Johannes Peter Müller

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Johannes Peter Müller_table_infobox_0

Johannes Peter MüllerJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_0_0
BornJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_1_0 (1801-07-14)14 July 1801

Koblenz, Rhin-et-Moselle, First French RepublicJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_1_1

DiedJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_2_0 28 April 1858(1858-04-28) (aged 56)

Berlin, Kingdom of Prussia, German ConfederationJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_2_1

NationalityJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_3_0 GermanJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_3_1
CitizenshipJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_4_0 First French Republic

First French Empire Kingdom of PrussiaJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_4_1

EducationJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_5_0 University of Bonn (PhD, 1822)

University of Berlin (Dr. med. hab., 1824)Johannes Peter Müller_cell_0_5_1

FieldsJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_6_0 PhysiologyJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_6_1
InstitutionsJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_7_0 University of Bonn

University of BerlinJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_7_1

ThesisJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_8_0 Commentarii de phoronomia animalium (1822)Johannes Peter Müller_cell_0_8_1
Doctoral advisorJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_9_0 A. F. J. K. Mayer

Karl RudolphiJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_9_1

Other academic advisorsJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_10_0 Philipp Franz von WaltherJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_10_1
Doctoral studentsJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_11_0 Hermann von Helmholtz

Rudolf VirchowJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_11_1

InfluencedJohannes Peter Müller_header_cell_0_12_0 Charles Scott Sherrington

Jakob von UexküllJohannes Peter Müller_cell_0_12_1

Johannes Peter Müller (14 July 1801 – 28 April 1858) was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, ichthyologist, and herpetologist, known not only for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_0

The paramesonephric duct (Mullerian duct) was named in his honor. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_1

Life Johannes Peter Müller_section_0

Early years and education Johannes Peter Müller_section_1

Müller was born in Koblenz. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_2

He was the son of a poor shoemaker, and was about to be apprenticed to a saddler when his talents attracted the attention of his teacher, and he prepared himself to become a Roman Catholic Priest. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_3

During his college course in Koblenz, he devoted himself to the classics and made his own translations of Aristotle. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_4

At first, his intention was to become a priest. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_5

When he was 18 though, his love for natural science became dominant, and he turned to medicine, entering the University of Bonn in 1819. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_6

There he received his M.D. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_7

in 1822. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_8

He then studied at the University of Berlin. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_9

There, under the influence of Georg Hegel and Karl Rudolphi, he was induced to reject all systems of physiology which were not founded upon a strict observation of nature. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_10

He habilited there in 1824. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_11

Career summary Johannes Peter Müller_section_2

He became Privatdozent of physiology and comparative anatomy at the University of Bonn in 1824, extraordinary professor of physiology in 1826, and ordinary professor in 1830. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_12

In 1833 he went to the University of Berlin, where he filled the chair of anatomy and physiology until his death. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_13

Early research Johannes Peter Müller_section_3

Müller made contributions in numerous domains of physiology, in particular increasing understanding of the voice, speech and hearing, as well as the chemical and physical properties of lymph, chyle and blood. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_14

His first important works, Zur vergleichenden Physiologie des Gesichtssinns (On the comparative physiology of sight, Leipzig, 1826) and Über die phantastischen Gesichtserscheinungen (On visual hallucination, Coblenz, 1826), are of a subjective philosophical tendency. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_15

The first work concerns the most important facts as to human and animal sight, the second sounds depths of difficult psychological problems. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_16

He soon became the leader in the science of the morphological treatment of zoology as well as of experimental physiology. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_17

To his research (1830) is due the settlement of the theory of reflex action. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_18

Elements of Physiology Johannes Peter Müller_section_4

In the century preceding Müller's work, many contributions to physiological science had been made. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_19

Müller gave order to these facts, developed general principles and showed physiologists how recent discoveries in physics and chemistry could be applied to their work. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_20

The appearance of his magnum opus, Handbuch der Physiologie des Menschen, between 1833 and 1840 (translated into English as Elements of Physiology by William Baly, and published in London 1837–1843) marked the beginning of a new period in the study of physiology. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_21

In it, for the first time, the results of human and comparative anatomy, as well as of chemistry and other departments of physical science, and tools like the microscope, were brought to bear on the investigation of physiological problems. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_22

The most important portion of the work was that dealing with nervous action and the mechanism of the senses. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_23

Here he stated the principle, previously recognized but not stated as clearly, that the kind of sensation following stimulation of a sensory nerve does not depend on the mode of stimulation but upon the nature of the sense organ. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_24

Thus light, pressure, or mechanical stimulation acting on the retina and optic nerve invariably produces luminous impressions. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_25

This he termed the law of specific energies of the sense. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_26

The book became the leading textbook in physiology for much of the nineteenth century. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_27

It manifests Müller's interests in vitalism, philosophy and scientific rigor. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_28

He discusses the difference between inorganic and organic matter. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_29

He considers in detail various physiological systems of a wide variety of animals, but attributes the indivisible whole of an organism to the presence of a soul. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_30

He also proposes that living organisms possess a life-energy for which physical laws can never fully account. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_31

Edward Forbes F.R.S. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_32

in his A History of British Starfishes, and Other Animals of the Class Echinodermata (1841) in his preface refers to Muller as the "one of the greatest living physiologists, Muller of Berlin". Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_33

Later years Johannes Peter Müller_section_5

In the later part of his life he chiefly devoted himself to comparative anatomy. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_34

Fishes and marine invertebrata were his favorite subjects. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_35

He took 19 trips to the Baltic and North Sea, the Adriatic and the Mediterranean to investigate salt-water life. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_36

He authored a comprehensive work on the anatomy of amphibians, which in his era including reptiles. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_37

Also, he described several new species of snakes. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_38

Müller mentored such distinguished scientists and physiologists as Hermann von Helmholtz, Emil du Bois-Reymond, Theodor Schwann, Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, Ernst Wilhelm Brücke, Carl Ludwig and Ernst Haeckel. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_39

In 1834, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_40

Müller died in Berlin in 1858. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_41

In 1899, a bronze statue by Joseph Uphues was erected in his memory in Koblenz. Johannes Peter Müller_sentence_42

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Peter Müller.