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This article is about the planet. Jupiter_sentence_0

For the Roman god, see Jupiter (mythology). Jupiter_sentence_1

For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). Jupiter_sentence_2

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. Jupiter_sentence_3

It is a gas giant with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter_sentence_4

Jupiter is one of the brightest objects visible to the naked eye in the night sky, and has been known to ancient civilizations since before recorded history. Jupiter_sentence_5

It is named after the Roman god Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_6

When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can be bright enough for its reflected light to cast visible shadows, and is on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. Jupiter_sentence_7

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. Jupiter_sentence_8

It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Jupiter_sentence_9

Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). Jupiter_sentence_10

The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. Jupiter_sentence_11

A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Jupiter_sentence_12

Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter_sentence_13

Jupiter has 79 known moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Jupiter_sentence_14

Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. Jupiter_sentence_15

Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to visit Jupiter, making its closest approach to the planet on December 4, 1973; Pioneer 10 identified plasma in Jupiter's magnetic field and also found that Jupiter's magnetic tail was nearly 800 million kilometers long, covering the entire distance to Saturn. Jupiter_sentence_16

Jupiter has been explored on a number of occasions by robotic spacecraft, beginning with the Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions from 1973 to 1979, and later by the Galileo orbiter, which arrived at Jupiter in 1995. Jupiter_sentence_17

In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. Jupiter_sentence_18

The latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. Jupiter_sentence_19

Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa. Jupiter_sentence_20

Formation and migration Jupiter_section_0

Main article: Grand tack hypothesis Jupiter_sentence_21

See also: Formation and evolution of the Solar System Jupiter_sentence_22

Astronomers have discovered 717 planetary systems with multiple planets. Jupiter_sentence_23

Regularly these systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's (super-Earths), orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, and sometimes also Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star. Jupiter_sentence_24

Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. Jupiter_sentence_25

As Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the grand tack hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap. Jupiter_sentence_26

Researchers from Lund University found that Jupiter's migration went on for around 700,000 years, in a period approximately 2–3 million years after the celestial body started its life as an ice asteroid far from the sun. Jupiter_sentence_27

The journey inwards in the solar system followed a spiraling course in which Jupiter continued to circle around the sun, albeit in an increasingly tight path. Jupiter_sentence_28

The reason behind the actual migration relates to gravitational forces from the surrounding gases in the solar system. Jupiter_sentence_29

Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth. Jupiter_sentence_30

However, the formation timescales of terrestrial planets resulting from the grand tack hypothesis appear inconsistent with the measured terrestrial composition. Jupiter_sentence_31

Moreover, the likelihood that the grand tack actually occurred in the solar nebula is quite low. Jupiter_sentence_32

In fact, in situ models predict the formation of Jupiter's analogues whose properties are close to those of the planet at the current epoch. Jupiter_sentence_33

Physical characteristics Jupiter_section_1

Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. Jupiter_sentence_34

It is the largest planet in the Solar System, with a diameter of 142,984 km (88,846 mi) at its equator. Jupiter_sentence_35

The average density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets. Jupiter_sentence_36

Composition Jupiter_section_2

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. Jupiter_sentence_37

A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Jupiter_sentence_38

Thus, Jupiter's atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements. Jupiter_sentence_39

The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. Jupiter_sentence_40

There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. Jupiter_sentence_41

The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. Jupiter_sentence_42

Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found. Jupiter_sentence_43

The interior contains denser materials—by mass it is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 5% other elements. Jupiter_sentence_44

The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Jupiter_sentence_45

Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun. Jupiter_sentence_46

Helium is also depleted to about 80% of the Sun's helium composition. Jupiter_sentence_47

This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. Jupiter_sentence_48

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have relatively less hydrogen and helium and relatively more ices and are thus now termed ice giants. Jupiter_sentence_49

Mass and size Jupiter_section_3

Main article: Jupiter mass Jupiter_sentence_50

Jupiter's mass is 2.5 times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined—this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center. Jupiter_sentence_51

Jupiter is much larger than Earth and considerably less dense: its volume is that of about 1,321 Earths, but it is only 318 times as massive. Jupiter_sentence_52

Jupiter's radius is about 1/10 the radius of the Sun, and its mass is 0.001 times the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar. Jupiter_sentence_53

A "Jupiter mass" (MJ or MJup) is often used as a unit to describe masses of other objects, particularly extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Jupiter_sentence_54

So, for example, the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b has a mass of 0.69 MJ, while Kappa Andromedae b has a mass of 12.8 MJ. Jupiter_sentence_55

Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, it would shrink. Jupiter_sentence_56

For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about 500 M⊕ (1.6 Jupiter masses) the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased pressure that its volume would decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. Jupiter_sentence_57

As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. Jupiter_sentence_58

The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition was achieved, as in high-mass brown dwarfs having around 50 Jupiter masses. Jupiter_sentence_59

Although Jupiter would need to be about 75 times as massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star, the smallest red dwarf is only about 30 percent larger in radius than Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_60

Despite this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun; the amount of heat produced inside it is similar to the total solar radiation it receives. Jupiter_sentence_61

This additional heat is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism through contraction. Jupiter_sentence_62

This process causes Jupiter to shrink by about 2 cm each year. Jupiter_sentence_63

When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter. Jupiter_sentence_64

Internal structure Jupiter_section_4

Jupiter was expected to either consist of a dense core, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen (with some helium) extending outward to about 78% of the radius of the planet, and an outer atmosphere consisting predominantly of molecular hydrogen, or perhaps to have no core at all, consisting instead of denser and denser fluid (predominantly molecular and metallic hydrogen) all the way to the center, depending on whether the planet accreted first as a solid body or collapsed directly from the gaseous protoplanetary disk. Jupiter_sentence_65

However, the Juno mission, which arrived in July 2016, found that Jupiter has a very diffuse core, mixed into the mantle. Jupiter_sentence_66

A possible cause is an impact from a planet of about ten Earth masses a few million years after Jupiter's formation, which would have disrupted an originally solid Jovian core. Jupiter_sentence_67

Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of hydrogen. Jupiter_sentence_68

At this depth, the pressure and temperature are above hydrogen's critical pressure of 1.2858 MPa and critical temperature of only 32.938 K. Jupiter_sentence_69

In this state, there are no distinct liquid and gas phases—hydrogen is said to be in a supercritical fluid state. Jupiter_sentence_70

It is convenient to treat hydrogen as gas extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km, and as liquid in deeper layers. Jupiter_sentence_71

Physically, there is no clear boundary—the gas smoothly becomes hotter and denser as one descends. Jupiter_sentence_72

Rain-like droplets of helium and neon precipitate downward through the lower atmosphere, depleting the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere. Jupiter_sentence_73

Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur, as well as on Saturn and the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Jupiter_sentence_74

The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily inward, due to the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism. Jupiter_sentence_75

At the pressure level of 10 bars (1 MPa), the temperature is around 340 K (67 °C; 152 °F). Jupiter_sentence_76

At the phase transition region where hydrogen—heated beyond its critical point—becomes metallic, it is calculated the temperature is 10,000 K (9,700 °C; 17,500 °F) and the pressure is 200 GPa. Jupiter_sentence_77

The temperature at the core boundary is estimated to be 36,000 K (35,700 °C; 64,300 °F) and the interior pressure is roughly 3,000–4,500 GPa. Jupiter_sentence_78

Prior models of Jupiter's interior suggested a core radius of 0.08 to 0.16 of Jupiter's overall radius. Jupiter_sentence_79

Early results from the Juno mission suggest the core may be larger and more diffuse with a radius from 0.3 to 0.5 of the planetary radius. Jupiter_sentence_80

Atmosphere Jupiter_section_5

Main article: Atmosphere of Jupiter Jupiter_sentence_81

Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, spanning over 5,000 km (3,000 mi) in altitude. Jupiter_sentence_82

Because Jupiter has no surface, the base of its atmosphere is usually considered to be the point at which atmospheric pressure is equal to 100 kPa (1.0 bar). Jupiter_sentence_83

Cloud layers Jupiter_section_6

Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. Jupiter_sentence_84

The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. Jupiter_sentence_85

These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. Jupiter_sentence_86

The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Jupiter_sentence_87

Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets. Jupiter_sentence_88

The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for scientists to give them identifying designations. Jupiter_sentence_89

The cloud layer is only about 50 km (31 mi) deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. Jupiter_sentence_90

There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer. Jupiter_sentence_91

Supporting the idea of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_92

These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth. Jupiter_sentence_93

The water clouds are assumed to generate thunderstorms in the same way as terrestrial thunderstorms, driven by the heat rising from the interior. Jupiter_sentence_94

The orange and brown coloration in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change color when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. Jupiter_sentence_95

The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are thought to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons. Jupiter_sentence_96

These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. Jupiter_sentence_97

The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view. Jupiter_sentence_98

Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles constantly receive less solar radiation than at the planet's equatorial region. Jupiter_sentence_99

Convection within the interior of the planet transports more energy to the poles, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer. Jupiter_sentence_100

Great Red Spot and other vortices Jupiter_section_7

The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a persistent anticyclonic storm that is larger than Earth, located 22° south of the equator. Jupiter_sentence_101

It is known to have been in existence since at least 1831, and possibly since 1665. Jupiter_sentence_102

Images by the Hubble Space Telescope have shown as many as two "red spots" adjacent to the Great Red Spot. Jupiter_sentence_103

The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes with an aperture of 12 cm or larger. Jupiter_sentence_104

The oval object rotates counterclockwise, with a period of about six days. Jupiter_sentence_105

The maximum altitude of this storm is about 8 km (5 mi) above the surrounding cloudtops. Jupiter_sentence_106

The Great Red Spot is large enough to accommodate Earth within its boundaries. Jupiter_sentence_107

Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet. Jupiter_sentence_108

However, it has significantly decreased in size since its discovery. Jupiter_sentence_109

Initial observations in the late 1800s showed it to be approximately 41,000 km (25,500 mi) across. Jupiter_sentence_110

By the time of the Voyager flybys in 1979, the storm had a length of 23,300 km (14,500 mi) and a width of approximately 13,000 km (8,000 mi). Jupiter_sentence_111

Hubble observations in 1995 showed it had decreased in size again to 20,950 km (13,020 mi), and observations in 2009 showed the size to be 17,910 km (11,130 mi). Jupiter_sentence_112

As of 2015, the storm was measured at approximately 16,500 by 10,940 km (10,250 by 6,800 mi), and is decreasing in length by about 930 km (580 mi) per year. Jupiter_sentence_113

Storms such as this are common within the turbulent atmospheres of giant planets. Jupiter_sentence_114

Jupiter also has white ovals and brown ovals, which are lesser unnamed storms. Jupiter_sentence_115

White ovals tend to consist of relatively cool clouds within the upper atmosphere. Jupiter_sentence_116

Brown ovals are warmer and located within the "normal cloud layer". Jupiter_sentence_117

Such storms can last as little as a few hours or stretch on for centuries. Jupiter_sentence_118

Even before Voyager proved that the feature was a storm, there was strong evidence that the spot could not be associated with any deeper feature on the planet's surface, as the Spot rotates differentially with respect to the rest of the atmosphere, sometimes faster and sometimes more slowly. Jupiter_sentence_119

In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller. Jupiter_sentence_120

This was created when several smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in 1938. Jupiter_sentence_121

The merged feature was named Oval BA, and has been nicknamed Red Spot Junior. Jupiter_sentence_122

It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red. Jupiter_sentence_123

In April 2017, scientists reported the discovery of a "Great Cold Spot" in Jupiter's thermosphere at its north pole that is 24,000 km (15,000 mi) across, 12,000 km (7,500 mi) wide, and 200 °C (360 °F) cooler than surrounding material. Jupiter_sentence_124

The feature was discovered by researchers at the Very Large Telescope in Chile, who then searched archived data from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility between 1995 and 2000. Jupiter_sentence_125

They found that, while the Spot changes size, shape and intensity over the short term, it has maintained its general position in the atmosphere across more than 15 years of available data. Jupiter_sentence_126

Scientists believe the Spot is a giant vortex similar to the Great Red Spot and also appears to be quasi-stable like the vortices in Earth's thermosphere. Jupiter_sentence_127

Interactions between charged particles generated from Io and the planet's strong magnetic field likely resulted in redistribution of heat flow, forming the Spot. Jupiter_sentence_128

Magnetosphere Jupiter_section_8

Main article: Magnetosphere of Jupiter Jupiter_sentence_129

Jupiter's magnetic field is fourteen times as strong as that of Earth, ranging from 4.2 gauss (0.42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1.0–1.4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the Solar System (except for sunspots). Jupiter_sentence_130

This field is thought to be generated by eddy currents—swirling movements of conducting materials—within the liquid metallic hydrogen core. Jupiter_sentence_131

The volcanoes on the moon Io emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide, forming a gas torus along the moon's orbit. Jupiter_sentence_132

The gas is ionized in the magnetosphere, producing sulfur and oxygen ions. Jupiter_sentence_133

They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane. Jupiter_sentence_134

The plasma in the sheet co-rotates with the planet, causing deformation of the dipole magnetic field into that of a magnetodisk. Jupiter_sentence_135

Electrons within the plasma sheet generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0.6–30 MHz which are detectable from Earth with consumer-grade shortwave radio receivers. Jupiter_sentence_136

At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. Jupiter_sentence_137

Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause, located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath—a region between it and the bow shock. Jupiter_sentence_138

The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn. Jupiter_sentence_139

The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind. Jupiter_sentence_140

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Jupiter_sentence_141

Volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io (see below) injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet. Jupiter_sentence_142

As Io moves through this torus, the interaction generates Alfvén waves that carry ionized matter into the polar regions of Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_143

As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism, and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. Jupiter_sentence_144

When Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output. Jupiter_sentence_145

Orbit and rotation Jupiter_section_9

Jupiter is the only planet whose barycenter with the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun, though by only 7% of the Sun's radius. Jupiter_sentence_146

The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5.2 times the average distance between Earth and the Sun, or 5.2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11.86 years. Jupiter_sentence_147

This is approximately two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a near orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System. Jupiter_sentence_148

The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.31° compared to Earth. Jupiter_sentence_149

Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0.048, Jupiter's distance from the Sun varies by 75 million km between its nearest approach (perihelion) and furthest distance (aphelion). Jupiter_sentence_150

The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small: only 3.13°. Jupiter_sentence_151

As a result, it does not experience significant seasonal changes, in contrast to, for example, Earth and Mars. Jupiter_sentence_152

Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope. Jupiter_sentence_153

The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. Jupiter_sentence_154

On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9,275 km (5,763 mi) longer than the diameter measured through the poles. Jupiter_sentence_155

Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. Jupiter_sentence_156

The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three systems are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. Jupiter_sentence_157

System I applies from the latitudes 10° N to 10° S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30.0s. Jupiter_sentence_158

System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m 40.6s. Jupiter_sentence_159

System III was first defined by radio astronomers, and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's official rotation. Jupiter_sentence_160

Observation Jupiter_section_10

Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus); at times Mars is brighter than Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_161

Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as −2.94 at opposition down to −1.66 during conjunction with the Sun. Jupiter_sentence_162

The mean apparent magnitude is −2.20 with a standard deviation of 0.33. Jupiter_sentence_163

The angular diameter of Jupiter likewise varies from 50.1 to 29.8 arc seconds. Jupiter_sentence_164

Favorable oppositions occur when Jupiter is passing through perihelion, an event that occurs once per orbit. Jupiter_sentence_165

Earth overtakes Jupiter every 398.9 days as it orbits the Sun, a duration called the synodic period. Jupiter_sentence_166

As it does so, Jupiter appears to undergo retrograde motion with respect to the background stars. Jupiter_sentence_167

That is, for a period Jupiter seems to move backward in the night sky, performing a looping motion. Jupiter_sentence_168

Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside that of Earth, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from Earth never exceeds 11.5°: Jupiter always appears nearly fully illuminated when viewed through Earth-based telescopes. Jupiter_sentence_169

It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained. Jupiter_sentence_170

A small telescope will usually show Jupiter's four Galilean moons and the prominent cloud belts across Jupiter's atmosphere. Jupiter_sentence_171

A large telescope will show Jupiter's Great Red Spot when it faces Earth. Jupiter_sentence_172

Mythology Jupiter_section_11

The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. Jupiter_sentence_173

It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the Sun is low. Jupiter_sentence_174

To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk. Jupiter_sentence_175

They used Jupiter's roughly 12-year orbit along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac. Jupiter_sentence_176

The Romans called it "the star of Jupiter" (Iuppiter Stella), as they believed it to be sacred to the principal god of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo-European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr, meaning "Father Sky-God", or "Father Day-God"). Jupiter_sentence_177

In turn, Jupiter was the counterpart to the mythical Greek Zeus (Ζεύς), also referred to as Dias (Δίας), the planetary name of which is retained in modern Greek. Jupiter_sentence_178

The ancient Greeks knew the planet as Phaethon (Φαέθων), meaning "shining one" or "blazing star." Jupiter_sentence_179

As supreme god of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter was the god of thunder, lightning and storms, and appropriately called the god of light and sky. Jupiter_sentence_180

The astronomical symbol for the planet, , is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt. Jupiter_sentence_181

The original Greek deity Zeus supplies the root zeno-, used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as . Jupiter_sentence_182

Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_183

The older adjectival form jovial, employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages, has come to mean "happy" or "merry", moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence. Jupiter_sentence_184

The Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans and Japanese called it the "wood star" (Chinese: 木星; pinyin: mùxīng), based on the Chinese Five Elements. Jupiter_sentence_185

Chinese Taoism personified it as the Fu star. Jupiter_sentence_186

In Vedic astrology, Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati, the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it "Guru", which literally means the "Heavy One". Jupiter_sentence_187

In Germanic mythology, Jupiter is equated to Thor, whence the English name Thursday for the Roman dies Jovis. Jupiter_sentence_188

In Central Asian Turkic myths, Jupiter is called Erendiz or Erentüz, from eren (of uncertain meaning) and yultuz ("star"). Jupiter_sentence_189

There are many theories about the meaning of eren. Jupiter_sentence_190

These peoples calculated the period of the orbit of Jupiter as 11 years and 300 days. Jupiter_sentence_191

They believed that some social and natural events connected to Erentüz's movements on the sky. Jupiter_sentence_192

History of research and exploration Jupiter_section_12

Pre-telescopic research Jupiter_section_13

The observation of Jupiter dates back to at least the Babylonian astronomers of the 7th or 8th century BC. Jupiter_sentence_193

The ancient Chinese also observed the orbit of Suìxīng () and established their cycle of 12 earthly branches based on its approximate number of years; the Chinese language still uses its name (simplified as ) when referring to years of age. Jupiter_sentence_194

By the 4th century BC, these observations had developed into the Chinese zodiac, with each year associated with a Tai Sui star and god controlling the region of the heavens opposite Jupiter's position in the night sky; these beliefs survive in some Taoist religious practices and in the East Asian zodiac's twelve animals, now often popularly assumed to be related to the arrival of the animals before Buddha. Jupiter_sentence_195

The Chinese historian Xi Zezong has claimed that Gan De, an ancient Chinese astronomer, discovered one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye. Jupiter_sentence_196

If accurate, this would predate Galileo's discovery by nearly two millennia. Jupiter_sentence_197

In his 2nd century work the Almagest, the Hellenistic astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus constructed a geocentric planetary model based on deferents and epicycles to explain Jupiter's motion relative to Earth, giving its orbital period around Earth as 4332.38 days, or 11.86 years. Jupiter_sentence_198

Ground-based telescope research Jupiter_section_14

In 1610, Italian polymath Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter (now known as the Galilean moons) using a telescope; thought to be the first telescopic observation of moons other than Earth's. Jupiter_sentence_199

One day after Galileo, Simon Marius independently discovered moons around Jupiter, though he did not publish his discovery in a book until 1614. Jupiter_sentence_200

It was Marius's names for the four major moons, however, that stuck—Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Jupiter_sentence_201

These findings were also the first discovery of celestial motion not apparently centered on Earth. Jupiter_sentence_202

The discovery was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition. Jupiter_sentence_203

During the 1660s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. Jupiter_sentence_204

He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet. Jupiter_sentence_205

In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. Jupiter_sentence_206

The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as 1664 by Robert Hooke and in 1665 by Cassini, although this is disputed. Jupiter_sentence_207

The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in 1831. Jupiter_sentence_208

The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between 1665 and 1708 before becoming quite conspicuous in 1878. Jupiter_sentence_209

It was recorded as fading again in 1883 and at the start of the 20th century. Jupiter_sentence_210

Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet. Jupiter_sentence_211

By the 1670s, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected. Jupiter_sentence_212

Ole Rømer deduced that light does not travel instantaneously (a conclusion that Cassini had earlier rejected), and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light. Jupiter_sentence_213

In 1892, E. Jupiter_sentence_214 E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch (910 mm) refractor at Lick Observatory in California. Jupiter_sentence_215

The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. Jupiter_sentence_216

This moon was later named Amalthea. Jupiter_sentence_217

It was the last planetary moon to be discovered directly by visual observation. Jupiter_sentence_218

In 1932, Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_219

Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in 1938. Jupiter_sentence_220

For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging. Jupiter_sentence_221

Finally, two of the ovals merged in 1998, then absorbed the third in 2000, becoming Oval BA. Jupiter_sentence_222

Radiotelescope research Jupiter_section_15

In 1955, Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at 22.2 MHz. Jupiter_sentence_223

The period of these bursts matched the rotation of the planet, and they were also able to use this information to refine the rotation rate. Jupiter_sentence_224

Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts (or L-bursts) lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts (or S-bursts) that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second. Jupiter_sentence_225

Scientists discovered that there were three forms of radio signals transmitted from Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_226


  • Decametric radio bursts (with a wavelength of tens of meters) vary with the rotation of Jupiter, and are influenced by interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetic field.Jupiter_item_0_0
  • Decimetric radio emission (with wavelengths measured in centimeters) was first observed by Frank Drake and Hein Hvatum in 1959. The origin of this signal was from a torus-shaped belt around Jupiter's equator. This signal is caused by cyclotron radiation from electrons that are accelerated in Jupiter's magnetic field.Jupiter_item_0_1
  • Thermal radiation is produced by heat in the atmosphere of Jupiter.Jupiter_item_0_2

Exploration Jupiter_section_16

Main article: Exploration of Jupiter Jupiter_sentence_227

Since 1973, a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter, most notably the Pioneer 10 space probe, the first spacecraft to get close enough to Jupiter to send back revelations about the properties and phenomena of the Solar System's largest planet. Jupiter_sentence_228

Flights to other planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. Jupiter_sentence_229

Entering a Hohmann transfer orbit from Earth to Jupiter from low Earth orbit requires a delta-v of 6.3 km/s which is comparable to the 9.7 km/s delta-v needed to reach low Earth orbit. Jupiter_sentence_230

Gravity assists through planetary flybys can be used to reduce the energy required to reach Jupiter, albeit at the cost of a significantly longer flight duration. Jupiter_sentence_231

Flyby missions Jupiter_section_17


Flyby missionsJupiter_table_caption_0
SpacecraftJupiter_header_cell_0_0_0 Closest


Pioneer 10Jupiter_cell_0_1_0 December 3, 1973Jupiter_cell_0_1_1 130,000 kmJupiter_cell_0_1_2
Pioneer 11Jupiter_cell_0_2_0 December 4, 1974Jupiter_cell_0_2_1 34,000 kmJupiter_cell_0_2_2
Voyager 1Jupiter_cell_0_3_0 March 5, 1979Jupiter_cell_0_3_1 349,000 kmJupiter_cell_0_3_2
Voyager 2Jupiter_cell_0_4_0 July 9, 1979Jupiter_cell_0_4_1 570,000 kmJupiter_cell_0_4_2
UlyssesJupiter_cell_0_5_0 February 8, 1992Jupiter_cell_0_5_1 408,894 kmJupiter_cell_0_5_2
February 4, 2004Jupiter_cell_0_6_0 120,000,000 kmJupiter_cell_0_6_1
CassiniJupiter_cell_0_7_0 December 30, 2000Jupiter_cell_0_7_1 10,000,000 kmJupiter_cell_0_7_2
New HorizonsJupiter_cell_0_8_0 February 28, 2007Jupiter_cell_0_8_1 2,304,535 kmJupiter_cell_0_8_2

Beginning in 1973, several spacecraft have performed planetary flyby maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_232

The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. Jupiter_sentence_233

They discovered that the radiation fields near the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment. Jupiter_sentence_234

The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Jupiter_sentence_235

Radio occultations by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening. Jupiter_sentence_236

Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. Jupiter_sentence_237

They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic. Jupiter_sentence_238

Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown. Jupiter_sentence_239

A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting. Jupiter_sentence_240

As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere. Jupiter_sentence_241

The next mission to encounter Jupiter was the Ulysses solar probe. Jupiter_sentence_242

It performed a flyby maneuver to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. Jupiter_sentence_243

During this pass, the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere. Jupiter_sentence_244

Ulysses has no cameras so no images were taken. Jupiter_sentence_245

A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance. Jupiter_sentence_246

In 2000, the Cassini probe flew by Jupiter on its way to Saturn, and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet. Jupiter_sentence_247

The New Horizons probe flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. Jupiter_sentence_248

Its closest approach was on February 28, 2007. Jupiter_sentence_249

The probe's cameras measured plasma output from volcanoes on Io and studied all four Galilean moons in detail, as well as making long-distance observations of the outer moons Himalia and Elara. Jupiter_sentence_250

Imaging of the Jovian system began September 4, 2006. Jupiter_sentence_251

Galileo mission Jupiter_section_18

Main article: Galileo (spacecraft) Jupiter_sentence_252

The first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter was the Galileo probe, which entered orbit on December 7, 1995. Jupiter_sentence_253

It orbited the planet for over seven years, conducting multiple flybys of all the Galilean moons and Amalthea. Jupiter_sentence_254

The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in 1994, giving a unique vantage point for the event. Jupiter_sentence_255

Its originally designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio antenna, although extensive information was still gained about the Jovian system from Galileo. Jupiter_sentence_256

A 340-kilogram titanium atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July 1995, entering Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7. Jupiter_sentence_257

It parachuted through 150 km (93 mi) of the atmosphere at a speed of about 2,575 km/h (1600 mph) and collected data for 57.6 minutes before the signal was lost at a pressure of about 23 atmospheres at a temperature of 153 °C. Jupiter_sentence_258

It melted thereafter, and possibly vaporized. Jupiter_sentence_259

The Galileo orbiter itself experienced a more rapid version of the same fate when it was deliberately steered into the planet on September 21, 2003 at a speed of over 50 km/s to avoid any possibility of it crashing into and possibly contaminating Europa, a moon which has been hypothesized to have the possibility of harboring life. Jupiter_sentence_260

Data from this mission revealed that hydrogen composes up to 90% of Jupiter's atmosphere. Jupiter_sentence_261

The recorded temperature was more than 300 °C (>570 °F) and the windspeed measured more than 644 km/h (>400 mph) before the probes vapourised. Jupiter_sentence_262

Juno mission Jupiter_section_19

Main article: Juno (spacecraft) Jupiter_sentence_263

NASA's Juno mission arrived at Jupiter on July 4, 2016 and was expected to complete thirty-seven orbits over the next twenty months. Jupiter_sentence_264

The mission plan called for Juno to study the planet in detail from a polar orbit. Jupiter_sentence_265

On August 27, 2016, the spacecraft completed its first fly-by of Jupiter and sent back the first ever images of Jupiter's north pole. Jupiter_sentence_266

Future probes Jupiter_section_20

The next planned mission to the Jovian system will be the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022, followed by NASA's Europa Clipper mission in 2023. Jupiter_sentence_267

Canceled missions Jupiter_section_21

There has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail because of the possibility of subsurface liquid oceans on Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Jupiter_sentence_268

Funding difficulties have delayed progress. Jupiter_sentence_269

NASA's JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) was cancelled in 2005. Jupiter_sentence_270

A subsequent proposal was developed for a joint NASA/ESA mission called EJSM/Laplace, with a provisional launch date around 2020. Jupiter_sentence_271

EJSM/Laplace would have consisted of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter. Jupiter_sentence_272

However, ESA had formally ended the partnership by April 2011, citing budget issues at NASA and the consequences on the mission timetable. Jupiter_sentence_273

Instead, ESA planned to go ahead with a European-only mission to compete in its L1 Cosmic Vision selection. Jupiter_sentence_274

Moons Jupiter_section_22

Main article: Moons of Jupiter Jupiter_sentence_275

See also: Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons and Satellite system (astronomy) Jupiter_sentence_276

Jupiter has 79 known natural satellites. Jupiter_sentence_277

Of these, 63 are less than 10 kilometres in diameter and have only been discovered since 1975. Jupiter_sentence_278

The four largest moons, visible from Earth with binoculars on a clear night, known as the "Galilean moons", are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Jupiter_sentence_279

Galilean moons Jupiter_section_23

Main article: Galilean moons Jupiter_sentence_280

The moons discovered by Galileo—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto—are among the largest satellites in the Solar System. Jupiter_sentence_281

The orbits of three of them (Io, Europa, and Ganymede) form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one. Jupiter_sentence_282

This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, because each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes. Jupiter_sentence_283

The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits. Jupiter_sentence_284

The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away. Jupiter_sentence_285

This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors by friction. Jupiter_sentence_286

This is seen most dramatically in the extraordinary volcanic activity of innermost Io (which is subject to the strongest tidal forces), and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface (indicating recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior). Jupiter_sentence_287

Classification Jupiter_section_24

Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements. Jupiter_sentence_288

Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. Jupiter_sentence_289

There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others. Jupiter_sentence_290

A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are thought to have formed with Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_291

The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids. Jupiter_sentence_292

Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up. Jupiter_sentence_293


Regular moonsJupiter_header_cell_1_0_0
Inner groupJupiter_cell_1_1_0 The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree.Jupiter_cell_1_1_1
Galilean moonsJupiter_cell_1_2_0 These four moons, discovered by Galileo Galilei and by Simon Marius in parallel, orbit between 400,000 and 2,000,000 km, and are some of the largest moons in the Solar System.Jupiter_cell_1_2_1
Irregular moonsJupiter_header_cell_1_3_0
ThemistoJupiter_cell_1_4_0 This is a single moon belonging to a group of its own, orbiting halfway between the Galilean moons and the Himalia group.Jupiter_cell_1_4_1
Himalia groupJupiter_cell_1_5_0 A tightly clustered group of moons with orbits around 11,000,000–12,000,000 km from Jupiter.Jupiter_cell_1_5_1
CarpoJupiter_cell_1_6_0 Another isolated case; at the inner edge of the Ananke group, it orbits Jupiter in prograde direction.Jupiter_cell_1_6_1
ValetudoJupiter_cell_1_7_0 A third isolated case, which has a prograde orbit but overlaps the retrograde groups listed below; this may result in a future collision.Jupiter_cell_1_7_1
Ananke groupJupiter_cell_1_8_0 This retrograde orbit group has rather indistinct borders, averaging 21,276,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 149 degrees.Jupiter_cell_1_8_1
Carme groupJupiter_cell_1_9_0 A fairly distinct retrograde group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees.Jupiter_cell_1_9_1
Pasiphae groupJupiter_cell_1_10_0 A dispersed and only vaguely distinct retrograde group that covers all the outermost moons.Jupiter_cell_1_10_1

Planetary rings Jupiter_section_25

Main article: Rings of Jupiter Jupiter_sentence_294

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring. Jupiter_sentence_295

These rings appear to be made of dust, rather than ice as with Saturn's rings. Jupiter_sentence_296

The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Jupiter_sentence_297

Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. Jupiter_sentence_298

The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts. Jupiter_sentence_299

In a similar way, the moons Thebe and Amalthea probably produce the two distinct components of the dusty gossamer ring. Jupiter_sentence_300

There is also evidence of a rocky ring strung along Amalthea's orbit which may consist of collisional debris from that moon. Jupiter_sentence_301

Interaction with the Solar System Jupiter_section_26

Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. Jupiter_sentence_302

The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt), the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history. Jupiter_sentence_303

Along with its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun. Jupiter_sentence_304

These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. Jupiter_sentence_305

The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then more than two thousand have been discovered. Jupiter_sentence_306

The largest is 624 Hektor. Jupiter_sentence_307

Most short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Jupiter_sentence_308

Jupiter family comets are thought to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. Jupiter_sentence_309

During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter. Jupiter_sentence_310

Due to the magnitude of Jupiter's mass, the center of gravity between it and the Sun lies just above the Sun's surface. Jupiter_sentence_311

Jupiter is the only body in the Solar System for which this is true. Jupiter_sentence_312

Impacts Jupiter_section_27

See also: Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, 2009 Jupiter impact event, and 2010 Jupiter impact event Jupiter_sentence_313

Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner, because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System. Jupiter_sentence_314

It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets. Jupiter_sentence_315

It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment. Jupiter_sentence_316

However, recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter does not cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner Solar System, as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward roughly as often as it accretes or ejects them. Jupiter_sentence_317

This topic remains controversial among scientists, as some think it draws comets towards Earth from the Kuiper belt while others think that Jupiter protects Earth from the alleged Oort cloud. Jupiter_sentence_318

Jupiter experiences about 200 times more asteroid and comet impacts than Earth. Jupiter_sentence_319

A 1997 survey of early astronomical records and drawings suggested that a certain dark surface feature discovered by astronomer Giovanni Cassini in 1690 may have been an impact scar. Jupiter_sentence_320

The survey initially produced eight more candidate sites as potential impact observations that he and others had recorded between 1664 and 1839. Jupiter_sentence_321

It was later determined, however, that these candidate sites had little or no possibility of being the results of the proposed impacts. Jupiter_sentence_322

More recent discoveries include the following: Jupiter_sentence_323


  1. A fireball was photographed by Voyager 1 during its Jupiter encounter in March 1979.Jupiter_item_1_3
  2. During the period July 16, 1994, to July 22, 1994, over 20 fragments from the comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (SL9, formally designated D/1993 F2) collided with Jupiter's southern hemisphere, providing the first direct observation of a collision between two Solar System objects. This impact provided useful data on the composition of Jupiter's atmosphere.Jupiter_item_1_4
  3. On July 19, 2009, an impact site was discovered at approximately 216 degrees longitude in System 2. This impact left behind a black spot in Jupiter's atmosphere, similar in size to Oval BA. Infrared observation showed a bright spot where the impact took place, meaning the impact warmed up the lower atmosphere in the area near Jupiter's south pole.Jupiter_item_1_5
  4. A fireball, smaller than the previous observed impacts, was detected on June 3, 2010, by Anthony Wesley, an amateur astronomer in Australia, and was later discovered to have been captured on video by another amateur astronomer in the Philippines.Jupiter_item_1_6
  5. Yet another fireball was seen on August 20, 2010.Jupiter_item_1_7
  6. On September 10, 2012, another fireball was detected.Jupiter_item_1_8
  7. On March 17, 2016 an asteroid or comet struck and was filmed on video.Jupiter_item_1_9

See also Jupiter_section_28


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter.