holy places, and Arab sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications. Jerusalem_sentence_167

In 1244, Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tatars, who decimated the city's Christian population and drove out the Jews. Jerusalem_sentence_168

The Khwarezmian Tatars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. Jerusalem_sentence_169

Mamluk period Jerusalem_section_20

From 1260 to 1517, Jerusalem was ruled by the Mamluks. Jerusalem_sentence_170

In the wider region and until around 1300, many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side, and the crusaders and the Mongols, on the other side. Jerusalem_sentence_171

The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague. Jerusalem_sentence_172

When Nachmanides visited in 1267 he found only two Jewish families, in a population of 2,000, 300 of whom were Christians, in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_173

The well-known and far-traveled lexicographer Fairuzabadi (1329–1414) spent ten years in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_174

Ottoman period (16th–19th centuries) Jerusalem_section_21

In 1517, Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917. Jerusalem_sentence_175

Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent—including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City. Jerusalem_sentence_176

Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo. Jerusalem_sentence_177

The English reference book Modern history or the present state of all nations, written in 1744, stated that "Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine, though much fallen from its ancient grandeaur". Jerusalem_sentence_178

The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates and regular stagecoach and carriage services were among the first signs of modernization in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_179

In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city. Jerusalem_sentence_180

With the annexation of Jerusalem by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_181

In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva. Jerusalem_sentence_182

In the countrywide Peasants' Revolt, Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from Nablus and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the Abu Ghosh clan, and entered the city on 31 May 1834. Jerusalem_sentence_183

The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Jerusalem_sentence_184

Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's forces in Jerusalem the following month. Jerusalem_sentence_185

Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers. Jerusalem_sentence_186

In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region's religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_187

According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans. Jerusalem_sentence_188

The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city's population around Easter time. Jerusalem_sentence_189

In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. Jerusalem_sentence_190

The Russian Compound and Mishkenot Sha'ananim were founded in 1860, followed by many others that included Mahane Israel (1868), Nahalat Shiv'a (1869), German Colony (1872), Beit David (1873), Mea Shearim (1874), Shimon HaZadiq (1876), Beit Ya'aqov (1877), Abu Tor (1880s), American-Swedish Colony (1882), Yemin Moshe (1891), and Mamilla, Wadi al-Joz around the turn of the century. Jerusalem_sentence_191

In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Jerusalem_sentence_192

Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims. Jerusalem_sentence_193

In 1872 Jerusalem became the center of a special administrative district, independent of the Syria Vilayet and under the direct authority of Istanbul called the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_194

The great number of Christian orphans resulting from the 1860 civil war in Mount Lebanon and the Damascus massacre led in the same year to the opening of the German Protestant Syrian Orphanage, better known as the Schneller Orphanage after its founder. Jerusalem_sentence_195

Until the 1880s there were no formal Jewish orphanages in Jerusalem, as families generally took care of each other. Jerusalem_sentence_196

In 1881 the Diskin Orphanage was founded in Jerusalem with the arrival of Jewish children orphaned by a Russian pogrom. Jerusalem_sentence_197

Other orphanages founded in Jerusalem at the beginning of the 20th century were Zion Blumenthal Orphanage (1900) and General Israel Orphan's Home for Girls (1902). Jerusalem_sentence_198

British Mandate (1917–1948) Jerusalem_section_22

Further information: Jerusalem Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine Jerusalem_sentence_199

In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city. Jerusalem_sentence_200

In 1922, the League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne entrusted the United Kingdom to administer Palestine, neighbouring Transjordan, and Iraq beyond it. Jerusalem_sentence_201

The British had to deal with a conflicting demand that was rooted in Ottoman rule. Jerusalem_sentence_202

Agreements for the supply of water, electricity, and the construction of a tramway system—all under concessions granted by the Ottoman authorities—had been signed by the city of Jerusalem and a Greek citizen, Euripides Mavromatis, on 27 January 1914. Jerusalem_sentence_203

Work under these concessions had not begun and, by the end of the war the British occupying forces refused to recognize their validity. Jerusalem_sentence_204

Mavromatis claimed that his concessions overlapped with the Auja Concession that the government had awarded to Rutenberg in 1921 and that he had been deprived of his legal rights. Jerusalem_sentence_205

The Mavromatis concession, in effect despite earlier British attempts to abolish it, covered Jerusalem and other localities (e.g., Bethlehem) within a radius of 20 km (12 miles) around the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem_sentence_206

From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000, comprised two-thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians). Jerusalem_sentence_207

Relations between Arab Christians and Muslims and the growing Jewish population in Jerusalem deteriorated, resulting in recurring unrest. Jerusalem_sentence_208

In Jerusalem, in particular, Arab riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Jerusalem_sentence_209

Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University were founded. Jerusalem_sentence_210

Divided city: Jordanian and Israeli rule (1948–1967) Jerusalem_section_23

Further information: Battle for Jerusalem and City Line (Jerusalem) Jerusalem_sentence_211

See also: Corpus separatum (Jerusalem), United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194, and Jordanian annexation of the West Bank Jerusalem_sentence_212

As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the UN." Jerusalem_sentence_213

The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city. Jerusalem_sentence_214

However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while the British withdrew from Palestine and Israel declared its independence. Jerusalem_sentence_215

In contradiction to the Partition Plan, which envisioned a city separated from the Arab state and the Jewish state, Israel took control of the area which later would become West Jerusalem, along with major parts of the Arab territory allotted to the future Arab State; Jordan took control of East Jerusalem, along with the West Bank. Jerusalem_sentence_216

The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_217

The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May. Jerusalem_sentence_218

Arab residents of Katamon, Talbiya, and the German Colony were driven from their homes. Jerusalem_sentence_219

By the time of the armistice that ended active fighting, Israel had control of 12 of Jerusalem's 15 Arab residential quarters. Jerusalem_sentence_220

An estimated minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees. Jerusalem_sentence_221

The war of 1948 resulted in the division of Jerusalem, so that the old walled city lay entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. Jerusalem_sentence_222

A no-man's land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948: Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el-Tell in a deserted house in Jerusalem's Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel's position in red and Jordan's in green. Jerusalem_sentence_223

This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_224

Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the old walled city, and a crossing point was established at Mandelbaum Gate slightly to the north of the old walled city. Jerusalem_sentence_225

Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. Jerusalem_sentence_226

After the establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital city. Jerusalem_sentence_227

Jordan formally annexed East Jerusalem in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law, and in 1953 declared it the "second capital" of Jordan. Jerusalem_sentence_228

Only the United Kingdom and Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis. Jerusalem_sentence_229

Some scholars argue that the view that Pakistan recognized Jordan's annexation is dubious. Jerusalem_sentence_230

After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein. Jerusalem_sentence_231

While Muslim holy sites were maintained and renovated, contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Jews were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were destroyed or desecrated. Jerusalem_sentence_232

Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites, and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Jerusalem_sentence_233

Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. Jerusalem_sentence_234

The 3,000-year-old Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery was desecrated, with gravestones used to build roads, latrines and Jordanian army fortifications. Jerusalem_sentence_235

38,000 graves in the Jewish Cemetery were destroyed, and Jews were forbidden from being buried there. Jerusalem_sentence_236

The Western Wall was transformed into an exclusively Muslim holy site associated with al-Buraq. Jerusalem_sentence_237

Israeli authorities neglected to protect the tombs in the Muslim Mamilla Cemetery in West Jerusalem, which contains the remains of figures from the early Islamic period, facilitating the creation of a parking lot and public lavatories in 1964. Jerusalem_sentence_238

Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by modern structures during the Jordanian occupation. Jerusalem_sentence_239

During this period, the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque underwent major renovations. Jerusalem_sentence_240

During the 1948 war, the Jewish residents of Eastern Jerusalem were expelled by Jordan's Arab Legion. Jerusalem_sentence_241

Jordan allowed Arab Palestinian refugees from the war to settle in the vacated Jewish Quarter, which became known as Harat al-Sharaf. Jerusalem_sentence_242

In 1966 the Jordanian authorities relocated 500 of them to the Shua'fat refugee camp as part of plans to turn the Jewish quarter into a public park. Jerusalem_sentence_243

Israeli rule (1967–present) Jerusalem_section_24

Main article: Reunification of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_244

In 1967, despite Israeli pleas that Jordan remain neutral during the Six-Day War, Jordan, which had concluded a defense agreement with Egypt on 30 May 1967, attacked Israeli-held West Jerusalem on the war's second day. Jerusalem_sentence_245

After hand-to-hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, the Israel Defense Forces captured East Jerusalem, along with the entire West Bank. Jerusalem_sentence_246

On 27 June 1967, three weeks after the war ended, in the reunification of Jerusalem, Israel extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, including the city's Christian and Muslim holy sites, along with some nearby West Bank territory which comprised 28 Palestinian villages, incorporating it into the Jerusalem Municipality, although it carefully avoided using the term annexation. Jerusalem_sentence_247

On 10 July, Foreign Minister Abba Eban explained to the UN Secretary General: "The term 'annexation' which was used by supporters of the vote is not accurate. Jerusalem_sentence_248

The steps that were taken [by Israel] relate to the integration of Jerusalem in administrative and municipal areas, and served as a legal basis for the protection of the holy places of Jerusalem." Jerusalem_sentence_249

Israel conducted a census of Arab residents in the areas annexed. Jerusalem_sentence_250

Residents were given permanent residency status and the option of applying for Israeli citizenship. Jerusalem_sentence_251

Since 1967, new Jewish residential areas have mushroomed in the eastern sector, while no new Palestinian neighbourhoods have been created. Jerusalem_sentence_252

Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored. Jerusalem_sentence_253

Israel left the Temple Mount under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf, but opened the Western Wall to Jewish access. Jerusalem_sentence_254

The Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was evacuated and razed to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall. Jerusalem_sentence_255

On 18 April 1968, an expropriation order by the Israeli Ministry of Finance more than doubled the size of the Jewish Quarter, evicting its Arab residents and seizing over 700 buildings of which 105 belonged to Jewish inhabitants prior to the Jordanian occupation of the city. Jerusalem_sentence_256

The order designated these areas for public use, but they were intended for Jews alone. Jerusalem_sentence_257

The government offered 200 Jordanian dinars to each displaced Arab family. Jerusalem_sentence_258

After the Six-Day War the population of Jerusalem increased by 196%. Jerusalem_sentence_259

The Jewish population grew by 155%, while the Arab population grew by 314%. Jerusalem_sentence_260

The proportion of the Jewish population fell from 74% in 1967 to 72% in 1980, to 68% in 2000, and to 64% in 2010. Jerusalem_sentence_261

Israeli Agriculture Minister Ariel Sharon proposed building a ring of Jewish neighborhoods around the city's eastern edges. Jerusalem_sentence_262

The plan was intended to make East Jerusalem more Jewish and prevent it from becoming part of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from Bethlehem to Ramallah. Jerusalem_sentence_263

On 2 October 1977, the Israeli cabinet approved the plan, and seven neighborhoods were subsequently built on the city's eastern edges. Jerusalem_sentence_264

They became known as the Ring Neighborhoods. Jerusalem_sentence_265

Other Jewish neighborhoods were built within East Jerusalem, and Israeli Jews also settled in Arab neighborhoods. Jerusalem_sentence_266

The annexation of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. Jerusalem_sentence_267

The Israeli Foreign Ministry disputes that the annexation of Jerusalem was a violation of international law. Jerusalem_sentence_268

The final status of Jerusalem has been one of the most important areas of discord between Palestinian and Israeli negotiators for peace. Jerusalem_sentence_269

Areas of discord have included whether the Palestinian flag can be raised over areas of Palestinian custodianship and the specificity of Israeli and Palestinian territorial borders. Jerusalem_sentence_270

Political status Jerusalem_section_25

Main article: Positions on Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_271

Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of Mandatory Palestine. Jerusalem_sentence_272

From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem served as Israel's capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 envisaged Jerusalem as an international city. Jerusalem_sentence_273

As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. Jerusalem_sentence_274

On 27 June 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments. Jerusalem_sentence_275

In 1988, Israel ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for security reasons. Jerusalem_sentence_276

The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse. Jerusalem_sentence_277

The Oslo Accords stated that the final status of Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the Palestinian Authority. Jerusalem_sentence_278

The accords banned any official Palestinian presence in the city until a final peace agreement, but provided for the opening of a Palestinian trade office in East Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_279

The Palestinian Authority regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. Jerusalem_sentence_280

President Mahmoud Abbas has said that any agreement that did not include East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable. Jerusalem_sentence_281

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has similarly stated that Jerusalem would remain the undivided capital of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_282

Due to its proximity to the city, especially the Temple Mount, Abu Dis, a Palestinian suburb of Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian state by Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_283

Israel has not incorporated Abu Dis within its security wall around Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_284

The Palestinian Authority has built a possible future parliament building for the Palestinian Legislative Council in the town, and its Jerusalem Affairs Offices are all located in Abu Dis. Jerusalem_sentence_285

International status Jerusalem_section_26

While the international community regards East Jerusalem, including the entire Old City, as part of the occupied Palestinian territories, neither part, West or East Jerusalem, is recognized as part of the territory of Israel or the State of Palestine. Jerusalem_sentence_286

Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1947, Jerusalem was envisaged to become a corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. Jerusalem_sentence_287

In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. Jerusalem_sentence_288

The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city. Jerusalem_sentence_289

Status under Israeli rule Jerusalem_section_27

Following the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel extended its jurisdiction and administration over East Jerusalem, establishing new municipal borders. Jerusalem_sentence_290

In 2010, Israel approved legislation giving Jerusalem the highest national priority status in Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_291

The law prioritized construction throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business, tourism, and cultural events more affordable. Jerusalem_sentence_292

Communications Minister Moshe Kahlon said that the bill sent "a clear, unequivocal political message that Jerusalem will not be divided", and that "all those within the Palestinian and international community who expect the current Israeli government to accept any demands regarding Israel's sovereignty over its capital are mistaken and misleading". Jerusalem_sentence_293

The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Jerusalem_sentence_294

The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while some Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year-old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque. Jerusalem_sentence_295

Palestinians regard Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, and the city's borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. Jerusalem_sentence_296

A team of experts assembled by the then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak in 2000 concluded that the city must be divided, since Israel had failed to achieve any of its national aims there. Jerusalem_sentence_297

However, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in 2014 that "Jerusalem will never be divided". Jerusalem_sentence_298

A poll conducted in June 2013 found that 74% of Israeli Jews reject the idea of a Palestinian capital in any portion of Jerusalem, though 72% of the public regarded it as a divided city. Jerusalem_sentence_299

A poll conducted by Palestinian Center for Public Opinion and American Pechter Middle East Polls for the Council on Foreign Relations, among East Jerusalem Arab residents in 2011 revealed that 39% of East Jerusalem Arab residents would prefer Israeli citizenship contrary to 31% who opted for Palestinian citizenship. Jerusalem_sentence_300

According to the poll, 40% of Palestinian residents would prefer to leave their neighborhoods if they would be placed under Palestinian rule. Jerusalem_sentence_301

Jerusalem as capital of Israel Jerusalem_section_28

On 5 December 1949, Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel's "eternal" and "sacred" capital, and eight days later specified that only the war had "compelled" the Israeli leadership "to establish the seat of Government in Tel Aviv", while "for the State of Israel there has always been and always will be one capital only – Jerusalem the Eternal", and that after the war, efforts had been ongoing for creating the conditions for "the Knesset... returning to Jerusalem." Jerusalem_sentence_302

This indeed took place, and since the beginning of 1950 all branches of the Israeli governmentlegislative, judicial, and executive—have resided there, except for the Ministry of Defense, which is located at HaKirya in Tel Aviv. Jerusalem_sentence_303

At the time of Ben Gurion's proclamations and the ensuing Knesset vote of 24 January 1950, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan, and thus the proclamation only applied to West Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_304

In July 1980, Israel passed the Jerusalem Law as Basic Law. Jerusalem_sentence_305

The law declared Jerusalem the "complete and united" capital of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_306

The Jerusalem Law was condemned by the international community, which did not recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_307

The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 478 on 20 August 1980, which declared that the Jerusalem Law is "a violation of international law", is "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". Jerusalem_sentence_308

Member states were called upon to withdraw their diplomatic representation from Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_309

Following the resolution, 22 of the 24 countries that previously had their embassy in (West) Jerusalem relocated them in Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Jerusalem_sentence_310

Costa Rica and El Salvador followed in 2006. Jerusalem_sentence_311

There are two embassies—United States and Guatemala—and two consulates located within the city limits of Jerusalem, and two Latin American states maintain embassies in the Jerusalem District town of Mevaseret Zion (Bolivia and Paraguay). Jerusalem_sentence_312

There are a number of consulates-general located in Jerusalem, which work primarily either with Israel, or the Palestinian authorities. Jerusalem_sentence_313

In 1995, the United States Congress passed the Jerusalem Embassy Act, which required, subject to conditions, that its embassy be moved from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_314

On 6 December 2017 U.S. Jerusalem_sentence_315 President Donald Trump officially recognized Jerusalem as Israel's capital and announced his intention to move the American embassy to Jerusalem, reversing decades of United States policy on the issue. Jerusalem_sentence_316

The move was criticized by many nations. Jerusalem_sentence_317

A resolution condemning the US decision was supported by all the 14 other members of the UN Security Council, but was vetoed by the US on 18 December 2017, and a subsequent resolution condemning the US decision was passed in the United Nations General Assembly. Jerusalem_sentence_318

On 14 May 2018, the United States officially moved the location of its embassy to Jerusalem, transforming its Tel Aviv location into a consulate. Jerusalem_sentence_319

Due to the general lack of international recognition of Jerusalem as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli media outlets use Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_320

In April 2017, the Russian Foreign Ministry announced it viewed Western Jerusalem as Israel's capital in the context of UN-approved principles which include the status of East Jerusalem as the capital of the future Palestinian state. Jerusalem_sentence_321

On 15 December 2018, Australia officially recognized West Jerusalem as Israel's capital, but said their embassy in Tel Aviv would stay until a two-state resolution was settled. Jerusalem_sentence_322

Government precinct and national institutions Jerusalem_section_29

Many national institutions of Israel are located in Kiryat HaMemshala in Givat Ram in Jerusalem as a part of the Kiryat HaLeom project which is intended to create a large district that will house most government agencies and national cultural institutions. Jerusalem_sentence_323

Some government buildings are located in Kiryat Menachem Begin. Jerusalem_sentence_324

The city is home to the Knesset, the Supreme Court, the Bank of Israel, the National Headquarters of the Israel Police, the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and all ministries except for the Ministry of Defense (which is located in central Tel Aviv's HaKirya district) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (which is located in Rishon LeZion, in the wider Tel Aviv metropolitan area, near Beit Dagan). Jerusalem_sentence_325

Jerusalem as capital of Palestine Jerusalem_section_30

See also: East Jerusalem § Jerusalem as capital Jerusalem_sentence_326

The Palestinian National Authority views East Jerusalem as occupied territory according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 242. Jerusalem_sentence_327

The Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Haram al-Sharif, as the capital of the State of Palestine, The PLO claims that West Jerusalem is also subject to permanent status negotiations. Jerusalem_sentence_328

However, it has stated that it would be willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem an open city. Jerusalem_sentence_329

The PLO's position is that East Jerusalem, as defined by the pre-1967 municipal boundaries, shall be the capital of Palestine and West Jerusalem the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city and with its own municipality. Jerusalem_sentence_330

A joint development council would be responsible for coordinated development. Jerusalem_sentence_331

Some states, such as Russia and China, recognize the Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. Jerusalem_sentence_332

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 58/292 affirmed that the Palestinian people have the right to sovereignty over East Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_333

Municipal administration Jerusalem_section_31

Main article: Municipality of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_334

The Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies. Jerusalem_sentence_335

The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in 2003. Jerusalem_sentence_336

In the November 2008 city elections, Nir Barkat was elected. Jerusalem_sentence_337

In November 2018, Moshe Lion was elected mayor. Jerusalem_sentence_338

Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. Jerusalem_sentence_339

The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Jerusalem_sentence_340

Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public. Jerusalem_sentence_341

Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats. Jerusalem_sentence_342

The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor's office are at Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on Jaffa Road. Jerusalem_sentence_343

The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993 when it moved from the old town hall building built by the Mandate authorities. Jerusalem_sentence_344

The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem as the district's capital. Jerusalem_sentence_345

37% of the population is Palestinian, but only 10% of tax revenues are allocated for them. Jerusalem_sentence_346

In East Jerusalem, 52% of the land is excluded from development, 35% designated for Jewish settlements, and 13% for Palestinian use, almost all of which is already built on. Jerusalem_sentence_347

Geography Jerusalem_section_32

Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judaean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). Jerusalem_sentence_348

The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft). Jerusalem_sentence_349

The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). Jerusalem_sentence_350

The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_351

The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Jerusalem_sentence_352

Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or Hell. Jerusalem_sentence_353

The Tyropoeon Valley commenced in the northwest near the Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Jerusalem_sentence_354

Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries. Jerusalem_sentence_355

In biblical times, Jerusalem was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Jerusalem_sentence_356

Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Jerusalem_sentence_357

Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape. Jerusalem_sentence_358

Water supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts, tunnels, pools and cisterns found in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_359

Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi) east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem_sentence_360

On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi) away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Jerusalem_sentence_361

Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis and Ma'ale Adumim to the east, Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv'at Ze'ev to the north. Jerusalem_sentence_362

Mount Herzl, at the western side of the city near the Jerusalem Forest, serves as the national cemetery of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_363

Climate Jerusalem_section_33

The city is characterized by a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Jerusalem_sentence_364

Snow flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years, on average, with short-lived accumulation. Jerusalem_sentence_365

January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), and the summer months are usually rainless. Jerusalem_sentence_366

The average annual precipitation is around 537 mm (21 in), with rain occurring almost entirely between October and May. Jerusalem_sentence_367

Snowfall is rare, and large snowfalls are even more rare. Jerusalem_sentence_368

Jerusalem received over 30 centimetres (12 in) of snow on 13 December 2013, which nearly paralyzed the city. Jerusalem_sentence_369

A day in Jerusalem has on average, 9.3 sunshine hours. Jerusalem_sentence_370

With summers averaging similar temperatures as the coastline, the maritime influence from the Mediterranean Sea is strong, in particular given that Jerusalem is located on a similar latitude as scorching hot deserts not far to its east. Jerusalem_sentence_371

The highest recorded temperature in Jerusalem was 44.4 °C (111.9 °F) on 28 and 30 August 1881, and the lowest temperature recorded was −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) on 25 January 1907. Jerusalem_sentence_372

Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic. Jerusalem_sentence_373

Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Jerusalem_sentence_374

Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city. Jerusalem_sentence_375

Demographics Jerusalem_section_34

Demographic history Jerusalem_section_35

Main article: Demographic history of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_376

Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times over its 5,000-year history. Jerusalem_sentence_377

Since medieval times, the Old City of Jerusalem has been divided into Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Armenian quarters. Jerusalem_sentence_378

Most population data before 1905 is based on estimates, often from foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data usually covered wider areas such as the Jerusalem District. Jerusalem_sentence_379

These estimates suggest that since the end of the Crusades, Muslims formed the largest group in Jerusalem until the mid-nineteenth century. Jerusalem_sentence_380

Between 1838 and 1876, a number of estimates exist which conflict as to whether Jews or Muslims were the largest group during this period, and between 1882 and 1922 estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews became an absolute majority of the population. Jerusalem_sentence_381

Current demographics Jerusalem_section_36

In December 2007, Jerusalem had a population of 747,600–63.7% were Jewish, 33.1% Muslim, and 2% Christian. Jerusalem_sentence_382

At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750.4/km (14,893/sq mi). Jerusalem_sentence_383

According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews in the city's population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. Jerusalem_sentence_384

The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City's 32,488 people were Jews. Jerusalem_sentence_385

Of the Jewish population, 200,000 live in East Jerusalem settlements which are considered illegal under international law. Jerusalem_sentence_386

In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former Soviet Union. Jerusalem_sentence_387

In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. Jerusalem_sentence_388

In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem and only 10,000 moved in. Jerusalem_sentence_389

Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Haredi Jewish and Arab communities. Jerusalem_sentence_390

Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is higher than in Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. Jerusalem_sentence_391

The average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is 3.8 people. Jerusalem_sentence_392

In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to the Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is shifting. Jerusalem_sentence_393

While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab population is 42%. Jerusalem_sentence_394

This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews in Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. Jerusalem_sentence_395

In 1967, Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent. Jerusalem_sentence_396

Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are leaving in higher numbers. Jerusalem_sentence_397

The percentage of secular Jews, or those who 'wear their faith lightly' is dropping, with some 20,000 leaving the city over the past seven years (2012). Jerusalem_sentence_398

They now number 31% of the population, the same percentage as the rising Haredi population. Jerusalem_sentence_399

Many move to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle. Jerusalem_sentence_400

In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. Jerusalem_sentence_401

As of 2009, out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. Jerusalem_sentence_402

This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families. Jerusalem_sentence_403

While some Israelis avoid Jerusalem for its relative lack of development and religious and political tensions, the city has attracted Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank or Gaza Strip. Jerusalem_sentence_404

Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim. Jerusalem_sentence_405

Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life Israel provides to Jerusalem residents. Jerusalem_sentence_406

Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Jerusalem_sentence_407

Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens, and have the right to vote in municipal elections. Jerusalem_sentence_408

Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Jerusalem_sentence_409

Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center are available to residents. Jerusalem_sentence_410

Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_411

In 1998, the Jerusalem Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews. Jerusalem_sentence_412

Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the Arab birthrate. Jerusalem_sentence_413

In May 2012, it was reported that the Jewish birthrate had overtaken the Arab birthrate. Jerusalem_sentence_414

The city's birthrate stands about 4.2 children per Jewish family and 3.9 children per Arab family. Jerusalem_sentence_415

In addition, increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants chose to settle in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_416

In the last few years, thousands of Palestinians have moved to previously fully Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, built after the 1967 Six-Day War. Jerusalem_sentence_417

In 2007, 1,300 Palestinians lived in the previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of Pisgat Ze'ev and constituted three percent of the population in Neve Ya'akov. Jerusalem_sentence_418

In the French Hill neighborhood, Palestinians today constitute one-sixth of the overall population. Jerusalem_sentence_419

At the end of 2008, the population of East Jerusalem was 456,300, comprising 60% of Jerusalem's residents. Jerusalem_sentence_420

Of these, 195,500 (43%) were Jews, (comprising 40% of the Jewish population of Jerusalem as a whole), and 260,800 (57%) were Muslim (comprising 98% of the Muslim population of Jerusalem). Jerusalem_sentence_421

In 2008, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics reported the number of Palestinians living in East Jerusalem was 208,000 according to a recently completed census. Jerusalem_sentence_422

Jerusalem's Jewish population is overwhelmingly religious. Jerusalem_sentence_423

Only 21% of Jewish residents are secular. Jerusalem_sentence_424

In addition, Haredi Jews comprise 30% of the city's adult Jewish population. Jerusalem_sentence_425

In a phenomenon seen rarely around the world, the percentage of Jewish men who work, 47%, is exceeded by the percentage of Jewish women who work, 50%. Jerusalem_sentence_426

The young and less religious continue to leave according to a 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics report which noted 6,740 people left. Jerusalem_sentence_427

The opening of high speed rail transit to Tel Aviv in 2018 and the New Jerusalem Gateway Business District currently under construction is designed to alter business, tourism, and hopefully reverse the population exodus. Jerusalem_sentence_428

Jerusalem had a population of 804,400 in 2011, of which Jews comprised 499,400 (62.1%), Muslims 281,100 (34.9%), Christians 14,700 (1.8%), and 9,000 (1.1%) were not classified by religion. Jerusalem_sentence_429

Jerusalem had a population of 882,700 in 2016, of which Jews comprised 536,600 (60.8%), Muslims 319,800 (36.2%), Christians 15,800 (1.8%), and 10,300 unclassified (1.2%). Jerusalem_sentence_430

According to Peace Now, approvals for building in Israeli settlements in East Jerusalem have expanded by 60% since Trump became U.S. president in 2017. Jerusalem_sentence_431

Since 1991, Palestinians who make up the majority of the residents in the area have only received 30% of the building permits. Jerusalem_sentence_432

Urban planning issues Jerusalem_section_37

Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Jerusalem say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction. Jerusalem_sentence_433

According to a World Bank report, the number of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer demolition orders were issued in West Jerusalem than in East Jerusalem; Arabs in Jerusalem were less likely to receive construction permits than Jews, and "the authorities are much more likely to take action against Palestinian violators" than Jewish violators of the permit process. Jerusalem_sentence_434

In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the City of David archaeological park in the 60% Arab neighborhood of Silwan (adjacent to the Old City), and the Museum of Tolerance on Mamilla Cemetery (adjacent to Zion Square). Jerusalem_sentence_435

Religious significance Jerusalem_section_38

Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_436


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Jerusalem has been sacred to Judaism for roughly 3000 years, to Christianity for around 2000 years, and to Islam for approximately 1400 years. Jerusalem_sentence_437

The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city. Jerusalem_sentence_438

Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy. Jerusalem_sentence_439

Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since King David proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE. Jerusalem_sentence_440

Jerusalem was the site of Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple. Jerusalem_sentence_441

Although not mentioned in the Torah / Pentateuch, it is mentioned in the Bible 632 times. Jerusalem_sentence_442

Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the "Holy of Holies" on the Temple Mount itself. Jerusalem_sentence_443

Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem, and Arks within Jerusalem face the Holy of Holies. Jerusalem_sentence_444

As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Jerusalem_sentence_445

Many Jews have "Mizrach" plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer. Jerusalem_sentence_446

Christianity reveres Jerusalem for its Old Testament history, and also for its significance in the life of Jesus. Jerusalem_sentence_447

According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple. Jerusalem_sentence_448

The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David. Jerusalem_sentence_449

Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. Jerusalem_sentence_450

The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem, but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city. Jerusalem_sentence_451

The land occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past 2000 years. Jerusalem_sentence_452

Jerusalem is the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam. Jerusalem_sentence_453

For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kaaba in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims was Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_454

The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad's Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Jerusalem_sentence_455

Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam. Jerusalem_sentence_456

The first verse in the Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque, in reference to the location in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_457

The hadith, the recorded sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, name Jerusalem as the location of the Al-Aqsa Mosque. Jerusalem_sentence_458

The al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, was built on the Temple Mount under the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid to commemorate the place from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven. Jerusalem_sentence_459

Economy Jerusalem_section_39

Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza. Jerusalem_sentence_460

Jerusalem's religious and cultural landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall and the Old City, In 2010, Jerusalem was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the Middle East by Travel + Leisure magazine. Jerusalem_sentence_461

in 2013, 75% of the 3.5 million tourists to Israel visited Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_462

Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. Jerusalem_sentence_463

The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups. Jerusalem_sentence_464

Although Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006. Jerusalem_sentence_465

Northern Jerusalem's Har Hotzvim industrial park and the Jerusalem Technology Park in south Jerusalem are home to large Research and Development centers of international tech companies, among them Intel, Cisco, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, IBM, Mobileye, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic and more. Jerusalem_sentence_466

In April 2015, Time Magazine picked Jerusalem as one of the five emerging tech hubs in the world, proclaiming that "The city has become a flourishing center for biomed, cleantech, Internet/mobile startups, accelerators, investors and supporting service providers." Jerusalem_sentence_467

Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%). Jerusalem_sentence_468

During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city. Jerusalem_sentence_469

Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem's land is zoned for "industry and infrastructure." Jerusalem_sentence_470

By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high. Jerusalem_sentence_471

Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%). Jerusalem_sentence_472

Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967, East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_473

Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). Jerusalem_sentence_474

The unemployment rate in Jerusalem (8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa (52.4%). Jerusalem_sentence_475

Poverty remains a problem in the city as 37% of the families in Jerusalem lived in 2011 below the poverty line. Jerusalem_sentence_476

According to a report by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), 78% of Arabs in Jerusalem lived in poverty in 2012, up from 64% in 2006. Jerusalem_sentence_477

While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening educational system, Ir Amim blames the legal status of Palestinians in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_478

High-rise construction Jerusalem_section_40

Jerusalem has traditionally had a low-rise skyline. Jerusalem_sentence_479

About 18 tall buildings were built at different times in the downtown area when there was no clear policy over the matter. Jerusalem_sentence_480

One of them, Holyland Tower 1, Jerusalem's tallest building, is a skyscraper by international standards, rising 32 stories. Jerusalem_sentence_481

Holyland Tower 2, which has been approved for construction, will reach the same height. Jerusalem_sentence_482

A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings, including skyscrapers, built in certain, designated areas of downtown Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_483

Under the plan, towers will line Jaffa Road and King George Street. Jerusalem_sentence_484

One of the proposed towers along King George Street, the Migdal Merkaz HaYekum, is planned as a 65-story building, which would make it one of the tallest buildings in Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_485

At the entrance to the city, near the Jerusalem Chords Bridge and the Central Bus Station, twelve towers rising between 24 and 33 stories will be built, as part of a complex that will also include an open square and an underground train station serving a new express line between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, and will be connected by bridges and tunnels. Jerusalem_sentence_486

Eleven of the skyscrapers will be either office or apartment buildings, and one will be a 2,000-room hotel. Jerusalem_sentence_487

The complex is expected to attract many businesses from Tel Aviv, and become the city's main business hub. Jerusalem_sentence_488

In addition, a complex for the city's courts and the prosecutor's office will be built, as well as new buildings for Central Zionist Archives and Israel State Archives. Jerusalem_sentence_489

The skyscrapers built throughout the city are expected to contain public space, shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues, and it has been speculated that this may lead to a revitalization of downtown Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_490

In August 2015, the city council approved construction of a 344-foot pyramid-shaped skyscraper designed by Daniel Libeskind and Yigal Levi, in place of a rejected previous design by Libeskind; it is set to break ground by 2019. Jerusalem_sentence_491

Transportation Jerusalem_section_41

Main article: Transport in Jerusalem Jerusalem_sentence_492

Jerusalem is served by highly developed communication infrastructures, making it a leading logistics hub for Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_493

The Jerusalem Central Bus Station, located on Jaffa Road, is the busiest bus station in Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_494

It is served by Egged Bus Cooperative, which is the second-largest bus company in the world, The Dan serves the Bnei Brak-Jerusalem route along with Egged, and Superbus serves the routes between Jerusalem, Modi'in Illit, and Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut. Jerusalem_sentence_495

The companies operate from Jerusalem Central Bus Station. Jerusalem_sentence_496

Arab neighborhoods in East Jerusalem and routes between Jerusalem and locations in the West Bank are served by the East Jerusalem Central Bus Station, a transportation hub located near the Old City's Damascus Gate. Jerusalem_sentence_497

The Jerusalem Light Rail initiated service in August 2011. Jerusalem_sentence_498

According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and has 23 stops. Jerusalem_sentence_499

The route is from Pisgat Ze'ev in the north via the Old City and city center to Mt. Jerusalem_sentence_500

Herzl in the south. Jerusalem_sentence_501

Another work in progress is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which became partially operational in 2018 and is expected to be completed in 2019. Jerusalem_sentence_502

Its terminus will be a new underground station (80 m (262.47 ft) deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus Station, and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. Jerusalem_sentence_503

Israel Railways operates train services to Malha train station from Tel Aviv via Beit Shemesh. Jerusalem_sentence_504

Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north–south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Jerusalem_sentence_505

Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and West Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_506

Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22 mi) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs. Jerusalem_sentence_507

The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed. Jerusalem_sentence_508

Airport Jerusalem_section_42

Jerusalem is served by Ben Gurion Airport, some 50 kilometres (31 miles) northwest of the Jerusalem, on the route to Tel Aviv. Jerusalem_sentence_509

The Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway runs non-stop from Jerusalem–Yitzhak Navon railway station to the airport and began operation in 2018. Jerusalem_sentence_510

In the past, Jerusalem was also served by the local Atarot Airport. Jerusalem_sentence_511

Atarot ceased operation in 2000. Jerusalem_sentence_512

Education Jerusalem_section_43

Universities Jerusalem_section_44

Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Jerusalem_sentence_513

Founded in 1925, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world. Jerusalem_sentence_514

The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud. Jerusalem_sentence_515

The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko, David Gross, and Daniel Kahneman. Jerusalem_sentence_516

One of the university's major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books. Jerusalem_sentence_517

The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Jerusalem_sentence_518

Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_519

The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv'at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital. Jerusalem_sentence_520

The Academy of the Hebrew Language are located in the Hebrew university in Givat Ram and the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities located near the Presidents House. Jerusalem_sentence_521

The Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program. Jerusalem_sentence_522

It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Jerusalem_sentence_523

Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest. Jerusalem_sentence_524

There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year. Jerusalem_sentence_525

However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Jerusalem_sentence_526

Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests. Jerusalem_sentence_527

To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_528

Al-Quds University was established in 1984 to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. Jerusalem_sentence_529

It describes itself as the "only Arab university in Jerusalem". Jerusalem_sentence_530

New York Bard College and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college in a building originally built to house the Palestinian Legislative Council and Yasser Arafat's office. Jerusalem_sentence_531

The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching degrees. Jerusalem_sentence_532

Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres) Abu Dis campus. Jerusalem_sentence_533

Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University. Jerusalem_sentence_534

Arab schools Jerusalem_section_45

Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students. Jerusalem_sentence_535

While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab neighborhoods. Jerusalem_sentence_536

Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008. Jerusalem_sentence_537

In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. Jerusalem_sentence_538

A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project. Jerusalem_sentence_539

In 2008, Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction of schools for Arabs in East Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_540

Arab high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects. Jerusalem_sentence_541

Culture Jerusalem_section_46

Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. Jerusalem_sentence_542

The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists. Jerusalem_sentence_543

The 20-acre (81,000 m) museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. Jerusalem_sentence_544

The Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th century in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum's Shrine of the Book. Jerusalem_sentence_545

The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. Jerusalem_sentence_546

The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden and a scale-model of the Second Temple. Jerusalem_sentence_547

The Ticho House in downtown Jerusalem houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912. Jerusalem_sentence_548

Next to the Israel Museum is the Bible Lands Museum, near The National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel, which includes the Israel Antiquities Authority offices. Jerusalem_sentence_549

A World Bible Center is planned to be built adjacent to Mount Zion at a site called the "Bible Hill". Jerusalem_sentence_550

A planned World Kabbalah Center is to be located on the nearby promenade, overlooking the Old City. Jerusalem_sentence_551

The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. Jerusalem_sentence_552

It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate. Jerusalem_sentence_553

In 2006, a 38 km (24 mi) Jerusalem Trail was opened, a hiking trail that goes to many cultural sites and national parks in and around Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_554

The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis. Jerusalem_sentence_555

The national cemetery of Israel is located at the city's western edge, near the Jerusalem Forest on Mount Herzl. Jerusalem_sentence_556

The western extension of Mount Herzl is the Mount of Remembrance, where the main Holocaust museum of Israel is located. Jerusalem_sentence_557

Yad Vashem, Israel's national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world's largest library of Holocaust-related information. Jerusalem_sentence_558

It houses an estimated 100,000 books and articles. Jerusalem_sentence_559

The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust. Jerusalem_sentence_560

An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished is also present. Jerusalem_sentence_561

Further, Yad Vashem commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations. Jerusalem_sentence_562

The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s, has appeared around the world. Jerusalem_sentence_563

The International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city houses the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. Jerusalem_sentence_564

The Jerusalem Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar Center (formerly Beit Ha'Am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe, and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem also present the arts. Jerusalem_sentence_565

The Israel Festival, featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays, and street theater has been held annually since 1961, and Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. Jerusalem_sentence_566

The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas. Jerusalem_sentence_567

The Khan Theater, located in a caravanserai opposite the old Jerusalem train station, is the city's only repertoire theater. Jerusalem_sentence_568

The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years as the site of Shav'ua Hasefer (an annual week-long book fair) and outdoor music performances. Jerusalem_sentence_569

The Jerusalem Film Festival is held annually, screening Israeli and international films. Jerusalem_sentence_570

In 1974 the Jerusalem Cinematheque was founded. Jerusalem_sentence_571

In 1981 it was moved to a new building on Hebron Road near the Valley of Hinnom and the Old City. Jerusalem_sentence_572

Jerusalem was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in 2009. Jerusalem_sentence_573

Jerusalem is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts. Jerusalem_sentence_574

The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra which toured Arab states of the Persian Gulf and other Middle East countries in 2009. Jerusalem_sentence_575

The Islamic Museum on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns. Jerusalem_sentence_576

Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art. Jerusalem_sentence_577

While Israel approves and financially supports some Arab cultural activities, Arab Capital of Culture events were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National Authority. Jerusalem_sentence_578

In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the Beit 'Anan suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people Jerusalem_sentence_579

The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_580

The Abraham Fund and the Jerusalem Intercultural Center (JICC) promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. Jerusalem_sentence_581

The Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance is open to Arabs and Jews and offers workshops on Jewish-Arab dialogue through the arts. Jerusalem_sentence_582

The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music. Jerusalem_sentence_583

In 2008, the Tolerance Monument, an outdoor sculpture by Czesław Dźwigaj, was erected on a hill between Jewish Armon HaNetziv and Arab Jebl Mukaber as a symbol of Jerusalem's quest for peace. Jerusalem_sentence_584

Media Jerusalem_section_47

Jerusalem is the state broadcasting center of Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_585

The Israel Broadcasting Authority's main office is located in Jerusalem, as well as the TV and radio studios for Israel Radio, Channel 2, Channel 10, and part of the radio studios of BBC News. Jerusalem_sentence_586

The Jerusalem Post and The Times of Israel are also headquartered in Jerusalem. Jerusalem_sentence_587

Local newspapers include Kol Ha'Ir and The Jerusalem Times. Jerusalem_sentence_588

God TV, an international Christian television network is also based in the city. Jerusalem_sentence_589

Sports Jerusalem_section_48

See also: Beitar Jerusalem F.C., Hapoel Jerusalem B.C., and Jerusalem Marathon Jerusalem_sentence_590

The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball. Jerusalem_sentence_591

Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well known in Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_592

Fans include political figures who often attend its games. Jerusalem_sentence_593

Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion seven times, Hapoel has won the Cup only once. Jerusalem_sentence_594

Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never succeeded. Jerusalem_sentence_595

Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while Hapoel is in the second division Liga Leumit. Jerusalem_sentence_596

Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Stadium has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 34,000. Jerusalem_sentence_597

The most popular Palestinian football club is Jabal Al Mukaber (since 1976) which plays in West Bank Premier League. Jerusalem_sentence_598

The club hails from Mount Scopus at Jerusalem, part of the Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank Barrier. Jerusalem_sentence_599

In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem is one of the top teams in the top division. Jerusalem_sentence_600

The club has won Israel's championship in 2015, the State Cup four times, and the ULEB Cup in 2004. Jerusalem_sentence_601

The Jerusalem Marathon, established in 2011, is an international marathon race held annually in Jerusalem in the month of March. Jerusalem_sentence_602

The full 42-kilometer race begins at the Knesset, passes through Mount Scopus and the Old City's Armenian Quarter, and concludes at Sacher Park. Jerusalem_sentence_603

In 2012, the Jerusalem Marathon drew 15,000 runners, including 1,500 from fifty countries outside Israel. Jerusalem_sentence_604

A popular non-competitive sports event is the Jerusalem March, held annually during the Sukkot festival. Jerusalem_sentence_605

Twin towns and sister cities Jerusalem_section_49

See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities Jerusalem_sentence_606




See also Jerusalem_section_50


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