From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). Joint_sentence_0


SystemJoint_header_cell_0_2_0 Musculoskeletal system

Articular systemJoint_cell_0_2_1

LatinJoint_header_cell_0_4_0 Articulus

Junctura ArticulatioJoint_cell_0_4_1

MeSHJoint_header_cell_0_5_0 Joint_cell_0_5_1
TA98Joint_header_cell_0_6_0 Joint_cell_0_6_1
TA2Joint_header_cell_0_7_0 Joint_cell_0_7_1
FMAJoint_header_cell_0_8_0 Joint_cell_0_8_1

A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole. Joint_sentence_1

They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Joint_sentence_2

Some joints, such as the knee, elbow, and shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements. Joint_sentence_3

Other joints such as sutures between the bones of the skull permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the sense organs. Joint_sentence_4

The connection between a tooth and the jawbone is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a gomphosis. Joint_sentence_5

Joints are classified both structurally and functionally. Joint_sentence_6

Classification Joint_section_0

Joints are mainly classified structurally and functionally. Joint_sentence_7

Structural classification is determined by how the bones connect to each other, while functional classification is determined by the degree of movement between the articulating bones. Joint_sentence_8

In practice, there is significant overlap between the two types of classifications. Joint_sentence_9

Clinical, numerical classification Joint_section_1


  • monoarticular – concerning one jointJoint_item_0_0
  • oligoarticular or pauciarticular – concerning 2–4 jointsJoint_item_0_1
  • polyarticular – concerning 5 or more jointsJoint_item_0_2

Structural classification (binding tissue) Joint_section_2

Structural classification names and divides joints according to the type of binding tissue that connects the bones to each other. Joint_sentence_10

There are four structural classifications of joints: Joint_sentence_11


Functional classification (movement) Joint_section_3

Joints can also be classified functionally according to the type and degree of movement they allow: Joint movements are described with reference to the basic anatomical planes. Joint_sentence_12


Joints can also be classified, according to the number of axes of movement they allow, into nonaxial (gliding, as between the proximal ends of the ulna and radius), monoaxial (uniaxial), biaxial and multiaxial. Joint_sentence_13

Another classification is according to the degrees of freedom allowed, and distinguished between joints with one, two or three degrees of freedom. Joint_sentence_14

A further classification is according to the number and shapes of the articular surfaces: flat, concave and convex surfaces. Joint_sentence_15

Types of articular surfaces include surfaces. Joint_sentence_16

Biomechanical classification Joint_section_4

Joints can also be classified based on their anatomy or on their biomechanical properties. Joint_sentence_17

According to the anatomic classification, joints are subdivided into simple and compound, depending on the number of bones involved, and into complex and combination joints: Joint_sentence_18


  1. Simple joint: two articulation surfaces (e.g. shoulder joint, hip joint)Joint_item_3_10
  2. Compound joint: three or more articulation surfaces (e.g. radiocarpal joint)Joint_item_3_11
  3. Complex joint: two or more articulation surfaces and an articular disc or meniscus (e.g. knee joint)Joint_item_3_12

Anatomical Joint_section_5

The joints may be classified anatomically into the following groups: Joint_sentence_19


  1. Joints of handJoint_item_4_13
  2. Elbow jointsJoint_item_4_14
  3. Wrist jointsJoint_item_4_15
  4. Axillary articulationsJoint_item_4_16
  5. Sternoclavicular jointsJoint_item_4_17
  6. Vertebral articulationsJoint_item_4_18
  7. Temporomandibular jointsJoint_item_4_19
  8. Sacroiliac jointsJoint_item_4_20
  9. Hip jointsJoint_item_4_21
  10. Knee jointsJoint_item_4_22
  11. Articulations of footJoint_item_4_23

Unmyelinated nerve fibers are abundant in joint capsules and ligaments as well as in the outer part of intraarticular menisci. Joint_sentence_20

These nerve fibers are responsible for pain perception when a joint is strained. Joint_sentence_21

Clinical significance Joint_section_6

Further information: Arthropathy and Arthritis Joint_sentence_22

Damaging the cartilage of joints (articular cartilage) or the bones and muscles that stabilize the joints can lead to joint dislocations and osteoarthritis. Joint_sentence_23

Swimming is a great way to exercise the joints with minimal damage. Joint_sentence_24

A joint disorder is termed arthropathy, and when involving inflammation of one or more joints the disorder is called arthritis. Joint_sentence_25

Most joint disorders involve arthritis, but joint damage by external physical trauma is typically not termed arthritis. Joint_sentence_26

Arthropathies are called polyarticular (multiarticular) when involving many joints and monoarticular when involving only a single joint. Joint_sentence_27

Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in people over the age of 55. Joint_sentence_28

There are many different forms of arthritis, each of which has a different cause. Joint_sentence_29

The most common form of arthritis, osteoarthritis (also known as degenerative joint disease), occurs following trauma to the joint, following an infection of the joint or simply as a result of aging and the deterioration of articular cartilage. Joint_sentence_30

Furthermore, there is emerging evidence that abnormal anatomy may contribute to early development of osteoarthritis. Joint_sentence_31

Other forms of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, which are autoimmune diseases in which the body is attacking itself. Joint_sentence_32

Septic arthritis is caused by joint infection. Joint_sentence_33

Gouty arthritis is caused by deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint that results in subsequent inflammation. Joint_sentence_34

Additionally, there is a less common form of gout that is caused by the formation of rhomboidal-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate. Joint_sentence_35

This form of gout is known as pseudogout. Joint_sentence_36

Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMJ) involves the jaw joints and can cause facial pain, clicking sounds in the jaw, or limitation of jaw movement, to name a few symptoms. Joint_sentence_37

It is caused by psychological tension and misalignment of the jaw (malocclusion), and may be affecting as many as 75 million Americans. Joint_sentence_38

History Joint_section_7

Etymology Joint_section_8

The English word joint is a past participle of the verb join, and can be read as joined. Joint_sentence_39

Joint is derived from Latin iunctus, past participle of the Latin verb iungere, join together, unite, connect, attach. Joint_sentence_40

The English term articulation is derived from Latin articulatio. Joint_sentence_41

Humans have also developed lighter, more fragile joint bones over time due to the decrease in physical activity compared to thousands of years ago. Joint_sentence_42

See also Joint_section_9


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: