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CountryJiuquan_header_cell_0_1_0 People's Republic of ChinaJiuquan_cell_0_1_1
ProvinceJiuquan_header_cell_0_2_0 GansuJiuquan_cell_0_2_1
Municipal seatJiuquan_header_cell_0_3_0 Suzhou DistrictJiuquan_cell_0_3_1
TotalJiuquan_header_cell_0_5_0 191,342 km (73,878 sq mi)Jiuquan_cell_0_5_1
ElevationJiuquan_header_cell_0_6_0 1,483 m (4,865 ft)Jiuquan_cell_0_6_1
Population (2010)Jiuquan_header_cell_0_7_0
TotalJiuquan_header_cell_0_8_0 1,095,947Jiuquan_cell_0_8_1
DensityJiuquan_header_cell_0_9_0 5.7/km (15/sq mi)Jiuquan_cell_0_9_1
Time zoneJiuquan_header_cell_0_10_0 UTC+8 (China Standard)Jiuquan_cell_0_10_1
Postal codeJiuquan_header_cell_0_11_0 735000Jiuquan_cell_0_11_1
Area code(s)Jiuquan_header_cell_0_12_0 0937Jiuquan_cell_0_12_1
ISO 3166 codeJiuquan_header_cell_0_13_0 CN-GS-09Jiuquan_cell_0_13_1
Licence plate prefixesJiuquan_header_cell_0_14_0 甘FJiuquan_cell_0_14_1
WebsiteJiuquan_header_cell_0_15_0 Jiuquan_cell_0_15_1


ChineseJiuquan_header_cell_1_1_0 Jiuquan_cell_1_1_1
Literal meaningJiuquan_header_cell_1_2_0 "Alcohol Spring(s)"Jiuquan_cell_1_2_1
TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinJiǔquánWade–GilesChiu-chüanIPA[tɕjòu.tɕʰɥɛ̌nYue: CantoneseYale RomanizationJáu-chyùhnJiuquan_cell_1_3_0
Standard MandarinJiuquan_header_cell_1_5_0
Hanyu PinyinJiuquan_header_cell_1_6_0 JiǔquánJiuquan_cell_1_6_1
Wade–GilesJiuquan_header_cell_1_7_0 Chiu-chüanJiuquan_cell_1_7_1
IPAJiuquan_header_cell_1_8_0 [tɕjòu.tɕʰɥɛ̌nJiuquan_cell_1_8_1
Yue: CantoneseJiuquan_header_cell_1_9_0
Yale RomanizationJiuquan_header_cell_1_10_0 Jáu-chyùhnJiuquan_cell_1_10_1


Former namesJiuquan_header_cell_2_0_0
Traditional ChineseJiuquan_header_cell_2_2_0 Jiuquan_cell_2_2_1
Simplified ChineseJiuquan_header_cell_2_3_0 Jiuquan_cell_2_3_1
Literal meaningJiuquan_header_cell_2_4_0 Fortunate & LuckyJiuquan_cell_2_4_1
TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinFúlùWade–GilesFu-luJiuquan_cell_2_5_0
Standard MandarinJiuquan_header_cell_2_7_0
Hanyu PinyinJiuquan_header_cell_2_8_0 FúlùJiuquan_cell_2_8_1
Wade–GilesJiuquan_header_cell_2_9_0 Fu-luJiuquan_cell_2_9_1
Traditional ChineseJiuquan_header_cell_2_11_0 Jiuquan_cell_2_11_1
Simplified ChineseJiuquan_header_cell_2_12_0 Jiuquan_cell_2_12_1
Literal meaningJiuquan_header_cell_2_13_0 Solemn Prefectural [Capital]Jiuquan_cell_2_13_1
TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinSùzhōuWade–GilesSu-chouJiuquan_cell_2_14_0
Standard MandarinJiuquan_header_cell_2_16_0
Hanyu PinyinJiuquan_header_cell_2_17_0 SùzhōuJiuquan_cell_2_17_1
Wade–GilesJiuquan_header_cell_2_18_0 Su-chouJiuquan_cell_2_18_1

Jiuquan, formerly known as Suzhou, is a prefecture-level city in the northwesternmost part of Gansu Province in the People's Republic of China. Jiuquan_sentence_0

It is more than 600 km (370 mi) wide from east to west, occupying 191,342 km (73,878 sq mi), although its built-up area is mostly located in its Suzhou District. Jiuquan_sentence_1

Its population was 962,000 in 2002. Jiuquan_sentence_2

Name Jiuquan_section_0

The city was formerly known as Fulu, which became known as Suzhou (Suchow, Su-chow, &c.) after it became the seat of Su Prefecture under the Sui. Jiuquan_sentence_3

As the seat of Jiuquan Commandery, it eventually became known by that name in turn. Jiuquan_sentence_4

The name Jiuquan —"wine spring(s)" — derives from a legendary story of the young Han general Huo Qubing, who was said to have poured a vat of precious wine into a local creek to share its taste with his troops after a victory over the Xiongnu nomads. Jiuquan_sentence_5

History Jiuquan_section_1

Fulu was founded in 111 BC as an outpost in the Hexi Corridor near the Jade Gate along the overland Silk Road. Jiuquan_sentence_6

Jiuquan was a Han prefecture and, under the Eastern Han, an active military garrison. Jiuquan_sentence_7

Su Prefecture was established under the Sui and renamed Jiuquan Commandery under the Tang. Jiuquan_sentence_8

In 624, Jiuquan County was established. Jiuquan_sentence_9

In 763, it was occupied by Tibetan Empire. Jiuquan_sentence_10

After the fall of the Tibetan Empire, it was controlled by the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom. Jiuquan_sentence_11

In 1028, it was seized by Xixia. Jiuquan_sentence_12

During the Yuan Dynasty, Suzhou Lu was established under Gansu Province. Jiuquan_sentence_13

It sometimes served as the capital of the province of Gansu. Jiuquan_sentence_14

Along with its role protecting trade along the Silk Road, Suzhou was the great center of the rhubarb trade. Jiuquan_sentence_15

Under the Ming, Suzhou was the site where the Portuguese Jesuit missionary Bento de Góis was robbed and died in 1607 during the exploration that finally established that Cathay and China were a single country. Jiuquan_sentence_16

Meng Qiaofang took it from Ding Guodong in 1649. Jiuquan_sentence_17

The Hui under Ma Wenlu held it during the Dungan Revolt. Jiuquan_sentence_18

It was completely destroyed by the time it was recovered by the Qing general Zuo Zongtang in 1873 but it was swiftly rebuilt. Jiuquan_sentence_19

Administrative divisions Jiuquan_section_2

Jiuquan is made up of one district, two counties, two autonomous counties and two cities. Jiuquan_sentence_20



Yumen (city) Dunhuang (city) Jinta County Guazhou County Subei County ※ Aksai CountyJiuquan_cell_3_1_0

NameJiuquan_header_cell_3_2_0 HanziJiuquan_header_cell_3_2_1 Hanyu PinyinJiuquan_header_cell_3_2_2 Population

(2004 est.)Jiuquan_header_cell_3_2_3

Area (km²)Jiuquan_header_cell_3_2_4 Density


Suzhou DistrictJiuquan_cell_3_3_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_3_1 Sùzhōu QūJiuquan_cell_3_3_2 350,000Jiuquan_cell_3_3_3 3,349Jiuquan_cell_3_3_4 104.5Jiuquan_cell_3_3_5
Yumen CityJiuquan_cell_3_4_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_4_1 Yùmén ShìJiuquan_cell_3_4_2 170,000Jiuquan_cell_3_4_3 13,500Jiuquan_cell_3_4_4 12.6Jiuquan_cell_3_4_5
Dunhuang CityJiuquan_cell_3_5_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_5_1 Dūnhuáng ShìJiuquan_cell_3_5_2 140,000Jiuquan_cell_3_5_3 26,960Jiuquan_cell_3_5_4 5.2Jiuquan_cell_3_5_5
Jinta CountyJiuquan_cell_3_6_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_6_1 Jīntǎ XiànJiuquan_cell_3_6_2 140,000Jiuquan_cell_3_6_3 14,663Jiuquan_cell_3_6_4 9.5Jiuquan_cell_3_6_5
Guazhou CountyJiuquan_cell_3_7_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_7_1 Guāzhōu XiànJiuquan_cell_3_7_2 90,000Jiuquan_cell_3_7_3 21,350Jiuquan_cell_3_7_4 4.2Jiuquan_cell_3_7_5
Subei Mongol Autonomous CountyJiuquan_cell_3_8_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_8_1 Sùběi Měnggǔzú


10,000Jiuquan_cell_3_8_3 55,000Jiuquan_cell_3_8_4 0.2Jiuquan_cell_3_8_5
Aksai Kazakh Autonomous CountyJiuquan_cell_3_9_0 Jiuquan_cell_3_9_1 Ākèsài Hāsàkèzú


10,000Jiuquan_cell_3_9_3 31,374Jiuquan_cell_3_9_4 0.3Jiuquan_cell_3_9_5

Geography Jiuquan_section_3

Jiuquan occupies the westernmost part of Gansu, bordering Zhangye City to the east, Qinghai to the south, Xinjiang to the west, Ejin Banner of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia to the north. Jiuquan_sentence_21

Its administrative area ranges in latitude from 37° 58' to 42° 48' N and in longitude from 92° 09' to 100° 20' E, and reaches a maximal north-south extent of 550 km (340 mi) and maximal east-west width of 680 km (420 mi). Jiuquan_sentence_22

Suzhou District is approximately 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level. Jiuquan_sentence_23

Jiuquan has a cold desert climate (Köppen BWk), with long, cold winters, and hot, somewhat dry summers. Jiuquan_sentence_24

Monthly average temperatures range from −8.9 °C (16.0 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July, with an annual mean of 7.79 °C (46.0 °F). Jiuquan_sentence_25

The diurnal temperature variation is relatively large, averaging 13.8 °C (24.8 °F) annually. Jiuquan_sentence_26

With sunny weather and low humidity dominating year-round, the area hosts one of the launch sites for the PRC's space programme. Jiuquan_sentence_27

With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 62% in July to 77% in October, the city receives 3,031 hours of bright sunshine annually. Jiuquan_sentence_28

Transport Jiuquan_section_4

Jiuquan is served by China National Highway 312 and the Lanzhou-Xinjiang (Lanxin) Railway. Jiuquan_sentence_29

The Lanxin Railway has several side branches within Jiuquan Prefecture. Jiuquan_sentence_30

In particular, a railway branch runs from the Liugou Station in Guazhou County to Dunhuang, serving both Guazhou county seat and Dunhuang. Jiuquan_sentence_31

There are plans to expand it further south into Qinghai; the extension, known as the Golmud–Dunhuang Railway, will connect Dunhuang to Golmud, Qinghai on the Qinghai–Tibet railway. Jiuquan_sentence_32

There is also the Jiayuguan–Ceke branch, which runs through the desert areas of Jiuquan Prefecture's Jinta County. Jiuquan_sentence_33

Jiuquan is also served by Jiuquan Airport. Jiuquan_sentence_34

There is also Dunhuang Airport in Dunhuang. Jiuquan_sentence_35

Space launch center Jiuquan_section_5

Main article: Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center Jiuquan_sentence_36

Jiuquan is the closest major city to the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. Jiuquan_sentence_37

Still, the space launch center is more than 100 km (62 mi) away from the city, and is actually located not in Gansu province, but in the neighboring Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Jiuquan_sentence_38

It was built in 1958; the first Chinese human spaceflight, Shenzhou 5 was launched there on 15 October 2003, making Yang Liwei China's first astronaut and a national hero. Jiuquan_sentence_39

The second was in 2005. Jiuquan_sentence_40

Culture Jiuquan_section_6

Jiuquan is known within China as the first site of rhubarb cultivation. Jiuquan_sentence_41

See also Jiuquan_section_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiuquan.