Jesus

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"Christ" and "Jesus of Nazareth" redirect here. Jesus_sentence_0

For other uses, see Christ (disambiguation), Jesus of Nazareth (disambiguation), and Jesus (disambiguation). Jesus_sentence_1

Jesus_table_infobox_0

JesusJesus_header_cell_0_0_0
BornJesus_header_cell_0_1_0 c. 4 BC

Kingdom of Judea, Roman EmpireJesus_cell_0_1_1

DiedJesus_header_cell_0_2_0 AD 30 or 33 (aged 33–36)

Jerusalem, Judea, Roman EmpireJesus_cell_0_2_1

Cause of deathJesus_header_cell_0_3_0 CrucifixionJesus_cell_0_3_1
Parent(s)Jesus_header_cell_0_4_0 Jesus_cell_0_4_1

Jesus (c. 4 BC – AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. Jesus_sentence_2

He is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Jesus_sentence_3

Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (the Christ) prophesied in the Old Testament. Jesus_sentence_4

Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically, although the quest for the historical Jesus has yielded some uncertainty on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus, as the only records of Jesus' life are contained in the four Gospels. Jesus_sentence_5

Jesus was a Galilean Jew, who was baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry. Jesus_sentence_6

He preached orally and was often referred to as "rabbi". Jesus_sentence_7

Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers. Jesus_sentence_8

He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, and crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. Jesus_sentence_9

After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the early Church. Jesus_sentence_10

Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Jesus_sentence_11

Commonly, Christians believe Jesus enables people to be reconciled to God. Jesus_sentence_12

The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. Jesus_sentence_13

The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. Jesus_sentence_14

A small minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. Jesus_sentence_15

The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25 as Christmas. Jesus_sentence_16

His crucifixion is honored on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter Sunday. Jesus_sentence_17

The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("year of the Lord"), and the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_18

Jesus is also revered outside of Christianity. Jesus_sentence_19

In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as Isa) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah. Jesus_sentence_20

Muslims believe Jesus was born of a virgin, but was neither God nor a begotten God. Jesus_sentence_21

The Quran states that Jesus never claimed divinity. Jesus_sentence_22

Muslims do not believe that he was killed or crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. Jesus_sentence_23

In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, and was neither divine nor resurrected. Jesus_sentence_24

Etymology Jesus_section_0

Further information: Jesus (name), Holy Name of Jesus, Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament, and Names of God in Christianity Jesus_sentence_25

A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of [father's name]", or the individual's hometown. Jesus_sentence_26

Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is commonly referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth" (e.g., Mark 10:47). Jesus_sentence_27

Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon" (Mark 6:3), "the carpenter's son" (Matthew 13:55), or "Joseph's son" (Luke 4:22). Jesus_sentence_28

In the Gospel of John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth" (John 1:45). Jesus_sentence_29

The English name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς (Iēsoûs). Jesus_sentence_30

The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע‎ (Yeshua), a variant of the earlier name יהושע‎ (Yehoshua), or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves". Jesus_sentence_31

This was also the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest in the Old Testament. Jesus_sentence_32

The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_33

The 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus (i.e. Ἰησοῦς). Jesus_sentence_34

The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is generally given as "Yahweh is salvation". Jesus_sentence_35

Since the early period of Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ". Jesus_sentence_36

"Jesus Christ" is the name that the author of the Gospel of John claims Jesus gave to himself during his high priestly prayer. Jesus_sentence_37

The word Christ was a title or office ("the Christ"), not a given name. Jesus_sentence_38

It derives from the Greek (Christos), a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh () meaning "anointed", and is usually transliterated into English as "Messiah". Jesus_sentence_39

In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture (see Leviticus 8:10–12 and Exodus 30:29). Jesus_sentence_40

Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. Jesus_sentence_41

In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". Jesus_sentence_42

The term Christian (meaning a follower of Christ) has been in use since the 1st century. Jesus_sentence_43

Life and teachings in the New Testament Jesus_section_1

Main article: Life of Jesus in the New Testament Jesus_sentence_44

See also: Gospel, Gospel harmony, Historical reliability of the Gospels, and Internal consistency of the New Testament Jesus_sentence_45

See also: New Testament places associated with Jesus and Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament Jesus_sentence_46

Canonical gospels Jesus_section_2

The four canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are the foremost sources for the life and message of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_47

However, other parts of the New Testament also include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in . Jesus_sentence_48

Acts of the Apostles ( and ) refers to the early ministry of Jesus and its anticipation by John the Baptist. Jesus_sentence_49

says more about the Ascension of Jesus (also mentioned in ) than the canonical gospels do. Jesus_sentence_50

In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times (, ). Jesus_sentence_51

Some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. Jesus_sentence_52

These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, and Gospel of Judas, the Apocryphon of James, and many other apocryphal writings. Jesus_sentence_53

Most scholars conclude that these are written much later and are less reliable accounts than the canonical gospels. Jesus_sentence_54

The canonical gospels are four accounts, each written by a different author. Jesus_sentence_55

The authors of the gospels are all anonymous, attributed by tradition to the four evangelists, each with close ties to Jesus: Mark by John Mark, an associate of Peter; Matthew by one of Jesus' disciples; Luke by a companion of Paul mentioned in a few epistles; and John by another of Jesus' disciples, the "beloved disciple". Jesus_sentence_56

One important aspect of the study of the gospels is the literary genre under which they fall. Jesus_sentence_57

Genre "is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings". Jesus_sentence_58

Whether the gospel authors set out to write novels, myths, histories, or biographies has a tremendous impact on how they ought to be interpreted. Jesus_sentence_59

Some recent studies suggest that the genre of the gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography. Jesus_sentence_60

Although not without critics, the position that the gospels are a type of ancient biography is the consensus among scholars today. Jesus_sentence_61

Concerning the accuracy of the accounts, viewpoints run the gamut from considering them as inerrant descriptions of the life of Jesus, to doubting whether they are historically reliable on a number of points, to considering them to provide very little historical information about his life beyond the basics. Jesus_sentence_62

According to a broad scholarly consensus, the Synoptic Gospels (the first three – Matthew, Mark, and Luke), are the most reliable sources of information about Jesus. Jesus_sentence_63

According to the Marcan priority, the first to be written was the Gospel of Mark (written AD 60–75), followed by the Gospel of Matthew (AD 65–85), the Gospel of Luke (AD 65–95), and the Gospel of John (AD 75–100). Jesus_sentence_64

Furthermore, most scholars agree that the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source when writing their gospels. Jesus_sentence_65

Since Matthew and Luke also share some content not found in Mark, many scholars explain this by assuming that another source (commonly called the "Q source") was used by these two authors in addition to Mark. Jesus_sentence_66

Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view"). Jesus_sentence_67

They are called "synoptic" because they are similar in content, narrative arrangement, language and paragraph structure, and one can easily set them next to each other and synoptically compare what is in them. Jesus_sentence_68

Scholars generally agree that it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John. Jesus_sentence_69

While the flow of some events (such as Jesus' baptism, transfiguration, crucifixion and interactions with the apostles) are shared among the Synoptic Gospels, incidents such as the transfiguration do not appear in John, which also differs on other matters, such as the Cleansing of the Temple. Jesus_sentence_70

Jesus_table_general_1

Jesus in the Synoptic GospelsJesus_header_cell_1_0_0 Jesus in the Gospel of JohnJesus_header_cell_1_0_1
Begins with Jesus' baptism or birth to a virgin.Jesus_cell_1_1_0 Begins with creation, with no birth story.Jesus_cell_1_1_1
Jesus is baptized by John the Baptist.Jesus_cell_1_2_0 Baptism presupposed but not mentioned.Jesus_cell_1_2_1
Jesus teaches in parables and aphorisms.Jesus_cell_1_3_0 Jesus teaches in long, involved discourses.Jesus_cell_1_3_1
Jesus teaches primarily about the Kingdom of God, little about himself.Jesus_cell_1_4_0 Jesus teaches primarily and extensively about himself.Jesus_cell_1_4_1
Jesus speaks up for the poor and oppressed.Jesus_cell_1_5_0 Jesus says little to nothing about the poor or oppressed.Jesus_cell_1_5_1
Jesus exorcises demons.Jesus_cell_1_6_0 Jesus does not exorcise demons.Jesus_cell_1_6_1
Peter confesses who Jesus is.Jesus_cell_1_7_0 Peter gives no confession.Jesus_cell_1_7_1
Jesus does not wash his hands.Jesus_cell_1_8_0 Jesus is not said to not wash his hands.Jesus_cell_1_8_1
Jesus' disciples do not fast.Jesus_cell_1_9_0 No mention of disciples not fasting.Jesus_cell_1_9_1
Jesus' disciples pick grain on the Sabbath.Jesus_cell_1_10_0 Disciples do not pick grain on the Sabbath.Jesus_cell_1_10_1
Jesus is transfigured.Jesus_cell_1_11_0 Jesus is not transfigured.Jesus_cell_1_11_1
Jesus attends one Passover festival.Jesus_cell_1_12_0 Jesus attends three or four Passover festivals.Jesus_cell_1_12_1
Cleansing of the Temple occurs late.Jesus_cell_1_13_0 Cleansing of the Temple is early.Jesus_cell_1_13_1
Jesus ushers in a new covenant with a last supper.Jesus_cell_1_14_0 Jesus washes the disciples' feet.Jesus_cell_1_14_1
Jesus prays to be spared his death.Jesus_cell_1_15_0 Jesus shows no weakness in the face of death.Jesus_cell_1_15_1
Jesus is betrayed with a kiss.Jesus_cell_1_16_0 Jesus announces his identity.Jesus_cell_1_16_1
Jesus is arrested by Jewish leaders.Jesus_cell_1_17_0 Jesus is arrested by Roman and Temple guards.Jesus_cell_1_17_1
Simon of Cyrene helps Jesus carry his cross.Jesus_cell_1_18_0 Jesus carries his cross alone.Jesus_cell_1_18_1
Temple curtain tears at Jesus' death.Jesus_cell_1_19_0 Jesus' side is pierced with a lance.Jesus_cell_1_19_1
Many women visit Jesus' tomb.Jesus_cell_1_20_0 Only Mary Magdalene visits Jesus' tomb.Jesus_cell_1_20_1

The Synoptics emphasize different aspects of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_71

In Mark, Jesus is the Son of God whose mighty works demonstrate the presence of God's Kingdom. Jesus_sentence_72

He is a tireless wonder worker, the servant of both God and man. Jesus_sentence_73

This short gospel records few of Jesus' words or teachings. Jesus_sentence_74

The Gospel of Matthew emphasizes that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's will as revealed in the Old Testament, and he is the Lord of the Church. Jesus_sentence_75

He is the "Son of David", a "king", and the Messiah. Jesus_sentence_76

Luke presents Jesus as the divine-human savior who shows compassion to the needy. Jesus_sentence_77

He is the friend of sinners and outcasts, come to seek and save the lost. Jesus_sentence_78

This gospel includes well-known parables, such as the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son. Jesus_sentence_79

The prologue to the Gospel of John identifies Jesus as an incarnation of the divine Word (Logos). Jesus_sentence_80

As the Word, Jesus was eternally present with God, active in all creation, and the source of humanity's moral and spiritual nature. Jesus_sentence_81

Jesus is not only greater than any past human prophet but greater than any prophet could be. Jesus_sentence_82

He not only speaks God's Word; he is God's Word. Jesus_sentence_83

In the Gospel of John, Jesus reveals his divine role publicly. Jesus_sentence_84

Here he is the Bread of Life, the Light of the World, the True Vine and more. Jesus_sentence_85

In general, the authors of the New Testament showed little interest in an absolute chronology of Jesus or in synchronizing the episodes of his life with the secular history of the age. Jesus_sentence_86

As stated in , the gospels do not claim to provide an exhaustive list of the events in the life of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_87

The accounts were primarily written as theological documents in the context of early Christianity, with timelines as a secondary consideration. Jesus_sentence_88

In this respect, it is noteworthy that the Gospels devote about one third of their text to the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem, referred to as the Passion. Jesus_sentence_89

Although the gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, it is possible to draw from them a general picture of the life story of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_90

Genealogy and nativity Jesus_section_3

Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus and Nativity of Jesus Jesus_sentence_91

Jesus was Jewish, born to Mary, wife of Joseph (Matthew 1; Luke 2). Jesus_sentence_92

The Gospels of Matthew and Luke offer two accounts of the genealogy of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_93

Matthew traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham through David. Jesus_sentence_94

Luke traces Jesus' ancestry through Adam to God. Jesus_sentence_95

The lists are identical between Abraham and David, but differ radically from that point. Jesus_sentence_96

Matthew has twenty-seven generations from David to Joseph, whereas Luke has forty-two, with almost no overlap between the names on the two lists. Jesus_sentence_97

Various theories have been put forward seeking to explain why the two genealogies are so different. Jesus_sentence_98

Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' birth, especially that Jesus was born to a virgin named Mary in Bethlehem in fulfillment of prophecy. Jesus_sentence_99

Luke's account emphasizes events before the birth of Jesus and centers on Mary, while Matthew's mostly covers those after the birth and centers on Joseph. Jesus_sentence_100

Both accounts state that Jesus was born to Joseph and Mary, his betrothed, in Bethlehem, and both support the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus, according to which Jesus was miraculously conceived by the Holy Spirit in Mary's womb when she was still a virgin. Jesus_sentence_101

At the same time, there is evidence, at least in the Lukan Acts of the Apostles, that Jesus was thought to have had, like many figures in antiquity, a dual paternity, since there it is stated he descended from the seed or loins of David. Jesus_sentence_102

By taking him as his own, Joseph will give him the necessary Davidic descent. Jesus_sentence_103

In Matthew, Joseph is troubled because Mary, his betrothed, is pregnant (Matthew 1:1920), but in the first of Joseph's three dreams an angel assures him not to be afraid to take Mary as his wife, because her child was conceived by the Holy Spirit. Jesus_sentence_104

In Matthew 2:112, wise men or Magi from the East bring gifts to the young Jesus as the King of the Jews. Jesus_sentence_105

They find Jesus in a house in Bethlehem. Jesus_sentence_106

Jesus is now a child and not an infant. Jesus_sentence_107

Matthew focuses on an event after the Luke Nativity where Jesus was an infant. Jesus_sentence_108

In Matthew Herod the Great hears of Jesus' birth and, wanting him killed, orders the murders of male infants in Bethlehem under age of 2. Jesus_sentence_109

But an angel warns Joseph in his second dream, and the family flees to Egypt—later to return and settle in Nazareth. Jesus_sentence_110

In , Mary learns from the angel Gabriel that she will conceive and bear a child called Jesus through the action of the Holy Spirit. Jesus_sentence_111

When Mary is due to give birth, she and Joseph travel from Nazareth to Joseph's ancestral home in Bethlehem to register in the census ordered by Caesar Augustus. Jesus_sentence_112

While there Mary gives birth to Jesus, and as they have found no room in the inn, she places the newborn in a manger (). Jesus_sentence_113

An angel announces the birth to a group of shepherds, who go to Bethlehem to see Jesus, and subsequently spread the news abroad (). Jesus_sentence_114

After the presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Joseph, Mary and Jesus return to Nazareth. Jesus_sentence_115

Early life, family, and profession Jesus_section_4

Main article: Christ Child Jesus_sentence_116

See also: Return of the family of Jesus to Nazareth, Unknown years of Jesus, and Brothers of Jesus Jesus_sentence_117

Jesus' childhood home is identified in the gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth in Galilee, where he lived with his family. Jesus_sentence_118

Although Joseph appears in descriptions of Jesus' childhood, no mention is made of him thereafter. Jesus_sentence_119

His other family members—his mother, Mary, his brothers James, Joses (or Joseph), Judas and Simon and his unnamed sisters—are mentioned in the gospels and other sources. Jesus_sentence_120

The Gospel of Mark reports that Jesus comes into conflict with his neighbors and family. Jesus_sentence_121

Jesus' mother and brothers come to get him () because people are saying that he is crazy (). Jesus_sentence_122

Jesus responds that his followers are his true family. Jesus_sentence_123

In John, Mary follows Jesus to his crucifixion, and he expresses concern over her well-being (). Jesus_sentence_124

Jesus is called a τέκτων (tektōn) in , traditionally understood as carpenter but it could cover makers of objects in various materials, including builders. Jesus_sentence_125

The gospels indicate that Jesus could read, paraphrase, and debate scripture, but this does not necessarily mean that he received formal scribal training. Jesus_sentence_126

When Jesus is presented as a baby in the temple per Jewish Law, a man named Simeon says to Mary and Joseph that Jesus "shall stand as a sign of contradiction, while a sword will pierce your own soul. Jesus_sentence_127

Then the secret thoughts of many will come to light" (). Jesus_sentence_128

Several years later, when Jesus goes missing on a visit to Jerusalem, his parents find him in the temple sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking questions, and the people are amazed at his understanding and answers; Mary scolds Jesus for going missing, to which Jesus replies that he must "be in his father's house" (). Jesus_sentence_129

Baptism and temptation Jesus_section_5

Main articles: Baptism of Jesus and Temptation of Christ Jesus_sentence_130

The Synoptic accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist. Jesus_sentence_131

They show John preaching penance and repentance for the remission of sins and encouraging the giving of alms to the poor () as he baptizes people in the area of the Jordan River around Perea and foretells () the arrival of someone "more powerful" than he. Jesus_sentence_132

Later, Jesus identifies John as "the Elijah who was to come" (, ), the prophet who was expected to arrive before the "great and terrible day of the Lord" (). Jesus_sentence_133

Likewise, Luke says that John had the spirit and power of Elijah (). Jesus_sentence_134

In Mark, John baptizes Jesus, and as he comes out of the water he sees the Holy Spirit descending to him like a dove and he hears a voice from heaven declaring him to be God's Son (). Jesus_sentence_135

This is one of two events described in the gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration. Jesus_sentence_136

The spirit then drives him into the wilderness where he is tempted by Satan (). Jesus_sentence_137

Jesus then begins his ministry after John's arrest (). Jesus_sentence_138

Jesus' baptism in Matthew is similar. Jesus_sentence_139

Here, before Jesus' baptism, John protests, saying, "I need to be baptized by you" (). Jesus_sentence_140

Jesus instructs him to carry on with the baptism "to fulfill all righteousness" (). Jesus_sentence_141

Matthew also details the three temptations that Satan offers Jesus in the wilderness (). Jesus_sentence_142

In Luke, the Holy Spirit descends as a dove after everyone has been baptized and Jesus is praying (). Jesus_sentence_143

John implicitly recognizes Jesus from prison after sending his followers to ask about him (). Jesus_sentence_144

Jesus' baptism and temptation serve as preparation for his public ministry. Jesus_sentence_145

The Gospel of John leaves out Jesus' baptism and temptation. Jesus_sentence_146

Here, John the Baptist testifies that he saw the Spirit descend on Jesus (). Jesus_sentence_147

John publicly proclaims Jesus as the sacrificial Lamb of God, and some of John's followers become disciples of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_148

In this Gospel, John denies that he is Elijah (). Jesus_sentence_149

Before John is imprisoned, Jesus leads his followers to baptize disciples as well (), and they baptize more people than John (). Jesus_sentence_150

Public ministry Jesus_section_6

Main article: Ministry of Jesus Jesus_sentence_151

The Synoptics depict two distinct geographical settings in Jesus' ministry. Jesus_sentence_152

The first takes place north of Judea, in Galilee, where Jesus conducts a successful ministry; and the second shows Jesus rejected and killed when he travels to Jerusalem. Jesus_sentence_153

Often referred to as "rabbi", Jesus preaches his message orally. Jesus_sentence_154

Notably, Jesus forbids those who recognize him as the Messiah to speak of it, including people he heals and demons he exorcises (see Messianic Secret). Jesus_sentence_155

John depicts Jesus' ministry as largely taking place in and around Jerusalem, rather than in Galilee; and Jesus' divine identity is openly proclaimed and immediately recognized. Jesus_sentence_156

Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus into several stages. Jesus_sentence_157

The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus returns to Galilee from the Judaean Desert after rebuffing the temptation of Satan. Jesus_sentence_158

Jesus preaches around Galilee, and in , his first disciples, who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him. Jesus_sentence_159

This period includes the Sermon on the Mount, one of Jesus' major discourses, as well as the calming of the storm, the feeding of the 5,000, walking on water and a number of other miracles and parables. Jesus_sentence_160

It ends with the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration. Jesus_sentence_161

As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about a third of the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan River (). Jesus_sentence_162

The final ministry in Jerusalem begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into the city on Palm Sunday. Jesus_sentence_163

In the Synoptic Gospels, during that week Jesus drives the money changers from the Second Temple and Judas bargains to betray him. Jesus_sentence_164

This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse. Jesus_sentence_165

Disciples and followers Jesus_section_7

Near the beginning of his ministry, Jesus appoints twelve apostles. Jesus_sentence_166

In Matthew and Mark, despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, Jesus' first four apostles, who were fishermen, are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets and boats to do so (, ). Jesus_sentence_167

In John, Jesus' first two apostles were disciples of John the Baptist. Jesus_sentence_168

The Baptist sees Jesus and calls him the Lamb of God; the two hear this and follow Jesus. Jesus_sentence_169

In addition to the Twelve Apostles, the opening of the passage of the Sermon on the Plain identifies a much larger group of people as disciples (). Jesus_sentence_170

Also, in Jesus sends seventy or seventy-two of his followers in pairs to prepare towns for his prospective visit. Jesus_sentence_171

They are instructed to accept hospitality, heal the sick and spread the word that the Kingdom of God is coming. Jesus_sentence_172

In Mark, the disciples are notably obtuse. Jesus_sentence_173

They fail to understand Jesus' miracles (, ), his parables (), or what "rising from the dead" would mean (). Jesus_sentence_174

When Jesus is later arrested, they desert him. Jesus_sentence_175

Teachings and miracles Jesus_section_8

Main articles: Sermon on the Mount, Parables of Jesus, and Miracles of Jesus Jesus_sentence_176

See also: Sermon on the Plain, Five Discourses of Matthew, Farewell Discourse, Olivet Discourse, and Bread of Life Discourse Jesus_sentence_177

In the Synoptics, Jesus teaches extensively, often in parables, about the Kingdom of God (or, in Matthew, the Kingdom of Heaven). Jesus_sentence_178

The Kingdom is described as both imminent () and already present in the ministry of Jesus (). Jesus_sentence_179

Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message (). Jesus_sentence_180

Jesus talks of the "Son of Man," an apocalyptic figure who would come to gather the chosen. Jesus_sentence_181

Jesus calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God. Jesus_sentence_182

Jesus tells his followers to adhere to Jewish law, although he is perceived by some to have broken the law himself, for example regarding the Sabbath. Jesus_sentence_183

When asked what the greatest commandment is, Jesus replies: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind ... And a second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself" (). Jesus_sentence_184

Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving your enemies, refraining from hatred and lust, turning the other cheek, and forgiving people who have sinned against you (Matthew 5–7). Jesus_sentence_185

John's Gospel presents the teachings of Jesus not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation. Jesus_sentence_186

John the Baptist, for example, states in : "He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure." Jesus_sentence_187

In Jesus says, "My teaching is not mine but his who sent me." Jesus_sentence_188

He asserts the same thing in : "Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? Jesus_sentence_189

The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the Father who dwells in me does his works." Jesus_sentence_190

Approximately thirty parables form about one third of Jesus' recorded teachings. Jesus_sentence_191

The parables appear within longer sermons and at other places in the narrative. Jesus_sentence_192

They often contain symbolism, and usually relate the physical world to the spiritual. Jesus_sentence_193

Common themes in these tales include the kindness and generosity of God and the perils of transgression. Jesus_sentence_194

Some of his parables, such as the Prodigal Son (), are relatively simple, while others, such as the Growing Seed (), are sophisticated, profound and abstruse. Jesus_sentence_195

When asked by his disciples about why he speaks in parables to the people, Jesus replies that the chosen disciples have been given to "know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven", unlike the rest of their people, "For the one who has will be given more and he will have in abundance. Jesus_sentence_196

But the one who does not have will be deprived even more. Jesus_sentence_197

", going on to say that the majority of their generation have grown "dull hearts" and thus are unable to understand (). Jesus_sentence_198

In the gospel accounts, Jesus devotes a large portion of his ministry performing miracles, especially healings. Jesus_sentence_199

The miracles can be classified into two main categories: healing miracles and nature miracles. Jesus_sentence_200

The healing miracles include cures for physical ailments, exorcisms, and resurrections of the dead. Jesus_sentence_201

The nature miracles show Jesus' power over nature, and include turning water into wine, walking on water, and calming a storm, among others. Jesus_sentence_202

Jesus states that his miracles are from a divine source. Jesus_sentence_203

When Jesus' opponents suddenly accuse him of performing exorcisms by the power of Beelzebul, the prince of demons, Jesus counters that he performs them by the "Spirit of God" () or "finger of God", arguing that all logic suggests that Satan would not let his demons assist the Children of God because it would divide Satan's house and bring his kingdom to desolation; furthermore, he asks his opponents that if he exorcises by Beel'zebub, "by whom do your sons cast them out?" Jesus_sentence_204

(). Jesus_sentence_205

In , he goes on to say that while all manner of sin, "even insults against God" or "insults against the son of man", shall be forgiven, whoever insults goodness (or "The Holy Spirit") shall never be forgiven; he/she carries the guilt of his/her sin forever. Jesus_sentence_206

In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity. Jesus_sentence_207

However, in the Synoptics, when asked by some teachers of the Law and some Pharisees to give miraculous signs to prove his authority, Jesus refuses, saying that no sign shall come to corrupt and evil people except the sign of the prophet Jonah. Jesus_sentence_208

Also, in the Synoptic Gospels, the crowds regularly respond to Jesus' miracles with awe and press on him to heal their sick. Jesus_sentence_209

In John's Gospel, Jesus is presented as unpressured by the crowds, who often respond to his miracles with trust and faith. Jesus_sentence_210

One characteristic shared among all miracles of Jesus in the gospel accounts is that he performed them freely and never requested or accepted any form of payment. Jesus_sentence_211

The gospel episodes that include descriptions of the miracles of Jesus also often include teachings, and the miracles themselves involve an element of teaching. Jesus_sentence_212

Many of the miracles teach the importance of faith. Jesus_sentence_213

In the cleansing of ten lepers and the raising of Jairus' daughter, for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith. Jesus_sentence_214

Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration Jesus_section_9

Main articles: Confession of Peter and Transfiguration of Jesus Jesus_sentence_215

At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels are two significant events: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus. Jesus_sentence_216

These two events are not mentioned in the Gospel of John. Jesus_sentence_217

In his Confession, Peter tells Jesus, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God." Jesus_sentence_218

Jesus affirms that Peter's confession is divinely revealed truth. Jesus_sentence_219

After the confession, Jesus tells his disciples about his upcoming death and resurrection (Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, Luke 9:22) Jesus_sentence_220

In the Transfiguration (, , and ), Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white." Jesus_sentence_221

A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud says, "This is my Son, the Beloved; with him I am well pleased; listen to him" (). Jesus_sentence_222

Passion Week Jesus_section_10

The description of the last week of the life of Jesus (often called Passion Week) occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels, starting with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his Crucifixion. Jesus_sentence_223

Activities in Jerusalem Jesus_section_11

Main articles: Triumphal entry into Jerusalem, Cleansing of the Temple, and Bargain of Judas Jesus_sentence_224

In the Synoptics, the last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey through Perea and Judea that Jesus began in Galilee. Jesus_sentence_225

Jesus rides a young donkey into Jerusalem, reflecting the tale of the Messiah's Donkey, an oracle from the Book of Zechariah in which the Jews' humble king enters Jerusalem this way (). Jesus_sentence_226

People along the way lay cloaks and small branches of trees (known as palm fronds) in front of him and sing part of . Jesus_sentence_227

Jesus next expels the money changers from the Second Temple, accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities. Jesus_sentence_228

Jesus then prophesies about the coming destruction, including false prophets, wars, earthquakes, celestial disorders, persecution of the faithful, the appearance of an "abomination of desolation," and unendurable tribulations (). Jesus_sentence_229

The mysterious "Son of Man," he says, will dispatch angels to gather the faithful from all parts of the earth (). Jesus_sentence_230

Jesus warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers (). Jesus_sentence_231

In John, the Cleansing of the Temple occurs at the beginning of Jesus' ministry instead of at the end (). Jesus_sentence_232

Jesus comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they question his authority and when he criticizes them and calls them hypocrites. Jesus_sentence_233

Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles, secretly strikes a bargain with the Jewish elders, agreeing to betray Jesus to them for 30 silver coins. Jesus_sentence_234

The Gospel of John recounts of two other feasts in which Jesus taught in Jerusalem before the Passion Week (). Jesus_sentence_235

In Bethany, a village near Jerusalem, Jesus raises Lazarus from the dead. Jesus_sentence_236

This potent sign increases the tension with authorities, who conspire to kill him (). Jesus_sentence_237

Mary of Bethany anoints Jesus' feet, foreshadowing his entombment. Jesus_sentence_238

Jesus then makes his Messianic entry into Jerusalem. Jesus_sentence_239

The cheering crowds greeting Jesus as he enters Jerusalem add to the animosity between him and the establishment. Jesus_sentence_240

In John, Jesus has already cleansed the Second Temple during an earlier Passover visit to Jerusalem. Jesus_sentence_241

John next recounts Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples. Jesus_sentence_242

Last Supper Jesus_section_12

Main article: Last Supper Jesus_sentence_243

See also: Jesus predicts his betrayal, Denial of Peter, and Last Supper in Christian art Jesus_sentence_244

The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his 12 apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. Jesus_sentence_245

The Last Supper is mentioned in all four canonical gospels; Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians () also refers to it. Jesus_sentence_246

During the meal, Jesus predicts that one of his apostles will betray him. Jesus_sentence_247

Despite each Apostle's assertion that he would not betray him, Jesus reiterates that the betrayer would be one of those present. Jesus_sentence_248

and specifically identify Judas as the traitor. Jesus_sentence_249

In the Synoptics, Jesus takes bread, breaks it, and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you". Jesus_sentence_250

He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood" (). Jesus_sentence_251

The Christian sacrament or ordinance of the Eucharist is based on these events. Jesus_sentence_252

Although the Gospel of John does not include a description of the bread-and-wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a eucharistic character and resonates with the institution narratives in the Synoptic Gospels and in the Pauline writings on the Last Supper. Jesus_sentence_253

In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the rooster crows the next morning. Jesus_sentence_254

In Luke and John, the prediction is made during the Supper (, ). Jesus_sentence_255

In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper; Jesus also predicts that all his disciples will desert him (, ). Jesus_sentence_256

The Gospel of John provides the only account of Jesus washing his disciples' feet after the meal. Jesus_sentence_257

John also includes a long sermon by Jesus, preparing his disciples (now without Judas) for his departure. Jesus_sentence_258

of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content. Jesus_sentence_259

Agony in the Garden, betrayal, and arrest Jesus_section_13

Main articles: Agony in the Garden, Kiss of Judas, Arrest of Jesus, and Malchus Jesus_sentence_260

In the Synoptics, Jesus and his disciples go to the garden Gethsemane, where Jesus prays to be spared his coming ordeal. Jesus_sentence_261

Then Judas comes with an armed mob, sent by the chief priests, scribes and elders. Jesus_sentence_262

He kisses Jesus to identify him to the crowd, which then arrests Jesus. Jesus_sentence_263

In an attempt to stop them, an unnamed disciple of Jesus uses a sword to cut off the ear of a man in the crowd. Jesus_sentence_264

After Jesus' arrest, his disciples go into hiding, and Peter, when questioned, thrice denies knowing Jesus. Jesus_sentence_265

After the third denial, Peter hears the rooster crow and recalls Jesus' prediction about his denial. Jesus_sentence_266

Peter then weeps bitterly. Jesus_sentence_267

In John (18:1–11), Jesus does not pray to be spared his crucifixion, as the gospel portrays him as scarcely touched by such human weakness. Jesus_sentence_268

The people who arrest him are Roman soldiers and Temple guards. Jesus_sentence_269

Instead of being betrayed by a kiss, Jesus proclaims his identity, and when he does, the soldiers and officers fall to the ground. Jesus_sentence_270

The gospel identifies Peter as the disciple who used the sword, and Jesus rebukes him for it. Jesus_sentence_271

Trials by the Sanhedrin, Herod, and Pilate Jesus_section_14

Main articles: Sanhedrin trial of Jesus, Pilate's Court, Jesus at Herod's Court, and Crown of Thorns Jesus_sentence_272

See also: Jesus, King of the Jews; John 18:38; and Ecce homo Jesus_sentence_273

After his arrest, Jesus is taken to the Sanhedrin, a Jewish judicial body. Jesus_sentence_274

The gospel accounts differ on the details of the trials. Jesus_sentence_275

In , and , Jesus is taken to the house of the high priest, Caiaphas, where he is mocked and beaten that night. Jesus_sentence_276

Early the next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus away into their council. Jesus_sentence_277

states that Jesus is first taken to Annas, Caiaphas' father-in-law, and then to the high priest. Jesus_sentence_278

During the trials Jesus speaks very little, mounts no defense, and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the priests' questions, prompting an officer to slap him. Jesus_sentence_279

In Jesus' unresponsiveness leads Caiaphas to ask him, "Have you no answer?" Jesus_sentence_280

In the high priest then asks Jesus, "Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?" Jesus_sentence_281

Jesus replies, "I am", and then predicts the coming of the Son of Man. Jesus_sentence_282

This provokes Caiaphas to tear his own robe in anger and to accuse Jesus of blasphemy. Jesus_sentence_283

In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous: in he responds, "You have said so", and in he says, "You say that I am". Jesus_sentence_284

The Jewish elders take Jesus to Pilate's Court and ask the Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, to judge and condemn Jesus for various allegations, accusing him of blasphemy, perverting the nation, forbidding the payment of tribute, inciting sedition against Rome, sorcery, claiming to be the King of the Jews, the Son of God, and a savior to the world. Jesus_sentence_285

The use of the word "king" is central to the discussion between Jesus and Pilate. Jesus_sentence_286

In Jesus states, "My kingdom is not from this world", but he does not unequivocally deny being the King of the Jews. Jesus_sentence_287

In Pilate realizes that Jesus is a Galilean, and thus comes under the jurisdiction of Herod Antipas, the Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea. Jesus_sentence_288

Pilate sends Jesus to Herod to be tried, but Jesus says almost nothing in response to Herod's questions. Jesus_sentence_289

Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put an expensive robe on him to make him look like a king, and return him to Pilate, who then calls together the Jewish elders and announces that he has "not found this man guilty". Jesus_sentence_290

Observing a Passover custom of the time, Pilate allows one prisoner chosen by the crowd to be released. Jesus_sentence_291

He gives the people a choice between Jesus and a murderer called Barabbas ( or Bar-abbâ, "son of the father", from the common given name Abba: 'father'). Jesus_sentence_292

Persuaded by the elders (), the mob chooses to release Barabbas and crucify Jesus. Jesus_sentence_293

Pilate writes a sign in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek that reads "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews" (abbreviated as INRI in depictions) to be affixed to Jesus' cross (), then scourges Jesus and sends him to be crucified. Jesus_sentence_294

The soldiers place a Crown of Thorns on Jesus' head and ridicule him as the King of the Jews. Jesus_sentence_295

They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary, also called Golgotha, for crucifixion. Jesus_sentence_296

Crucifixion and entombment Jesus_section_15

Main articles: Crucifixion of Jesus and Burial of Jesus Jesus_sentence_297

See also: Sayings of Jesus on the cross and Crucifixion eclipse Jesus_sentence_298

Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. Jesus_sentence_299

After the trials, Jesus is led to Calvary carrying his cross; the route traditionally thought to have been taken is known as the Via Dolorosa. Jesus_sentence_300

The three Synoptic Gospels indicate that Simon of Cyrene assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so. Jesus_sentence_301

In Jesus tells the women in the multitude of people following him not to weep for him but for themselves and their children. Jesus_sentence_302

At Calvary, Jesus is offered a sponge soaked in a concoction usually offered as a painkiller. Jesus_sentence_303

According to Matthew and Mark, he refuses it. Jesus_sentence_304

The soldiers then crucify Jesus and cast lots for his clothes. Jesus_sentence_305

Above Jesus' head on the cross is Pilate's inscription, "Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews." Jesus_sentence_306

Soldiers and passersby mock him about it. Jesus_sentence_307

Two convicted thieves are crucified along with Jesus. Jesus_sentence_308

In Matthew and Mark, both thieves mock Jesus. Jesus_sentence_309

In Luke, one of them rebukes Jesus, while the other defends him. Jesus_sentence_310

Jesus tells the latter: "today you will be with me in Paradise" (Luke 23:43). Jesus_sentence_311

In John, Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the beloved disciple were at the crucifixion. Jesus_sentence_312

Jesus tells the beloved disciple to take care of his mother (John 19:26–27). Jesus_sentence_313

The Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs (a procedure designed to hasten death in a crucifixion), but they do not break those of Jesus, as he is already dead (John 19:33). Jesus_sentence_314

In , one soldier pierces Jesus' side with a lance, and blood and water flow out. Jesus_sentence_315

In the Synoptics, when Jesus dies, the heavy curtain at the Temple is torn. Jesus_sentence_316

In , an earthquake breaks open tombs. Jesus_sentence_317

In Matthew and Mark, terrified by the events, a Roman centurion states that Jesus was the Son of God. Jesus_sentence_318

On the same day, Joseph of Arimathea, with Pilate's permission and with Nicodemus' help, removes Jesus' body from the cross, wraps him in a clean cloth, and buries him in his new rock-hewn tomb. Jesus_sentence_319

In , on the following day the chief Jewish priests ask Pilate for the tomb to be secured, and with Pilate's permission the priests place seals on the large stone covering the entrance. Jesus_sentence_320

Resurrection and ascension Jesus_section_16

Main articles: Resurrection of Jesus, Post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, and Ascension of Jesus Jesus_sentence_321

See also: Empty tomb, Great Commission, Second Coming, Resurrection of Jesus in Christian art, and Ascension of Jesus in Christian art Jesus_sentence_322

Further information: Overview of resurrection appearances in the Gospels and Paul Jesus_sentence_323

Mary Magdalene (alone in the Gospel of John, but accompanied by other women in the Synoptics) goes to Jesus' tomb on Sunday morning and is surprised to find it empty. Jesus_sentence_324

Despite Jesus' teaching, the disciples had not understood that Jesus would rise again. Jesus_sentence_325

Jesus_unordered_list_0

  • In Matthew, there are guards at the tomb. An angel descends from Heaven, and opens the tomb. The guards faint from fear. Jesus appears to Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" after they visited the tomb. Jesus then appears to the eleven remaining disciples in Galilee and commissions them to baptize all nations in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.Jesus_item_0_0
  • In Mark, Salome and Mary, mother of James are with Mary Magdalene (Mark 16:1). In the tomb, a young man in a white robe (an angel) tells them that Jesus will meet his disciples in Galilee, as he had told them (referring to Mark 14:28).Jesus_item_0_1
  • In Luke, Mary and various other women meet two angels at the tomb, but the eleven disciples do not believe their story (Luke 25:1–12). Jesus appears to two of his followers in Emmaus. He also makes an appearance to Peter. Jesus then appears that same day to his disciples in Jerusalem (Luke 24:13–43). Although he appears and vanishes mysteriously, he also eats and lets them touch him to prove that he is not a spirit. He repeats his command to bring his teaching to all nations ().Jesus_item_0_2
  • In John, Mary is alone at first, but Peter and the beloved disciple come and see the tomb as well. Jesus then appears to Mary at the tomb. He later appears to the disciples, breathes on them, and gives them the power to forgive and retain sins. In a second visit to disciples, he proves to a doubting disciple ("Doubting Thomas") that he is flesh and blood. The disciples return to Galilee, where Jesus makes another appearance. He performs a miracle known as the catch of 153 fish at the Sea of Galilee, after which Jesus encourages Peter to serve his followers.Jesus_item_0_3

Jesus' ascension into Heaven is described in , and mentioned in . Jesus_sentence_326

In the Acts of the Apostles, forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight". Jesus_sentence_327

states that Jesus has "gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God". Jesus_sentence_328

The Acts of the Apostles describes several appearances of Jesus after his Ascension. Jesus_sentence_329

In , Stephen gazes into heaven and sees "Jesus standing at the right hand of God" just before his death. Jesus_sentence_330

On the road to Damascus, the Apostle Paul is converted to Christianity after seeing a blinding light and hearing a voice saying, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting" (). Jesus_sentence_331

In , Jesus instructs Ananias of Damascus in a vision to heal Paul. Jesus_sentence_332

The Book of Revelation includes a revelation from Jesus concerning the last days. Jesus_sentence_333

Early Christianity Jesus_section_17

Main article: Early Christianity Jesus_sentence_334

After Jesus' life, his followers, as described in the first chapters of the Acts of the Apostles, were all Jews either by birth or conversion, for which the biblical term "proselyte" is used, and referred to by historians as Jewish Christians. Jesus_sentence_335

The early Gospel message was spread orally, probably in Aramaic, but almost immediately also in Greek. Jesus_sentence_336

The New Testament's Acts of the Apostles and Epistle to the Galatians record that the first Christian community was centered in Jerusalem and its leaders included Peter, James, the brother of Jesus, and John the Apostle. Jesus_sentence_337

After the conversion of Paul the Apostle, he claimed the title of "Apostle to the Gentiles". Jesus_sentence_338

Paul's influence on Christian thinking is said to be more significant than that of any other New Testament author. Jesus_sentence_339

By the end of the 1st century, Christianity began to be recognized internally and externally as a separate religion from Judaism which itself was refined and developed further in the centuries after the destruction of the Second Temple. Jesus_sentence_340

Numerous quotations in the New Testament and other Christian writings of the first centuries, indicate that early Christians generally used and revered the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) as religious text, mostly in the Greek (Septuagint) or Aramaic (Targum) translations. Jesus_sentence_341

Early Christians wrote many religious works, including the ones included in the canon of the New Testament. Jesus_sentence_342

The canonical texts, which have become the main sources used by historians to try to understand the historical Jesus and sacred texts within Christianity, were probably written between 50 and 120 AD. Jesus_sentence_343

Historical views Jesus_section_18

Main articles: Historical Jesus, Quest for the historical Jesus, and Scholarly interpretation of Gospel-elements Jesus_sentence_344

See also: Biblical criticism Jesus_sentence_345

Prior to the Enlightenment, the gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the gospels and the Jesus of history. Jesus_sentence_346

Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were often developed during the quest that applied them. Jesus_sentence_347

While there is widespread scholarly agreement on the existence of Jesus, and a basic consensus on the general outline of his life, the portraits of Jesus constructed by various scholars often differ from each other, and from the image portrayed in the gospel accounts. Jesus_sentence_348

Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus was accepted as historical. Jesus_sentence_349

In the 1950s, as the second quest for the historical Jesus gathered pace, the minimalist approaches faded away, and in the 21st century, minimalists such as Price are a very small minority. Jesus_sentence_350

Although a belief in the inerrancy of the gospels cannot be supported historically, many scholars since the 1980s have held that, beyond the few facts considered to be historically certain, certain other elements of Jesus' life are "historically probable". Jesus_sentence_351

Modern scholarly research on the historical Jesus thus focuses on identifying the most probable elements. Jesus_sentence_352

Judea and Galilee in the 1st century Jesus_section_19

In AD 6, Judea, Idumea, and Samaria were transformed from a client kingdom of the Roman Empire into an imperial province, also called Judea. Jesus_sentence_353

A Roman prefect, rather than a client king, ruled the land. Jesus_sentence_354

The prefect ruled from Caesarea Maritima, leaving Jerusalem to be run by the High Priest of Israel. Jesus_sentence_355

As an exception, the prefect came to Jerusalem during religious festivals, when religious and patriotic enthusiasm sometimes inspired unrest or uprisings. Jesus_sentence_356

Gentile lands surrounded the Jewish territories of Judea and Galilee, but Roman law and practice allowed Jews to remain separate legally and culturally. Jesus_sentence_357

Galilee was evidently prosperous, and poverty was limited enough that it did not threaten the social order. Jesus_sentence_358

This was the era of Hellenistic Judaism, which combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Hellenistic Greek culture. Jesus_sentence_359

Until the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Muslim conquests of the Eastern Mediterranean, the main centers of Hellenistic Judaism were Alexandria (Egypt) and Antioch (now Southern Turkey), the two main Greek urban settlements of the Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the 4th century BCE in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great. Jesus_sentence_360

Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists (sometimes called Judaizers). Jesus_sentence_361

The Hebrew Bible was translated from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic into Jewish Koine Greek; the Targum translations into Aramaic were also generated during this era, both due to the decline of knowledge of Hebrew. Jesus_sentence_362

Jews based their faith and religious practice on the Torah, five books said to have been given by God to Moses. Jesus_sentence_363

The three prominent religious parties were the Pharisees, the Essenes, and the Sadducees. Jesus_sentence_364

Together these parties represented only a small fraction of the population. Jesus_sentence_365

Most Jews looked forward to a time that God would deliver them from their pagan rulers, possibly through war against the Romans. Jesus_sentence_366


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus.