Jimi Hendrix

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"The Jimi Hendrix Experience" redirects here. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_0

For the album, see The Jimi Hendrix Experience (album). Jimi Hendrix_sentence_1

"Hendrix" redirects here. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_2

For other uses of Hendrix, see Hendrix (disambiguation). Jimi Hendrix_sentence_3

Jimi Hendrix_table_infobox_0

Jimi HendrixJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_0_0
Background informationJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_1_0
Birth nameJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_2_0 Johnny Allen HendrixJimi Hendrix_cell_0_2_1
BornJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_3_0 (1942-11-27)November 27, 1942

Seattle, Washington, USJimi Hendrix_cell_0_3_1

DiedJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_4_0 September 18, 1970(1970-09-18) (aged 27)

Kensington, London, EnglandJimi Hendrix_cell_0_4_1

GenresJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_5_0 Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_5_1
Occupation(s)Jimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_6_0 Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_6_1
InstrumentsJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_7_0 Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_7_1
Years activeJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_8_0 1963–1970Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_8_1
LabelsJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_9_0 Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_9_1
Associated actsJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_10_0 Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_10_1
WebsiteJimi Hendrix_header_cell_0_11_0 Jimi Hendrix_cell_0_11_1

James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American musician, singer, and songwriter. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_4

Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_5

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as "arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_6

Born in Seattle, Washington, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_7

In 1961, he enlisted in the US Army, but was discharged the following year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_8

Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, and began playing gigs on the Chitlin' Circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers' backing band and later with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_9

He then played with Curtis Knight and the Squires before moving to England in late 1966 after bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals became his manager. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_10

Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", and "The Wind Cries Mary". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_11

He achieved fame in the US after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the US. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_12

The double LP was Hendrix's most commercially successful release and his first and only number one album. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_13

The world's highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970 before his accidental death in London from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_14

Hendrix was inspired by American rock and roll and electric blues. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_15

He favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, and was instrumental in popularizing the previously undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_16

He was also one of the first guitarists to make extensive use of tone-altering effects units in mainstream rock, such as fuzz distortion, Octavia, wah-wah, and Uni-Vibe. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_17

He was the first musician to use stereophonic phasing effects in recordings. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_18

Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: "Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_19

Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_20

Hendrix was the recipient of several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_21

In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year and in 1968, Billboard named him the Artist of the Year and Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_22

Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_23

The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_24

Rolling Stone ranked the band's three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, and Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, and they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_25

Ancestry and childhood Jimi Hendrix_section_0

Jimi Hendrix had a diverse heritage. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_26

His paternal grandmother, Zenora "Nora" Rose Moore, was African American and one-quarter Cherokee. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_27

Hendrix's paternal grandfather, Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix (born 1866), was born out of an extramarital affair between a woman named Fanny and a grain merchant from Urbana, Ohio, or Illinois, one of the wealthiest men in the area at that time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_28

After Hendrix and Moore relocated to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, they had a son they named James Allen Hendrix on June 10, 1919; the family called him "Al". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_29

In 1941, after moving to Seattle, Al met Lucille Jeter (1925–1958) at a dance; they married on March 31, 1942. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_30

Lucille's father (Jimi's maternal grandfather) was Preston Jeter (born 1875), whose mother was born in similar circumstances as Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_31

Lucille's mother, née Clarice Lawson, had African American and Cherokee ancestors. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_32

Al, who had been drafted by the US Army to serve in World War II, left to begin his basic training three days after the wedding. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_33

Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 27, 1942, in Seattle; he was the first of Lucille's five children. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_34

In 1946, Johnny's parents changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and his late brother Leon Marshall. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_35

Stationed in Alabama at the time of Hendrix's birth, Al was denied the standard military furlough afforded servicemen for childbirth; his commanding officer placed him in the stockade to prevent him from going AWOL to see his infant son in Seattle. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_36

He spent two months locked up without trial, and while in the stockade received a telegram announcing his son's birth. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_37

During Al's three-year absence, Lucille struggled to raise their son. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_38

When Al was away, Hendrix was mostly cared for by family members and friends, especially Lucille's sister Delores Hall and her friend Dorothy Harding. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_39

Al received an honorable discharge from the US Army on September 1, 1945. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_40

Two months later, unable to find Lucille, Al went to the Berkeley, California, home of a family friend named Mrs. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_41

Champ, who had taken care of and had attempted to adopt Hendrix; this is where Al saw his son for the first time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_42

After returning from service, Al reunited with Lucille, but his inability to find steady work left the family impoverished. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_43

They both struggled with alcohol, and often fought when intoxicated. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_44

The violence sometimes drove Hendrix to withdraw and hide in a closet in their home. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_45

His relationship with his brother Leon (born 1948) was close but precarious; with Leon in and out of foster care, they lived with an almost constant threat of fraternal separation. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_46

In addition to Leon, Hendrix had three younger siblings: Joseph, born in 1949, Kathy in 1950, and Pamela, 1951, all of whom Al and Lucille gave up to foster care and adoption. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_47

The family frequently moved, staying in cheap hotels and apartments around Seattle. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_48

On occasion, family members would take Hendrix to Vancouver to stay at his grandmother's. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_49

A shy and sensitive boy, he was deeply affected by his life experiences. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_50

In later years, he confided to a girlfriend that he had been the victim of sexual abuse by a man in uniform. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_51

On December 17, 1951, when Hendrix was nine years old, his parents divorced; the court granted Al custody of him and Leon. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_52

First instruments Jimi Hendrix_section_1

At Horace Mann Elementary School in Seattle during the mid-1950s, Hendrix's habit of carrying a broom with him to emulate a guitar gained the attention of the school's social worker. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_53

After more than a year of his clinging to a broom like a security blanket, she wrote a letter requesting school funding intended for underprivileged children, insisting that leaving him without a guitar might result in psychological damage. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_54

Her efforts failed, and Al refused to buy him a guitar. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_55

In 1957, while helping his father with a side-job, Hendrix found a ukulele amongst the garbage they were removing from an older woman's home. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_56

She told him that he could keep the instrument, which had only one string. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_57

Learning by ear, he played single notes, following along to Elvis Presley songs, particularly "Hound Dog". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_58

By the age of 33, Hendrix's mother Lucille had developed cirrhosis of the liver, and on February 2, 1958, she died when her spleen ruptured. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_59

Al refused to take James and Leon to attend their mother's funeral; he instead gave them shots of whiskey and instructed them that was how men should deal with loss. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_60

In 1958, Hendrix completed his studies at Washington Junior High School and began attending, but did not graduate from, Garfield High School. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_61

In mid-1958, at age 15, Hendrix acquired his first acoustic guitar, for $5 (equivalent to $44 in 2019). Jimi Hendrix_sentence_62

He played for hours daily, watching others and learning from more experienced guitarists, and listening to blues artists such as Muddy Waters, B.B. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_63 King, Howlin' Wolf, and Robert Johnson. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_64

The first tune Hendrix learned to play was the television theme "Peter Gunn". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_65

Around that time, Hendrix jammed with boyhood friend Sammy Drain and his keyboard-playing brother. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_66

In 1959, attending a concert by Hank Ballard & the Midnighters in Seattle, Hendrix met the group's guitarist Billy Davis. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_67

Davis showed him some guitar licks and got him a short gig with the Midnighters. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_68

The two remained friends until Hendrix's death in 1970. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_69

Soon after he acquired the acoustic guitar, Hendrix formed his first band, the Velvetones. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_70

Without an electric guitar, he could barely be heard over the sound of the group. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_71

After about three months, he realized that he needed an electric guitar. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_72

In mid-1959, his father relented and bought him a white Supro Ozark. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_73

Hendrix's first gig was with an unnamed band in the Jaffe Room of Seattle's Temple De Hirsch, but they fired him between sets for showing off. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_74

He joined the Rocking Kings, which played professionally at venues such as the Birdland club. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_75

When his guitar was stolen after he left it backstage overnight, Al bought him a red Silvertone Danelectro. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_76

Military service Jimi Hendrix_section_2

Before Hendrix was 19 years old, law authorities had twice caught him riding in stolen cars. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_77

Given a choice between prison or joining the Army, he chose the latter and enlisted on May 31, 1961. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_78

After completing eight weeks of basic training at Fort Ord, California, he was assigned to the 101st Airborne Division and stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_79

He arrived on November 8, and soon afterward he wrote to his father: "There's nothing but physical training and harassment here for two weeks, then when you go to jump school ... you get hell. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_80

They work you to death, fussing and fighting." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_81

In his next letter home, Hendrix, who had left his guitar in Seattle at the home of his girlfriend Betty Jean Morgan, asked his father to send it to him as soon as possible, stating: "I really need it now." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_82

His father obliged and sent the red Silvertone Danelectro on which Hendrix had hand-painted the words "Betty Jean" to Fort Campbell. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_83

His apparent obsession with the instrument contributed to his neglect of his duties, which led to taunting and physical abuse from his peers, who at least once hid the guitar from him until he had begged for its return. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_84

In November 1961, fellow serviceman Billy Cox walked past an army club and heard Hendrix playing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_85

Impressed by Hendrix's technique, which Cox described as a combination of "John Lee Hooker and Beethoven", Cox borrowed a bass guitar and the two jammed. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_86

Within weeks, they began performing at base clubs on the weekends with other musicians in a loosely organized band, the Casuals. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_87

Hendrix completed his paratrooper training in just over eight months, and Major General C. W. G. Rich awarded him the prestigious Screaming Eagles patch on January 11, 1962. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_88

By February, his personal conduct had begun to draw criticism from his superiors. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_89

They labeled him an unqualified marksman and often caught him napping while on duty and failing to report for bed checks. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_90

On May 24, Hendrix's platoon sergeant, James C. Spears, filed a report in which he stated: "He has no interest whatsoever in the Army ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_91

It is my opinion that Private Hendrix will never come up to the standards required of a soldier. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_92

I feel that the military service will benefit if he is discharged as soon as possible." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_93

On June 29, 1962, Hendrix was granted a general discharge under honorable conditions. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_94

Hendrix later spoke of his dislike of the army and lied that he had received a medical discharge after breaking his ankle during his 26th parachute jump. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_95

Career Jimi Hendrix_section_3

Early years Jimi Hendrix_section_4

In September 1963, after Cox was discharged from the Army, he and Hendrix moved about 20 miles (32 km) across the state line from Fort Campbell to Clarksville, Tennessee, and formed a band, the King Kasuals. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_96

In Seattle, Hendrix saw Butch Snipes play with his teeth and now the Kasual's second guitarist, Alphonso "Baby Boo" Young, was performing this guitar gimmick. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_97

Not to be upstaged, Hendrix also learned to play in this way. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_98

He later explained: "The idea of doing that came to me ... in Tennessee. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_99

Down there you have to play with your teeth or else you get shot. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_100

There's a trail of broken teeth all over the stage." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_101

Although they began playing low-paying gigs at obscure venues, the band eventually moved to Nashville's Jefferson Street, which was the traditional heart of the city's black community and home to a thriving rhythm and blues music scene. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_102

They earned a brief residency playing at a popular venue in town, the Club del Morocco, and for the next two years Hendrix made a living performing at a circuit of venues throughout the South that were affiliated with the Theater Owners' Booking Association (TOBA), widely known as the Chitlin' Circuit. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_103

In addition to playing in his own band, Hendrix performed as a backing musician for various soul, R&B, and blues musicians, including Wilson Pickett, Slim Harpo, Sam Cooke, Ike & Tina Turner and Jackie Wilson. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_104

In January 1964, feeling he had outgrown the circuit artistically, and frustrated by having to follow the rules of bandleaders, Hendrix decided to venture out on his own. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_105

He moved into the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, where he befriended Lithofayne Pridgon, known as "Faye", who became his girlfriend. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_106

A Harlem native with connections throughout the area's music scene, Pridgon provided him with shelter, support, and encouragement. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_107

Hendrix also met the Allen twins, Arthur and Albert. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_108

In February 1964, Hendrix won first prize in the Apollo Theater amateur contest. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_109

Hoping to secure a career opportunity, he played the Harlem club circuit and sat in with various bands. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_110

At the recommendation of a former associate of Joe Tex, Ronnie Isley granted Hendrix an audition that led to an offer to become the guitarist with the Isley Brothers' back-up band, the I.B. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_111

Specials, which he readily accepted. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_112

First recordings Jimi Hendrix_section_5

In March 1964, Hendrix recorded the two-part single "Testify" with the Isley Brothers. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_113

Released in June, it failed to chart. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_114

In May, he provided guitar instrumentation for the Don Covay song, "Mercy Mercy". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_115

Issued in August by Rosemart Records and distributed by Atlantic, the track reached number 35 on the Billboard chart. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_116

Hendrix toured with the Isleys during much of 1964, but near the end of October, after growing tired of playing the same set every night, he left the band. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_117

Soon afterward, Hendrix joined Little Richard's touring band, the Upsetters. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_118

During a stop in Los Angeles in February 1965, he recorded his first and only single with Richard, "I Don't Know What You Got (But It's Got Me)", written by Don Covay and released by Vee-Jay Records. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_119

Richard's popularity was waning at the time, and the single peaked at number 92, where it remained for one week before dropping off the chart. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_120

Hendrix met singer Rosa Lee Brooks while staying at the Wilcox Hotel in Hollywood, and she invited him to participate in a recording session for her single, which included the Arthur Lee penned "My Diary" as the A-side, and "Utee" as the B-side. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_121

Hendrix played guitar on both tracks, which also included background vocals by Lee. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_122

The single failed to chart, but Hendrix and Lee began a friendship that lasted several years; Hendrix later became an ardent supporter of Lee's band, Love. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_123

In July 1965, Hendrix made his first television appearance on Nashville's Channel 5 Night Train. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_124

Performing in Little Richard's ensemble band, he backed up vocalists Buddy and Stacy on "Shotgun". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_125

The video recording of the show marks the earliest known footage of Hendrix performing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_126

Richard and Hendrix often clashed over tardiness, wardrobe, and Hendrix's stage antics, and in late July, Richard's brother Robert fired him. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_127

On July 27, Hendrix signed his first recording contract with Juggy Murray at Sue Records and Copa Management. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_128

He then briefly rejoined the Isley Brothers, and recorded a second single with them, "Move Over and Let Me Dance" backed with "Have You Ever Been Disappointed". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_129

Later that year, he joined a New York-based R&B band, Curtis Knight and the Squires, after meeting Knight in the lobby of a hotel where both men were staying. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_130

Hendrix performed with them for eight months. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_131

In October 1965, he and Knight recorded the single, "How Would You Feel" backed with "Welcome Home". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_132

Despite his two-year contract with Sue, Hendrix signed a three-year recording contract with entrepreneur Ed Chalpin on October 15. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_133

While the relationship with Chalpin was short-lived, his contract remained in force, which later caused legal and career problems for Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_134

During his time with Knight, Hendrix briefly toured with Joey Dee and the Starliters, and worked with King Curtis on several recordings including Ray Sharpe's two-part single, "Help Me". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_135

Hendrix earned his first composer credits for two instrumentals, "Hornets Nest" and "Knock Yourself Out", released as a Curtis Knight and the Squires single in 1966. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_136

Feeling restricted by his experiences as an R&B sideman, Hendrix moved in 1966 to New York City's Greenwich Village, which had a vibrant and diverse music scene. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_137

There, he was offered a residency at the Cafe Wha? Jimi Hendrix_sentence_138

on MacDougal Street and formed his own band that June, Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, which included future Spirit guitarist Randy California. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_139

The Blue Flames played at several clubs in New York and Hendrix began developing his guitar style and material that he would soon use with the Experience. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_140

In September, they gave some of their last concerts at the Cafe au Go Go, as John Hammond Jr.'s backing group. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_141

The Jimi Hendrix Experience Jimi Hendrix_section_6

By May 1966, Hendrix was struggling to earn a living wage playing the R&B circuit, so he briefly rejoined Curtis Knight and the Squires for an engagement at one of New York City's most popular nightspots, the Cheetah Club. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_142

During a performance, Linda Keith, the girlfriend of Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards, noticed Hendrix and was "mesmerised" by his playing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_143

She invited him to join her for a drink, and the two became friends. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_144

While Hendrix was playing with Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, Keith recommended him to Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham and producer Seymour Stein. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_145

They failed to see Hendrix's musical potential, and rejected him. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_146

Keith referred him to Chas Chandler, who was leaving the Animals and was interested in managing and producing artists. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_147

Chandler saw Hendrix play in Cafe Wha? Jimi Hendrix_sentence_148 , a Greenwich Village, New York City nightclub. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_149

Chandler liked the Billy Roberts song "Hey Joe", and was convinced he could create a hit single with the right artist. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_150

Impressed with Hendrix's version of the song, he brought him to London on September 24, 1966, and signed him to a management and production contract with himself and ex-Animals manager Michael Jeffery. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_151

That night, Hendrix gave an impromptu solo performance at The Scotch of St James, and began a relationship with Kathy Etchingham that lasted for two and a half years. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_152

Following Hendrix's arrival in London, Chandler began recruiting members for a band designed to highlight his talents, the Jimi Hendrix Experience. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_153

Hendrix met guitarist Noel Redding at an audition for the New Animals, where Redding's knowledge of blues progressions impressed Hendrix, who stated that he also liked Redding's hairstyle. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_154

Chandler asked Redding if he wanted to play bass guitar in Hendrix's band; Redding agreed. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_155

Chandler began looking for a drummer and soon after contacted Mitch Mitchell through a mutual friend. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_156

Mitchell, who had recently been fired from Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, participated in a rehearsal with Redding and Hendrix where they found common ground in their shared interest in rhythm and blues. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_157

When Chandler phoned Mitchell later that day to offer him the position, he readily accepted. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_158

Chandler also convinced Hendrix to change the spelling of his first name from Jimmy to the more exotic Jimi. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_159

On October 1, 1966, Chandler brought Hendrix to the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, where Cream was scheduled to perform, and where Hendrix and guitarist Eric Clapton met. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_160

Clapton later said: "He asked if he could play a couple of numbers. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_161

I said, 'Of course', but I had a funny feeling about him." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_162

Halfway through Cream's set, Hendrix took the stage and performed a frantic version of the Howlin' Wolf song "Killing Floor". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_163

In 1989, Clapton described the performance: "He played just about every style you could think of, and not in a flashy way. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_164

I mean he did a few of his tricks, like playing with his teeth and behind his back, but it wasn't in an upstaging sense at all, and that was it ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_165

He walked off, and my life was never the same again". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_166

UK success Jimi Hendrix_section_7

In mid-October 1966, Chandler arranged an engagement for the Experience as Johnny Hallyday's supporting act during a brief tour of France. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_167

Thus, the Jimi Hendrix Experience performed their first show on October 13, 1966, at the Novelty in Evreux. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_168

Their enthusiastically received 15-minute performance at the Olympia theatre in Paris on October 18 marks the earliest known recording of the band. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_169

In late October, Kit Lambert and Chris Stamp, managers of the Who, signed the Experience to their newly formed label, Track Records, and the group recorded their first song, "Hey Joe", on October 23. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_170

"Stone Free", which was Hendrix's first songwriting effort after arriving in England, was recorded on November 2. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_171

In mid-November, they performed at the Bag O'Nails nightclub in London, with Clapton, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend, Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, and Kevin Ayers in attendance. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_172

Ayers described the crowd's reaction as stunned disbelief: "All the stars were there, and I heard serious comments, you know 'shit', 'Jesus', 'damn' and other words worse than that." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_173

The performance earned Hendrix his first interview, published in Record Mirror with the headline: "Mr. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_174

Phenomenon". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_175

"Now hear this ... we predict that [Hendrix] is going to whirl around the business like a tornado", wrote Bill Harry, who asked the rhetorical question: "Is that full, big, swinging sound really being created by only three people?" Jimi Hendrix_sentence_176

Hendrix said: "We don't want to be classed in any category ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_177

If it must have a tag, I'd like it to be called, 'Free Feeling'. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_178

It's a mixture of rock, freak-out, rave and blues". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_179

Through a distribution deal with Polydor Records, the Experience's first single, "Hey Joe", backed with "Stone Free", was released on December 16, 1966. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_180

After appearances on the UK television shows Ready Steady Go! Jimi Hendrix_sentence_181

and the Top of the Pops, "Hey Joe" entered the UK charts on December 29 and peaked at number six. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_182

Further success came in March 1967 with the UK number three hit "Purple Haze", and in May with "The Wind Cries Mary", which remained on the UK charts for eleven weeks, peaking at number six. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_183

On March 12, 1967, he performed at the Troutbeck Hotel, Ilkley, West Yorkshire, where, after about 900 people turned up (the hotel was licensed for 250) the local police stopped the gig due to safety concerns. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_184

On March 31, 1967, while the Experience waited to perform at the London Astoria, Hendrix and Chandler discussed ways in which they could increase the band's media exposure. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_185

When Chandler asked journalist Keith Altham for advice, Altham suggested that they needed to do something more dramatic than the stage show of the Who, which involved the smashing of instruments. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_186

Hendrix joked: "Maybe I can smash up an elephant", to which Altham replied: "Well, it's a pity you can't set fire to your guitar". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_187

Chandler then asked road manager Gerry Stickells to procure some lighter fluid. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_188

During the show, Hendrix gave an especially dynamic performance before setting his guitar on fire at the end of a 45-minute set. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_189

In the wake of the stunt, members of London's press labeled Hendrix the "Black Elvis" and the "Wild Man of Borneo". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_190

Are You Experienced Jimi Hendrix_section_8

Main article: Are You Experienced Jimi Hendrix_sentence_191

After the UK chart success of their first two singles, "Hey Joe" and "Purple Haze", the Experience began assembling material for a full-length LP. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_192

In London, recording began at De Lane Lea Studios, and later moved to the prestigious Olympic Studios. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_193

The album, Are You Experienced, features a diversity of musical styles, including blues tracks such as "Red House" and "Highway Chile", and the R&B song "Remember". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_194

It also included the experimental science fiction piece, "Third Stone from the Sun" and the post-modern soundscapes of the title track, with prominent backwards guitar and drums. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_195

"I Don't Live Today" served as a medium for Hendrix's guitar feedback improvisation and "Fire" was driven by Mitchell's drumming. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_196

Released in the UK on May 12, 1967, Are You Experienced spent 33 weeks on the charts, peaking at number two. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_197

It was prevented from reaching the top spot by the Beatles' Sgt. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_198 Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_199

On June 4, 1967, Hendrix opened a show at the Saville Theatre in London with his rendition of Sgt. Pepper's title track, which was released just three days previous. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_200

Beatles manager Brian Epstein owned the Saville at the time, and both George Harrison and Paul McCartney attended the performance. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_201

McCartney described the moment: "The curtains flew back and he came walking forward playing 'Sgt. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_202

Pepper'. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_203

It's a pretty major compliment in anyone's book. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_204

I put that down as one of the great honors of my career." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_205

Released in the US on August 23 by Reprise Records, Are You Experienced reached number five on the Billboard 200. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_206

In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World magazine, described Are You Experienced as "the album that shook the world ... leaving it forever changed". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_207

In 2005, Rolling Stone called the double-platinum LP Hendrix's "epochal debut", and they ranked it the 15th greatest album of all time, noting his "exploitation of amp howl", and characterizing his guitar playing as "incendiary ... historic in itself". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_208

Monterey Pop Festival Jimi Hendrix_section_9

Main article: Monterey Pop Festival Jimi Hendrix_sentence_209

Although popular in Europe at the time, the Experience's first US single, "Hey Joe", failed to reach the Billboard Hot 100 chart upon its release on May 1, 1967. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_210

Their fortunes improved when McCartney recommended them to the organizers of the Monterey Pop Festival. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_211

He insisted that the event would be incomplete without Hendrix, whom he called "an absolute ace on the guitar". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_212

McCartney agreed to join the board of organizers on the condition that the Experience perform at the festival in mid-June. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_213

On June 18, 1967, introduced by Brian Jones as "the most exciting performer [he had] ever heard", Hendrix opened with a fast arrangement of Howlin' Wolf's song "Killing Floor", wearing what author Keith Shadwick described as "clothes as exotic as any on display elsewhere". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_214

Shadwick wrote: "[Hendrix] was not only something utterly new musically, but an entirely original vision of what a black American entertainer should and could look like." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_215

The Experience went on to perform renditions of "Hey Joe", B.B. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_216

King's "Rock Me Baby", Chip Taylor's "Wild Thing", and Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone", and four original compositions: "Foxy Lady", "Can You See Me", "The Wind Cries Mary", and "Purple Haze". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_217

The set ended with Hendrix destroying his guitar and tossing pieces of it out to the audience. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_218

Rolling Stone's Alex Vadukul wrote: Jimi Hendrix_sentence_219

Caraeff stood on a chair next to the edge of the stage and took four monochrome pictures of Hendrix burning his guitar. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_220

Caraeff was close enough to the fire that he had to use his camera to protect his face from the heat. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_221

Rolling Stone later colorized the image, matching it with other pictures taken at the festival before using the shot for a 1987 magazine cover. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_222

According to author Gail Buckland, the final frame of "Hendrix kneeling in front of his burning guitar, hands raised, is one of the most famous images in rock". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_223

Author and historian Matthew C. Whitaker wrote that "Hendrix's burning of his guitar became an iconic image in rock history and brought him national attention". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_224

The Los Angeles Times asserted that, upon leaving the stage, Hendrix "graduated from rumor to legend". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_225

Author John McDermott wrote that "Hendrix left the Monterey audience stunned and in disbelief at what they'd just heard and seen". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_226

According to Hendrix: "I decided to destroy my guitar at the end of a song as a sacrifice. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_227

You sacrifice things you love. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_228

I love my guitar." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_229

The performance was filmed by D. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_230 A. Pennebaker, and included in the concert documentary Monterey Pop, which helped Hendrix gain popularity with the US public. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_231

After the festival, the Experience was booked for five concerts at Bill Graham's Fillmore, with Big Brother and the Holding Company and Jefferson Airplane. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_232

The Experience outperformed Jefferson Airplane during the first two nights, and replaced them at the top of the bill on the fifth. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_233

Following their successful West Coast introduction, which included a free open-air concert at Golden Gate Park and a concert at the Whisky a Go Go, the Experience was booked as the opening act for the first American tour of the Monkees. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_234

The Monkees requested Hendrix as a supporting act because they were fans, but their young audience disliked the Experience, who left the tour after six shows. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_235

Chandler later said he engineered the tour to gain publicity for Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_236

Axis: Bold as Love Jimi Hendrix_section_10

Main article: Axis: Bold as Love Jimi Hendrix_sentence_237

The second Experience album, Axis: Bold as Love, opens with the track "EXP", which uses microphonic and harmonic feedback in a new, creative fashion. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_238

It also showcased an experimental stereo panning effect in which sounds emanating from Hendrix's guitar move through the stereo image, revolving around the listener. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_239

The piece reflected his growing interest in science fiction and outer space. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_240

He composed the album's title track and finale around two verses and two choruses, during which he pairs emotions with personas, comparing them to colors. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_241

The song's coda features the first recording of stereo phasing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_242

Shadwick described the composition as "possibly the most ambitious piece on Axis, the extravagant metaphors of the lyrics suggesting a growing confidence" in Hendrix's songwriting. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_243

His guitar playing throughout the song is marked by chordal arpeggios and contrapuntal motion, with tremolo-picked partial chords providing the musical foundation for the chorus, which culminates in what musicologist Andy Aledort described as "simply one of the greatest electric guitar solos ever played". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_244

The track fades out on tremolo-picked 32nd note double stops. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_245

The scheduled release date for Axis was almost delayed when Hendrix lost the master tape of side one of the LP, leaving it in the back seat of a London taxi. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_246

With the deadline looming, Hendrix, Chandler, and engineer Eddie Kramer remixed most of side one in a single overnight session, but they could not match the quality of the lost mix of "If 6 Was 9". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_247

Bassist Noel Redding had a tape recording of this mix, which had to be smoothed out with an iron as it had gotten wrinkled. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_248

During the verses, Hendrix doubled his singing with a guitar line which he played one octave lower than his vocals. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_249

Hendrix voiced his disappointment about having re-mixed the album so quickly, and he felt that it could have been better had they been given more time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_250

Axis featured psychedelic cover art that depicts Hendrix and the Experience as various avatars of Vishnu, incorporating a painting of them by Roger Law, from a photo-portrait by Karl Ferris. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_251

The painting was then superimposed on a copy of a mass-produced religious poster. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_252

Hendrix stated that the cover, which Track spent $5,000 producing, would have been more appropriate had it highlighted his American Indian heritage. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_253

He said: "You got it wrong ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_254

I'm not that kind of Indian." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_255

Track released the album in the UK on December 1, 1967, where it peaked at number five, spending 16 weeks on the charts. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_256

In February 1968, Axis: Bold as Love reached number three in the US. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_257

While author and journalist Richie Unterberger described Axis as the least impressive Experience album, according to author Peter Doggett, the release "heralded a new subtlety in Hendrix's work". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_258

Mitchell said: "Axis was the first time that it became apparent that Jimi was pretty good working behind the mixing board, as well as playing, and had some positive ideas of how he wanted things recorded. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_259

It could have been the start of any potential conflict between him and Chas in the studio." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_260

Electric Ladyland Jimi Hendrix_section_11

Main article: Electric Ladyland Jimi Hendrix_sentence_261

Recording for the Experience's third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, began as early as December 20, 1967, at Olympic Studios. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_262

Several songs were attempted; however, in April 1968, the Experience, with Chandler as producer and engineers Eddie Kramer and Gary Kellgren, moved the sessions to the newly opened Record Plant Studios in New York. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_263

As the sessions progressed, Chandler became increasingly frustrated with Hendrix's perfectionism and his demands for repeated takes. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_264

Hendrix also allowed numerous friends and guests to join them in the studio, which contributed to a chaotic and crowded environment in the control room and led Chandler to sever his professional relationship with Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_265

Redding later recalled: "There were tons of people in the studio; you couldn't move. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_266

It was a party, not a session." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_267

Redding, who had formed his own band in mid-1968, Fat Mattress, found it increasingly difficult to fulfill his commitments with the Experience, so Hendrix played many of the bass parts on Electric Ladyland. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_268

The album's cover stated that it was "produced and directed by Jimi Hendrix". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_269

During the Electric Ladyland recording sessions, Hendrix began experimenting with other combinations of musicians, including Jefferson Airplane's Jack Casady and Traffic's Steve Winwood, who played bass and organ, respectively, on the 15-minute slow-blues jam, "Voodoo Chile". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_270

During the album's production, Hendrix appeared at an impromptu jam with B.B. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_271

King, Al Kooper, and Elvin Bishop. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_272

Electric Ladyland was released on October 25, and by mid-November it had reached number one in the US, spending two weeks at the top spot. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_273

The double LP was Hendrix's most commercially successful release and his only number one album. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_274

It peaked at number six in the UK, spending 12 weeks on the chart. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_275

Electric Ladyland included Hendrix's cover of a Bob Dylan song, "All Along the Watchtower", which became Hendrix's highest-selling single and his only US top 40 hit, peaking at number 20; the single reached number five in the UK. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_276

"Burning of the Midnight Lamp", his first recorded song to feature a wah-wah pedal, was added to the album. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_277

It was originally released as his fourth single in the UK in August 1967 and reached number 18 on the charts. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_278

In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World magazine, described Electric Ladyland as "Hendrix's masterpiece". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_279

According to author Michael Heatley, "most critics agree" that the album is "the fullest realization of Jimi's far-reaching ambitions." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_280

In 2004, author Peter Doggett wrote: "For pure experimental genius, melodic flair, conceptual vision and instrumental brilliance, Electric Ladyland remains a prime contender for the status of rock's greatest album." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_281

Doggett described the LP as "a display of musical virtuosity never surpassed by any rock musician." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_282

Break-up of the Experience Jimi Hendrix_section_12

In January 1969, after an absence of more than six months, Hendrix briefly moved back into his girlfriend Kathy Etchingham's Brook Street apartment, which was next door to what is now the Handel House Museum in the West End of London. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_283

After a performance of "Voodoo Child", on BBC's Happening for Lulu show in January 1969, the band stopped midway through an attempt at their first hit "Hey Joe" and then launched into an instrumental version of "Sunshine of Your Love", as a tribute to the recently disbanded band Cream, until producers brought the song to a premature end. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_284

Because the unplanned performance precluded Lulu's usual closing number, Hendrix was told he would never work at the BBC again. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_285

During this time, the Experience toured Scandinavia, Germany, and gave their final two performances in France. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_286

On February 18 and 24, they played sold-out concerts at London's Royal Albert Hall, which were the last European appearances of this lineup. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_287

By February 1969, Redding had grown weary of Hendrix's unpredictable work ethic and his creative control over the Experience's music. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_288

During the previous month's European tour, interpersonal relations within the group had deteriorated, particularly between Hendrix and Redding. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_289

In his diary, Redding documented the building frustration during early 1969 recording sessions: "On the first day, as I nearly expected, there was nothing doing ... On the second it was no show at all. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_290

I went to the pub for three hours, came back, and it was still ages before Jimi ambled in. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_291

Then we argued ... On the last day, I just watched it happen for a while, and then went back to my flat." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_292

The last Experience sessions that included Redding—a re-recording of "Stone Free" for use as a possible single release—took place on April 14 at Olmstead and the Record Plant in New York. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_293

Hendrix then flew bassist Billy Cox to New York; they started recording and rehearsing together on April 21. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_294

The last performance of the original Experience lineup took place on June 29, 1969, at Barry Fey's Denver Pop Festival, a three-day event held at Denver's Mile High Stadium that was marked by police using tear gas to control the audience. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_295

The band narrowly escaped from the venue in the back of a rental truck, which was partly crushed by fans who had climbed on top of the vehicle. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_296

Before the show, a journalist angered Redding by asking why he was there; the reporter then informed him that two weeks earlier Hendrix announced that he had been replaced with Billy Cox. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_297

The next day, Redding quit the Experience and returned to London. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_298

He announced that he had left the band and intended to pursue a solo career, blaming Hendrix's plans to expand the group without allowing for his input as a primary reason for leaving. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_299

Redding later said: "Mitch and I hung out a lot together, but we're English. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_300

If we'd go out, Jimi would stay in his room. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_301

But any bad feelings came from us being three guys who were traveling too hard, getting too tired, and taking too many drugs ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_302

I liked Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_303

I don't like Mitchell." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_304

Soon after Redding's departure, Hendrix began lodging at the eight-bedroom Ashokan House, in the hamlet of Boiceville near Woodstock in upstate New York, where he had spent some time vacationing in mid-1969. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_305

Manager Michael Jeffery arranged the accommodations in the hope that the respite might encourage Hendrix to write material for a new album. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_306

During this time, Mitchell was unavailable for commitments made by Jeffery, which included Hendrix's first appearance on US TV—on The Dick Cavett Show—where he was backed by the studio orchestra, and an appearance on The Tonight Show where he appeared with Cox and session drummer Ed Shaughnessy. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_307

Woodstock Jimi Hendrix_section_13

Main article: Woodstock Jimi Hendrix_sentence_308

By 1969, Hendrix was the world's highest-paid rock musician. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_309

In August, he headlined the Woodstock Music and Art Fair that included many of the most popular bands of the time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_310

For the concert, he added rhythm guitarist Larry Lee and conga players Juma Sultan and Jerry Velez. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_311

The band rehearsed for less than two weeks before the performance, and according to Mitchell, they never connected musically. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_312

Before arriving at the engagement, Hendrix heard reports that the size of the audience had grown enormously, which concerned him as he did not enjoy performing for large crowds. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_313

He was an important draw for the event, and although he accepted substantially less money for the appearance than his usual fee, he was the festival's highest-paid performer. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_314

Hendrix decided to move his midnight Sunday slot to Monday morning, closing the show. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_315

The band took the stage around 8:00 a.m, by which time Hendrix had been awake for more than three days. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_316

The audience, which peaked at an estimated 400,000 people, was reduced to 30,000–40,000, many of whom had waited to catch a glimpse of Hendrix before leaving during his performance. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_317

The festival MC, Chip Monck, introduced the group as "the Jimi Hendrix Experience", but Hendrix clarified: "We decided to change the whole thing around and call it 'Gypsy Sun and Rainbows'. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_318

For short, it's nothin' but a 'Band of Gypsys'." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_319

Hendrix's performance included a rendition of the US national anthem, "The Star-Spangled Banner", with copious feedback, distortion, and sustain to imitate the sounds made by rockets and bombs. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_320

Contemporary political pundits described his interpretation as a statement against the Vietnam War. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_321

Three weeks later Hendrix said: "We're all Americans ... it was like 'Go America!'... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_322

We play it the way the air is in America today. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_323

The air is slightly static, see." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_324

Immortalized in the 1970 documentary film, Woodstock, his guitar-driven version would become part of the sixties Zeitgeist. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_325

Pop critic Al Aronowitz of the New York Post wrote: "It was the most electrifying moment of Woodstock, and it was probably the single greatest moment of the sixties." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_326

Images of the performance showing Hendrix wearing a blue-beaded white leather jacket with fringe, a red head-scarf, and blue jeans are regarded as iconic pictures that capture a defining moment of the era. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_327

He played "Hey Joe" during the encore, concluding the 3​⁄2-day festival. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_328

Upon leaving the stage, he collapsed from exhaustion. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_329

In 2011, the editors of Guitar World named his performance of "The Star-Spangled Banner" the greatest performance of all time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_330

Band of Gypsys Jimi Hendrix_section_14

Main article: Band of Gypsys Jimi Hendrix_sentence_331

A legal dispute arose in 1966 regarding a record contract that Hendrix had entered into the previous year with producer Ed Chalpin. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_332

After two years of litigation, the parties agreed to a resolution that granted Chalpin the distribution rights to an album of original Hendrix material. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_333

Hendrix decided that they would record the LP, Band of Gypsys, during two live appearances. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_334

In preparation for the shows he formed an all-black power trio with Cox and drummer Buddy Miles, formerly with Wilson Pickett, the Electric Flag, and the Buddy Miles Express. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_335

Critic John Rockwell described Hendrix and Miles as jazz-rock fusionists, and their collaboration as pioneering. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_336

Others identified a funk and soul influence in their music. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_337

Concert promoter Bill Graham called the shows "the most brilliant, emotional display of virtuoso electric guitar" that he had ever heard. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_338

Biographers have speculated that Hendrix formed the band in an effort to appease members of the Black Power movement and others in the black communities who called for him to use his fame to speak-up for civil rights. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_339

Hendrix had been recording with Cox since April and jamming with Miles since September, and the trio wrote and rehearsed material which they performed at a series of four shows over two nights on December 31 and January 1, at the Fillmore East. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_340

They used recordings of these concerts to assemble the LP, which was produced by Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_341

The album includes the track "Machine Gun", which musicologist Andy Aledort described as the pinnacle of Hendrix's career, and "the premiere example of [his] unparalleled genius as a rock guitarist ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_342

In this performance, Jimi transcended the medium of rock music, and set an entirely new standard for the potential of electric guitar." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_343

During the song's extended instrumental breaks, Hendrix created sounds with his guitar that sonically represented warfare, including rockets, bombs, and diving planes. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_344

The Band of Gypsys album was the only official live Hendrix LP made commercially available during his lifetime; several tracks from the Woodstock and Monterey shows were released later that year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_345

The album was released in April 1970 by Capitol Records; it reached the top ten in both the US and the UK. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_346

That same month a single was issued with "Stepping Stone" as the A-side and "Izabella" as the B-side, but Hendrix was dissatisfied with the quality of the mastering and he demanded that it be withdrawn and re-mixed, preventing the songs from charting and resulting in Hendrix's least successful single; it was also his last. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_347

On January 28, 1970, a third and final Band of Gypsys appearance took place; they performed during a music festival at Madison Square Garden benefiting the anti-Vietnam War Moratorium Committee titled the "Winter Festival for Peace". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_348

American blues guitarist Johnny Winter was backstage before the concert; he recalled: "[Hendrix] came in with his head down, sat on the couch alone, and put his head in his hands ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_349

He didn't move until it was time for the show." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_350

Minutes after taking the stage he snapped a vulgar response at a woman who had shouted a request for "Foxy Lady". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_351

He then began playing "Earth Blues" before telling the audience: "That's what happens when earth fucks with space". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_352

Moments later, he briefly sat down on the drum riser before leaving the stage. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_353

Both Miles and Redding later stated that Jeffery had given Hendrix LSD before the performance. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_354

Miles believed that Jeffery gave Hendrix the drugs in an effort to sabotage the current band and bring about the return of the original Experience lineup. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_355

Jeffery fired Miles after the show and Cox quit, ending the Band of Gypsys. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_356

Cry of Love Tour Jimi Hendrix_section_15

Main article: The Cry of Love Tour Jimi Hendrix_sentence_357

Soon after the abruptly ended Band of Gypsys performance and their subsequent dissolution, Jeffery made arrangements to reunite the original Experience lineup. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_358

Although Hendrix, Mitchell, and Redding were interviewed by Rolling Stone in February 1970 as a united group, Hendrix never intended to work with Redding. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_359

When Redding returned to New York in anticipation of rehearsals with a re-formed Experience, he was told that he had been replaced with Cox. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_360

During an interview with Rolling Stone's Keith Altham, Hendrix defended the decision: "It's nothing personal against Noel, but we finished what we were doing with the Experience and Billy's style of playing suits the new group better." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_361

Although an official name was never adopted for the lineup of Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox, promoters often billed them as the Jimi Hendrix Experience or just Jimi Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_362

During the first half of 1970, Hendrix sporadically worked on material for what would have been his next LP. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_363

Many of the tracks were posthumously released in 1971 as The Cry of Love. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_364

He had started writing songs for the album in 1968, but in April 1970 he told Keith Altham that the project had been abandoned. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_365

Soon afterward, he and his band took a break from recording and began the Cry of Love tour at the L.A. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_366 Forum, performing for 20,000 people. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_367

Set-lists during the tour included numerous Experience tracks as well as a selection of newer material. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_368

Several shows were recorded, and they produced some of Hendrix's most memorable live performances. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_369

At one of them, the second Atlanta International Pop Festival, on July 4, he played to the largest American audience of his career. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_370

According to authors Scott Schinder and Andy Schwartz, as many as 500,000 people attended the concert. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_371

On July 17, they appeared at the New York Pop Festival; Hendrix had again consumed too many drugs before the show, and the set was considered a disaster. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_372

The American leg of the tour, which included 32 performances, ended in Honolulu, Hawaii, on August 1, 1970. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_373

This would be Hendrix's final concert appearance in the US. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_374

Electric Lady Studios Jimi Hendrix_section_16

Main article: Electric Lady Studios Jimi Hendrix_sentence_375

In 1968, Hendrix and Jeffery jointly invested in the purchase of the Generation Club in Greenwich Village. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_376

They had initially planned to reopen the establishment, but when an audit of Hendrix's expenses revealed that he had incurred exorbitant fees by block-booking recording studios for lengthy sessions at peak rates they decided to convert the building into a studio of his own. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_377

Hendrix could then work as much as he wanted while also reducing his recording expenditures, which had reached a reported $300,000 annually. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_378

Architect and acoustician John Storyk designed Electric Lady Studios for Hendrix, who requested that they avoid right angles where possible. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_379

With round windows, an ambient lighting machine, and a psychedelic mural, Storyk wanted the studio to have a relaxing environment that would encourage Hendrix's creativity. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_380

The project took twice as long as planned and cost twice as much as Hendrix and Jeffery had budgeted, with their total investment estimated at $1 million. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_381

Hendrix first used Electric Lady on June 15, 1970, when he jammed with Steve Winwood and Chris Wood of Traffic; the next day, he recorded his first track there, "Night Bird Flying". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_382

The studio officially opened for business on August 25, and a grand opening party was held the following day. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_383

Immediately afterwards, Hendrix left for England; he never returned to the States. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_384

He boarded an Air India flight for London with Cox, joining Mitchell for a performance as the headlining act of the Isle of Wight Festival. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_385

European tour Jimi Hendrix_section_17

When the European leg of the Cry of Love tour began, Hendrix was longing for his new studio and creative outlet, and was not eager to fulfill the commitment. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_386

On September 2, 1970, he abandoned a performance in Aarhus after three songs, stating: "I've been dead a long time". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_387

Four days later, he gave his final concert appearance, at the Isle of Fehmarn Festival in Germany. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_388

He was met with booing and jeering from fans in response to his cancellation of a show slated for the end of the previous night's bill due to torrential rain and risk of electrocution. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_389

Immediately following the festival, Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox traveled to London. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_390

Three days after the performance, Cox, who was suffering from severe paranoia after either taking LSD or being given it unknowingly, quit the tour and went to stay with his parents in Pennsylvania. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_391

Within days of Hendrix's arrival in England, he had spoken with Chas Chandler, Alan Douglas, and others about leaving his manager, Michael Jeffery. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_392

On September 16, Hendrix performed in public for the last time during an informal jam at Ronnie Scott's Jazz Club in Soho with Eric Burdon and his latest band, War. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_393

They began by playing a few of their recent hits, and after a brief intermission Hendrix joined them during "Mother Earth" and "Tobacco Road". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_394

His performance was uncharacteristically subdued; he quietly played backing guitar, and refrained from the histrionics that people had come to expect from him. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_395

He died less than 48 hours later. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_396

Drugs and alcohol Jimi Hendrix_section_18

Hendrix entered a small club in Clarksville, Tennessee, in July 1962, drawn in by live music. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_397

He stopped for a drink and ended up spending most of the $400 that he had saved during his time in the Army. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_398

"I went in this jazz joint and had a drink," he explained. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_399

"I liked it and I stayed. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_400

People tell me I get foolish, good-natured sometimes. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_401

Anyway, I guess I felt real benevolent that day. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_402

I must have been handing out bills to anyone that asked me. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_403

I came out of that place with sixteen dollars left." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_404

Alcohol eventually became "the scourge of his existence, driving him to fits of pique, even rare bursts of atypical, physical violence". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_405

Roby and Schreiber assert that Hendrix first used LSD when he met Linda Keith in late 1966. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_406

Shapiro and Glebbeek, however, assert that Hendrix used it in June 1967 at the earliest while attending the Monterey Pop Festival. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_407

According to Hendrix biographer Charles Cross, the subject of drugs came up one evening in 1966 at Keith's New York apartment. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_408

One of Keith's friends offered Hendrix acid, a street name for LSD, but Hendrix asked for LSD instead, showing what Cross describes as "his naivete and his complete inexperience with psychedelics". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_409

Before that, Hendrix had only sporadically used drugs, experimenting with cannabis, hashish, amphetamines, and occasionally cocaine. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_410

After 1967, he regularly used cannabis, hashish, LSD, and amphetamines, particularly while touring. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_411

According to Cross, "few stars were as closely associated with the drug culture as Jimi". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_412

Drug abuse and violence Jimi Hendrix_section_19

When Hendrix drank to excess or mixed drugs with alcohol, often he became angry and violent. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_413

His friend Herbie Worthington said Hendrix "simply turned into a bastard" when he drank. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_414

According to friend Sharon Lawrence, liquor "set off a bottled-up anger, a destructive fury he almost never displayed otherwise". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_415

In January 1968, the Experience travelled to Sweden to start a one-week tour of Europe. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_416

During the early morning hours of the first day, Hendrix got into a drunken brawl in the Hotel Opalen in Gothenburg, smashing a plate-glass window and injuring his right hand, for which he received medical treatment. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_417

The incident culminated in his arrest and release, pending a court appearance that resulted in a large fine. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_418

In 1969, Hendrix rented a house in Benedict Canyon, California, that was burglarized. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_419

Later, while under the influence of drugs and alcohol, he accused his friend Paul Caruso of the theft, threw punches and stones at him, and chased him away from his house. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_420

A few days later Hendrix hit his girlfriend, Carmen Borrero, above her eye with a vodka bottle during a drunken, jealous rage, and gave her a cut that necessitated stitches. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_421

Canadian drug charges and trial Jimi Hendrix_section_20

Main article: Canadian drug charges and trial of Jimi Hendrix Jimi Hendrix_sentence_422

Hendrix was passing through customs at Toronto International Airport on May 3, 1969 when authorities found a small amount of heroin and hashish in his luggage. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_423

Four hours later, he was formally charged with drug possession and released on $10,000 bail. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_424

He was required to return on May 5 for an arraignment hearing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_425

The incident proved stressful for Hendrix, and it weighed heavily on his mind during the seven months that he awaited trial, which took place in December 1969. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_426

For the Crown to prove possession, they had to show that Hendrix knew that the drugs were there. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_427

During the jury trial, he testified that a fan had given him a vial of what he thought was legal medication which he put in his bag. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_428

He was acquitted of the charges. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_429

Mitchell and Redding later revealed that everyone had been warned about a planned drug bust the day before flying to Toronto; both men also stated that they believed that the drugs had been planted in Hendrix's bag without his knowledge. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_430

Death, post-mortem, and burial Jimi Hendrix_section_21

Main article: Death of Jimi Hendrix Jimi Hendrix_sentence_431

Details are disputed concerning Hendrix's last day and death. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_432

He spent much of Thursday, September 17, 1970, with Monika Dannemann in London, the only witness to his final hours. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_433

Dannemann said that she prepared a meal for them at her apartment in the Samarkand Hotel around 11 p.m., when they shared a bottle of wine. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_434

She drove him to the residence of an acquaintance at approximately 1:45 a.m., where he remained for about an hour before she picked him up and drove them back to her flat at 3 a.m. She said that they talked until around 7 a.m., when they went to sleep. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_435

Dannemann awoke around 11 a.m. and found Hendrix breathing but unconscious and unresponsive. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_436

She called for an ambulance at 11:18 a.m., and it arrived nine minutes later. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_437

Paramedics transported Hendrix to St Mary Abbot's Hospital where Dr. John Bannister pronounced him dead at 12:45 p.m. on Friday, September 18. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_438

Coroner Gavin Thurston ordered a post-mortem examination which was performed on September 21 by Professor Robert Donald Teare, a forensic pathologist. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_439

Thurston completed the inquest on September 28 and concluded that Hendrix aspirated his own vomit and died of asphyxia while intoxicated with barbiturates. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_440

Citing "insufficient evidence of the circumstances", he declared an open verdict. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_441

Dannemann later revealed that Hendrix had taken nine of her prescribed Vesparax sleeping tablets, 18 times the recommended dosage. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_442

Desmond Henley embalmed Hendrix's body which was flown to Seattle on September 29. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_443

Hendrix's family and friends held a service at Dunlap Baptist Church in Seattle's Rainier Valley on Thursday, October 1; his body was interred at Greenwood Cemetery in nearby Renton, the location of his mother's grave. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_444

Family and friends traveled in 24 limousines, and more than 200 people attended the funeral, including Mitch Mitchell, Noel Redding, Miles Davis, John Hammond, and Johnny Winter. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_445

Jimi Hendrix is part of the 27 Club, a list of musicians who died when they were 27 years old. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_446

Unauthorized and posthumous releases Jimi Hendrix_section_22

By 1967, as Hendrix was gaining in popularity, many of his pre-Experience recordings were marketed to an unsuspecting public as Jimi Hendrix albums, sometimes with misleading later images of Hendrix. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_447

The recordings, which came under the control of producer Ed Chalpin of PPX, with whom Hendrix had signed a recording contract in 1965, were often re-mixed between their repeated reissues, and licensed to record companies such as Decca and Capitol. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_448

Hendrix publicly denounced the releases, describing them as "malicious" and "greatly inferior", stating: "At PPX, we spent on average about one hour recording a song. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_449

Today I spend at least twelve hours on each song." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_450

These unauthorized releases have long constituted a substantial part of his recording catalogue, amounting to hundreds of albums. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_451

Some of Hendrix's unfinished fourth studio album was released as the 1971 title The Cry of Love. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_452

Although the album reached number three in the US and number two in the UK, producers Mitchell and Kramer later complained that they were unable to make use of all the available songs because some tracks were used for 1971's Rainbow Bridge; still others were issued on 1972's War Heroes. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_453

Material from The Cry of Love was re-released in 1997 as First Rays of the New Rising Sun, along with the other tracks that Mitchell and Kramer had wanted to include. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_454

Four years after Hendrix's death, producer Alan Douglas acquired the rights to produce unreleased music by Hendrix; he attracted criticism for using studio musicians to replace or add tracks. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_455

In 1993, MCA Records delayed a multimillion-dollar sale of Hendrix's publishing copyrights because Al Hendrix was unhappy about the arrangement. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_456

He acknowledged that he had sold distribution rights to a foreign corporation in 1974, but stated that it did not include copyrights and argued that he had retained veto power of the sale of the catalogue. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_457

Under a settlement reached in July 1995, Al Hendrix regained control of his son's song and image rights. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_458

He subsequently licensed the recordings to MCA through the family-run company Experience Hendrix LLC, formed in 1995. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_459

In August 2009, Experience Hendrix announced that it had entered a new licensing agreement with Sony Music Entertainment's Legacy Recordings division, to take effect in 2010. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_460

Legacy and Experience Hendrix launched the 2010 Jimi Hendrix Catalog Project starting with the release of Valleys of Neptune in March of that year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_461

In the months before his death, Hendrix recorded demos for a concept album tentatively titled Black Gold, now in the possession of Experience Hendrix LLC, but it has not been released. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_462

Equipment Jimi Hendrix_section_23

Guitars Jimi Hendrix_section_24

Hendrix played a variety of guitars, but was most associated with the Fender Stratocaster. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_463

He acquired his first in 1966, when a girlfriend loaned him enough money to purchase a used Stratocaster built around 1964. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_464

He used it often during performances and recordings. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_465

In 1967, he described the Stratocaster as "the best all-around guitar for the stuff we're doing"; he praised its "bright treble and deep bass". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_466

Hendrix mainly played right-handed guitars that were turned upside down and restrung for left-hand playing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_467

Because of the slant of the Stratocaster's bridge pickup, his lowest string had a brighter sound, while his highest string had a darker sound, the opposite of the intended design. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_468

Hendrix also used Fender Jazzmasters, Duosonics, two different Gibson Flying Vs, a Gibson Les Paul, three Gibson SGs, a Gretsch Corvette, and a Fender Jaguar. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_469

He used a white Gibson SG Custom for his performances on The Dick Cavett Show in September 1969, and a black Gibson Flying V during the Isle of Wight festival in 1970. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_470

Amplifiers Jimi Hendrix_section_25

During 1965, and 1966, while Hendrix was playing back-up for soul and R&B acts in the US, he used an 85-watt Fender Twin Reverb amplifier. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_471

When Chandler brought Hendrix to England in October 1966, he supplied him with 30-watt Burns amps, which Hendrix thought were too small for his needs. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_472

After an early London gig when he was unable to use his Fender Twin, he asked about the Marshall amps he had noticed other groups using. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_473

Years earlier, Mitch Mitchell had taken drum lessons from Marshall founder Jim Marshall, and he introduced Hendrix to Marshall. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_474

At their initial meeting, Hendrix bought four speaker cabinets and three 100-watt Super Lead amplifiers; he grew accustomed to using all three in unison. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_475

The equipment arrived on October 11, 1966, and the Experience used it during their first tour. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_476

Marshall amps were important to the development of Hendrix's overdriven sound and his use of feedback, creating what author Paul Trynka described as a "definitive vocabulary for rock guitar". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_477

Hendrix usually turned all the control knobs to the maximum level, which became known as the Hendrix setting. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_478

During the four years prior to his death, he purchased between 50 and 100 Marshall amplifiers. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_479

Jim Marshall said Hendrix was "the greatest ambassador" his company ever had. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_480

Effects Jimi Hendrix_section_26

One of Hendrix's signature effects was the wah-wah pedal, which he first heard used with an electric guitar in Cream's "Tales of Brave Ulysses", released in May 1967. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_481

That July, while performing at the Scene club in New York City, Hendrix met Frank Zappa, whose band the Mothers of Invention were performing at the adjacent Garrick Theater. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_482

Hendrix was fascinated by Zappa's application of the pedal, and he experimented with one later that evening. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_483

He used a wah pedal during the opening to "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)", creating one of the best-known wah-wah riffs of the classic rock era. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_484

He also uses the effect on "Up from the Skies", "Little Miss Lover", and "Still Raining, Still Dreaming". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_485

Hendrix used a Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face and a Vox wah pedal during recording sessions and performances, but also experimented with other guitar effects. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_486

He enjoyed a fruitful long-term collaboration with electronics enthusiast Roger Mayer, whom he once called "the secret" of his sound. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_487

Mayer introduced him to the Octavia, an octave-doubling effect pedal, in December 1966, and he first recorded with it during the guitar solo to "Purple Haze". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_488

Hendrix also used the Uni-Vibe, designed to simulate the modulation effects of a rotating Leslie speaker. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_489

He uses the effect during his performance at Woodstock and on the Band of Gypsys track "Machine Gun", which prominently features the Uni-vibe along with an Octavia and a Fuzz Face. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_490

For performances, he plugged his guitar into the wah-wah, which was connected to the Fuzz Face, then the Uni-Vibe, and finally a Marshall amplifier. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_491

Influences Jimi Hendrix_section_27

As an adolescent in the 1950s, Hendrix became interested in rock and roll artists such as Elvis Presley, Little Richard, and Chuck Berry. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_492

In 1968, he told Guitar Player magazine that electric blues artists Muddy Waters, Elmore James, and B.B. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_493

King inspired him during the beginning of his career; he also cited Eddie Cochran as an early influence. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_494

Of Muddy Waters, the first electric guitarist of which Hendrix became aware, he said: "I heard one of his records when I was a little boy and it scared me to death because I heard all of these sounds." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_495

In 1970, he told Rolling Stone that he was a fan of western swing artist Bob Wills and while he lived in Nashville, the television show the Grand Ole Opry. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_496

Cox stated that during their time serving in the US military, he and Hendrix primarily listened to southern blues artists such as Jimmy Reed and Albert King. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_497

According to Cox, "King was a very, very powerful influence". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_498

Howlin' Wolf also inspired Hendrix, who performed Wolf's "Killing Floor" as the opening song of his US debut at the Monterey Pop Festival. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_499

The influence of soul artist Curtis Mayfield can be heard in Hendrix's guitar playing, and the influence of Bob Dylan can be heard in Hendrix's songwriting; he was known to play Dylan's records repeatedly, particularly Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_500

Legacy Jimi Hendrix_section_28

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame biography for the Experience states: "Jimi Hendrix was arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_501

Hendrix expanded the range and vocabulary of the electric guitar into areas no musician had ever ventured before. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_502

His boundless drive, technical ability and creative application of such effects as wah-wah and distortion forever transformed the sound of rock and roll." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_503

Musicologist Andy Aledort described Hendrix as "one of the most creative" and "influential musicians that has ever lived". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_504

Music journalist Chuck Philips wrote: "In a field almost exclusively populated by white musicians, Hendrix has served as a role model for a cadre of young black rockers. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_505

His achievement was to reclaim title to a musical form pioneered by black innovators like Little Richard and Chuck Berry in the 1950s." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_506

Hendrix favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_507

He was instrumental in developing the previously undesirable technique of guitar amplifier feedback, and helped to popularize use of the wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_508

He rejected the standard barre chord fretting technique used by most guitarists in favor of fretting the low 6th string root notes with his thumb. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_509

He applied this technique during the beginning bars of "Little Wing", which allowed him to sustain the root note of chords while also playing melody. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_510

This method has been described as piano style, with the thumb playing what a pianist's left hand would play and the other fingers playing melody as a right hand. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_511

Having spent several years fronting a trio, he developed an ability to play rhythm chords and lead lines together, giving the audio impression that more than one guitarist was performing. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_512

He was the first artist to incorporate stereophonic phasing effects in rock music recordings. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_513

Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone wrote: "Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_514

Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_515

While creating his unique musical voice and guitar style, Hendrix synthesized diverse genres, including blues, R&B, soul, British rock, American folk music, 1950s rock and roll, and jazz. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_516

Musicologist David Moskowitz emphasized the importance of blues music in Hendrix's playing style, and according to authors Steven Roby and Brad Schreiber, "[He] explored the outer reaches of psychedelic rock". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_517

His influence is evident in a variety of popular music formats, and he has contributed significantly to the development of hard rock, heavy metal, funk, post-punk, grunge, and hip hop music. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_518

His lasting influence on modern guitar players is difficult to overstate; his techniques and delivery have been abundantly imitated by others. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_519

Despite his hectic touring schedule and notorious perfectionism, he was a prolific recording artist who left behind numerous unreleased recordings. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_520

More than 40 years after his death, Hendrix remains as popular as ever, with annual album sales exceeding that of any year during his lifetime. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_521

Hendrix has influenced numerous funk and funk rock artists, including Prince, George Clinton, John Frusciante, of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Eddie Hazel of Funkadelic, and Ernie Isley of the Isley Brothers. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_522

Grunge guitarists such as Jerry Cantrell of Alice in Chains, and Mike McCready and Stone Gossard of Pearl Jam have cited Hendrix as an influence. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_523

Hendrix's influence also extends to many hip hop artists, including De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Digital Underground, Beastie Boys, and Run–D.M.C. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_524

Miles Davis was deeply impressed by Hendrix, and he compared Hendrix's improvisational abilities with those of saxophonist John Coltrane. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_525

Hendrix also influenced Black Sabbath, industrial artist Marilyn Manson, blues legend Stevie Ray Vaughan, Randy Hansen, Uli Jon Roth, pop singer Halsey, Kiss's Ace Frehley, Metallica's Kirk Hammett, Aerosmith's Brad Whitford, Judas Priest's Richie Faulkner, instrumental rock guitarist Joe Satriani, King's X singer/bassist Doug Pinnick, Frank Zappa/David Bowie/Talking Heads/King Crimson/Nine Inch Nails hired gun Adrian Belew, and heavy metal virtuoso Yngwie Malmsteen, who said: "[Hendrix] created modern electric playing, without question ... Jimi Hendrix_sentence_526

He was the first. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_527

He started it all. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_528

The rest is history." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_529

"For many", Hendrix was "the preeminent black rocker", according to Jon Caramanica. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_530

Members of the Soulquarians, an experimental black music collective active during the late 1990s and early 2000s, were influenced by the creative freedom in Hendrix's music and extensively used Electric Lady Studios to work on their own music. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_531

Recognition and awards Jimi Hendrix_section_29

Hendrix received several prestigious rock music awards during his lifetime and posthumously. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_532

In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_533

In 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_534

Also in 1968, the City of Seattle gave him the Keys to the city. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_535

Disc & Music Echo newspaper honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970 Guitar Player magazine named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_536

Rolling Stone ranked his three non-posthumous studio albums, Are You Experienced (1967), Axis: Bold as Love (1967), and Electric Ladyland (1968) among the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_537

They ranked Hendrix number one on their list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time, and number six on their list of the 100 greatest artists of all time. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_538

Guitar World's readers voted six of Hendrix's solos among the top 100 Greatest Guitar Solos of All Time: "Purple Haze" (70), "The Star-Spangled Banner" (52; from Live at Woodstock), "Machine Gun" (32; from Band of Gypsys), "Little Wing" (18), "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" (11), and "All Along the Watchtower" (5). Jimi Hendrix_sentence_539

Rolling Stone placed seven of his recordings in their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: "Purple Haze" (17), "All Along the Watchtower" (47) "Voodoo Child (Slight Return)" (102), "Foxy Lady" (153), "Hey Joe" (201), "Little Wing" (366), and "The Wind Cries Mary" (379). Jimi Hendrix_sentence_540

They also included three of Hendrix's songs in their list of the 100 Greatest Guitar Songs of All Time: "Purple Haze" (2), "Voodoo Child" (12), and "Machine Gun" (49). Jimi Hendrix_sentence_541

A star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame was dedicated to Hendrix on November 14, 1991, at 6627 Hollywood Boulevard. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_542

The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_543

In 1998, Hendrix was inducted into the Native American Music Hall of Fame during its first year. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_544

In 1999, readers of Rolling Stone and Guitar World ranked Hendrix among the most important musicians of the 20th century. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_545

In 2005, his debut album, Are You Experienced, was one of 50 recordings added that year to the United States National Recording Registry in the Library of Congress, "[to] be preserved for all time ... [as] part of the nation's audio legacy". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_546

In Seattle, November 27, 1992, which would have been Hendrix's 50th birthday, was made Jimi Hendrix Day, largely due to the efforts of his boyhood friend, guitarist Sammy Drain. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_547

The blue plaque identifying Hendrix's former residence at 23 Brook Street, London, (next door to the former residence of George Frideric Handel) was the first issued by English Heritage to commemorate a pop star. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_548

A memorial statue of Hendrix playing a Stratocaster stands near the corner of Broadway and Pine Streets in Seattle. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_549

In May 2006, the city renamed a park near its Central District Jimi Hendrix Park, in his honor. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_550

In 2012, an official historic marker was erected on the site of the July 1970 Second Atlanta International Pop Festival near Byron, Georgia. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_551

The marker text reads, in part: "Over thirty musical acts performed, including rock icon Jimi Hendrix playing to the largest American audience of his career." Jimi Hendrix_sentence_552

Hendrix's music has received a number of Hall of Fame Grammy awards, starting with a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992, followed by two Grammys in 1999 for his albums Are You Experienced and Electric Ladyland; Axis: Bold as Love received a Grammy in 2006. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_553

In 2000, he received a Hall of Fame Grammy award for his original composition, "Purple Haze", and in 2001, for his recording of Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower". Jimi Hendrix_sentence_554

Hendrix's rendition of "The Star-Spangled Banner" was honored with a Grammy in 2009. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_555

The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honoring Hendrix in 2014. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_556

On August 21, 2016, Jimi Hendrix was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame in Dearborn, Michigan. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_557

The James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix United States Post Office in Renton Highlands near Seattle, about a mile from Hendrix's grave and memorial, was renamed for Hendrix in 2019. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_558

On June 23, 2019, the Band of Gypsys were inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame, at the Charles H. Wright Museum of African-American History in Detroit, Michigan. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_559

Billy Cox, the last surviving member of the group was on hand to accept, along with representatives of the Buddy Miles and Hendrix estates. Jimi Hendrix_sentence_560

Discography Jimi Hendrix_section_30

Main articles: Jimi Hendrix discography and Jimi Hendrix posthumous discography Jimi Hendrix_sentence_561

The Jimi Hendrix Experience Jimi Hendrix_sentence_562

Jimi Hendrix_unordered_list_0

Jimi Hendrix/Band of Gypsys Jimi Hendrix_sentence_563

Jimi Hendrix_unordered_list_1

See also Jimi Hendrix_section_31

Jimi Hendrix_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimi Hendrix.